User:12george1/2001 Atlantic hurricane season
|12george1/2001 Atlantic hurricane season|
Season summary map
|First system formed||June 4, 2001|
|Last system dissipated||December 6, 2001|
|• Maximum winds||140 mph (220 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||933 mbar (hPa; 27.55 inHg)|
|Total damage||$7.1 billion (2001 USD)|
The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active Atlantic hurricane season that produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. The season officially lasted from June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001, dates which by convention limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The season began with Tropical Storm Allison on June 4, and ended with Hurricane Olga, which dissipated on December 6. The most intense storm was Hurricane Michelle, which attained Category 4 strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The most damaging storms of the season were Tropical Storm Allison, which caused extensive flooding in Texas, Hurricane Iris which struck Belize, and Hurricane Michelle, which affected several countries. Three tropical cyclones made landfall on the United States, three directly affected Canada, and three directly affected Mexico and Central America. Overall, the season caused 105 fatalities, and $7.1 billion (2001 USD; $9.81 billion 2018 USD) in damage. Due to their severe damage, the names Allison, Iris, and Michelle were retired by the World Meteorological Organization.
- 1 Season activity
- 2 Storms
- 2.1 Tropical Storm Allison
- 2.2 Tropical Depression Two
- 2.3 Tropical Storm Barry
- 2.4 Tropical Storm Chantal
- 2.5 Tropical Storm Dean
- 2.6 Hurricane Erin
- 2.7 Hurricane Felix
- 2.8 Hurricane Gabrielle
- 2.9 Tropical Depression Nine
- 2.10 Hurricane Humberto
- 2.11 Hurricane Iris
- 2.12 Tropical Storm Jerry
- 2.13 Hurricane Karen
- 2.14 Tropical Storm Lorenzo
- 2.15 Hurricane Michelle
- 2.16 Hurricane Noel
- 2.17 Hurricane Olga
- 3 Storm names
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Ranking
The season's activity was reflected with a accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 110. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Subtropical cyclones, including the latter portion of Allison and the initial portions of Karen, Noel, and Olga, are excluded from the total.
The 2001 season was severe in terms of damages. The most noteworthy storms include Tropical Storm Allison, Hurricane Iris, and Hurricane Michelle. The United States was directly affected by three tropical cyclones, the first of which was Allison. Tropical Storm Barry affected Florida; rainfall peaked at 8.9 in (230 mm) at Tallahassee, and winds gusts topped out at 79 mph (127 km/h). Three people in Florida were killed by the storm, and total damage is estimated at around $30 million (2001 USD; $41.5 million 2018 USD). Later, Hurricane Gabrielle produced moderate winds along coastal areas of western Florida, reaching 58 mph (93 km/h) at Venice. The tide flooded the northern shoreline of Charlotte Harbor and at the entrance to the Peace River, while further to the south a surge of greater than 3 ft (0.91 m) inundated the barrier island at Fort Myers Beach and flooded some cars.
Canada was also affected by several storms. In August, Tropical Storm Dean lightly affected Newfoundland, though no damages were reported. Hurricane Erin brushed the same area, producing a sustained wind of 53 mph (85 km/h) with a gust of 67 mph (108 km/h) at Cape Race. Along the coast, the passage of the storm led to wave heights of up to 30 ft (9.3 m). Less than a week later, Hurricane Gabrielle brushed the eastern coast; the rainfall set the all time six hour precipitation record at St. John's, with a total of 3.54 in (90 mm). Hundreds of homes and buildings were damaged by the passage of Gabrielle, totaling several million dollars in damage. Tropical Storm Karen produced light to moderate winds across Atlantic Canada, peaking at 47 mph (76 km/h) with a gust of 64 mph (103 km/h) in Cape George in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia, along with a 26 mph (42 km/h) report in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Later, in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, the storm system that absorbed Hurricane Noel produced strong winds that downed several trees and power lines which resulted in power outages.
Mexico and Belize were impacted by a number of storms, starting with Tropical Storm Chantal, which produced a wind gust of 71 mph (115 km/h) in Caye Caulker, although stronger winds were possible in a convective band to the north. On the Yucatan Peninsula, heavy rainfall led to mudslides across Quintana Roo, leaving some areas isolated. Hurricane Iris hit Belize hard, with an 8 to 15 ft (2.4 to 4.6 m) storm surge. Numerous homes were destroyed, and the banana crop suffered extensive damage. An exact death toll is unknown, but 31 are confirmed dead, three in the Dominican Republic, eight in Guatemala, and 20 from the M/V Wave Dancer, a ship that capsized off the Belize coast. What eventually became Hurricane Michelle dropped torrential rains in several countries, causing six deaths in Honduras and four deaths in Nicaragua, with an extensive yet unknown amount of damage. An additional 26 people were reported missing in Central America. Michelle went on to affect Cuba, where the storm produced 4 to 5 ft (1.2 to 1.5 m) waves, along with a heavy storm surge. Rainfall amounts up to 29.69 in (754 mm) were recorded across the island.
|Dates active||Storm category
at peak intensity
|Allison||June 4 – June 18||Tropical storm||60||1000||Freeport, Texas||June 5||50||5,500||41 (14)|
|Morgan City, Louisiana||June 11||35|
|Two||July 11 – July 12||Tropical depression||35||1010||none||None||0|
|Barry||August 2 – August 8||Tropical storm||70||990||Santa Rosa Beach, Florida||August 6||70||30||2 (7)|
|Chantal||August 14 – August 21||Tropical storm||70||997||Near Mexico/Belize border||August 21||70||4||0 (2)|
|Dean||August 22 – August 28||Tropical storm||70||994||none||7.7||0|
|Erin||September 1 – September 15||Category 3 hurricane||120||968||none||None||0|
|Felix||September 7 – September 19||Category 3 hurricane||115||962||none||None||0|
|Gabrielle||September 11 – September 19||Category 1 hurricane||80||975||Venice, Florida||September 14||70||230||2 (1)|
|Nine||September 19 – September 20||Tropical depression||35||1005||none||None||0|
|Humberto||September 21 – September 27||Category 2 hurricane||105||970||none||None||0|
|Iris||October 4 – October 9||Category 4 hurricane||145||948||Monkey River Town, Belize||October 9||145||150||31|
|Jerry||October 6 – October 8||Tropical storm||50||1004||none||None||0|
|Karen||October 12 – October 15||Category 1 hurricane||80||982||Western Head, Nova Scotia||October 15||45||1.4||0|
|Lorenzo||October 27 – October 31||Tropical storm||40||1007||none||None||0|
|Michelle||October 29 – November 5||Category 4 hurricane||140||933||Cayo Largo del Sur, Cuba||November 4||135||2,000||17|
|Bay of Pigs, Cuba||November 4||115|
|Andros, Bahamas||November 5||90|
|Eleuthera Island, Bahamas||November 5||85|
|Noel||November 4 – November 6||Category 1 hurricane||75||986||none||None||0|
|Olga||November 24 – December 4||Category 1 hurricane||90||973||none||None||0|
|17 cyclones||June 5
|145||933||11 landfalls||7,900||93 (24)|
Tropical Storm Allison
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 5 – June 17|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa on May 21. The system tracked uneventfully westward, and entered the Pacific Ocean on June 1. The wave curved northward and moved inland over southeastern Mexico. By June 5, the system emerged into the Gulf of Mexico, and quickly developed deep convection. By 1200 UTC on June 5, Tropical Storm Allison formed while centered about 138 miles (222 km) south of Galveston, Texas. Allison strengthened slightly, and peaked as a 60 mph (95 km/h) tropical storm. However, further intensification was prevented, and Allison made landfall near Freeport, Texas with winds 50 mph (85 km/h) on that day at 2100 UTC. After moving inland, Allison quickly weakened to a tropical depression. By June 7, Allison became stationary in eastern Texas, and began drifting southward on the following day. Early on June 10, Allison re-emerged into the Gulf of Mexico, though it did not re-intensified due to very dry air. Instead, Allison transitioned into a subtropical cyclone shortly thereafter. Allison tracked east-northeastward, and early on June 11, the storm made landfall in Morgan City, Louisiana with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h). After moving inland over Louisiana, Allison briefly strengthened into a subtropical storm. The storm crossed the Southeastern United States, and later became nearly stationary over North Carolina. By June 17, Allison emerged into the Atlantic Ocean from the Delmarva Peninsula. Allison briefly re-strengthened into a subtropical storm, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone while offshore of New England.
Due to its slow movement Allison dropped torrential rainfall, especially in eastern Texas; precipitation from the storm peaked at 40.68 inches (1,033 mm) in northwestern Jefferson County, Texas. The storm also caused over $5 billion in damage (2001 USD; $6.91 billion 2018 USD), making it the deadliest and costliest tropical storm on record in the United States. Allison destroyed 2,744 homes, leaving 30,000 homeless with residential damages totaling to $1.76 billion (2001 USD; $2.43 billion 2018 USD).
Tropical Depression Two
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 11 – July 12|
|Peak intensity||30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min) 1010 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical depression formed from a low level circulation on July 11, about 1150 mi (1850 km) east of the Windward Islands. It attained a maximum strength of 30 mph (45 km/h), with a minimum pressure of 1,010 mbar (30 inHg). When it first formed, it was forecast to become a tropical storm, but vertical wind shear from a subtropical ridge to the north caused it to dissipate on July 12.
Tropical Storm Barry
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 2 – August 7|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 990 mbar (hPa)|
Barry formed from a tropical wave in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on August 2. Moving westward, it weakened to a tropical depression, and was expected to continue to the west-northwest. Instead, the ridge to Barry's north degraded, allowing the system to turn northward and restrengthen to tropical storm strength on August 5. It peaked that night at 70 mph (110 km/h), but some southwesterly shear prevented the storm from reaching hurricane strength. Barry made landfall near Santa Rosa Beach, Florida on August 6 as a strong tropical storm with a developing eyewall, leading to the possibility of Barry being a hurricane. After making landfall, the remnants of Barry continued inland, and dissipated over Missouri on August 8.
Tropical Storm Barry was responsible for two deaths in Florida, one due to a lightning strike. Another indirect death was also reported. Damage is estimated at $30 million. The tropical wave that eventually became Barry is blamed for capsizing a boat carrying Cuban refugees, and six of the passengers drowned.
Tropical Storm Chantal
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 14 – August 22|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)|
Chantal was a poorly organized storm that formed as a depression on August 14 while well east of the Windward Islands. Sometime on August 16, the depression degenerated into a tropical wave. This wave passed over the islands, and on August 17, reformed at tropical storm strength.
Tropical Storm Chantal continued west across the Caribbean Sea, and strengthened somewhat. It was near hurricane strength on August 21, but made landfall at the border between Belize and Mexico before it could gain the necessary wind speed. Chantal continued into Mexico and dissipated on August 22.
Chantal officially caused no deaths, but the tropical wave caused two deaths from lightning on Trinidad. Damage in Belize was estimated at $4 million. No significant damages were reported in Mexico.
Tropical Storm Dean
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 22 – August 28|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 994 mbar (hPa)|
Dean formed from a tropical wave that moved northwest across the Lesser Antilles in mid-August. On August 22, as it approached the U.S. Virgin Islands, the wave was named Tropical Storm Dean. As Dean left the Caribbean, it weakened, and by August 23 had degenerated to a tropical wave.
The wave held together, and by August 27 had restrengthened back into a tropical storm. Dean approached hurricane strength, but moved over cool water and became extratropical. It was absorbed by a non-tropical low on August 29.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 1 – September 15|
|Peak intensity||120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min) 968 mbar (hPa)|
Tropical Storm Erin formed near 37W in the open Atlantic on September 2. It moved west for several days, but weakened into an area of disturbed weather on September 5. The storms regenerated, and on September 7, Erin regained tropical storm status. Erin continued to the northwest, and strengthened into a hurricane. On September 8, Erin came within 90 nmi (170 km) of Bermuda.
After passing Bermuda, Erin continued northwest, but on September 11 its track turned sharply east. On September 13, Erin began heading northeast and grazed Cape Race, Newfoundland on September 15. It became extratropical and merged with another system over Greenland on September 17.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 7 – September 19|
|Peak intensity||115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 962 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave off the coast of Africa organized into Tropical Depression Seven on September 7 while near the Cape Verde islands. It moved rapidly to the west, and degenerated to a tropical wave the next day. By September 10, the wave had reorganized, and it was again named Tropical Depression Seven. The depression continued to strengthen, and became Hurricane Felix by September 13. Now moving north, Felix intensified rapidly, reaching Category 3 status. Felix turned to the northeast and began to weaken. By September 17, Felix had dropped to tropical storm strength, and it dissipated on September 19. No damage was reported.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 11 – September 19|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 975 mbar (hPa)|
A cut-off low in the Gulf of Mexico was classified as a tropical depression on September 11. After performing a small loop in the gulf, the depression reached tropical storm strength and was designated Gabrielle. Tropical Storm Gabrielle headed northeast and made landfall near Venice, Florida on September 14 just under hurricane strength. Eighteen hours later, Gabrielle moved offshore, still a tropical storm. It continued northeast, and strengthened to a minimal hurricane. On September 19, while south of Newfoundland, Gabrielle was designated an extratropical storm. By September 21, it had merged with another low.
Gabrielle dropped torrential rainfall across Florida, amounting to a maximum of 13 in (330 mm) in Pierson. The storm caused one drowning deaths and one indirect death in Florida, and damage totaled to about $230 million (2001 USD). Over six in (152 mm) of rain were reported in parts of Newfoundland, with one station reporting a rainfall rate of nearly two in per hour.
Tropical Depression Nine
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 19 – September 20|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical depression formed from a tropical wave in the Caribbean on September 19, about 60 miles (95 km) north-northwest of the San Andres Island. It attained a maximum strength of 35 mph (56 km/h), with a minimum pressure of 1,005 mbar (29.7 inHg). When it first formed, it was never forecast to become a tropical storm, but as a result of forming so close to land, it made landfall near Puerto Cabezas on September 20. It dropped a large amount of rain, and brought mild winds to Central America, especially around Puerto Cabezas. After losing its closed circulation over land, it reformed into Hurricane Juliette in the East Pacific.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 21 – September 27|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 970 mbar (hPa)|
Humberto formed from an area of low pressure generated by Hurricane Gabrielle. The low formed into a tropical depression on September 21 while 489 mi (787 km) south of Bermuda. The low tracked northwest and was named Tropical Storm Humberto the next day. It began moving north, and then northeast as it passed Bermuda and strengthened into a hurricane. Humberto headed over the colder waters of the far north Atlantic Ocean, and dissipated quickly on September 27. There were no reports of damage related to Humberto.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 4 – October 9|
|Peak intensity||145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min) 948 mbar (hPa)|
Tropical Depression Eleven formed just southeast of Barbados on October 4. It traveled across the Windward Islands, and was named Tropical Storm Iris while south of Puerto Rico on October 5. Iris continued to the west and intensified. After passing just south of Jamaica, Iris reached Category 4 hurricane strength. Iris made landfall near Monkey River Town, Belize on October 9 at Category 4 strength, but weakened rapidly. It dissipated later that day.
An exact death toll is unknown, but 31 are confirmed dead, three in the Dominican Republic, eight in Guatemala, and 20 from the M/V Wave Dancer, a ship that capsized off the Belize coast. Newspapers have reported an additional 30 deaths in Belize, but the government there has only confirm the 20 deaths from the Wave Dancer. Damage in Belize is reported at $66.2 million.
Tropical Storm Jerry
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 6 – October 8|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1004 mbar (hPa)|
A westward moving tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Twelve on October 6 about 620 mi (1,000 km) east-southeast of Barbados. Under weak vertical shear and with warm water temperatures, it strengthened into a tropical storm on October 7, and reached a peak of 50 mph (80 km/h) later that day. Jerry passed just south of Barbados on October 7 and October 8, where upper level shear disrupted the circulation, making it elongated and weaker. Just six hours before dissipating, Jerry was still forecast to become a hurricane, but its rapid westward movement caused it to dissipate on October 8 in the Caribbean Sea 230 mi (370 km) south of Puerto Rico. There were no reports of damage.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 12 – October 15|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 982 mbar (hPa)|
On October 12, an extratropical low just south of Bermuda was classified as Subtropical Storm One. After passing Bermuda, the storm took on enough tropical characteristics to be reclassified as Tropical Storm Karen. Karen continued north, strengthening into a hurricane, but slowly weakened and made landfall on Nova Scotia on October 15 as a tropical storm. Its remnants were absorbed by a larger system later that day.
Karen was responsible for sinking several small ships in St. George Harbor, and caused $1.4 million in damage (2001 USD) in Bermuda. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick benefited from the storm, as it dropped light rainfall that helped relieve a drought in the area.
Tropical Storm Lorenzo
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 27 – October 31|
|Peak intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
An upper-level tropospheric trough persisted in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, developing a low-level circulation by October 26 which quickly gained organization. On October 27, the low developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen about 860 miles (1380 kilometers) south-southwest of the western Azores. Moving westward, the depression was forecast to attain winds of at least 60 mph (95 km/h), although it failed to reach that intensity. Banding features developed over the storm, and on October 30 it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Lorenzo. By early on October 31, convection had begun to separate from the circulation, and later in the day Lorenzo became extratropical; shortly thereafter, its remnants merged with a frontal system about 690 mi (1,110 km) west of the Azores. One ship reported winds of 42–49 mph (49–78 km/h) on October 28 and October 29, as it neared then Tropical Depression Fourteen.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 29 – November 5|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 933 mbar (hPa)|
Hurricane Michelle was a powerful storm that was named on November 1 near Cabo Gracias, Nicaragua. It headed north and quickly strengthened, reaching Category 4 intensity by November 4. Michelle made landfall near the Bay of Pigs shortly afterward. Weakened, but still a hurricane, Michelle continued on through the Bahamas, where it degenerated and was absorbed by a front on November 6.
Michelle is officially responsible for 17 deaths, and 26 missing. Damage amounted to over $1.8 billion (2001 USD).
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||November 4 – November 6|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 986 mbar (hPa)|
A non-tropical frontal low developed from a cold front on November 1 about 900 mi (1,450 km) west of the Azores. It intensified as it moved slowly to the west-northwest, and gradually dissipated its frontal structure. Deep convection developed over the center, and the system organized into a subtropical storm on November 4 while located 890 mi (1,430 km) south of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Operationally, the storm was considered a non-tropical low, and the National Hurricane Center did not begin issuing advisories until it became a tropical cyclone.
The subtropical cyclone changed its motion to a northward drift and slowly strengthened. Convection became more symmetric around the northern portion of the storm, and also developed into a ring 60 mi (95 km) around the center of circulation. Based on a ship reporting hurricane-force winds near the center, as well as the development of a weak mid-level warm core, the subtropical cyclone into Hurricane Noel on November 5 while located about 615 mi (990 km) south-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Noel tracked northward at 12 mph (19 km/h) in advance of an eastward-moving mid-level low. Increasing westerly wind shear displaced and limited convection near the center, and Noel weakened to a tropical storm early on November 6. As it accelerated over progressively cooler water temperatures, the deep convection continued to wane, and Noel became extratropical later on November 6 about 330 mi (530 km) southeast of Newfoundland. The extratropical remnant continued to the northeast and was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm later that day. Noel attained hurricane status at 37.8° N, which is the furthest north a tropical cyclone attained hurricane status in the month of November.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||November 24 – December 6|
|Peak intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 973 mbar (hPa)|
Olga was a late-season hurricane that formed out of a non-tropical system 895 mi (1,440 km) east-southeast of Bermuda on November 24. Initially a subtropical storm, Olga began taking on tropical characteristics and started on a winding southwestward track. Olga strengthened into a hurricane, but by early December had weakened, and dissipated by December 5. The only damage report came from a single yacht, which passed through Olga's center on November 24.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 2001. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2007 season. This is the same list used for the 1995 season except for Lorenzo, Michelle, Olga, and Rebekah, which replaced Luis, Marilyn, Opal, and Roxanne. Storms were named Lorenzo, Michelle, and Olga for the first time in 2001. Names that were allocated for the 2001 season but were not assigned are marked in gray.
The World Meteorological Organization retired three names in the spring of 2002: Allison, Iris, and Michelle. They were replaced in the 2007 season by Andrea, Ingrid, and Melissa. Allison became the first Atlantic tropical storm to have its name retired.
- List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
- List of tropical cyclones
- 2001 Pacific hurricane season
- 2001 Pacific typhoon season
- 2001 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
- South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 2000–01, 2001–02
- Australian region cyclone seasons: 2000–01, 2001–02
- South Pacific cyclone seasons: 2000–01, 2001–02
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- Cite error: The named reference
Michellewas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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- Hurricane Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2001 Atlantic hurricane season.|
- Monthly Weather Review
- National Hurricane Center 2001 Atlantic hurricane season summary
- Rainfall impact from Tropical Cyclones in 2001