User:Abyssal/Image captions to use

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  • Life restoration of the Paleocene-Miocene nautiloid cephalopod Aturia


  • Fossilized fronds of the Carboniferous-Early Cretaceous seed fern Alethopteris
  • Fossils of the Ordovician-Permian bryozoan Amplexopora
  • Fossil of the Carboniferous horsetail relative Annularia
  • Fossil of the Carboniferous horsetail relative Annularia
  • Life restoration of the face of the Carboniferous reptiliomorph Anthracosaurus
Illustration of Anthracosaurus fossils including a skull pictured from above (left), a cross section of a tooth (upper right), and tooth itself (lower right)
  • Life restoration of the Carboniferous synapsid (mammal precursor) Archaeothyris
  • Life restoration of the Carboniferous synapsid (mammal precursor) Archaeothyris
  • Illustration of the reconstructed cranium of the Carboniferous synapsid (mammal precursor) Archaeothyris
  • Fossil of the Silurian trilobite Arctinurus
  • Fossilized shell of the Silurian-Late Devonian brachiopod Atrypa reticularis
  • Mold fossil of a shell of the Early Devonian-Late Triassic bivalve Aviculopecten
  • Fossil of the Late Ordovician-Permian tabulate coral Aulopora
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous-Oligocene turtle Adocus
  • Life restoration of the Cretaceous-Pleistocene amphibian Albanerpeton
  • Mounted fossilized skeleton of the tyrannosaur Albertosaurus
Life restoration of the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus
  • Fossilized skull of the Late Jurassic crocodile relative Amphicotylus
  • Fossil (right) of the Early Jurassic dinosaur footprint ichnogenus Anomoepus
  • Illustration of the upper view of the pelvis of the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Atlantosaurus. This genus is now regarded as being of dubious validity and possibly the same as Apatosaurus.
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Ordovician-Carboniferous brachiopod Atrypa
  • A living Acteon barrel bubble sea snail
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous oyster Agerostrea
  • Illustration of a living Albula bonefish
  • Fossilized shell of the Jurassic-Miocene sea snail Ampullina
  • Interior and exterior of a shell of an Anomia, or jingle shell
  • Close-up view of a mounted skull and skeleton of the Late Cretaceous primitive tyrannosaur Appalachiosaurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous primitive tyrannosaur Appalachiosaurus
  • A living Architectonica staircase shell sea snail
  • Fossil of the Late Cretaceous crab Avitelmessus


  • Multiple views of a fossilized shell of the volute sea snail Athleta
  • Shell of an Atrina pen shell
  • Fossil of the Silurian-Middle Devonian trilobite Acanthopyge
  • Fossilized shell of the Middle Devonian ammonoid cephalopod, Agoniatites


  • Fossilized shells of the Early-Late Cretaceous marine bivalve Actinoceramus
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous dome-headed dinosaur Alaskacephale and inset diagram depicting it with an anachronistic human to scale
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Amaltheus
  • Fossilized shell of the Carboniferous-modern scallop Amusium
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Anapachydiscus
  • Life restoration of two species of the Late Triassic ammonoid cephalopod Arcestes
  • Fossilized shell and spines of the Late Devonian-Permian sea urchin Archaeocidaris
  • Fossilized shells of the Middle Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Arcticoceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Arnioceras



  • A living Alces, or moose
  • A living Alnus, or alder tree
  • A living Vulpes lagopus, or arctic fox
  • Life restoration of the Oligocene river dolphin Arktocara
  • Fossilized shell of the Paleocene-Miocene nautiloid cephalopod Aturia



  • Fossilized plates and spines of the Late Devonian-Permian sea urchin Archaeocidaris
  • Fossils of the Carboniferous-Permian bryozoan Archimedes
  • Stereogram of a fossil of the Carboniferous-Permian bryozoan Archimedes
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Acanthohoplites
  • Illustration of the fossilized shell and skull of Glyptops (left and center) and the shell of Adocus
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Allocrioceras
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic phytosaur Angistorhinus
  • Life restoration of the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Apatosaurus
  • Petrified trunk segments of the Permian-Late Triassic conifer tree Araucarioxylon arizonicum
  • Life restorations of various Chinle Formation fishes, including the Late Triassic lungfish Arganodus (bottom)
  • Restorative model of the Middle Triassic primitive crocodile relative Arizonasaurus
  • Fossil slab and counterslab of the Early Triassic bony fish Australosomus
  • Fossilized mandible of the Miocene-Pleistocene bear Agriotherium
  • Group of living Ambystoma tigrinum, or tiger salamanders
  • Fossilized skull of the Miocene saber-toothed cat Amphimachairodus
Fossils of the mysterious Ediacaran organism Aspidella
Fossil of the mysterious Ediacaran organism Aspidella
Fossils of the mysterious Ediacaran organism Aspidella
Diagram depicting the soft part anatomy of the sea snail Abyssochrysos
Fossilized teeth of the Permian-Paleocene cartilaginous fish Acrodus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous armored dinosaur Aletopelta
Illustration of the shell of an Amauropsis moon sea snail
Shell of an Architectonica staircase shell sea snail
Shell of an Architectonica staircase shell sea snail
Fossilized shell in multiple views of an Architectonica staircase shell sea snail
Rear side of a fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous-modern brachiopod Argyrotheca
Illustration of a larva of the Late Cretaceous-modern brachiopod Argyrotheca
Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Asteroceras
Fossilized partial skull of the Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur Augustynolophus
Illustration of a living Acipenser medirostris, or green sturgeon
A living Acmaea mitra, or whitecap limpet
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Miocene horse Acritohippus
A living Actinemys marmorata, or western pond turtle
A living Aechmophorus occidentalis, or western grebe
Fossilized skull of the Miocene bone-crushing dog Aelurodon
Life restoration of the Miocene camel Aepycamelus, or the long-necked camel. Heinrich Harder (1920).
Fossilized shell of the Triassic-modern scallop Aequipecten
A living Agelaius
Foliage and fruits of an Ailanthus tree
Restorative model of the Miocene deer relative Aletomeryx
Caught Alopias vulpinus, or common thresher
Shells in multiple views of Alvania sea snails
Illustration of a shell of Amauropsis moon sea snails
Flowers and foliage of Amelanchier, or shadbush
Close-up view of the flowers of Amorpha fruticosa, or desert false indigo
Life restoration of the Miocene-Pliocene beardog Amphicyon
Collection of Anadara marine ark clams
A living Mareca americana (formerly Anas americana), or American wigeon
A living Spatula clypeata, or northern shoveler
Fossilized limb bones, and teeth of the Miocene three-toed horse Anchitherium (left)
A living Anniella, or American legless lizard
A living Anser albifrons, or greater white-fronted goose
A living Antilocapra, or pronghorn
A colony of roosting Antrozous pallidus, or pallid bats
A living Aphelocoma californica, or California scrub jay
Reconstructive illustration of the skeleton of the Miocene-Pleistocene hornless rhinoceros Aphelops
A living Aquila chrysaetos, or golden eagle
Branch with foliage and fruit of a living Arbutus, or madrona
Fossilized skull of the Oligocene bone-crushing dog Archaeocyon
Illustration of a living Archoplites interruptus, or Sacramento perch
Living Arctocephalus fur seals
Shells of Argopecten gibbus, or Atlantic calico scallops
A modern Argyropelecus silver hatchetfish
A living Asio otus, or long-eared owl
A living Astropecten sea star
A living Athene cunicularia, or burrowing owl
Fossilized skull of the Miocene dolphin Atocetus
Life restoration of the Miocene sperm whale Aulophyseter
Life restoration of the Middle-Late Ordovician jawless fish Astraspis
A living Abies, or fir tree
A living Acalles weevil
A living Acris, or cricket frog
Living Acrostichum, or leather ferns
A living Agrilus jewel beetle
A living Agriotes click beetle
Branches and fruits of an Aleurites tree
Life restoration of the crocodilian Allognathosuchus
A living Altica flea beetle
A living Amblyteles parasitic wasp
Life restoration of the Miocene elephant relative Amebelodon. Margret Flinsch (1932).
A living Anabrus , or Mormon cricket
Fossilized limb bones, jaws and teeth of the Miocene three-toed horse Merychippus (left)
A living Andrias giant salamander
Fossilized tooth of the Oligocene-Miocene shark Carcharocles angustidens
A living Anthaxia jewel beetle
A living Anthidium, or carder bee
A living Anthomyia fly
A living Anthonomus weevil
Fossil of the Eocene ant Aphaenogaster mayri
A living Aphodius scarab beetle
A living Aphrophora spittlebug
A living Araneus orb-weaving spider
Life restoration of the Eocene-Oligocene entelodont mammal Archaeotherium
Fossil of the Eocene ant Archimyrmex
Life restoration of the Paleocene mammal Arctocyon
A living Argia damselfly
Flower of a living Aristolochia, or birthwort
Fruit and foliage of an Asimina tree, or pawpaw
A living Astronium tree, which is related to cashews
A living Athous click beetle
A living Aythya americana, or redhead
Illustration of the fossilized teeth of the Pliocene-Pleistocene rabbit relative Aztlanolagus



Life restoration of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur Anchisaurus


Fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous bony fish Apsopelix


Fossilized mandibles of the Miocene three-toed horse Anchitherium


Closed and open shell of Abra marine bivalves
Living Acropora cervicornis, or staghorn coral
Shells of Acteocina barrel-bubble sea snails
A living Actitis macularius, or spotted sandpiper
A living Aetobatus narinari, or spotted eagle ray
A living Agelaius phoeniceus, or red-winged blackbird



Close-up portrait of a living Agkistrodon piscivorus, also known as a water moccasin or cottonmouth
A living Aix sponsa, or wood duck
A living Platalea ajaja (sometimes Ajaja ajaja), or roseate spoonbill
A living Alligator mississippiensis, or American alligator
Living Alveopora stony coral
A living Amia, or bowfin
A living Ammodramus maritima, or seaside sparrow
A living Amphiuma means, or two-toed amphiuma
Shell of an Anachis dove sea snail
Shell of an Anadara floridana, or cut-ribbed ark clam
Shell of an Anadara transversa, or transverse ark clam
A living Anas carolinensis, or green-winged teal
A living Spatula cyanoptera, or cinnamon teal
A living Anas rubripes, or American black duck
A living Anhinga, also known as a snakebird or darter
Shell of an Anodonta river mussel
Shell of an Anomia simplex, or the common jingle shell
Shell of an Antillophos nassa mud snail
A living Apalone ferox, or Florida softshell turtle
A living Aphelocoma coerulescens, or Florida scrub jay
A living Arbacia sea urchin
Interior of the shell of an Arca zebra, or turkey wing ark clam
A living Archosargus probatocephalus, or sheepshead
Shells of Arcinella arcinella, or Caribbean spiny jewel box clams
A living Ardea herodias, or great blue heron
A living Ardeola, or pond heron
A living Argopecten irradians (formerly Aequipecten irradians), or Atlantic bay scallop


Shell of an Assiminea snail
Shell in multiple views of an Astralium, or star sea snail
Shell of a Lithopoma phoebium (formerly Astraea phoebia), or longspine star shell sea snail, inhabited by a hermit crab



Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Asaphiscus


Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Albertosaurus
Interior of the shell of an Arca ark clam
A living Amphiuma
Shell in multiple views of an Anadara brasiliana, or incongruous ark clam
Electron micrograph and gross view of an Astrangia poculata stony coral



Assemblage of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Agnostus
Life restoration in enrolled posture of the Cambrian trilobite Agnostus



Living Abies, or fir trees


Fossilized fronds of the Carboniferous-Early Cretaceous seed fern Alethopteris
Life restoration of the Carboniferous amphibian Amphibamus
Illustration of a fossil of the Carboniferous pill millipede Amynilyspes
Fossilized foliage of the Late Devonian-Carboniferous tree Archaeopteris
Life restoration of the Late Devonian-Carboniferous tree Archaeopteris with insets detailing its anatomy
Restored foliage of the Late Devonian-Carboniferous tree Archaeopteris
Illustration of a fossil of the Carboniferous-Permian spider Arthrolycosa. Charles Emerson Beecher (1889).
Fossilized calyx of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Abrotocrinus
Fossilized calyx and partial stem of the Devonian-Permian crinoid ("sea lily") Actinocrinites
Fossilized calyx and partial stem of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Agaricocrinus
Fossilized calyx of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Agaricocrinus americanus, or the mushroom crinoid
Fossilized stem of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Agaricocrinus americanus, or the mushroom crinoid
Life restoration of the Early Devonian club moss relative Asteroxylon
Life restoration of the Early Devonian-Permian "spiny shark" Acanthodes
Fossilized skeleton of the Early Devonian-Permian "spiny shark" Acanthodes
Life restoration of the Carboniferous synapsid (mammal precursor) Archaeovenator
Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Acanthoscaphites
Illustration of a partial fossilized pelvis of the Late Cretaceous bird Apatornis
A living Anaxyrus cognatus (formerly Bufo cognatus), or Great Plains toad




Fossilized dorsal fin-spine of the Devonian-Cretaceous shark Asteracanthus
Fossilized teeth of the Devonian-Cretaceous shark Asteracanthus
Shells of Acirsa wentletrap sea snails
A living Ammospermophilus, or antelope squirrel
A living Ariosoma conger eel



Life restoration of the Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus
Fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous-Oligocene Alligator relative Allognathosuchus
Assemblage of fossilized skeletons of the softshell turtle Amyda
Life restoration of the Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur Astrodon
Illustration of a living Acipenser sturgeon
Living Acropora palmata, or elkhorn coral
Fossilized skull of the Miocene baleen whale Aglaocetus
A living Asterias forbesi, or Forbes sea star
Life restoration of the Miocene stargazer Astroscopus countermani


Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Agraulos
Diagram illustrating the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur Anchisaurus with an anachronistic human to scale
A living Abies balsamea, or balsam fir
Fossilized skeleton of the gar Atractosteus


Life restoration of the Late Ordovician nautiloid cephalopod Aphetoceras being preyed upon by a Cameroceras
Fossilized skeleton of the Carboniferous lobe-finned fish Allenypterus
Life restoration of the Carboniferous lobe-finned fish Allenypterus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Achelousaurus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous dromaeosaurid ("raptor") Acheroraptor
Fossilized skull of the Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur Acristavus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Albertaceratops
Restorative model of the Late Cretaceous mammal Alphadon
Image of restored specimen of a squat quadruped with knobby back
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous armored dinosaur Ankylosaurus
Life restoration of the Early Cretaceous primitive horned dinosaur Aquilops
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Avaceratops
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous toothed bird Avisaurus perched on a crocodilian
Life restoration of the Eocene-Oligocene even-toed ungulate Agriochoerus
Living Araucaria trees
Living Azolla water ferns
Illustration of a living Aplodinotus grunniens, or freshwater drum




Diagram of a restored biramous leg of the Cambrian trilobite Agnostus
Fossil of the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris
Life restoration of the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris
Diagram illustrating the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris with an anachronistic human to scale
Fossilized grasping claw of the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris
Restorative model of the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris
Fossilized mouthpart of the Cambrian arthropod Anomalocaris
Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Alsatites
Fossil of the Ordovician-Modern sea star trace fossil ichnogenus Asteriacites
Fossilized skull and partial neck of the Middle Triassic plesiosaur relative Augustasaurus
Life restoration of the Middle Triassic plesiosaur relative Augustasaurus
Fossilized skeleton of the Early Cretaceous-Oligocene turtle Adocus beatus
Map of fossil trackways including (green) those of the Early Jurassic dinosaur footprint ichnogenus Anomoepus
Fossilized skeleton of the gar Atractosteus
Fossils of the gar Atractosteus



Fossil of the Early Devonian-Permian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Adelophthalmus
Fossils of the Early Devonian-Permian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Adelophthalmus
Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Aerosaurus
Illustration of a fossilized skull of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Aerosaurus
Life restoration of the Carboniferous amphibian Anconastes
Diagram illustrating the sizes of three specimens of the Late Cretaceous long-necked dinosaur Alamosaurus, with an anachronistic human to scale
Fossilized skull of the Late Triassic phytosaur Angistorhinus
A living Accipiter hawk
Fossilized scutes of the Paleocene Alligator relative Akanthosuchus


Life restoration of the Paleocene mesonychid mammal Ankalagon saurognathus (top)


Life restoration of the Paleocene mesonychid mammal Ankalagon saurognathus (top)


A living Aythya duck




Fossilized teeth (W) of the Cambrian–Early Ordovician conodont Acanthodus
Fossilized teeth of the Cambrian–Early Ordovician conodont Acanthodus
Illustration of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Acidiscus
Illustration of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Acimetopus
Fossil of the Silurian-Early Devonian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Acutiramus
Life restoration of the Silurian-Early Devonian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Acutiramus
Illustration of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Analox
Fossil of the Early-Middle Ordovician trilobite Asaphus
Life restoration of the Middle Devonian arachnid Attercopus



A living Acanthocybium solandri, or wahoo
A living Actinocyclus sea slug
A living Alca, or razorbill
A living Alopias superciliosus, or bigeye thresher
A living Aluterus filefish
Illustration of a living Ammodytes
A living Anisotremus grunt
A living Apalone softshell turtle
Shells of Arcinella jewel box clams
A living Ardea cinerea, or grey heron
Illustration of the reconstructed skeleton of the Late Triassic Aetosaurus. Othniel Charles Marsh (1895).
Restorative model of the Late Cretaceous marsupial relative Alphadon
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur Anzu
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous sea turtle Archelon




Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Acheloma
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Permian amphibian Acheloma
Illustration of a reconstructed skull and life restoration of the head of the Permian primitive reptile Acleistorhinus
Illustration of a fossilized skull in multiple views of the Permian primitive reptile Acleistorhinus
Shell of an Acamptogenotia sea snail
Shell of an Acmaea sea snail
Foliage and flowers of a living Actinidia
Life restoration of the Oligocene baleen whale Aetiocetus
Life restoration with insets detailing the anatomy of the Oligocene alder tree Alnus heterodonta
Illustration of the leaf and other anatomical components of a living Anamirta vine
Life restoration of the Late Devonian-Carboniferous tree Archaeopteris macilenta with insets detailing its anatomy
Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Asaphiscus




Restorative portrait of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Apsisaurus
Life restoration of the Permian reptile Araeoscelis
Life restoration of the Permian reptile Araeoscelis. Samuel Wendell Williston (1914).
Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Archeria
Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Archeria
Fossilized shell of the Early-Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Acanthoceras
Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Acompsoceras
Life restoration of the Late Triassic synapsid (mammal precursor) Adelobasileus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Agujaceratops
Shells in differing orientations of Akera sea hares
Shell of an Ancilla sea snail
Reconstructive illustration of a fossilized skull of the Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur Angulomastacator
Fossilized shell of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Aspidoceras
Life restoration of the Early Cretaceous long-necked dinosaur Astrodon
Fossilized skeleton of the Oligocene Alligator prenasalis
Shell of an Ancilla olive sea snail
A living Aegolius funereus, or boreal owl
A living Acris crepitans, or northern cricket frog
Fossilized skeleton of the Eocene pig-nosed turtle Allaeochelys
Fossilized forelimbs of the Miocene Alligator olseni, or Olsen’s Alligator
Life resoration of the Miocene-Pleistocene elephant relative Anancus
Fossilized partial mandible of the Eocene-Oligocene bear dog Angelarctocyon
Modern fruit, whole and in cross-section of an Annona tree





Fossil of the Cambrian velvet worm relative Aysheaia
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Cretaceous armored dinosaur Animantarx
Illustration of fossilized teeth from the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Aublysodon
Fossilized shell of the Eocene-Oligocene turtle Anosteira
Flowers and foliage of a living Acacia
A living Accipiter gentilis, or northern goshawk
Fossilized needles of an Amentotaxus, or catkin-yew
A living Anobium beetle
Fruit and foliage of a living Artocarpus, the genus including bread and jackfruit
A living Aythya collaris, or ring-necked duck



A living Antigone canadensis (formerly Antigone canadensis), or sandhill crane
A living Agkistrodon contortrix, or copperhead
A living Ambystoma jeffersonianum, or Jefferson salamander
Life restoration of the Cambrian arthropod Aglaspis
Illustration of a living Agathidium round fungus beetle
Fossil of the Triassic-Jurassic crustacean Antrimpos
Foliage and cones of a living Araucaria tree
Fossilized cone of the Triassic-modern tree Araucaria
Illustration of the shell of a living Anguispira alternata land snail, or flamed tigersnail
A living Anoxypristis cuspidata, or knifetooth sawfish
Living Amphibalanus improvisus, or bay barnacles encrusting a bivalve shell



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  • Fossilized shell of the Silurian-Early Triassic mollusc Bellerophon
  • Life restorationg of the Carboniferous amphibian Brachydectes
  • Illustration of the reconstructed skull of Brachydectes in multiple views; complete skull viewed from right side (top), cranium viewed from above (middle), and cranium viewed from below (bottom)
  • Life restoration of the Carboniferous amphibian Brachydectes
  • Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Broiliellus
  • Life restoration of the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Barosaurus rearing to defend itself against a pair of the theropod Allosaurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous plesiosaur Brachauchenius hunting a hesperornithiform bird
  • Diagram illustrating the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Brachiosaurus with an anachronistic human to scale
  • Life restoration of a herd of the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Brontosaurus
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Baculites
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous bony fish Bananogmius
  • Fossilized guard of the Late Cretaceous belemnoid cephalopod Belemnitella
  • Fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous bony fish Belonostomus
  • Segment of a fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Baculites
  • Segment of a fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Baculites showing sutures and remnant aragonite
  • Segment of a fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Baculites. The original aragonite of the outer shell and inner chamber walls has dissolved away, leaving this articulated internal mold.


  • A living Betula, or birch tree
  • Mummified specimen found in Alaska of the Pleistocene-Holocene Bison priscus, or steppe bison. This specimen, known as "Blue Babe" after the blue ox of Paul Bunyan folklore, derives its unusual coloration from a chemical reaction between the phosphorus in its skin and iron in the surrounding soil to produce a coating of vivianite.
  • Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pleistocene-Holocene bovid Bootherium bombifrons, or Harlan's musk ox.
  • Fossil of the Eocene crab Branchioplax
  • Shell of a Bursa corrugata frog shell sea snail
  • Fossil slab and counterslab of the bony fish Boreosomus
Fossil of the Silurian trilobite Balizoma
Fossil of the sauropod dinosaur footprint ichnogenus Brontopodus
Life restoration of the Eocene whale Basilosaurus
Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Bristolia
Mold fossil of a head of the Cambrian trilobite Bristolia
Life restoration of the Early Ordovician-Silurian trilobite Bumastus
Segment of the fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Baculites
Shell of a Barbatia, or bearded ark clam
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Cretaceous turtle Basilemys
Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Bostrychoceras
Illustration of the shell of a Bulimulus land snail
A living Bullina bubble sea snail
A living Balaenoptera physalus, or fin whale
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pliocene whale Balaenula
Living Balanophyllia elegans stony coral
Fossilized skull of the Miocene-Pliocene false saber-toothed cat Barbourofelis
A living Bassariscus astutus (left), or ringtail
A living Beringraja binoculata, or big skate
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pleistocene Bison latifrons, or long-horned bison
Fossilized skeleton of the eocene-?Miocene boa snake Boavus
Life restoration of the Miocene grenadier fish Bolbocara (bottom)
Illustration of a living Borophryne apogon, or netdevil
Restorative portrait of the Miocene oreodont mammal Brachycrus
A living Brachyramphus murrelet
A living Branta bernicla, or black brant
A living Bubo virginianus, or great horned owl
A living Bucephala albeola, or bufflehead
Shells in multiple views of Bulla gouldiana, or the California bubble sea snail
A living Buteo jamaicensis, or red-tailed hawk
A living Buteo swainsoni, or Swainson's hawk.
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Paleocene-Eocene pantodont mammal Barylambda
Life restoration of the Paleocene-Eocene pantodont mammal Barylambda
Life restoration of the Eocene uintathere mammal Bathyopsis being hunted by mesonychids
Fossilized cranium of the Eocene uintathere mammal Bathyopsis
Fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene crocodilian Borealosuchus
Skeletal reconstruction of the Eocene-Oligocene bear-dog Brachyrhynchocyon
A living Bruchus leaf beetle
A living Buteo hawk
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous bony fish Bonnerichthys with an anachronistic scuba diver to scale
A living Bairdiella chrysoura, or American silver perch
Illustration of a living Balaenoptera acutorostrata, or common minke whale
Living Balanus trigonus barnacles
A living Balistes triggerfish
Shells of Batillaria mudcreeper snails
Berries of a living Lindera melissifolia (formerly Benzoin melissifolium), also known as pondberry or southern spicebush
Shell in side view (top) and bottom view of Biomphalaria havanensis, or the ghost rams-horn
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pleistocene Bison latifrons, also known as the giant bison or long-horned bison
A living Blarina carolinensis, or southern short-tailed shrew
A living Blarina brevicauda, or northern short-tailed shrew
Life restoration of the Miocene musk deer Blastomeryx. Robert Bruce Horsfall (1913).
Underside of a fossilized cranium of the Eocene anthracothere mammal Bothriodon
Illustration of the shell of a Brachycythara sea snail
Living male (left) and female (right) Anaxyrus quercicus, or oak toads
A living Anaxyrus fowleri (formerly Bufo fowleri), or Fowler's toad
A living Bulimulus land snail
Shell of a Bursa rugosa frog shell sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Busycon contrarium whelk
Shell in multiple views of a Busycon carica, or knobbed whelk
Shell in multiple views of a Sinistrofulgur perversum
A living Buteo lineatus, or red-shouldered hawk
A living Buteo platypterus, or broad-winged hawk
A living Butorides virescens, or green heron
Diagram illustrating the Eocene whale Basilosaurus with an anachronistic human to scale
A living Bison bison
Fossilized skull of the Miocene-Pliocene bone-crushing dog Borophagus
Fossil of the Early Ordovician-Silurian trilobite Bumastus
Illustration of a fossil of the Early Ordovician-Silurian trilobite Bumastus
Reconstructive diagram (left) of a fossil (right) of the Ordovician sea urchin Bothriocidaris. The short spines which were attached to the tubercles are not drawn.






Life restoration of the Carboniferous Chimaera relative Belantsea
Living Botryococcus green algae



Illustration of a living Belone needlefish
Illustration of the shell in multiple views of a Bittium cerith sea snail
Illustration of a living Bregmaceros, or codlet
Illustration of the shell of a Bullia nassa mud sea snail


Preserved specimen of Buccinum undatum, or the common whelk sea snail
Portrait of a living Balaenoptera baleen whale
A living Brevoortia tyrannus, or Atlantic menhaden
Illustration of a living Batrachoides toadfish


Diagram of the known fossil material of the Late Cretaceous dromaeosaurid ("raptor") Bambiraptor
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Brachyceratops
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous Alligator relative Brachychampsa
Fossilized natural mummy of the Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur Brachylophosaurus
Shoot and flowers of a modern Berberis, or barberry



Illustration of a fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Bathynotus
Life restoration of the Cambrian trilobite Biceratops
Fossilized skeleton of the Triassic bony fish Birgeria
Fossils and life restoration of the Triassic bony fish Birgeria
Life restoration of the Triassic bony fish Birgeria
Amber-entombed specimen of the Early-Late Cretaceous ant Baikuris
A living Brachaelurus, or blind shark
Amber-entombed specimen of the Late Cretaceous ant Brownimecia



Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Bistahieversor


Illustration of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Bathydiscus
Fossil of the Middle Devonian trilobite Bellacartwrightia
Illustration of fossils of the Cambrian trilobite Bolboparia
Fossil of the Ordovician echinoderm Bolboporites
Fossilized heads of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Buffalopterus
Living Busycotypus whelk sea snails



A living Balearica, or crowned crane
Life restoration of the Pliocene toothed whale Bohaskaia
Illustration of the shell of a Boonea seminuda sea snail
Flower of a living Brasenia
A living Brotula cusk eel
Amber-entombed specimen of the Early-Late Cretaceous ant Baikuris
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous crocodilian Borealosuchus


Illustration of a fossilized skull of the Permian primitive reptile Bolosaurus
Illustration and interpretive diagram of a fossilized skull of the Permian primitive reptile Bolosaurus
Illustration in multiple views of a fossilized partial mandible of the Permian primitive reptile Bolosaurus
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Jurassic long-necked dinosaur Brontosaurus
Shell of a Bathybembix sea snail
A living Botaurus lentiginosus, or American bittern
Fossilized bony armor of the Late Devonian placoderm fish Bothriolepis
Life restoration of the Late Devonian placoderm fish Bothriolepis
Shell in multiple views of a Bostrycapulus aculeatus
Illustration of a living Bythaelurus catshark





Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Eocene crocodilian Boverisuchus
Illustration of a shell of a Bulimulus dealbatus land snail
Life restoration of the Early Cretaceous crocodilian relative Bernissartia
Fossils of the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous sea star Betelgeusia
Fossilized skull of the Late Triassic phytosaur Brachysuchus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Bravoceratops






Life restoration of the mysterious Cambrian animal Branchiocaris
Restorative model of the Eocene shrew-like mammal Batodonoides
Flowers of a living Bauhinia tree
Fruit and foliage of a living Beilschmiedia
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Miocene-modern bird of prey Buteogallus
Restorative portrait of the Permian synapsid (mammal prescursor) Burnetia
Fossilized vertebrae of the Pliocene baleen whale Balaenotus
Fossilized skeleton of the Eocene conger eel Bolcyrus











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Life restoration of the Pliocene-Holocene camel Camelops
  • Panel-mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pleistocene dwarf pronghorn Capromeryx
  • Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Miocene pronghorn-relative Cosoryx
  • Life restoration of the Miocene palaeomerycid Cranioceras, a relative of modern deer, with anachronistic human to scale
  • Illustration of the exterior (left) and interior (right) of Craniscus, a Jurassic-modern brachiopod
  • Fossilized stems from the Carboniferous-Permian horsetail relative Calamites
A fossilized rhizoid of the Carboniferous-Permian horsetail relative Calamites
  • A polished round of the permineralised Late Devonian-Carboniferous wood Callixylon
  • Fossilized shell of the Middle Ordovician-Silurian nautiloid cephalopod Cameroceras
  • Life restoration of the Middle Ordovician-Silurian nautiloid cephalopod Cameroceras feeding on a Aphetoceras, while a quartet of Cyclostomiceras swim by
  • Fossil of the Ordovician-Silurian tabulate coral Catenipora
  • Fossil of the Middle-Late Ordovician trilobite Ceraurus
  • Fossil of the Late Ordovician trilobite Chasmops
  • Illustration of a fossil of the Cambrian-modern burrow ichnogenus Chondrites
  • Fossil of the Cambrian-modern burrow ichnogenus Chondrites
  • Fossil of the Carboniferous tabulate coral Cladochonus
  • Life restoration of the Late Devonian shark Cladoselache
  • Assemblage of fossils of the Cambrian graptolite Climacograptus
  • Life restoration of the Carboniferous tetrapodomorph Colosteus
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Devonian-Permian brachiopod Composita
  • Fossilized foliage of the Carboniferous-Permian conifer relative Cordaites
  • Fossil of the Middle Ordovician-Carboniferous horn coral Cornulites
  • Fossil of the Carboniferous shark Ctenacanthus
  • Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Ctenospondylus
  • Fossilized foliage from the Carboniferous seed fern Cyclopteris
  • Fossilized shells of the Middle-Late Devonian brachiopod Cyrtospirifer
  • Assemblage of fossilized shells of the Ordovician brachiopod Cincinnetina
  • Fossil found in Ohio of the Late Devonian shark Cladoselache
  • Fossil of the Ordovician bryozoan Constellaria
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Calycoceras
  • Life restoration of a herd of the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur Camarasaurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Jurassic ornithopod dinosaur Camptosaurus
  • A living Carcharias sand tiger shark
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic-Eocene lungfish Ceratodus
  • Life restoration of the Late Jurassic ceratosaur Ceratosaurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene choristoderan reptile Champsosaurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic coelacanth fish Chinlea
  • Fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous bony fish Cimolichthys
  • Life restoration of the face of the Late Cretaceous multituberculate mammal Cimolomys
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous mosasaurid Clidastes
  • Diagram illustrating the known fossil material of the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Coelurus
  • Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous shark Cretoxyrhina, or the Ginsu shark





  • Fossilized shell of the Middle Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Cadoceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Calliphylloceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Calliphylloceras
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic nautiloid cephalopod Cenoceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Middle Triassic ammonoid cephalopod Ceratites
  • Fossilized foliage of the Permian-Late Cretaceous fern Cladophlebis
  • Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Cleoniceras






  • Fossils of the Devonian-Permian horn coral Caninia
  • Life restoration of the Silurian-Early Devonian primitive land plant Cooksonia




  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic theropod dinosaur Camposaurus
  • Fossilized shell of the Cretaceous marine bivalve Caprina
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic theropod dinosaur Chindesaurus
  • Restorative model of the hypothetical trackmaker of the Late Triassic ichnogenus Chirotherium with real fossil footprints in the background
  • Life restoration of Coelophysis kayentakatae
  • Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid Collignoniceras
  • Extremely hypothetical life restoration of the mysterious Late Triassic reptile Crosbysaurus


  • Skeletons look identical
    Modern mounted skeleton of Canis lupus, the grey wolf, to scale with a fossilized skeleton of the Pleistocene wolf Canis dirus, or dire wolf
  • Fossilized cranium of the Pliocene-Pleistocene hyena Chasmaporthetes
  • Life restoration of the Pliocene-Holocene elephant relative Cuvieronius



Fossilized elements of the Carboniferous conodont Cavusgnathus
A living Cliona sponge
Illustration in multiple views of a fossilized skull of the Pleistocene Canis armbrusteri, or Armbruster's wolf


Illustration of a fossilized cranium of the Pleistocene Canis armbrusteri, or Armbruster's wolf



Fossil of the Devonian-Triassic arthropod trackway ichnogenus Cruziana
Fossil of the Devonian-Triassic arthropod trackway ichnogenus Cruziana
Fossilized shell of the Permian ammonoid cephalopod Cyclolobus



Life restoration of the Late Triassic ichthyosaur Californosaurus
Diagram depicting the Late Triassic ichthyosaur Californosaurus with an anachronistic human to scale.
Fossilized shell of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Calycoceras
A living Cerithidea horn sea snail
Two views of a fossilized shell of a Cerithium cerith sea snail
50 second video of snails (most likely Natica chemnitzi and Cerithium muscarum) feeding on the sea floor in the Gulf of California, Puerto Peñasco, Mexico
Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Crioceratites
Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Crioceratites
Fossilized shell of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Crioceratites
Fossilized shell of the Late Jurassic-Oligocene nautiloid cephalopod Cymatoceras
Fossilized partial skeleton of the Middle-Late Triassic ichthyosaur Cymbospondylus
Life restoration of the Middle-Late Triassic ichthyosaur Cymbospondylus
Diagram illustrating the Middle-Late Triassic ichthyosaur Cymbospondylus with an anachronistic human to scale.



A living Calidris alba, or sanderling
Shell of a Californiconus californicus, or California cone sea snail
A living Calliostoma annulatum, or purple-ring top sea snail
A modern Calliostoma tricolor, or three-coloured top shell sea snail
Illustration of a living Calosoma, or caterpillar hunters
Flowers of a Calyptranthes, or lidflower
A Camponotus festinatus carpenter ant
A living Canis latrans, or coyote
A living Carcharodon carcharias, or great white shark
A living Carya, or hickory tree
A living Cathartes aura, or turkey vulture
Flowers of living Ceanothus, or California lilac
Foliage and fruit of a living Celtis, or hackberry
A living Cepphus columba, or pigeon guillemot
A living Cercocarpus, or mountain mahogany
A living Cetorhinus, or basking shark
Life restoration of the Miocene-Pliocene whale Cetotherium
Illustration of a living Chaenophryne dreamer
Close-up portrait of a Chauliodus, or viperfish
Flock of living Anser caerulescens (formerly Chen caerulescens), or snow goose
Life restoration of the Pleistocene-Holocene Chendytes, or Law's diving-goose
A living Chlamys hastata, or spear scallop
Shell of Chlamys swifti, or Swift's scallop
Three living Chlorostoma sea snails
A living Chrysocyon brachyurus, or maned wolf
A living Cinnamomum, or cinnamon tree
A living Citharichthys stigmaeus, or speckled sanddab
Shells in multiple orientations of Clathrodrillia sea snails
A living Cnemidophorus, or whip-tail lizard
A living Colaptes, or flicker
Shell in two views of a Conasprelloides cone sea snail
Shell of a Conus regularis, or regular cone sea snail
Shell in two views of a Conus scalaris, or ladder cone sea snail
A living Copris scarab
A living Coragyps atratus, or American black vulture
Shell of a Crassispira sea snail
Fruit of four difference species of Crataegus, or hawthorn tree
Living Crepidula adunca, or hooked slipper sea snails
Shell in multiple views of a Crepidula onyx, or onyx slipper sea snail
A living Crotalus viridis, or prairie rattlesnake
Branch and fruit of a Cryptocarya
A living Cryptotermes, or drywood termite
A living Culicoides biting midge
Branch with fruit of a Cupania
A living Cupressus, or cypress tree
A living Cyanocitta stelleri, or Steller's jay
Illustration of a living Cyclothone bristlemouth
A living Cygnus columbianus, or tundra swan
Underside of a fossilized cranium of the Oligocene-Miocene bone-crushing dog Cynarctoides
Fossilized cranium of the Miocene bear-dog Cynelos
Fossilized mandible of the Miocene bear-dog Cynelos
Illustration of a living Cyrtonyx quail


Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cutleria


Flower of a living Caesalpinia
A living Calcarius lapponicus, or Lapland longspur
A living Calcarius ornatus, or chestnut-collared longspur
A living larva of a Caliroa sawfly
Illustration of a living Callomyia flat-footed fly
A living Camponotus, or carpenter ant
A living Carabus ground beetle
A living Cardiophorus click beetle
A living member of the vine genus Cardiospermum
A living Haemorhous cassinii (formerly Carpodacus cassinii), or Cassin's finch
Foliage and fruit of a living Celastrus, or staff vine
A living Ceratina, or small carpenter bees
Life restoration of the Paleocene-Eocene crocodilian Ceratosuchus
Flowers of a living Cercis or redbud tree
A living Chalybion, or blue mud dauber
A stand of living Chamaedorea palms
A living Cheilosia hoverfly
A living Chilocorus ladybug
A living Chironomus midge
A living Chondestes grammacus, or lark sparrow
A living Chrysogaster hoverfly
Fossilized tooth of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene multituberculate mammal Cimexomys
A living Cleonus weevil
A living Clubiona, or leafcurling sac spider
A living Coccinella ladybug
A living Colaptes auratus, or northern flicker
A living member of Colubrina
Illustration of a living Coniatus weevil
A living Conotrachelus weevil
A living Corizus scentless plant bug
A living Cryptocheilus spider wasp
A living Cryptophagus silken fungus beetle
A living Cryptorhynchus weevil
A living Culex mosquito
A living Curculio, or acorn weevil
A living Cylindrotoma crane fly
A living Cynomys, or prairie dog


Fossil of the Early-Middle Ordovician trilobite Colpocoryphe
Fossilized tooth of the Miocene-Pliocene shark Cosmopolitodus hastalis, or broad-toothed mako
Fossilized shells of the Miocene-Pleistocene scallop Chesapecten
A living Crocodylus



A living Calidris canutus, or red knot
A living Calidris pusilla, or semipalmated sandpiper
Illustration of the shell of a Calliostoma euglyptum, or sculptured top shell
Illustration of the shell of a Calliostoma jujubinum
Illustration of the shell of a Calliostoma roseolum
Illustration in multiple views of the shell of a Calliostoma tampaense
Illustration in multiple views of the shell of a Calliostoma yucatecanum
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pliocene-Holocene camel Camelops
Life restoration of the Pliocene-Holocene camel Camelops
Shell in multiple views of a Cancellaria reticulata, or common nutmeg
Illustration in multiple views of the shell of a Cancilla mitre shell sea snail
A living Cardinalis cardinalis, or northern cardinal
A living Caretta caretta, or loggerhead sea turtle
Living Carex, or true sedge
A living Carphophis amoenus, or worm snake
Shell of a Carychium land snail
A living Ardea alba, or great egret
Shell in multiple views of a Cassis madagascariensis, or queen helmet sea snail
A living Castor canadensis, or North American beaver
A living Centropomus, or snook
Living Cerastoderma cockles
Shells of Cerithideopsis pliculosa, or the plicate horn shell sea snail
Shell of a Cerithium muscarum cerith sea snail
A living Ceryle rudis, or pied kingfisher
A living Chaetopleura apiculata chiton
A living Chamelea venus clam
A living Chelonia mydas, or green sea turtle
Shells of the Pliocene scallop Chesapecten jeffersonius
Shell in multiple views of a Chicoreus brevifrons, or West Indian murex
Shell of a Chicoreus florifer, or flowery lace murex
A living Chilomycterus, or burrfish
Exteriors (above) and interiors of shells of Chione cancellata venus clams
Shells in differing orientations of Chrysallida pyram sea snails
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Ciconia maltha, also known as the asphalt stork or La Brea stork
A living Circus cyaneus, or hen harrier
Fossilized Cladocora stony coral
A living Clangula hyemalis, or long-tailed duck
Shell of a Clavatula sea snail
A living Aspidoscelis sexlineata (formerly Cnemidophorus sexlineatus), or six-lined racerunner
A living Coccyzus americanus, or yellow-billed cuckoo
Living Colpophyllia natans, or boulder brain coral
Shell in multiple views of Columbella mercatoria dove sea snails
Fossil of the Miocene-Pleistocene barnacle Concavus
Illustration of a living Conepatus leuconotus, or American hog-nosed skunk
Shell in multiple views of a Conus anabathrum cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conus daucus cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conasprella delessertii (formerly Conus delessertii), or Sozon's cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conasprella jaspidea (formerly Conus jaspideus), or jasper cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conus patricius, or patrician cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conus sennottorum, or Sennett's cone sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Conus spurius, or alphabet cone sea snail


Shell of a Coralliophila murex sea snail
A living Corvus ossifragus, or fish crow
A living Coturnicops noveboracensis, or yellow rail
Shell of a Crepidula maculosa slipper sea snail
Shell of a Crepidula plana eastern white slippersnail
A living Crotalus adamanteus, or eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Shell in multiple views of a Crucibulum spinosum, or spiny cup-and-saucer snail
Shell in multiple views of a Crucibulum striatum, or striate cup-and-saucer sea snail
A living Cryptotis parva, or North American least shrew
A living Cyanocitta cristata, or blue jay
A living Cygnus buccinator, or trumpeter swan
Shell of a Cymatosyrinx sea snail
Living Cymodocea sea grass
A modern Cynoscion drum
A living Cyphoma gibbosum, or flamingo tongue snail
Shell in multiple views of a Cypraecassis helmet sea snail
Shell in multiple views of a Cyrtopleura costata, or angel wing clam
Fossilized fronds of the Carboniferous seed fern Callipteridium
Fossil of the Silurian trilobite Calymene celebra




A living Chiloscyllium longtail carpet shark
A living Chiton


A living Carcharhinus obscurus, or dusky shark
A living Carcharias taurus, or sand tiger shark
A living Carcharodon shark
A living Chelydra serpentina, or common snapping turtle
Electron micrograph of a Coccolithus alga
Foliage of a living Canarium tree
Shell in multiple views of a Conus ebraeus, or black-and-white cone sea snails
A living Conus geographus, or the geography cone sea snail
Fossil of the Jurassic-Cretaceous cycad relative Cycadeoidea



Fossilized fruit of a Craigia plant
Fossils in enrolled posture of the Silurian trilobite Calymene niagarensis
Fossil of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Carcinosoma
Life restoration of the Carboniferous Chimaera relative Caseodus
Life restoration (foreground) of the Permian-Jurassic lobe-finned fish Coelacanthus
Fossilized skeleton of the Permian-Jurassic lobe-finned fish Coelacanthus
Fossilized skeleton of the Carboniferous-Permian reptile relative Cricotus
Illustration of a fossilized skull and ventral scutes of the Carboniferous-Permian reptile relative Cricotus. Edward Drinker Cope (1884).
Fossilized stem segments of the Silurian crinoid ("sea lily") Crotalocrinites
Fossilized calyx and partial stem of the Silurian-Permian crinoid ("sea lily") Cyathocrinites
Life restoration of the Pleistocene Cervalces scotti, or stag-moose
Life restoration of the Miocene-Pleistocene horned gopher Ceratogaulus. Robert Bruce Horsfall (1913).
Fossilized skull of the Miocene pronghorn Cosoryx
A living Cynomys ludovicianus, or black-tailed prairie dog




Restoration of a dead Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur, Claosaurus, floating in the Western Interior Sea of Kansas, while a Cretoxyrhina and two Squalicorax prepare to scavenge it
Fossilized calyx of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Cydrocrinus
A living Centropristis, or sea bass
A living Citharichthys large-tooth flounder
A living Conger
Electron micrograph of the shell of a Cyclammina foraminiferan
Fossilized vertebrae in multiple views of the Cretaceous plesiosaur Cimoliasaurus
Illustration of a fossilized tibia of the Late Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Coelosaurus antiquus
A living Callinectes sapidus, or Chesapeake blue crab
A living Calonectris shearwater
A living Cancer irroratus, or Atlantic rock crab
A living Myodes gapperi, or southern red-backed vole
Shell in multiple views of a Crepidula fornicata, or common slipper shell sea snail
Shells in differing orientations of Colus whelk sea snails
Illustration of a living Cymindis ground beetle
Living Chelonibia acorn barnacles
Fossilized skeleton of the Carboniferous coelacanth Caridosuctor
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Centrosaurus
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Cerasinops
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur Chasmosaurus
Illustration of the fossilized hand and foot bones of the Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur Chirostenotes
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur Corythosaurus
Flowers and foliage of living Canavalia, or jack-beans
Life restoration of the Paleocene primate relative Carpolestes
Fossilized skeleton of the Eocene turtle Chisternon
Flower of a living Clematis
Illustration of fossilized vertebrae of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene snake Coniophis. Othniel Charles Marsh (1892).
A living Cornus, or dogwood
Fossilized leaf from a Credneria tree
A living Culiseta mosquito
Living Cedrela trees
Flowers of a living Cladrastis, or yellowwood
A taxidermied Conuropsis carolinensis, or Carolina parakeet


Fossil of the Cambrian arthropod Canadaspis
Life restoration of the Cambrian arthropod Canadaspis (left)
Fossil of the Triassic bony fish Colobodus
Fossilized skeleton of the Triassic bony fish Colobodus
Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Coroniceras
Fossilized carapace of the Paleocene-Miocene crab Calappilia
Shell of a Cardites marine bivalve


Life restoration of the Carboniferous-Permian amphibian Chenoprosopus
Fossilized skull in multiple views of the Carboniferous-Permian amphibian Chenoprosopus
Fossilized skeleton of the Middle Triassic-Paleocene bony fish Coelodus
Life restoration of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic theropod dinosaur Coelophysis with an anachronistic human to scale
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic theropod dinosaur Coelophysis
A living Chaetodipus pocket mouse
A living Cophosaurus texanus, or greater earless lizard


Illustration of a fossil and life restoration of the Early Ordovician nautiloid cephalopod Cassinoceras
Fossils (1 and 2) of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Clarkeipterus
Fossils (1-8) of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Clarkeipterus
A living Craniella sponge
Fossils and life restoration of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Ctenopterus
Fossils (1-7) of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Ctenopterus




A living Calidris melanotos, or pectoral sandpiper
A living Calonectris borealis, or Cory's shearwater
A living Carcharhinus falciformis, or silky shark
Illustration of a living Centropristis striata, or black sea bass
Illustration of a living Ceratoscopelus lanternfish
A living Cerorhinca monocerata, or rhinoceros auklet
A living Chilomycterus schoepfi, or striped burrfish
Living Ciconia storks
Living Clathrus stinkhorn fungi
A Coelopleurus sea urchin
A living Conger oceanicus, or American conger
A living Coscinodiscus diatom
Shell of a Cotonopsis lafresnayi, or well-ribbed dove sea snail
Illustration of the shells of Cumingia marine clams
Illustration of a living Cynoscion nebulosus, or spotted seatrout
Known material diagram illustrating a reconstructed skull and body of the Late Triassic distant crocodilian relative Carnufex
Living Ceratophyllum, also known as coontails or hornworts
Trunk and foliage of a living Cercidiphyllum, or katsura tree




Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Permian amphibian Cacops
Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Cacops
Fossilized skeletons of the Permian reptile Captorhinus
Life restoration of the Permian reptile Captorhinus
Life restoration of the Permian amphibian Cardiocephalus
Illustration of a fossilized cranium of the Permian primitive reptile Colobomycter
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cotylorhynchus
Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cotylorhynchus
Fossilized skeleton of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cotylorhynchus
Diagram illustrating the size of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cotylorhynchus, with an anachronistic human to scale
Fossilized skull of the Carboniferous-Permian reptile relative Cricotus
Fossil of the Carboniferous-Permian trilobit Cummingella
Foliage and cones of a living Calocedrus, or incense cedar
A living Choerodon wrasse
Shell of a Comitas sea snail
A taxidermied Cryptotis , or small-eared shrew
A living Crocuta crocuta, or spotted hyena
Life restoration of the Cambrian echinoderm Camptostroma



A living Charina boa
Fossilized skeleton of the Permian-Early Cretaceous bony fish Caturus
Shells of Candona ostracods
A living Catagonus wagneri, or Chacoan peccary
Fruit and foliage of a living Cissus vine
Fruit and foliage of a living Combretum, or bushwillow
A living Corvus brachyrhynchos, or American crow
A living Crotalus atrox, or western diamondback rattlesnake
A living Crotaphytus collaris, or common collared lizard
Reconstructive illustration of a fossilized skeleton of the Permian amphibian Cacops. Samuel Wendell Williston.
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Permian reptile Captorhinus
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Casea
Diagram illustrating the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Casea with an anachronistic human to scale
Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Casea
Life restoration of the Permian synapsid (mammal precursor) Cotylorhynchus
Shell of a Cancellaria nutmeg sea snail
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous turtle Chupacabrachelys
Life restoration of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Cimoliopterus (left) stealing fish from another pterosaur
Fossilized skulls of the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic tuatara relative Clevosaurus
Fossils of the Cretaceous sea urchin Conulus



Fossil of the Cambrian sponge Choia
Life restoration of the Cambrian sponge Choia
A living Calamospiza melanocorys, or lark bunting
A living Caracara plancus, or southern crested caracara
A living Carduelis finch
Life restoration of the Paleocene primate relative Carpolestes simpsoni
A living Centrocercus urophasianus, or greater sage-grouse
A living Cercopis froghopper
A living Charadrius montanus, or mountain plover
A living Chordeiles minor, or common nighthawk
A living Coccothraustes vespertinus, or evening grosbeak
Fruit and foliage of a living Cocculus, or moonseed
Fossilized skull of the Eocene crocodilian "Crocodylus" affinis
Fossilized illium in multiple views of the Early Cretaceous Iguanodon relative Cedrorestes
Life restoration of the Late Jurassic primmitive tyrannosaur Coelurus
Fossilized skull of the Eocene crocodilian Crocodylus acer
Illustration of the shell and operculum of a living Campeloma freshwater snail
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene choristodere reptile Champsosaurus
Illustration in multiple views of a fossilized coracoid of the Late Cretaceous bird Cimolopteryx
Life restoration (figure 12) of the Early Triassic plesiosaur relative Corosaurus
Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Conocoryphe
Life restoration of the Carboniferous four-limbed animal precursor Crassigyrinus
Fossil of the Triassic crocodilian relative footprint ichnogenus Chirotherium




A living Charadrius vociferus, or killdeer
A living Chordeiles minor, or common nighthawk
A living Cistothorus stellaris, or sedge wren
Fossilized skeleton of the Eocene bony fish Cyclopoma
Fossilized tooth of the Carboniferous Chimaera relative Campodus
Life restoration of the Carboniferous Chimaera relative
Life restoration of the Early Devonian jawless fish Cephalaspis
Fossilized skeleton of the Early Devonian jawless fish Cephalaspis






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  • Life restoration of the Oligocene-Miocene herbivorous marine mammal Desmostylus
  • Illustration of a modern Dryopteris, or wood fern
  • Fossilized calyx of the Carboniferous crinoid ("sea lily") Decadocrinus
Life restoration of a swimming group of the Permian amphibian Diploceraspis
  • Illustration of the Cambrian graptolite Diplograptus
  • Life restoration of the Silurian eurypterid ("sea scorpion") Dolichopterus
  • Mounted skull of the Late Devonian placoderm fish Dunkleosteus
  • Life restoration of the Late Devonian placoderm fish Dunkleosteus
  • Life restoration of several species of the Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Didymoceras
  • Diagram illustrating the Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs Diplodocus carnegii (green) and D. hallorum (orange) with an anachronistic human to scale.
  • Fossilized skull of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous turtle Dorsetochelys


  • Fossilized head of the Late Ordovician-Middle Devonian trilobite Dalmanites
  • Fossil of the Late Ordovician-Middle Devonian trilobite Dalmanites
  • Fossil of the Middle Ordovician graptolite Didymograptus
  • Fossil of the Silurian-Jurassic alga Diplopora
  • Fossilized foliage from the Early-Late Devonian club moss relative Drepanophycus






  • Fossilized shell of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Dactylioceras
  • Life restoration of the Early Jurassic ammonoid cephalopod Dactylioceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Middle-Late Triassic marine bivalve Daonella
  • Fossilized shells of the Early Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Desmoceras
  • Fossilized shell of the Early-Late Cretaceous ammonoid cephalopod Douvilleiceras



  • Shell of a Dolicholatirus sea snail
  • Illustration of a fossilized skull from above (left) and below of the Cretaceous sea turtle Desmatochelys
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic aetosaur Desmatosuchus with an anachronistic human to scale
  • Life restoration of the Early Jurassic theropod dinosaur Dilophosaurus resting
  • Life restoration of the Late Triassic dinosaur relative Dromomeron
  • A living Desmodus, or vampire bat
  • Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Oligocene-Miocene hornless rhinoceros Diceratherium.
Life restoration of two species of the Silurian trilobite Deiphon
Fossil and mold of the Late Ordovician-Silurian trilobite Diacalymene
Fossil of the Cambrian trilobite Daguinaspis
Fossils of the Cambrian-modern arthropod trackway ichnogenus Diplichnites
Fossilized shell of a Discohelix sea snail
Life restoration of the Miocene bear-dog Daphoenodon
Mounted fossilized skeleton of the Eocene-Miocene bear-dog Daphoenus
A school of living Decapterus, or mackerel scads
A living Dendragapus obscurus, or dusky grouse
A living