User:Adarkhordad/sandbox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Healthcare in Kazakhstan[edit]

Ministry of Health[edit]

One of executive branches in Kazakhstani government to control, regulate and organize the delivery of social services in pubic health and medical care. Currently the office head is Salidat Kairbekova.

Non-governmental organizations[edit]

Multiple domestic and international health NGOs conduct their work in Kazakhstan.

Major Health Issues[edit]

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Tuberculosis[edit]

Health care in the United States
Government Health Programs

Private health coverage

Health care reform law

State level reform
Municipal health coverage

Health care in Kazakhstan is provided by a network of primary, secondary and tertiary care facilities. Health care facilities are largely owned and operated by the public sector represented by the Ministry of Health. Health insurance is now primarily provided by the government in the public sector.

Life expectancy at birth in Kazakhstan is 148th in the world, below most developed nations and some developing nations. It is below the average life expectancy for the European Union.[1][2]

The World Health Organization (WHO), in 2000, ranked Kazakhstani health care system as the 64th in overall performance, and 135th by overall level of health (among 191 member nations included in the study).

Providers[edit]

Health care providers in Kazakhstan encompass individual health care personnel, health care facilities and medical products.

Facilities[edit]

In Kazakhstan, ownership of the health care system is mainly in public hands.

The public hospitals share of total hospital capacity has remained relatively stable (about 70%) for decades. There are also privately owned for-profit hospitals as well as government hospitals in some locations, mainly owned by county and city governments.

There is a nationwide system of government-owned medical facilities open to the general public. The national Department of Defense operates field hospitals as well as permanent hospitals (the Military Health System), to provide military-funded care to active military personnel.

Hospitals provide some outpatient care in their emergency rooms and specialty clinics, but primarily exist to provide inpatient care. Hospital emergency departments and urgent care centers are sources of sporadic problem-focused care. Hospice services for the terminally ill who are expected to live six months or less are most commonly subsidized by charities and government. Prenatal, family planning care is government-funded obstetric and gynecologic specialty and provided in primary care facilities, and are usually staffed by nurse practitioners (midwives).

A big share of medical health care is delivered through a vast network of primary care facilities called ambulatories and policlinics.

Physicians[edit]

Physicians in the United States include those trained by the Medical education in Kazakhstan system, and those that are international medical graduates who have progressed through the necessary steps to acquire a medical license to practice in a state.


Medical products, research and development[edit]

As in most other countries, the manufacture and production of pharmaceuticals and medical devices is carried out by private companies. The research and development of medical devices and pharmaceuticals is supported by both public and private sources of funding. In 2003, research and development expenditures were approximately $95 billion with $40 billion coming from public sources and $55 billion coming from private sources.

These investments into medical research have made the United States the leader in medical innovation, measured either in terms of revenue or the number of new drugs and devices introduced.


Pharmaceutical Industry in Kazakhstan[edit]

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)[3] is the primary institution tasked with the safety and effectiveness of human and veterinary drugs. It also is responsible for making sure drug information is accurately and informatively presented to the public. The FDA reviews and approves products and establishes drug labeling, drug standards, and medical device manufacturing standards. It sets performance standards for radiation and ultrasonic equipment.

Impact of drug companies[edit]

The United States is one of two countries in the world that allows direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. Critics note that drug ads costs money which they believe have raised the overall price of drugs.[4]

When health care legislation was being written in 2009, the drug companies were asked to support the legislation in return for not allowing importation of drugs from foreign countries.[5]

Political issues[edit]

Prescription drug prices[edit]

During the 1990s, the price of prescription drugs became a major issue in American politics as the prices of many new drugs increased exponentially, and many citizens discovered that neither the government nor their insurer would cover the cost of such drugs. Per capita, the U.S. spends more on pharmaceuticals than any other country. National expenditures on pharmaceuticals accounted for 12.9% of total health care costs, compared to an OECD average of 17.7% (2003 figures).[6] Some 25% of out-of-pocket spending by individuals is for prescription drugs.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html CIA Factbook, Life expectancy by country.
  2. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html CIA Factbook, Infant mortality rate by country.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/330/7481/5
  5. ^ Hook, Janet; Levey, Noam N. (December 16, 2009). "Senate healthcare bill advances with rejection of imported drugs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  6. ^ "OECD Health Data, How Does the United States Compare" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2007-04-14. 
  7. ^ Heffler S, Smith S, Keehan S, Clemens MK, Zezza M, Truffer C (2004). "Health spending projections through 2013". Health Aff (Millwood). Suppl Web Exclusives: W4–79–93, See especially exhibit 5. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.w4.79. PMID 15451969. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Template:Life in Kazakhstan Template:Eurasia topic