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Joseph Raskob
Born Joseph Raskob
Kauno (then Kovno), Lithuania
Died Missing required parameter 1=month! Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{"., 1996(1996-Missing required parameter 1=month!-{{{3}}})
Nationality American
Known for Painting, Drawing

Joseph Raskob (1899–1965) was a Lithuanian-born American painter.

A Chaotic Beginning[edit]

Joseph Raskob was born in 1905 into an intellectual family in the Lithuanian city of Kaunas (known in Polish as Kovno). This safe middle-class cocoon began to disintegrate when Raskob was six and his father died. When Raskob was eight, Germany invaded Lithuania, and the family led a nomadic and impoverished existence under the governance of his ailing mother. When Raskob's mother died two years later, the orphaned Raskob was taken in by a Russian monastery, where he was educated in agriculture and painting.

Raskob pursued further art studies in Europe, and then came to the United States in 1922 with an older brother. Once in the United States, Raskob continued his art studies, but also worked in coal mines, steel foundries, sawmills and in the construction of bridges. At one point he appears to have been the artistic director for Minsky's Burlesque.

Raskob returned to Europe in 1938 in order to paint and to visit his scattered family members. He stayed until 1941, nearly becoming swept up in the whirlwinds of the war and the Holocaust. Two sisters who remained in Europe were subsequently murdered by the Nazis with their loved ones, and a brother was killed in combat in the war.

After World War II, Raskob's remaining immediate family consisted of the brother who had brought him to New York, a sister living in New York, and a sister living in Paris.

Artistic career[edit]

Given the loss of his family members to the Nazis, and given his insight into the spread of Fascism in Europe during the thirties and forties, it is not surprising that much of Raskob's early work focused on images of the dispossessed and oppressed victims of the Fascists.

Artistic career[edit]

In 1922, Margules began work as a police reporter for the City News Association of New York.[1][2] Margules then fancied himself something of an art critic, and the painter Myron Lechay is said to have responded to some unsolicited criticism of his work with the remark "Since you seem to know so much about it, why don't you paint yourself?" [2] This led to study with Lechay and a flurry of painting.[2]

Margules' first show was in 1922 at Jane Heap's Little Review Gallery.[2][3][4] Thereafter Margules begain to participate in shows with a group including Stuart Davis, Jan Matulka, Buckminster Fuller (exhibiting depictions of his "Dymaxion house") in a gallery run by art-lover and restaurateur Romany Marie on the floor above her cafe.[2]

Jane Heap, left, with Mina Loy and Ezra Pound

During the 1920s, Margules traveled outside of the country a number of times. In 1922, with the unsatisfied intent of reaching Bali, he took a job as a "'wiper on a tramp steamer where [he] played nursemaid to the engine." [2] He reached Rotterdam before he turned back. [5] He would return to Rotterdam shortly thereafter. [6]

In 1927, Margules took a lengthy leave of absence from his day job as a police reporter in order to travel to Paris, where he "set up a studio in Montmartre's Place du Tertre, on the top floor of an almost deserted hotel, a shabby establishment, lacking both heat and running water." [7] He studied at the Louvre and traveled to paint landscapes in provincial France and North Africa.[8]

He also joined the "Noctambulist" [9] movement and experimented with painting and showing his artwork in low light.[7] Jonathan Cott wrote that:

the painter De Hirsch Margulies sat on the quays of the Seine and painted pictures in the dark. In fact, the first exhibition of these paintings, which could be seen only in a darkened room, took place in [ Walter Lowenfels'] Paris apartment.[10]

Elaine de Kooning remarked that studying the works of the Noctambulists confirmed Margules' "direction toward the use of primary colors for perverse effects of heavy shadow."[9]

It was also in Paris that Margules initially conceived his idea of "Time Painting", where a painting is divided into sectors, each representing a different time of day, with color choices meant to evoke that time of day.[7][9]

In Paris, his social circle included Lowenfels, photographer Berenice Abbott, publisher Jane Heap, composer George Anthiel, sculptor Thelma Wood, painter André Favory, writer Norman Douglas, writer and editor George Davis, composer and writer Max Ewing, and writer Michael Fraenkel.[7][11]

Upon his return to New York in 1929, Margules went to a John Marin art exhibition.

Photograph of John Marin by Alfred Stieglitz

While at the exhibition, he "launched into an eloquent explanation of Marin to two nearby women", and was overheard by an impressed Alfred Stieglitz.[7] The famous photographer and art promoter invited Margules to dine with his wife, the artist Georgia O'Keeffe, and his assistant, painter Emil Zoler.[7] Stieglitz thereafter became a friend and mentor to Margules, becoming for him "what Socrates was to his friends." [7]

Alfred Stieglitz

Stieglitz introduced Margules to John Marin, who quickly became the most important painterly influence upon Margules. Elaine de Kooning later noted that Margules was "[i]ndebted to Marin and through Marin to Cézanne for his initial conceptual approach - for his constructions of scenes with no negative elements, for skies that loom with the impact of mountains."[12] Margules himself said that Marin was his "father and ... academy." [13] The admiration was by no means unreciprocated: Marin said that Margules was "an art lover with abounding faith and sincerity, with much intelligence and quick seeing." [14] Stieglitz also introduced Margules to many other artistic and intellectual figures in New York.[8]

With the encouragement of Alfred Stieglitz, Margules in 1936 opened a two-room gallery at 43 West 8th Street called "Another Place." Over the following two years there were fourteen solo exhibitions by Margules and others, and the gallery was well-respected by the press.[8][7][15] It was in this gallery that the painter James Lechay, Myron`s brother, exhibited his first painting.[16]

1936 was also when Margules first saw recognition by major art museums; that year both the Museum of Modern Art and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston purchased works by Margules.[17]

In 1942, he gave up working as a police reporter, and apparently dedicated himself thereafter solely to an artistic vocation.[8]

"The Baron of Greenwich Village"[edit]

Margules made his mark not only as an artist, but also as an outsized personality known throughout Greenwich Village and beyond.

To local residents, Margules was known as the "Baron", after Baron Maurice de Hirsch, a prominent German Jewish philanthropist. Margules was easily recognizable by the beret he routinely wore over his long hair.[18] Writer Charles Norman said that he "dressed with a flair for sloppiness." [19]

He was said to "know everybody" in Greenwich Village, to the extent that when the novelist and poet Maxwell Bodenheim was murdered, Margules was the first one the police sought out to identify the body.[20] Margules' letters show him interacting with art world figures such as Sacha Kolin, John Marin and Alfred Stieglitz, but also with other prominent figures outside the art world like Buckminster Fuller, and writer Henry Miller.[8]

Most of his acquaintances found Margules a generous and voluble man, given to broadly emotionally expressive gestures and acts of kindness and loyalty. In 1929, he exhibited an example of this loyalty and fellow-feeling when he appeared in court to fight what the wrongful commitment of his friend, writer and sculptor Alfred Dreyfuss,[21] who appeared to have been a victim of an illicit attempt to block an inheritance.[22]

The Greenwich Village chronicler Charles Norman somewhat uncharitably described the bone-crushing hugs that Margules would routinely bestow on his friends and acquaintances, and speaks of the "persuasive theatricality" that Margules seemed to have inherited from his actor parents.[23] Norman also wrote about Margules' routine acts of kindness, taking in homeless artists, constantly feeding his friends and providing the salvatory loan. where needed.[20] Norman also notes that Margules was blessed with a loud and good voice, and was apt to sing an operatic air without provocation.[24]

The writer and television personality Alexander King said

I think the outstanding characteristics of my friend's personality are affirmation, emphasis, and overemphasis. He chooses to express himself predominantly in superlatives and the gestures which accompany his utterances are sometimes dangerous to life and limb. Of the bystanders, I mean.[25]

King also spoke with affectionate amusement about Margules' pride in his cooking, speaking of how "if he should ever invite you to dinner, he may serve you a hamburger with onions, in his kitchen-living room, with such an air of gastronomic protocol, such mysterious hints and ogliing innuendoes, as if César Ritz and Brillat-Savarin had sneaked out, only a moment before, with his secret recipe in their pockets."[26]

Margules was such a memorable New York personality that comic book writer Alvin Schwartz imagined him at the Sixth Avenue Cafeteria in a risible yet poignant debate with Clark Kent about whether Superman had the ability to stop Hitler.

Margules' entrenchment in the Greenwich Village milieu can be seen in a photograph from Fred McDarrah's "Beat Generation Album" of a January 13, 1961 writers' and poets' meeting to discuss "The Funeral of the Beat Generation", in Robert Cordier's railroad flat at 85 Christopher Street. Among the people in the same photograph are Shel Silverstein, Lester Blackiston, James Baldwin, Norman Mailer, Howard Hart, and Ted Joans.[27]


Among the three articles the New York Times dedicated to Margules' death was a mournful paean to lost Greenwich Village life written by Bernard Weinraub: "The Baron was De Hirsh Margules, painter, poet and newspaper reporter. He was remembered yesterday, on his burial, with the same gusto that marked his life in the Village."[28]

Maurice, the self-styled "Prince of Bohemia" of Greenwich Village, remarked that

Once there were so many genuine Bohemians in the Village. But now, so few oldtimers are left. Jake Spencer and Earl Kirkham and Harrison Doud are gone--all gone. And now the Baron.[28]

Artist Leslie Jencel was quoted as saying

I'm wearing my black leather cape today because De Hirsh would have wanted me to. He had such a sense of drama, of color. He had such a spirit of youth and creativity-a rare and wise and unusual man.[28]

Another artist, Aristodimos Kaldis, said

"He was one of the last of the true Villagers. We used to go to the old Waldorf Cafeteria on Sixth Avenue and debate esthetics-whether Rembrandt was the master of light, or El Greco or Tintoretto. We used to debate all night. Now of course, those days are gone.[28]

Margules' sister, actress Annette Margules, remembered him as

charitable and generous to all who needed help. He took care of people, he even fed people. Why, last night, people came up to me and said, 'How am I going to eat now that De Hirsh is gone?[28]

The supposedly penniless Margules left an estate of more than $100,000, the amount and circumstances of which were enough to merit a New York Times article[29] and a mention by nationally syndicated celebrity columnist Leonard Lyons, who remarked

the big shock to Greenwich Village's Bohemian colony last week was in learning that the Bohemian painter, de Hirsch Margolis [sic], left a huge estate. He was a stock market wizard.[30]

(This is a conclusion that has been disputed with typical unkindness by Charles Norman, who stated that collector Harrison D. Horblit purchased all remaining Margules paintings "in order to swell the estate.")[31]

Among the forty-five people sharing in his estate were "beneficiaries living in such diverse areas as Greenwich Village, Paris, Niagara Falls, Oyster Bay, and the Lower East Side of Manhattan."[29]

Exhibitions and Critical Reception[edit]

Year Exhibition Notes
1922 Little Review Gallery group show.[32]
c. 1922–1927 Exhibitions at Romany Marie's gallery.[32]
1927 "Twenty Paintings, Experiments in Plastic Form", solo show at the Paris home of Walter Lowenfels.[7]
1932 Group show at the Jumble Shop.[33][34] New York Times critic Edward Allen Jewell said "De Hirsh Margule's two 'Waterbury Bridges' are imaginative and delicate... related to the slightly precious water-color tradition of Demuth or a Rosella Hartman".[34]
1936 Solo show of watercolors at Margules' gallery, Another Place.[35]
1937 Museum of Modern Art group show of new acquisitions.[36] Includes the work of Miro, Arp, Mondrian, Giacometti, and Magritte. Margules' piece at the show was the watercolor "Portuguese Dock, Glouchester.[36]
1938 Group retrospective including Margules of work from 1937–1938 at the Artists Gallery.[37]
1938 Group Exhibition, Albright Gallery, Buffalo, New York.[38]
1938 Museum of Modern Art group show.[39] Show features artists such as Arshile Gorky, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Marin, Man Ray. Edward Hopper, George Grosz and Lyonel Feininger. Margules' painting "Present and Past, Gloucester", was included in this exhibition.[39]
1938 Paris Exhibition, Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume[7]
1939 Solo watercolor show at the A.C.A. gallery.[40] Show which was highly praised by New York Times critic Howard Devree (see introductory section).[40]
1939 "Fifty Dollar Show", sponsored by the American Artists' Congress at the A.C.A. gallery.[41] Artists other than Margules include Philip Evergood and Stuart Davis.[41]
1939 Group show at the Artists Gallery. This show included work from Kandinsky, Klee, Dali, Milton Avery, Philip Evergood, James Lechay, and Stuart Davis.[42]
1939 1939 New York World's Fair Exhibition of Contemporary Artists.[7]
1939 Brooklyn Museum of Art International Watercolor Exhibition, 10th Biennial[43]
1940 Group show at the Artists Gallery.[44]
1940 Solo show of paintings at the Cape Hatteras region at the Ferargil Gallery in 1940.[45] New York Times critic Howard Devree commented that:

Margules, who is already represented in the permanent collections of the Boston and Brooklyn Museums and the Museum of Modern Art, has grown steadily with every show. Beginning with a strong admiration for Marin, he has worked through a period of abstraction and learned to apply abstraction intelligently in his finished work instead of leaving it raw abstraction.[45]

1941 Group show at the Milch Gallery,[46] Modernist works by Margules and others were shown along with earlier American painters such as Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, John Singer Sargent, and Childe Hassam.[46]
1941 Solo show at the Ferargil Gallery.[47] New York Times critic Howard Devree commented that this show was one of the "outstanding exhibitions of the early season." [47]
1941 Group watercolor show at the Ferargil Gallery.[48]
1941 Solo show sponsored by the Artists Gallery at the Lincoln School of Teachers College.[49]
1941 Group show at the Metropolitan Museum of Art entitled "Special Exhibition of Contemporary Painting in the United States."[50] Show includes Margules watercolors "Present and Past, Gloucester", "Crow Village", and "Blue Boats." Some of the other artists in show were John Marin, Reginald Marsh, Edward Hopper, George Grosz, Ben Shahn, Thomas Hart Benton, and Andrew Wyeth.[50]
1941 Whitney Museum Annual.[51]
1942 Seasonal retrospective at the Artists Gallery which included Margules watercolors.[52]
1942 Art Institute of Chicago, Twenty-first International Exhibition of Water Colors. Margules' piece in the exhibition is entitled "Decoys, Traps and Houses, Isle au Haut." Other artists at exhibition include Rufino Tamayo, Paul Cadmus, Stuart Davis, Ludwig Bemelmans, Max Weber, and Andrew Wyeth.[53]
1942 Metropolitan Museum of Art group show. "On the Bright Side: A Loan Exhibition of Contemporary Painting & Sculpture."[54] Margules is represented in the exhibition by the watercolor "Squall at Stonington." Other artists shown include Frederick Haucke, Paul Cadmus, Stuart Davis, and Joseph DeMartini.[54]
1943 Art Institute of Chicago, Twenty-second International Exhibition of Water Colors.[55] Margules' piece in the exhibition is entitled "Bleecker Street." Other artists at exhibition include Jacob Lawrence, Lyonel Feininger, Marc Chagall, Stuart Davis, George Grosz, Reginald Marsh. John Marin, Andrew Wyeth, and Morris Kantor.[55]
1943 Brooklyn Museum of Art International Watercolor Exhibition, 12th Biennial.[55] Museum announces purchase of Margules work "Dim-out."[56] Connected with this, apparently, Margules receives the Brooklyn Museum Purchase Prize.[14]
1944 Group show at the Marquié Gallery with James Lechay and Ladislas Segy.[57] Howard Devree gave high praise to the Margules work displayed at this show:

Margules is one of our most vigorous and original water-colorists, with a penchant for strong color and thrusting design. He has learned much from abstraction and exploits it in his staccato impressions of the Gloucester waterfront. His work here has as much vitality, and impact, as any painter needs, and he is a born experimentalist.[57]

1944 Brooklyn Museum of Art exhibit "One Hundred Artists and Walkowitz"[58] As the title of the exhibit suggests, 100 different artists, including Joseph Stella, Milton Avery, William Groper, and Max Weber presented portraits of the artist Abraham Walkowitz.[58]
1945 Solo show at the Feigl gallery.[59] New York Times critic Howard Devree calls this exhibition one of the "outstanding shows ...of the season.[59]
1946 Group show at the Feigl gallery.[60][61] New York Times critic Howard Devree finds Margules working in oil, presenting his "space-and-color experiments, dashingly brought off", and "surpris[ing] his admirers with a very strikingly abstractly designed canvas of ship models and tables."[60][61]
1946 Solo show at the Feigl gallery.[62] New York Times critic Howard Devree states that:

De Hirsh Margules grows with every show and his current harvest at the Feigl Gallery is his very best by far. In 'Squall,' the centripetally designed 'Lighthouse,' the 'Three Gulls,' with its extraordinary use of deep space, and 'Gloucester Harbor,' Margules has outdone himself and there is no let-down in the level of the show. Despite these explosive, space-filling compositions and free use of color, the close integration of the work is marked by new control and maturity.[62]

1946 Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio. One-person show.[63]
1946 University of Michigan Museum of Art. "Water Colors by Dong Kingman & DeHirsh Margules,"[64]
1948 Group show at the Whitney Museum.[65] Other artists shown include Lyonel Feininger. Jacob Lawrence, and John Marin.[65]
1948 Group show of one hundred artists at the Jewish Museum.[66] After exhibition all paitings were donated to the new nation of Israel. Among other artists are George Biddle, Joseph Margulies and Morris Kantor.[66]
1950 Whitney Museum Annual.[67]
1954 Solo show at Gallery 75.[68] The New York Times stated, in a generally favorable review that:

Provincetown is the subject of De Hirsh Margules' buoyant and brilliant water-colors at Gallery 75. The artist spares no pains to embellish seaside and cloudscape in a fantastic manner. They are entirely visual in their appeal, but there is something so exuberant in the artist's approach that the subject might have been seen by him in a happy trance. However, subtlety is one quality that is markedly absent here.[69]

1954 Group show recognizing tercentenerary of Jewish settlement in America held at the Riverside Museum.[70]
1961 Solo show at the Artists Gallery of "Time Paintings."[71] New York Times Critic Brian Doherty was not an unalloyed fan of "Time Painting", and seemed to be unaware that Margules had been using this method since the 1920s, saying that:

Although Mr. Margules' figures still walk up and down colorful New York Streets with endearing abandon. I regret to say that the discipline of this new concept seems to be foreign to Mr.Margules' temperament.[71]

2012 Group show at the Hecksher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York entitled "Absorbed by Color". [72] Margules' "Approach to Provincetown^" (1948), shown along with paintings by Josef Albers, George Biddle and others.

Museum holdings[edit]

Museum Item Link to image
Brooklyn Museum of Art 1962 Margules monotype entitled "The Time Lady Cometh, I." [73] Not viewable online.
Brooklyn Museum of Art Watercolor of a nightime city scene entitled "Dim-out."[74] Dim-out (Image is small and monochrome)
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown Ohio In addition to the three viewable works listed below, the Butler Institute of American Art has an untitled Margules oil on paper from 1957 which is not viewable online.[75] Not viewable online.
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown Ohio A striking and refreshing watercolor exhibiting Margules' signature bulging perspective, entitled "Basin for Little Boats.[76] Basin for Little Boats
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown Ohio Another water scene, entitled "Sailboats."[77] Sailboats
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown Ohio A well-composed boat scene with a flat perspective owing something to Ancient Egypt, named "Sailboats, Sun and Moon.".[78] Sailboats, Sun and Moon
Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown Ohio A Calderesque (or perhaps Matisse-like) gouache called "Dancer."[79] Dancer
David Owsley Museum of Art Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana Collaboration with Arshile Gorky in an abstract piece in crayon and graphite called "The Outbreak of War in Europe."[80] The Outbreak of War in Europe
Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, Maine This museum owns three Margules pieces, a 1925 untitled oil on canvas,[81] an untitled gouache on paper from the 1930s,[82] an untitled view of Monhegan Harbor and Manana Island.[83] Not viewable online.
Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York A lively, almost Kandinskyesque view of the waterfront entitled "The Harbor, New York.[84] The Harbor, NY
Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York An intense color-saturated landscape from 1948 entitled "Approach to Provincetown."[85] Approach to Provincetown
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution 1941 Margules watercolor entitled "Broome St. Tabernacle,"[86] and 1941 watercolor entiteld "Waverly, Gay and Christopher Street,"[87] both of which were part of a large group of paintings willed to the Smithsonian by Joseph Hirshhorn in 1981.[88] Not viewable online.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Margules watercolor named "Waterbury Bridge" [89] Not available online.
Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art owns (or owned) a watercolor entitled "Portuguese Dock, Glouchester." MOMA officially announced the addition of "Portuguese Dock, Glouchester", to its collection in 1937[36] This piece may have been deaccessioned, since it appears in records from the Richard York Gallery from the late 80s and early 90s.[90] Not viewable online.
New York Public Library, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs The NYPL has a gelatin silver print photograph of Berenice Abbott taken by Margules some time in the 1930s,[91] and a gelatin silver print photograph of someone named Julie Oppenheim Delton taken by Margules some time in the 1920s.[92] Not viewable online.
Provincetown Art Association and Museum Watercolor called "Sunspots and Seascapes." [93] Not viewable online.
University of Iowa Museum of Art an affecting watercolor portrait of his friend, painter James Lechay, the brother of Myron.[94] Portrait of James Lechay
Whitney Museum The Whitney Museum acknowledges owning one Margules work, but does identify what it is.[95] However, it appears from Smithsonian records that it may be a 1943 "informal portrait" of the artist Joseph Stella. which has been described by artist and Brooklyn Daily Eagle critic Alexander Zerdini Kruse as "a striking piece of water-color characterization." [96][97] Not viewable online.
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota A 1938 gouache/watercolor entitled "Gloucester Street Scene."[98] Gloucester Street Scene

Other Links To The Artwork of De Hirsh Margules[edit]

Other examples of Margules' work can be found elsewhere online. Since some of these links are from galleries, these may become unusable after the items are sold.

The site displays an undated watercolor entitled "East Gloucester." shows a 1939 collaboration among Arshile Gorky, Margules and Isamu Noguchi entitled "Hitler invades Poland."[99][100] According to Noguchi, the trio made "made several paintings together at that time."[101]

A large cache of Margules works was sold in 2007 by CRN Auctions. Thumbnails of these works can be seen here.[102] Characterful portraits of the artists Milton Avery and Abraham Walkowitz and a self-portrait of Margules (which was not for sale) are visible here. Various "Time Paintings" are also on display, but many of these and other complicated works are hard to appreciate fully due to the low resolution and small image size. (There is a link to enlarge the images, but it does not work.) Of additional interest here is a portrait by James Lechay of Margules.

The gallery Levis Fine Art has a online collection of intensely colored Margules paintings made up of the 1938 mixed media painting "The Boatyard", a 1939 gouache of a waterfront scene entitled "Diagonals in Purple and Red", a 1939 waterfront and airfield scene called "Diagonals with Airforms and Hedges", and a couple of 1943 paintings of airplanes in flight, one untitled and the other one named "Convergence."

The Birnham Wood Gallery also has quite a few Margules works on display. Among the best here are a watercolor from 1941, entitled "Figures and Flowers at Rest", a 1951 watercolor and gouache of a ship battling a stormy sea called "The Flying Dutchman", a serene watercolor view of the High Bridge over New York City's Harlem river named "High Bridge on the Hudson", an angular and deeply colored 1937 piece called "Red Spector among the Sail Lofts", and and a jaunty undated waterfront view entitled "Safe Harbor."


  1. ^ Other less successful vocations included working as a traveling salesman, repairman, and engine tester in a locomotive roundhouse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Elaine de Kooning, "Margules Paints a Picture", Art News, vol. 50, no. 8, December 1951, page 56.
  3. ^ "Marketing Modern Art in America: From the Armory Show to the Department Store". Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  4. ^ "Margaret Anderson And 'The Little Review': Making No Compromises". Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  5. ^ Saltpeter, Harry, "The Talking Artist," Esquire Magazine, April, 1946, page 174
  6. ^ Salpeter, Harry, "The Talking Artist," Esquire Magazine, April, 1946, page 174
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cite error: The named reference MargulesDe was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference aaa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b c Elaine de Kooning, "Margules Paints a Picture", Art News, vol. 50, no. 8, December 1951, page 45
  10. ^ Cott, Jonathan, "Forever Young", New York, Random House, 1977, page 130
  11. ^ "De Hirsch Margules". Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Elainede was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Elaine de Kooning, "Margules Paints a Picture", Art News, vol. 50, no. 8, December 1951, p. 56
  14. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference fada was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ "Many New Shows on Art Calendar", More Than a Score Will Open This Week; Barse Miller's Water-Colors Among Them, New York Times (1936, March 30).
  16. ^ Archives of American Art. "Oral history interview with James Lechay, 1998 July 9-Aug. 26 - Oral Histories | Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution". Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  17. ^ "Art Brevities", New York Times (1936, October 23)
  18. ^ Gelb, Arthur, "City Room", New York, Berkley Books (2003), page 156
  19. ^ Norman, Charles, "Poets & People", Indianapolis/New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972, page 37
  20. ^ a b Norman, Charles, "Poets & People", Indianapolis/New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972, page 25.
  21. ^ apparently no relation to the artillery officer at the center of the French anti-semitism scandal
  22. ^ "Friend Sues To Free Sculptor As Sane", 1929, New York Times (1929, August 9)
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference NormanCharles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Norman, Charles, "Poets & People", Indianapolis/New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972, page 36.
  25. ^ King, Alexander, "Mine Enemy Grows Older", New York: Simon and Schuster, 1958, pp 221.
  26. ^ King, Alexander, "Mine Enemy Grows Older", New York: Simon and Schuster, 1958, p 222.
  27. ^ McDarrah, Fred W., ed., "Kerouac and Friends: A Beat Generation Album", New York: William Morrow, 1985, p. 261
  28. ^ a b c d e Weinraub, Bernard, "The 'Village' Mourns Lost Baron And Recalls the Old, Vivid Days; Friends at Margules Services tell of the Part He Played in Esthetic Ferment", New York Times (1965, February 8)
  29. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MargulesVillage was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ "Lyons, Leonard, "Lyons Den," Sumter S.C. Daily Item, Page 10, (1965, March 5)". 1965-03-05. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  31. ^ Norman, Charles, "Poets & People", Indianapolis/New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972, page 41.
  32. ^ a b Elaine de Kooning, "Margules Paints a Picture", Art News, vol. 50, no. 8, December 1951, page 56
  33. ^ "The Tea and Tap Room on West Eighth Street". 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  34. ^ a b Jewell, Edward Allen, "Art in Review: Youthful Explorers in Form and Color Present Deep Problems for Lay Spectators- Art in a Gastronomic Setting", New York Times (1932, May 7).
  35. ^ "Many New Shows On Art Calendar", New York Times (1936, March 30).
  36. ^ a b c "For Release: Seventeen New Acquisitions" (PDF). 1937-02-05. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  37. ^ Edward Allen Jewell, "Weighing 'Primitive' Art; Exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art And Independents' Annual as Clinic - Seasonal Review", New York Times (1938,May 1)
  38. ^ "Tschacbasov". Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  39. ^ a b "For Immediate Release: Exhibition of American Art" (PDF). 1937-04-18. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  40. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DevreeHoward was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  41. ^ a b "Here, There, Elsewhere; Exhibitions Designed for the Christmas Gift Buyer - Events on the Art Front", New York Times (1939, December 10)
  42. ^ Devree, Howard, "A Reviewer's Notebook", New York Times (1939, December 24).
  43. ^ "International Watercolor Exhibition, 10th Biennial". Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  44. ^ Devree, Howard, "Three Galleries Offer Exhibitions", New York Times (1940, September 25)
  45. ^ a b Devree, Howard, "A Reviewer's Notebook, Brief Comment on Some of the Recently Opened Exhibitions in the Galleries", New York Times (1940, October 20) Page 144
  46. ^ a b Jewel, Edwin Alden, "American Artists Offer Two Shows", New York Times (1941, January 14)
  47. ^ a b Devree, Howard, "A Reviewer's Notebook: New Shows; Brief Comment on Some of the Recently Opened Exhibitions in Galleries - Water-Colors by Margules - Group Events", New York Times (1941, September 28).
  48. ^ "Among the Other Shows", 1941, New York Times, (1941, January 26)
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Category:1908 births Category:1965 deaths Category:People from Kauno Category:Lithuanian emigrants to the United States Category:Jewish American artists