User:Ahwoooga/Anarchist Defendants in North America

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  • Whenever possible, maintain chronology.
  • When cases are better collected under one heading, but jump around the timeline, put the heading between the two points in the timeline which BEST describe when the associated movement was most active.
  • Try to summarize each case within one paragraph, prioritizing information about the defendants role within a case being made against them: the charges, their reaction to the charges, relevant public statements regarding the charges, time served, any relevant prison writings, and any interesting statements made condemning/condoning them or the actions for which they are accused.
  • For extremely notable cases/defendants, less should be said summarizing them, and more concentration should be devoted to the role of the state's prosecution.
  • Wherever a decent article exists on the trial or incident, include a "main article" link.
  • If there aren't a substantial number of canadian cases, this should be changed to "... in the United States" (Mexico wasn't included for other reasons)

I'm going to try to enclose many of the individual cases within associated movements and eras, with short descriptions of each person followed by "see full article" links. Those defendants who don't fit within a larger section will be placed between them chronologically. Also, see the bottom of the article to add to or review an unorganized list of anarchist defendants.

Collaborators and Informants[edit]

Throughout the history of Anarchism in the United States, there have some who identify as anarchists who have cooperated in investigations against other anarchists. (Some information outlining various anarchist perspectives about informants). (Anarchists often make a clear distinction between cooperators and non-cooperators, etc.). The question as to whether or not they are "real" anarchists remains open to interpretation. However, history has shown that once an anarchist collaborates with state investigations, the likelihood that they offer any contributions to the school of thought or its various struggles seems non-existent. (etc.)

Labor Era (1880-1930)[edit]

Please note: this date range is currently an arbitrary, need to find a better name for this section.

  1. Alexander Berkman

The Haymarket Anarchists[edit]

The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot) was a demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square[1] in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers, mostly from friendly fire, and an unknown number of civilians.[2][3] In the internationally publicized legal proceedings that followed, eight anarchists were tried for murder. Five men were convicted, of whom four were executed and one committed suicide in prison, although the prosecution conceded none of the defendants had thrown the bomb.

The Haymarket affair is generally considered significant for the origin of international May Day observances for workers.[4][5]

Eight people connected directly or indirectly with the rally and its anarchist organizers were arrested afterward and charged with Degan's murder: August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Louis Lingg, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden and Oscar Neebe. Two other individuals, William Seliger and Rudolph Schnaubelt, were indicted, but never brought to trial. Seliger turned state's evidence and testified for the prosecution, and Schnaubelt fled the country before he could be brought to trial. The jury returned guilty verdicts for all eight defendants – death sentences for seven of the men, and a sentence of 15 years in prison for Neebe.

The case was appealed in 1887 to the Supreme Court of Illinois,[6] then to the United States Supreme Court where the defendants were represented by John Randolph Tucker, Roger Atkinson Pryor, General Benjamin F. Butler and William P. Black. The petition for certiorari was denied.[7]

On the eve of his scheduled execution, Lingg committed suicide in his cell with a smuggled dynamite cap which he reportedly held in his mouth like a cigar (the blast blew off half his face and he survived in agony for six hours).[8]

The next day (November 11, 1887) Spies, Parsons, Fischer and Engel were taken to the gallows in white robes and hoods. They sang the Marseillaise, then the anthem of the international revolutionary movement. Family members including Lucy Parsons, who attempted to see them for the last time, were arrested and searched for bombs (none were found). According to witnesses, in the moments before the men were hanged, Spies shouted, "The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today!"[9] Witnesses reported that the condemned men did not die immediately when they dropped, but strangled to death slowly, a sight which left the spectators visibly shaken.[9]

The trial has been characterized as one of the most serious miscarriages of justice in United States history.[citation needed]

The police commander who ordered the dispersal was later convicted of police corruption.

Anarchist Exclusion Act[edit]

Emma Goldman[edit]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

(Emma Goldman Brief Description). Goldman was arrested numerous times in the United States. (Describe, briefly those times she was arrested but not charged). Her total time in prison. Pictures of her should be specifically relevant to the cases (no room for pleasantries!)

causes for arrest: + Inciting the Assassination of President McKinley September 10, 1901

Goldman is arrested in Chicago under suspicion of having something to do with President William McKinley's assassination in Buffalo, New York, four days earlier. She had met assassin Leon Czolgosz at one of her lectures. The Chicago police interrogate Goldman and her bail is set at $20,000 (over $400,000 in today's dollars).

She will be released two weeks later, and the case will be dropped for lack of evidence. + Being a Suspicious Person January 27, 1903

The year after New York passes an anti-anarchism law, Goldman and Max Baginski are arrested in New York City for being "suspicious persons." They are questioned and released. + Incendiary Articles and Incitement to Riot October 30, 1906

Along with nine other people, Emma Goldman is arrested in New York City for articles published in her Mother Earth magazine, and for inciting to riot.

She pays the $1,000 bail for her release, and pleads not guilty to charges of criminal anarchy. On January 9, 1907, a grand jury dismisses the case. + Public Expression of "Incendiary Sentiments" January 6, 1907

New York City's Anarchist Police Squad arrests Goldman during a public lecture on "False and True Conceptions of Anarchism." The case will later be dismissed. + Attempting to Speak December 13, 1908

Seattle authorities arrest Goldman after someone breaks in to a locked lecture hall to allow the room to be used for a meeting with Goldman. The police release her on the condition that she leave town. + Planning to Speak December 14, 1908

With her reputation preceding her, Goldman is arrested in Bellingham, Washington, before she can deliver a planned lecture. The next day, authorities send her away on a Canada-bound train. + Conspiracy Against the Government January 14, 1909

After two weeks of uneventful Goldman lectures in California, San Francisco police arrest Goldman with Ben Reitman and charge them with conspiring against the government. Supporters who protest the arrest are disbanded by police the next day, but Goldman remains locked up until January 18. On the 28th, authorities drop the charges against her. + Speaking early April, 1910

In the midst of a large, successful national lecture tour, Goldman and Reitman arrested by police in Cheyenne, Wyoming during an open-air meeting. + Arrival in San Diego May 20, 1913

A year after being attacked by vigilantes when they arrived at the San Diego train station during a battle over free speech there, Goldman and Reitman return to the city -- only to be arrested as soon as they arrive. Police send them on the afternoon train to Los Angeles. + Distributing Birth Control Information August 6, 1915

In Portland, Oregon on her annual lecture tour, Goldman is arrested with Ben Reitman for distributing information on birth control in defiance of the Comstock "Chastity" Laws. A friend posts the $500 bail; the next day, Goldman and Reitman pay a $100 fine and resume lectures in that city. + Lecturing on Birth Control February 11, 1916

Goldman is arrested in New York City for delivering a January lecture on birth control. She is tried in April; after being convicted, she opts to spend fifteen days in the Queens County Penitentiary instead of paying a $100 fine. + Distributing Birth Control Information October 20, 1916

Emma Goldman goes to court in New York City to testify on behalf of a fellow birth-control advocate, and is arrested herself. She is released on a $500 bond and will be acquitted of the charge on January 8, 1917. + Conspiracy to Violate the Draft Act June 15, 1917

The U.S. enters World War I in April 1917; since then, Goldman has been lecturing against military conscription and the war. The same day that President Woodrow Wilson signs the Espionage Act, which in part prohibits interfering with the draft, federal agents arrest Goldman and Alexander Berkman in New York City. They are later indicted for conspiring to violate the Draft Act.

Goldman pleads not guilty and is freed on $25,000 bail; rumors spread that her bail has been paid by the German enemy. In early July, she and Berkman are both found guilty and sentenced to serve two years in jail and pay a $10,000 fine. Goldman is incarcerated in a federal penitentiary in Jefferson City, Missouri. When her case is appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, Goldman is returned to New York City and again released on bail.

After losing her appeal in January 1918, Goldman is returned to Missouri to serve her two-year sentence. + Questionable Immigration Status September 12, 1919

Federal officials review Goldman's immigration status and decide she can be deported legally. They serve Goldman with a warrant for her arrest and deportation while she is serving the final few weeks of her prison sentence in Missouri. After a bond of $15,000 is posted, Goldman returns to New York to organize her appeal.

In October, Goldman claims U.S. citizenship from her brief marriage to Jacob A. Kersner in 1887. But Labor Department officials order Goldman's deportation in late November, and in early December she and Berkman are held at Ellis Island in New York harbor, and on the 21st of that month they board a Russia-bound ship.


Goldman's Riot (1893)[edit]

With the nation in a deep economic depression, Emma Goldman is arrested and charged with inciting a riot during a New York City speech to unemployed workers on August 21.

Goldman is tried, found guilty, and sentenced to one year in the Blackwell's Island penitentiary -- on the island today known as Roosevelt Island, in New York's East River.

Her story of prison life is published in the New York World a day after her release on August 17, 1894.

When the Panic of 1893 struck in the following year, the United States suffered one of its worst economic crises ever. By year's end, the unemployment rate was higher than twenty percent,[10] and "hunger demonstrations" sometimes gave way to riots. Goldman began speaking to crowds of frustrated men and women in New York. On August 21, she spoke to a crowd of nearly 3,000 people in Union Square, where she encouraged unemployed workers to take immediate action. Her exact words are unclear: undercover agents insist she ordered the crowd to "take everything ... by force",[11] while Goldman later recounted this message: "Well then, demonstrate before the palaces of the rich; demand work. If they do not give you work, demand bread. If they deny you both, take bread."[12] Later in court, Detective-Sergeant Charles Jacobs offered yet another version of her speech.[13]

A week later she was arrested in Philadelphia and returned to New York City for trial, charged with "inciting to riot".[14] During the train ride, Jacobs offered to drop the charges against her if she would inform on other radicals in the area. She responded by throwing a glass of ice water in his face.[15] As she awaited trial, Goldman was visited by Nellie Bly, a reporter for the New York World. She spent two hours talking to Goldman, and wrote a positive article about the woman she described as a "modern Joan of Arc".[16]

Open-Air Speaking (1897)[edit]

September 7, 1897 Goldman is arrested in Providence, Rhode Island, when she attempts to speak in public, after the mayor has warned her not to deliver any more open-air speeches. She has been traveling to speak on anarchism, women and marriage, Spanish political events, and Alexander Berkman's imprisonment for the murder of Henry Clay Frick. After keeping Goldman in jail overnight, the Providence authorities order her to leave town or face a three-month prison term.

Goldman & Berkman Oppose WW1 (1917)[edit]

On June 15, 1917, Goldman and Berkman were arrested during a raid of their offices which yielded "a wagon load of anarchist records and propaganda" for the authorities.[17] The New York Times reported that Goldman asked to change into a more appropriate outfit, and emerged in a gown of "royal purple".[17][18] The pair were charged with conspiracy to "induce persons not to register"[19] under the newly enacted Espionage Act,[20] and were held on US$25,000 bail each. Defending herself and Berkman during their trial, Goldman invoked the First Amendment, asking how the government could claim to fight for democracy abroad while suppressing free speech at home:[21]

We say that if America has entered the war to make the world safe for democracy, she must first make democracy safe in America. How else is the world to take America seriously, when democracy at home is daily being outraged, free speech suppressed, peaceable assemblies broken up by overbearing and brutal gangsters in uniform; when free press is curtailed and every independent opinion gagged? Verily, poor as we are in democracy, how can we give of it to the world?

The jury saw it differently, and found them guilty; Judge Julius Marshuetz Mayer imposed the maximum sentence two years' imprisonment, a $10,000 fine each, and the possibility of deportation after their release from prison. As she was transported to Missouri State Penitentiary (now Jefferson City Correctional Center), Goldman wrote to a friend: "Two years imprisonment for having made an uncompromising stand for one's ideal. Why that is a small price."[22]

Leon Czolgosz[edit]

Following the assassination of McKinley by Czolgosz, newly inaugurated President Theodore Roosevelt issued a pronouncement declaring: "When compared with the suppression of anarchy, every other question sinks into insignificance.”[23]

Leon F. Czolgosz was the assassin of President William McKinley. In the last few years of his life, he claimed to have been heavily influenced by anarchists such as Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.

A grand jury indicted Czolgosz on September 16 with one count of first-degree murder. Throughout his incarceration, Czolgosz spoke freely with his guards, but refused every interaction with Robert C. Titus and Lorin L. Lewis, the prominent judges-turned-attorneys assigned to defend him, and with the expert psychiatrist sent to test his sanity.[19][page needed] A prison guard later came forward claiming that Czolgosz confided in him that because he claimed himself to be an anarchist, he would not talk with any people he viewed as related to authority which included his lawyers or any presiding trial judge.

The district attorney at trial was Thomas Penney, assisted by a Mr. Haller, whose performance was described as "flawless".[20] Although Czolgosz answered that he was pleading "Guilty", the presiding Judge Truman C. White overruled him and entered a "Not Guilty" plea on his behalf.[24]

Czolgosz was electrocuted by three jolts, each of 1800 volts, in Auburn Prison[25] on October 29, 1901.[26]

His last words were: "I killed the President because he was the enemy of the good people – the good working people. I am not sorry for my crime."[27][page needed] As the prison guards strapped him into the chair, however, he did say through clenched teeth, "I am only sorry I could not get to see my father."[27][page needed]

Alexander Berkman[edit]

Berkman shot Henry Frick three times, then stabbed him in the leg with a sharpened steel rasp.

(During the homestead strike) - On July 23, Berkman went into Frick's office armed with a gun and a sharpened steel file. He shot Frick three times, then grappled with him and stabbed him in the leg. A group of nearby workers came to Frick's rescue and beat Berkman unconscious.[28] He was convicted of attempted murder and given a twenty-two-year prison sentence.[29]

Berkman served 14 years of his sentence and was released from prison on May 18, 1906. Goldman met him on the Detroit train platform, but she found herself "seized by terror and pity" at his gaunt appearance.[30] During his prison term, he had become Americanized, but Berkman struggled to readjust to life as a free man. A lecture tour produced anxiety and stress, and he purchased a handgun in Cleveland with the intention of killing himself.[31][32] Instead, he returned to New York, where he learned that Goldman and other activists had been arrested at a meeting concerning Leon Czolgosz. This violation of freedom of assembly moved him to action, and he declared "My resurrection ... I have found work to do" as he worked to secure their release.[33][34]

Anarchist Exclusion Act[edit]

Galleanists (1914-?)[edit]

On December 6, 1916, the Galleanist Alfonso Fagotti was arrested for stabbing a policeman during a riot in Boston's North Square. The next day Galleanists exploded a bomb at the Salutation Street station of the Boston harbor police. Fagotti was convicted, imprisoned, and later deported to Italy.[35]

In February 1918, U.S. authorities raided the offices of Cronaca Sovversiva, suppressed publication, and arrested its editors. Although a staff member hid the subscription list, officials gained more than 3,000 names and addresses of subscribers from an issue already prepared for mailing.

On January 17, 1918, a 19-year-old Galleanist, Gabriella Segata Antolini, was arrested for transporting a satchel filled with dynamite, which she had received from Carlo Valdinoci.[36][37] When questioned, Antolini gave a false name and refused to cooperate with the police; she was imprisoned for fourteen months before being released.[37] While in prison, Antolini met the noted anarchist Emma Goldman, with whom she became friends.

In late April 1919, approximately 36 dynamite package bombs, all with identical packaging and addressed to a cross-section of politicians, justice officials, and businessmen, including John D. Rockefeller, were sent through the mail.[35] An early lead to the identity of the bombers was revealed when one package bomb was found addressed to a Bureau of Investigation (BOI) field agent, Rayme Weston Finch.[35] Finch had been tracking several Galleanists, including Carlo Valdinoci, and the agent's successes, such as leading the raid on Cronacca Sovversiva and his arrest of Raffaele Schiavina and Andrea Ciafolo, were well known to Galleanist militants.[35]

In June 1919, the Galleanists managed to explode eight large bombs nearly simultaneously in several different U.S. cities. Targets included the homes of judges, businessmen, a mayor, an immigration inspector, and a church. The new bombs used up to twenty-five pounds of dynamite[38] packed with metal slugs to act as shrapnel, all contained in a cast steel pipe.[35] Among the intended victims were politicians who had endorsed anti-sedition laws and deportation, or judges such as Charles C. Nott, who had sentenced anarchists to long prison terms.[38][39] The homes of Mayor Harry L. Davis of Cleveland, Judge W.H.S. Thompson, Massachusetts State Representative Leland Powers, and Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, already a previous target of a Galleanist mail bomb, were attacked. None of the officials was killed, but the explosions killed William Boehner, a seventy-year old night watchman, who had stopped to investigate the package left on Judge Nott's doorstep,[38][39] as well as one of the most wanted Galleanists - Carlo Valdinoci, a former editor of Cronaca Sovversiva, and a close associate of Galleani, who blew himself up as he laid a package bomb at the door of Attorney General Palmer's home.[35][40][41]

Though not injured, Palmer and his family were shaken by the blast and their house was largely destroyed. The blast hurled several neighbors from their beds. Valdinoci either tripped over his bomb, or it went off prematurely as he was placing it on Palmer's porch. The police collected his remains over a two-block area. All of the bombs were accompanied by a flyer that read:[35]

War, Class war, and you were the first to wage it under the cover of the powerful institutions you call order, in the darkness of your laws. There will have to be bloodshed; we will not dodge; there will have to be murder: we will kill, because it is necessary; there will have to be destruction; we will destroy to rid the world of your tyrannical institutions.

Police eventually traced a flyer accompanying the bombs to the print shop where Andrea Salsedo, a typesetter, and Roberto Elia, a compositor, were arrested. Salsedo was questioned intensively (some say tortured) by federal agents. After providing some information, he was said to become increasingly distraught. He died after jumping or being pushed by his compatriot Elia out of the 14th-story building where he was being held.[42] Although Salsedo had admitted he was an anarchist and had printed the flyer, no other arrests for the bombings followed. The police lacked evidence and other Galleanists refused to talk. Elia was deported; according to his lawyer, he turned down an offer to remain in the United States if he would deny his connection to the Galleanists, asserting that his refusal to talk "is my only title of honor".[35]

After Valdinoci's death, Coacci and Recchi appeared to have taken more prominent roles in the group; both were bombmakers.[43] Recchi lost his left hand to a premature explosion, but he kept making bombs.[44]

With the public and the press clamoring for action, US Attorney General Palmer and other government officials began a series of investigations. They used warrantless wiretaps, reviews of subscription records to radical publications, and other measures to investigate thousands of anarchists, communists, and other radicals. With evidence in hand and after agreement with the Immigration Department, the Justice Department arrested thousands in a series of coordinated police actions known as the "Palmer Raids" and deported several hundred of them under the Anarchist Exclusion Act.

Following Galleani's deportation and the indictment of Sacco and Vanzetti for murder, more bombings occurred in the U.S. Followers of Galleani, especially Buda, were suspected in the Wall Street bombing of 1920, which killed 38 people and severely wounded 143.[45] In 1927 more bombings were attributed to Galleanists, especially as several court and prison officials were targeted, including Webster Thayer, the trial judge in the Sacco-Vanzetti case[46] and their executioner, Robert Elliott. In 1932 Thayer was a target again; the front of his house was destroyed by a package bomb, and his wife and housekeeper were injured, but he was unscathed.[46]

Carlo Buda, the brother of Galleanist bombmaker Mario Buda, said of him, "You heard Galleani speak, and you were ready to shoot the first policeman you saw".[47]

Sacco & Vanzetti (1920)[edit]

Sacco (left) and Vanzetti (right)

First Red Scare (1920)[edit]

Palmer Raids[edit]

Men arrested in raids awaiting deportation hearings on Ellis Island, January 13, 1920


Chicago 8[edit]

Abbie Hoffman (19361989): Jewish-American social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party ("Yippies"). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine.[48]


  1. Bill Dunne (1983)

"those persons incarcerated as a result of political beliefs or actions consciously undertaken and intended to resist exploitation and oppression, and/or hasten the implementation of an egalitarian, sustainable, ethical, classless society, predicated on self determination and maximization of all people's freedom." Bill Dunne, on the notion of anarchist POWs.

1990s Radical Environmentalism[edit]

  1. Jeff Luers
  2. Tre Arrow
  3. Rod Coronado
  4. SHAC7
  5. Eric McDavid
  6. Daniel McGowan
  7. Marie Mason
  8. Joyanna “Sadie” Zacher
  9. Nathan “Exile” Block
  10. Justin Solondz
  11. Grant Barnes
  12. Walter Bond --
  13. Michael Sykes

Ted Kaczynski[edit]

A man in a suit faces the camera while he stands in front of a building.
Kaczynski as a young professor at Berkeley, 1968

Anti-Globalization Protests (1995-2004)[edit]

  1. Andrew Mickel (2005)

WTO Seattle[edit]

Rob Los Ricos[edit]

Sherman Austin[edit]



  1. RNC8

2008 Republican National Convention[edit]

RNC 8[edit]

Brandon Darby Incident[edit]

David McKay was born in Midland, Texas in 1986.[49] Prior to his attempted protest of the 2008 Republican National Convention David was not an active protester.

In 2008 he and several friends constructed several improvised shields and planned to travel to the convention and use them to block traffic, shield themselves from tear gas and bean bag guns, and in general to disrupt the convention. After they traveled to Minneapolis for the gathering their shields were stolen from a storage shed. In an outrage and persuaded by then fellow activist Brandon Darby the small group of 8 including Bradley Crowder then constructed several firebombs. David did not know that Brandon Darby was working as an FBI informant; the house where they were staying was raided, the bombs seized, and the group arrested. Brandon Darby publicly revealed his role as an informant and testified against the small group. David McKay and Bradley Crowder both accepted plea bargains and served several year long incarcerations. David McKay is scheduled to be released in 2012.[50]

Pittsburgh G20 -- Twitter case & other arrests[edit]

Property Destruction Scapegoat[edit]

Approximately $50,000 worth of damage was caused to area businesses, with $20,000 worth being attributed to one individual, David Japenga, accused of breaking 20 windows and doors in Oakland on Thursday night.[51]

Use of Twitter[edit]

New York City activist Elliot Madison used Twitter to report an order to disperse message from the Pittsburgh police during the protests. Police raided Madison's hotel room, and one week later Madison's New York home, Tortuga House, was raided by FBI agents. Police claim Madison and a co-defendant used computers and a radio scanner to track police movements and then passed on that information to protesters using cell phones and the social networking site Twitter. Madison is being charged with hindering apprehension or prosecution, criminal use of a communication facility, and possession of instruments of crime. All protesters that were arrested were processed and held at the State Correctional Institution - Pittsburgh. [52][53][54] During the case, Madison was featured in Wired Magazine --

Jeff Monson[edit]

On January 14, 2009, Monson was charged with First Degree Malicious Mischief, for vandalizing the Washington State Capitol by spray-painting "an anarchy symbol, a peace symbol and the words 'no poverty' and 'no war'"[55] on the large columns at the front of the building. A warrant was issued by a Thurston County Superior Court Judge [56] after pictures of Monson committing the crime were printed in ESPN magazine.[57]

On July 29, 2009 Monson plead guilty to malicious mischief and entered an Alford plea for graffiti.[58] In October 2009, he was sentenced to 90 days of work release and ordered to pay $21,894 in restitution. The price of the fine has since accrued interest, with the current amount being $24,749.80. [59].[60] As of January 2011, he had only paid $421 of his court-ordered restitution.[61]

(note accusations about abusive behavior towards women)

Mt. Hope Infinity[edit]


Contemporary (2011-)[edit]

  1. Casey Brezik

Asheville 11[edit]


Jeremy Hawthorne[edit]

Jeremy Hawthorne, arrested September 5th, 2011 while on a Copwatch patrol, is going on trial before a jury for allegedly slashing 7 tires on Virginia Commonwealth University vehicles, including two police cars. The charge is Destruction of State Property > $1,000, a Class 6 Felony. The case is clearly politically motivated; as a part of Richmond Copwatch, Jeremy is one of several who have been targeted by Richmond police in past months for their work against police brutality and poor jail conditions in the city. The notoriously heavy-handed RPD and its officers, ever the subject of much controversy, have bristled and taken a particularly antagonistic attitude with activists, protestors, and copwatchers, reacting in a consistently aggressive, violent, and reckless manner. Accountability, on the other hand, has been elusive. The “evidence” used to indict Jeremy is insubstantial, and many details surrounding testimonies evidence gathering, and the circumstances leading to Jeremy’s arrest, are questionable at best.

Commonwealth Attorney Christopher Toepp is handling the case per his personal request, intent on a full conviction. Toepp has had a long year of high-profile cases, having been on the prosecution for the Monroe Park Occupation, and the African burial ground demonstration. If Chris Toepp has his way, Jeremy would face 5 years in prison. The description of the person depicted in the so-far unreleased surveillance footage is incredibly mundane: a beard, a hat (maybe camo, brown, or black?), tattoos, a black sleeveless or rolled-up shirt, a bag, and a step-thru frame bike. In Richmond, this could easily be thousands of people. The alleged acts occurred on August 23rd, the Monday proceeding Best Friends Day, meaning hundreds more out-of-town hipster look-alikes were wild in the streets.

Anarchist Organizing Against Prisons[edit]

Legal Support[edit]

Anarchist Black Cross[edit]

Anarchist Prisoners' Legal Aid Network (APLAN)[edit]

Books to Prisoners[edit]

Anti-Prison Publications[edit]

Proposals NC[edit]

New Years Eve Noise Demonstrations[edit]

Recommended Reading[edit]


See Also[edit]

External Links[edit]

  1. greenisthenewred
  2. ABC
  3. prison books

Content Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Originally at the corner of Des Plaines and Randolph
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference degan was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schaack was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Trachtenberg, Alexander (2002) [1932]. The History of May Day. Retrieved 2008-01-19.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. ^ Foner, Philip S. (1986). "The First May Day and the Haymarket Affair". May Day: A Short History of the International Workers' Holiday, 1886-1986. New York: International Publishers. pp. 27–39. ISBN 0717806243. 
  6. ^ 122 Ill. 1 (1887).
  7. ^ 123 U.S. 131 (1887).
  8. ^ "Lingg's Fearful Death". Chicago Tribune. November 11, 1887. p. 1. 
  9. ^ a b Avrich. The Haymarket Tragedy. p. 393. ISBN 0691047111. 
  10. ^ "Panic of 1893". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society, 2007. Retrieved on December 18, 2007.
  11. ^ Quoted in Chalberg, p. 46.
  12. ^ Goldman, Living, p. 123.
  13. ^ Drinnon, Rebel, pp. 58–59.
  14. ^ Wexler, Intimate, p. 76.
  15. ^ Drinnon, Rebel, p. 57.
  16. ^ Nellie Bly, "Nelly Bly Again: She Interviews Emma Goldman and Other Anarchists", New York World, September 17, 1893.
  17. ^ a b "Emma Goldman and A. Berkman Behind the Bars". The New York Times. June 16, 1917. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  18. ^ Quoted in Wexler, Intimate, p. 232.
  19. ^ Quoted in Chalberg, p. 134.
  20. ^ Shaw, Francis H. (1964). "The Trials of Emma Goldman, Anarchist". The Review of Politics. 26 (3): 444–445. Prosecuted under the Espionage Act of 1917 for obstructing the draft, Emma Goldman...  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  21. ^ Trial and Speeches of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman in the United States District Court, in the City of New York, July, 1917 (New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1917)
  22. ^ Wexler, Intimate, p. 235–244.
  23. ^ Doherty 2011.
  24. ^ Hamilton, Dr. Allan McLane. "Autobiography". Pre-1921
  25. ^ 1901 video of his execution
  26. ^ The Execution of Leon Czolgosz — "Lights Out in the City of Light" — Anarchy and Assassination at the Pan-American Exposition
  27. ^ a b Seibert 2002.
  28. ^ Falk, p. 25.
  29. ^ Wenzer, p. 36.
  30. ^ Goldman, Living My Life, pp. 383–384.
  31. ^ Wexler, Emma Goldman in America, pp. 130–132.
  32. ^ Berkman, Prison Memoirs, p. 521.
  33. ^ Falk, p. 39.
  34. ^ Berkman, Prison Memoirs, p. 533.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Avrich, P., Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691026041 (1991)
  36. ^ Avrich, Paul, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Princeton: Princeton University Press (1996): The dynamite was believed to be on its way to Buda, the chief bombmaker.
  37. ^ a b McCormick, Charles H., Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers, University Press of America (2005), ISBN 0761831339, 9780761831334
  38. ^ a b c Plotter Here Hid Trail Skillfully; His Victim Was A Night Watchman, The New York Times, 4 June 1919: The bodies of the night watchman, William Boehner was torn to shreds by the blast and scattered from the basement of the Nott home to rooftops across the street; police at first thought that the bomber himself might have been the victim, until later identification was made of the night watchman by his two sons.
  39. ^ a b Wreck Judge Nott's Home, The New York Times, 3 June 1919
  40. ^ Avrich, Paul, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, AK Press, ISBN 1904859275, 9781904859277 (2005), p. 496
  41. ^ Plumbe, George Edward, Langland, James, and Pike, Claude Othello, Anarchistic Bomb Plots in the United States, The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Yearbook for 1920 (Vol. 36), Chicago Daily News Co. (1919), p. 741
  42. ^ McCormick, Charles H., Hopeless Cases, The Hunt For The Red Scare Terrorist Bombers, Lanham Maryland: University Press of America, pp. 61-61: Elia claims to have been soundly asleep when Salsedo allegedly climbed out the window a few feet away from him, then silently jumped into eternity. Nor did he hear the agents running into his room to find out what had happened; he was snoring loudly when they entered.
  43. ^ Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton University Press (1991), p. 210: A visitor to Coacci's home in Italy in 1921 noted that "the man's shelves were lined with brochures on the manufacture of bombs, and he professed himself a terrorist of the Galleani school."
  44. ^ Cite error: The named reference Watson.2C_Bruce_2007_p._15 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  45. ^ Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in its First Age of Terror. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009; pp. 160-161
  46. ^ a b New York Times, "Bomb Menaces Sacco Trial Judge", 27 September 1932
  47. ^ Avrich, Paul, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Princeton: Princeton University Press (1996), p. 132 (Interview of Charles Poggi)
  48. ^ Hoffman, Abbie (1980). Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture. New York: Perigee Books. pp. p. 128. ISBN 0-399-50503-2. 
  49. ^ "Better This World Character Bios - David McKay", a section of the website for PBS's P.O.V. documentary
  50. ^ "Better This World", a PBS P.O.V. documentary starring David McKay, Bradley Crowder and Brandon Darby
  51. ^ "G-20 Protester Causes $20,000 In Damages". WTAE-TV. September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Twitter Crackdown: NYC Activist Arrested for Using Social Networking Site during G-20 Protest in Pittsburgh". Democracy Now!. 2009-10-06. 
  53. ^ "Man Arrested for Twittering Goes to Court, EFF Has the Documents". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2009-10-05. 
  54. ^ Amy Goodman (2009-10-06). "Watch What You Tweet". truthdig. 
  55. ^ Associated Press-Martial artist accused of defacing Wash. Capitol[dead link]
  56. ^ Pawloski, Jeremy (January 14, 2009). "Mixed-martial-arts champion charged in Capitol graffiti case". The Olympian. Retrieved 2009-01-14.  [dead link]
  57. ^ Hendricks, Maggie (January 15, 2009). "Jeff Monson charged with mischief; ESPN not an accomplice". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  58. ^ "MMA fighter busted for graffiti". Associated Press. July 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  59. ^
  60. ^ "'Anarchist' Monson sentenced to work release". The Olympian. October 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  [dead link]
  61. ^


Unorganized List of Cases and Individuals[edit]

The following people have stood trial as anarchists, but have not yet been added to the continuum of this article. If you noticed a case/person missing from the article, but don't know where exactly to put it, just list it here and hopefully someone will add to it before this draft gets set loose into the wild.

  1. Miguel Balderos
  2. Roger Clement