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Human rights organizations:


List of human rights reports on North Korea

Given the opacity of the regime, especially before the 1990's, little was known about the situation of human rights in North Korea.[1][2][3][4] The few reports that were issued at that time made note of the lack of concrete information, mostly only being able to describe the general characteristics of the North Korean regime.[4][1]

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent North Korean famine of the 1990's, a higher number of individuals began to flee the country, and more first-person accounts of the country began to be collected by human rights organizations. That was also followed in the early 2000's by greater availability satellite imagery.[3]

United Nations[edit]

The United Nations has issued four main kinds of reports on the human rights of North Korea.

The first are a series of documents intended to be recommendations from Treaty-based bodies, which are issued by those bodies to each country that is party to it (in contrast to charter-based bodies, which all UN members are part of). These treaty-based bodies that North Korea has decided to be a party to include the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Committee on the Rights of the Child, and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.The first document of this kind was issued in 1998 (Convention on the Rights of the Child); the second was in 2001 (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), after a 17-year delay in North Korea submitting the required information to the committee.[5]

During the 1990's and 2000's various UN bodies and parties expressed greater concern on the situation of human rights in North Korea and the opacity of the country's government.[6][7][8][9] That led to another series of reports that were started by the UN Commission on Human Rights (the predecessor of the UN Human Rights Council), which established the mandate for the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the DPRK in 2004, issuing reports annually.[10][11] They are issued in detail to the Human Rights Council, and in a more condensed form to the General Assembly.

The United Nations also conducts a Universal Periodic Review (every 3 or 4 years, in which all UN members are subject to a review on their human rights practices), with the first report on North Korea issued in 2010.[12][13][14][15]

Finally, the most notable one was the 2014 Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the DPRK, considered a landmark document resulting from a special in-depth, one-time investigation commissioned by the Human Rights Council,[16][17][7][18] It was deemed the most authoritative report up to that point.[19][17][20]

2014 Commission of inquiry[edit]

Universal Periodic Review[edit]

Special Rapporteur[edit]

Special Rapporteur annual reports to the Human Rights Council

Other reports[edit]

Other reports - UN Treaty Bodies
Other reports - UN Charter-based Bodies

Governmental reports[edit]

North Korea[edit]

North Korea published a report, as a rebuttal to the 2014 United Nations report on its human rights record.[17][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][20][21] It has also submitted self-reported information to the UN.

Reports to the United Nations



HRI/CORE/1/Add.108

South Korea[edit]

The Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU; formerly the Research Institute for National Unification) opened the Center for North Korean Human Rights in 1994 to collect and manage systematically all source materials and objective data concerning North Korean human rights; and from 1996, KINU has been publishing every year the ‘White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea’ in Korean and in English.[32][33]

United States[edit]

The United States government, through its Department of State's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor has published annually Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, that beginning in 1979 included North Korea.[34] Also, two different bodies within the U.S. government have published reports on religious freedom: the Department of State (since 2001),[35] and U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (since 2003). Finally, the Department of State also publishes Trafficking in Persons Reports that include some coverage of North Korea.

Annual general reports

  • 1993 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (Report). 
  • 1994 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (Report). 

Religious freedom reports (Department of State)

Religious freedom reports (Commission on International Religious Freedom)

Trafficking in Persons Reports

Human rights organizations specialized on North Korea[edit]

Citizens' Alliance for North Korean Human Rights[edit]

(; South Korea-based, and established in 2003)

  • Class and Gender Discrimination in North Korea (Report). 2005. 
  • Voice From The North Korean Gulag (Report). 1998. 

Committee for Human Rights in North Korea[edit]

The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (HRNK; U.S.-based, and established in 2001) is known for its original research based on its adept[24][36][37] use of satellite imagery, defector accounts, and even information coming directly from inside the country.[9][24] Its published research has been relied upon as sources in reports issued by the United Nations and governments.[9][38][39] HRNK has issued three types of reports: reports analysing the situation on prison camps, reports on other human rights issued in the country, and policy briefings addressed at the international community.

Reports on prison camps

Thematic reports

Data Center for North Korean Human Rights[edit]

Annual general reports

  • 2007 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). 2007. 
  • 2008 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Jul 22, 2008. 
  • 2009 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Sep 11, 2009. 
  • 2010 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Aug 5, 2010. 
  • 2011 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Aug 31, 2011. 
  • 2012 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Aug 31, 2012. 
  • 2013 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Dec 20, 2013. 
  • 2014 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Nov 30, 2014. 
  • 2014 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Dec 22, 2014. 
  • 2015 White Paper on North Korean Human Rights (Report). Dec 16, 2015. 

Religious freedom

  • 2008 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2009 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2010 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2011 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2012 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2013 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2014 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2015 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 
  • 2016 White Paper on Religious Freedom in North Korea (Report). 

Other thematic reports

  • Political Prison Camps in North Korea Today (Report). Jul 20, 2011. 
  • North Korean Defectors in China – Forced Repatriation and Human Rights Violations (Report). Jan 28, 2014. 
  • North Korean Human Rights Case Report: Victims’ Voices Vol. 1, Vol. 2 (Report). Oct 10, 2013. 
  • An Evaluation Report of the North Korean Human Rights Situation after the 2014 UN Commission of Inquiry Report -Based on an Analysis of NKDB's Database- (Report). Mar 2016. 
  • North Korean Political Prison Camps: A Catalogue of Political Prison Camp Staff, Detainees, and Victims of Enforced Disappearance (Report). Aug 2016. 
  • Conditions of Labor and Human Rights: North Korean Overseas Laborers in Russia (Report). Dec 2016. 
  • The UN Universal Periodic Review and the DPRK: Monitoring of North Korea's Implementation of Its Recommendations (Report). Jul 2017. 

Other[edit]

Human rights organizations[edit]

Amnesty International[edit]

Amnesty International (based in the United Kingdom, established in 1961) annual report The state of the world's human rights initially included a brief mention of most countries, growing in later years to devoting 1-2 pages to the analysis of the situation of human rights in each country, including North Korea. Through the 1970's, 1980's the organization noted that its ability to report on human rights in the country was severely hampered by the opacity of the regime, and only being able to recount some scant reports.[2][1] This began to change in the 1990's when some more information became available. Beginning in the 2000's the organization has also issued other stand-alone reports specific to human rights issues in North Korea.

Annual general reports

Thematic reports

Human Rights Watch[edit]

Human Rights Watch publishes a "World Report". Below are listed the sections of those annual reports that focus on the situation in North Korea. HRW has produced world reports since 1989 covering a limited number of countries, and it began to devote a section to the DPRK in 2004.[40][41]

Annual general reports

Thematic reports

  • A Matter of Survival - The North Korean Government’s Control of Food and the Risk of Hunger (Report). 2006. 

Other[edit]

Other reports[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Amnesty International (1985). The state of the world's human rights 1985 (Report). United Kingdom. p. 221. Amnesty International's work on the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea ( DPRK), North Korea, was seriously hampered by the fact that the authorities rarely divulge any information about arrests, trials or death sentences. 
  2. ^ a b 1977 Amnesty International Report (PDF) (Report). Amnesty International. Amnesty International has carefully monitored all available information from North Korea and can only report that it contains no detailed evidence whatsoever regarding arrests, trials and imprisonment in that country. Furthermore, there appears to be a complete censorship of news relating to human rights violations. Despite its efforts Amnesty International has not been able to trace any information, even positive, on the subject of such rights in North Korea. 
  3. ^ a b Cohen, Roberta (November 28, 2012). "Challenges to Human Rights Information Gathering in North Korea". USA: Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on March 17, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018. This certainly contrasts with the past when the world was largely in the dark about human rights conditions in North Korea. It was not until 40 years after Kim Il-sung assumed power — in the late 1970s and 80s — that international NGOs first began to report on the human rights situation. More recently with the escape of some 25,000 North Koreans to the South, information has become more plentiful about all aspects of human rights in North Korea. Hundreds of former prisoners and former prison guards are among the defectors and have been providing testimony about their prison experiences. And since 2003, satellite photos of the camps have helped verify the information provided by the former prisoners and guards. North Koreans hiding in China have also been providing information. 
  4. ^ a b 1980 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (Report). February 2, 1981. p. 631-638. There was little new information in 1980 on human rights practices in North Korea. Few, if any, significant changes are known to have taken place. Much of this report necessarily is based therefore on information obtained over a period of time. While limited in scope and detail, the information is generally indicative of the human rights situation in North Korea. 
  5. ^ United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Document - CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 40 OF THE COVENANT Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA CCPR/CO/72/PRK 27 Aug 2001. "The Committee welcomes the submission of the second periodic report, which contains detailed information on domestic legislation in the area of civil and political rights, and the opportunity to resume the dialogue with the State party after an interval of more than 17 years. The Committee welcomes the State party’s decision to send a strong delegation from its capital, composed of representatives of various government authorities, for the examination of the second periodic report, and the readiness expressed by the delegation to continue the dialogue with the Committee after the examination of the report. The Committee is also pleased to note that the delegation of the State party recognized the importance of the Committee’s task and intimated that the Committee could expect more prompt reporting in the future. The Committee regrets, however, the considerable delay in the submission of the report, which was due in 1987. It regrets the lack of information on the human rights situation in practice, as well as the absence of facts and data on the implementation of the Covenant. As a result, a number of credible and substantiated allegations of violations of Covenant provisions which have been brought to the attention of the Committee could not be addressed effectively and the Committee found it difficult to determine whether individuals in the State party’s territory and subject to its jurisdiction fully and effectively enjoy their fundamental rights under the Covenant."
  6. ^ Resolution Situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - Sub-Commission resolution 1997/3 E/CN.4/SUB.2/RES/1997/3 21/08/1997.
  7. ^ a b c d Kratz, Agatha (January 6, 2016). "North Korea: a role for the EU on human rights". European Council on Foreign Relations. London. Archived from the original on February 28, 2016. Retrieved Feb 27, 2015. 
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 66th Resolution 66/174. Situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea A/RES/66/174 19 December 2011.
  9. ^ a b c United Nations Human Rights Council Session 25 Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea A/HRC/25/CRP.1 7 February 2014.
  10. ^ a b c Erlanger, Steven (March 21, 2013). "U.N. Panel to Investigate Human Rights Abuses in North Korea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  12. ^ Cohen, Roberta (16 October 2014). "A Human Rights Dialogue with North Korea: Real or Illusory?". 38 North. Washington, D.C.: School of Advanced International Studies. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved Aug 29, 2015. 
  13. ^ Human Rights Council Session 22nd Document Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Marzuki Darusman A/HRC/22/57 1 February 2013.
  14. ^ Human Rights Council Session 13th Document Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review – Democratic People's Republic of Korea A/HRC/13/13 4 January 2010.
  15. ^ Kirby, Michael (November 18, 2014). "Kirby: Moment of truth for North Korea over human rights". CNN. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved Sep 1, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c Sengupta, Somini (December 22, 2014). "United Nations Security Council Examines North Korea's Human Rights". The New York Times. p. A12 (print edition Dec 23). Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Sengupta, Somini (October 25, 2014). "Coalition Seeks to Send North Korea to International Court Over Rights Abuses". The New York Times. p. A6 (print edition Oct 26). Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c Cumming-Bruce, Nick (February 15, 2014). "U.N. Panel Finds Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea". The New York Times. p. A7 (print edition Feb 16). Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  19. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (March 28, 2014). "Rights Panel Seeks Inquiry of North Korea". The New York Times. p. A8 (print edition Aug 29). Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  20. ^ a b c Cumming-Bruce, Nick (September 19, 2014). "North Korea Agrees to Weigh Steps on Human Rights". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Hawk, David (16 October 2014). "North Korea Responds to the UN Commission of Inquiry". 38 North. Washington, D.C.: School of Advanced International Studies. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved Aug 29, 2015. 
  22. ^ Cohen, Roberta (16 October 2014). "A Human Rights Dialogue with North Korea: Real or Illusory?". 38 North. Washington, D.C.: School of Advanced International Studies. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved Aug 29, 2015. 
  23. ^ "The DPRK's Responses to the Universal Periodic Review (A/HRC/27/10/Add.1)" (PDF). 38 North. Washington, D.C.: School of Advanced International Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved Sep 1, 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c Cohen, Roberta (December 7, 2017). "A New UN Approach to Human Rights in North Korea: The 2017 Special Rapporteur's Report". 38 North – Korea Institute at SAIS. Archived from the original on 2017-12-08. Retrieved March 10, 2018. 
  25. ^ a b Choe, Sang-Hun (September 13, 2015). "North Korea Says Reports of Abuse Are Produced by Political 'Racket'". The New York Times. p. A12 (print edition Sep 14). Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Charbonneau (Reuters), Louis (October 7, 2014). "North Korea Presents Own Report on Its Human Rights Record at U.N." The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  27. ^ a b KCNA (November 28, 2014). "Detailed Report on Secret behind Anti-DPRK "Human Rights Resolution" Released". Korean Central News Agency, republished by kcnawatch.nknews.org. Pyongyang. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  28. ^ a b Taylor, Adam (September 17, 2014). "North Korea wrote a 53,558-word report on its human rights record. The conclusion? It's pretty good". The Washington Post. U.S. Archived from the original on Feb 28, 2017. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  29. ^ a b DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies (September 13, 2014). Report of the DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies (PDF) (Report). Korean Central News Agency (republished by The National Committee on North Korea). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 21, 2015. Retrieved Aug 20, 2015. 
  30. ^ a b DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies (2014). Report of the DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies (PDF) (Report). Korean Central News Agency (as republished by Weekly Blitz). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved Sep 1, 2015. 
  31. ^ a b KCNA (September 13, 2014). "Report on Human Rights Situation in DPRK Released". Korean Central News Agency. Pyongyang, North Korea. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015. Retrieved Aug 21, 2015. 
  32. ^ Kirby, Michael Donald; Biserko, Sonja; Darusman, Marzuki (7 February 2014). "Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/CRP.1". United Nations Human Rights Council. Archived from the original on Feb 27, 2014. 
  33. ^ Han, Dong-ho; Kim, Soo-Am; Lee, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Keum-Soon; Cho, Jeong-Ah (July 2014). Center for North Korean Human Rights Studies, ed. "White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea 2014". White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea. Center for North Korean Human Rights, Korea Institute for National Unification: 19. ISBN 978-89-8479-766-6. Archived from the original on Jan 10, 2015. Retrieved Jun 8, 2015. 
  34. ^ The Online Books Page presents serial archive listings for Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (Report). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 14, 2017. 
  35. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. "International Religious Freedom". Department of State. Retrieved March 17, 2018. 
  36. ^ Thiessen, Marc A. (February 16, 2018). "Kim Yo Jong does not accurately represent North Korea. Here is the reality". Washington Post. USA. Retrieved March 17, 2018. 
  37. ^ Fifield, Anna (October 26, 2017). "New images show North Korea's extensive network of 'reeducation' camps". Washington Post. USA. Retrieved March 17, 2018. 
  38. ^ 2016 Human Rights Reports: Democratic People's Republic of Korea (PDF) (Report). 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2018. 
  39. ^ Human Rights Council Session 31st Document Role and achievements of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights with regard to the situation of human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea A/HRC/31/38 1 February 2016.
  40. ^ "2003 World Report: Events 2002 - Table of Contents". New York, USA: Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2018. 
  41. ^ "Previous world reports". USA: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved March 12, 2018. 
  42. ^ Fifield, Anna (December 11, 2017). "North Korea's prisons are as bad as Nazi camps, says judge who survived Auschwitz". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2018-03-11. Retrieved March 9, 2018. 
  43. ^ Fifield, Anna (December 11, 2017). "North Korea's prisons are as bad as Nazi camps, says judge who survived Auschwitz". Washington Post. USA. Retrieved March 17, 2018. 

External links[edit]