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Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked worldwide outrage and turned it into an international scandal.

Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres. They are typically, but not exclusively, single events that resulted in large numbers of deliberate and direct civilian deaths.

Generally, the list includes individual events only, but where such an event includes too many individual massacres to list separately (e.g., the Holocaust, the Great Purge), the wider event may be listed as well as some of the more prominent individual massacres. Note that the figure for deaths is usually an estimate, and is frequently contested. See the individual article on each massacre for more information. Furthermore, the distinction between a genocide and a massacre may be difficult and controversial, so this categorization should be seen as neither definitive nor authoritative. Please see relevant articles for further information.

Background key

Light yellow background Massacres in which 10,000 or more civilians were intentionally killed.
Dark grey background Massacres forming part of the Holocaust.[1]
Grey background Massacres during World War II other than those forming part of the Holocaust.

Antiquity and the European Middle Ages (to 1500)[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
334 BCE Destruction of Thebes c.6,000 to 8,000 Greece

Alexander the Great slaughters the population of the city following a revolt. (Subsequently Alexander massacres at least a quarter of a million city dwellers at Sindimana, Gaza and other locations.)

[citation needed]
332 BCE Siege of Tyre 8,000 Tyre, Phoenicia

Macedonian victory over the Persians.

[citation needed]
265 BCE Kalinga War c.100,000 Orissa, India

The Kalinga War was fought between the Mauryan Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga, a feudal republic located on the coast of the present-day Indian state of Orissa. slaughters the population of the city following a revolt.

260 BCE Battle of Changping c.400,000 Jincheng, China

The State of Qin defeats the State of Zhao, killing 400,000 Zhao people. The battle becomes a decisive victory in the establishment of the Qin Dynasty.

[citation needed]
194 BCE Hispania Citerior massacres "multitudes" Spain

Roman troops under Cato the Elder massacre Hispania Citerior citizens

[citation needed]
150 BCE Lusitanian massacres c.8,000 Portugal

Roman troops under Galba massacre Lusitani citizens after convincing them to surrender.

[citation needed]
146 BCE The Fall of Carthage c.450,000 Carthage

When the Third Punic War ended, the remaining 50,000 Carthaginians (perhaps a tenth of the original pre-war population) were sold into slavery.

146 BCE Destruction of Corinth Corinth

The Romans under Lucius Mummius Achaicus destroyed Corinth after a siege in 146 BCE. All men were put to the sword, and the women and children enslaved.

88 BCE Asiatic Vespers c.80,000 Anatolia

After conquering western Anatolia in 88 BC, Mithridates VI reportedly ordered the killing of all Romans living there. The massacre of Roman men, women and children is known as the Asiatic Vespers.

71 BCE Third Servile War c.6,000 Roman Republic

Surrendering slaves are crucified along the Via Appia

[citation needed]
58 BCE Helvetii campaign c.260,000 Gaul

Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, the Celtic inhabitants of modern Switzerland: approximately 60% of the tribe was killed, and another 20% taken into slavery.

c. 4 BCE Massacre of the Innocents c.14,000-64,000 Iudaea province

All boys in the village of Bethlehem are allegedly slaughtered by Herod the Great

9 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest c.15,000-20,000 Teutoburg Forest, Germania

The alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius ambushed and annihilated three Roman legions led by Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.

36 Pontius Pilate's Massacre of Samaritans Iudaea province Pilate murdered Samaritans attempting to "escape the violence of Pilate", considered excessive by Roman standards, action resulted in his recall to Rome [10]
c. 50 Jerusalem Passover Riot c.20,000-30,000 Iudaea province Passover riot in Jerusalem [11]
c. 55 Egyptian Prophet Massacre c.30,000 Iudaea province 30,000 unarmed Jews doing The Exodus reenactment massacred by Procurator Antonius Felix [12]
60-61 Boudica's revolt c.70,000 Roman Britain

Some 70,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons were massacred by Celtic Britons.

64-68 Nero's persecution after the Great Fire of Rome Roman Empire "...a vast multitude, were convicted ... they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights." [15]
164 Sack of Seleucia c.300,000 Seleucia, Parthian Empire Hellenistic city of Seleucia on the Tigris, despite the welcome it reserved for the Roman general Avidius Cassius, was sacked and destroyed by the Romans. [16][17]
258 Valerian's Massacre Roman Empire All Christian bishops, priests, and deacons were executed immediately [18]
303-312 Diocletian Persecution 3,000–3,500 Roman Empire The last, and most severe, episode of persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire [19]
518 or 523 Najran massacre unknown Najran (on the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula)

Jewish King Dhu Nuwas orders the forceful conversion of the Christians (mainly Aksumites) in Najran. The Christians are subsequently massacred.

532 Nika riots c.30,000 Byzantine Empire

After a sports rivalry turns into a full-scale riot, Emperor Justinian I locks the rioters in the Hippodrome and has them killed.

614 Jerusalem massacres Unknown Jerusalem

Persian invaders, aided by local Jews, massacre up to 90,000 Christians.

627 Qurayza massacre 600-900 Medina After the Battle of the Trench, Muslims besiege the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and after its surrender kill all adult males, while women and children are enslaved. [23]
750 Abbasid massacre of the Umayyads 80 Arab Empire The successful Abbasid Revolt overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred. [24][25]
782 Bloody Verdict of Verden 4,500 Verden, Germany

Massacre of non-Christian Saxons by Charlemagne; The actual scale of the massacre is subject to debate.

[citation needed]
1002 St. Brice's Day massacre unknown England

Ethelred II orders the slaughter of an unknown number of Danes.

[citation needed]
1026 Somnath massacre 50,000 India

Hindu Defenders of Somnath massacred by Mahmud of Ghazni.

1033 Fez massacre 6,000 Fez, Morocco

Jews slaughtered in Fez by Muslim mobs.

1066 Granada massacre 4,000 Granada, Spain

Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.

1096 German Crusade c.10,000 Rhine River

The "People's Crusade" prior to the First Crusade results in the deaths of thousands of Jews living beside or near the river Rhine (see also Emicho).

[citation needed]
1098 Siege of Antioch c.20,000 Antioch, Syria

Almost all Muslim inhabitants are slaughtered after the fall of the city to the Crusaders.

[citation needed]
1099 Siege of Jerusalem c.70,000 Jerusalem

Almost all Muslim and Jewish inhabitants are slaughtered after the fall of the city to the Crusaders.

[citation needed]
1190 Clifford's Tower c.150 York, England

A mob attacks Jewish residents; many commit suicide.

[citation needed]
1191 Siege of Acre (Akko) 2,750 Akko

Richard the Lionheart slaughters Muslim and Jewish prisoners taken during the siege.

[citation needed]
1209 Albigensian Crusade 20,000 to 100,000 Béziers, France

Crusaders slaughter the Cathars. Other civilian slaughters occur in Toulouse and Saint-Nazaire.

[citation needed]
1220 Samarkand massacre c.75,000 Samarkand, Khwarezm[29]

After the city's surrender, the Mongols under Genghis Khan drive out and slaughter its population. Over 75,000 men, women and children perish.

1221 Herat massacre 600,000 Herat

Genghis Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population.

[citation needed]
1240 Sack of Kiev Tens of thousands Kiev, Kievan Rus

Batu Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population. Over the three years (1237-1240) the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of Russia with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov. Approximately half of the Russian population died during the Mongol invasion of Rus.

1258 Battle of Baghdad 90,000 to  1,000,000 Baghdad

Hulagu Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population.

1268 Siege of Antioch 40,000 Antioch, Syria

Sultan Baibars' of Egypt attacks, captures and loots the Christian-held city of Antioch. His armies slaughter or enslave every Christian in the city. This marks the end of Antioch's 1500-year history; the city never recovers.

[citation needed]
1282 Sicilian Vespers Thousands Italy

French followers ot the House of Anjou in Sicily are killed during a revolt.

1289 Siege of Tripoli c.10,000 Palestine

Muslim conquest of Christian County of Tripoli; virtually the whole Christian population is killed.

1291 Siege of Tyre 10,000 Tyre, Palestine

Khalil' army destroys the city and massacres the Christian population.

1291 Siege of Acre Thousands Palestine

Those Christians unable to leave the city were slaughtered by the Egyptian Mamluks.

1296 Massacre of Berwick 30,000 Berwick, Scotland[38]

As they invade Scotland, forces under the command of Edward I massacre the population of Berwick.

[citation needed]
1325 Crow Creek Massacre c.500 South Dakota

Several hundred Initial Coalescent men, women and children were slaughtered, mutilated and scalped by the Middle Missouri villagers.

1348 Black Death Scapegoats 6,000 to 16,000 Germany

Jews are blamed as the cause of the Black Death, leading to their massacre in Mainz (up to 12,000) and Strasbourg (4,000).

[citation needed]
1358 Jacquerie Revolts 8,000 Meaux, France

Peasants are massacred in the aftermath of a revolt.

[citation needed]
1361 Battle of Visby 2,800 Gotland, Sweden

Danish King Valdemar's troops massacred the peasant army of Gotland.

1370 Siege of Limoges 3,000 France Edward, the Black Prince oversaw a cruel siege, which concluded with the massacre of some 3,000 residents according to the chronicler Froissart. [42]
1387 Massacre of Isfahan 70,000 Isfahan, Persia

In the city of Isfahan (Persia) Timur Lenk ordered the building of a pyramid of 70,000 human skulls, from those that his army had beheaded.

1396 Battle of Nicopolis 3,000-10,000 Bulgaria

After the battle, the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I ordered between 3,000 to 10,000 Christian prisoners to be executed, in retaliation for the Rahovo massacre of the Ottoman prisoners by French Crusaders.

1398 Massacre of Delhi 100,000 Delhi, India

Massacre of prisoners under Timur Lenk.

1400 Siege of Sivas 4,000 Anatolia

Timur Lenk buried alive 4,000 Christian soldiers of the garrison of Sivas after their capitulation; but the Muslim prisoners he spared.

1401 Massacre of Baghdad 20,000-90,000 Baghdad, Iraq

Timur Lenk sacked Baghdad and massacred at least 20,000.

[50] [51]
1415 Agincourt c.5,000 Agincourt, France

So that guards may join the fight, Henry V orders the deaths of 5,000 prisoners of war during the Battle of Agincourt.

[citation needed]
1453 Constantinople c.10,000 Byzantine Empire Following the fall of the city, the Ottoman Turks massacre the Greek Orthodox population for three days . [citation needed]
1459 Braşov massacre c.30,000 Braşov, Transylvania

Vlad the Impaler, also known as Vlad Dracula, voivode of Wallachia in present-day Romania, had 30,000 of the Saxon merchants and officials of the Transylvanian city of Braşov that were breaking his authority impaled.

1462 The Night Attack c.20,000 Wallachia

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, during his campaign against Wallachia, is “greeted” by the sight of a veritable forest of stakes on which Wallachian ruler Vlad the Impaler has impaled 20,000 Turkish prisoners.

1465 Jewish massacre in Fez Thousands Fez, Morocco

Arab mobs in Fez slaughtered thousands of Jews, leaving only 11 alive.

1480 Sack of Otranto 12,000 Otranto, Italy the Italian city of Otranto is held by the Ottoman Empire [citation needed]
1487 Aztec human sacrifice 10,000-80,400 Aztec Empire, Mexico

For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they slaughtered about 80,400 prisoners over the course of four days. According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony.



March 1495 Hispaniola Pacification campaign Several thousand Central Hispaniola

Christopher Columbus leads first organized slaughter of native Americans to “pacify” them in order to enact his hand-amputating, gold-acquiring “tribute system.”


Modern times (from 1500)[edit]

1500 to 1799[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1503 Xaraguá Massacre c.300 Xaraguá, Hispaniola

The governor of Hispaniola, Nicolás de Ovando, leads expedition to “improve relations” with remaining unconquered natives of island, and slaughters 300 of the leadership of southwestern Hispaniola.

1506 Lisbon Massacre c.2000-4000 Lisbon, Portugal

In a Lisbon riot, Jewish converts to Christianity are slaughtered.

1511 Cuba expedition under Diego Velázquez At least 20,000 Cuba

As gold and slaves run low on Hispaniola, an expedition of 300 men to Cuba pursued the survivors of the 1503 Xaraguá Massacre and slaughters the natives.

1513 Pacra Massacre c. 600 Pacra, Panama

During Vasco Núñez de Balboa's expedition to discover Pacific Ocean, night attack on sleeping village. Forty men fed to the Spaniards' dogs for the crime of “dressing like women.”

1513 Shiite Massacre c.40,000 Ottoman Empire

Sultan Selim I ("The Grim") ordered the massacre of 40,000 Shia Muslim "heretics".

1519 Tlaxcala Massacres Thousands Tlaxcala, Mesoamerica

On way to Aztec capital, Hernán Cortés was attacked by the Tlaxcalan state and engages in battles for two weeks. After he burns a dozen towns and slaughters thousands of non-combatants – a style of warfare unknown in Mesoamerica – and prevails in several battles against Tlaxcalan warriors, the Tlaxcalans capitulate and become his most faithful allies.

[67] [68]
1519 Cholula Massacre c. 3,000 Cholula, Mexico

On way to Aztec capital, Hernán Cortés and his 400 men, accompanied by about 6,000 Tlaxcalan warriors, visits religious center of Cholula and slaughters city residents who he accuses of “plotting” against him.

1520 Stockholm bloodbath c.100 Stockholm, Sweden

The mass execution of Swedish nobles by the Danish king Christian II.

1520 Huitzilopochtli Festival Massacre c. several hundred-3,000 Tenochtitlan, Mexico

While Cortés is away battling other Spaniards, Pedro Alvarado with eighty soldiers massacred Aztecs during festival, accusing the natives of plotting against the Spaniards.

1521 Post-siege massacre of Tenochtitlan c. 40,000 Tenochtitlan, Mexico

After successful conquest of Aztec capital city by 900 Spaniards and as many as 150,000 Cortes’s Tlaxcalan and Texcocan allies, most of the city’s survivors are put to death.

1524-1526 Peasants' War c. 100,000 Germany

It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt, usually after the battles had ended.

1526 Battle of Mohács 2,000 Mohács, Hungary

Christian prisoners massacred by the Ottoman Turks after their defeat at Mohács. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent gave orders to keep no prisoners.

1527 Sack of Rome c. 4,000 Rome, Italy

Rome is sacked by the mutinous troops of Emperor Charles V. Of 189 Swiss Guards on duty only 42 survived. After the execution of some 1,000 defenders, the pillage began. Nuns and other women were freely raped; men were tortured and killed.

1532 Cajas Massacre Hundreds Cajas, Ecuador

While raping the several hundred nuns of the Sun Temple, Hernando de Soto’s men slaughter the angry residents of Cajas.

1532 Cajamarca Massacre c. 3,000 Cajamarca, Ecuador

In surprise attack, killing 3,000 unarmed retainers and top commanders of the Inca's army, Pizarro’s expedition captures the Incan sovereign, Atahualpa.

1535 Mahon Massacre Hundreds Minorca, Spain

Ottoman admiral and Turkish privateer Khair ad Din attacked Mahon, Balearic Islands, killing or enslaving over half the population.

1539 Napituca Massacre c. 200 Napituca, Florida

Hernando de Soto's expedition prevails in battle against Timucuan warriors near town of Napituca in what became northern Florida. De Soto violated Charles V's ordinance to treat the natives well. Two hundred captured warriors were taken into Napituca and subsequently slaughtered at Soto’s command, making it the first documented large-scale massacre of natives by Europeans on soil that became the United States.

1540 Mabila Massacre c. 2,500 Mabila, Alabama

Hernando de Soto’s expedition ambushed by Choctaws[86] burns down palisaded town of Mabila and kills in a battle lasting several hours approx. 2,500.

1541 Moho Pueblo Massacre c. 200 Moho Pueblo, New Mexico

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expedition conquers Moho Pueblo, near the Rio Grande River, after a two-month siege. After the pueblo surrenders, the defenders are slaughtered, mostly by being burned at the stake.

1554 Vieste Massacre Hundreds Vieste, Italy In 1554, Vieste in Calabria, Italy, was raided by the Bey of Algiers and Turkish admiral Turgut Reis. Several hundreds citizens were beheaded and 7,000 inhabitants enslaved. [90]
1568 Chittorgarh massacre 30,000 India

Rajput defenders of Chittorgarh massacred by Akbar the Great.

1570 Massacre of Novgorod 15,000-60,000 Tsardom of Russia

Between 500 and 1000 people were gathered every day by the troops, then tortured and killed in front of the Tsar Ivan the Terrible. According to the Third Novgorod Chronicle, the massacre lasted for five weeks. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60,000.

[92] [93] [94]
1570 Cyprus massacre 30,000 Cyprus, Republic of Venice

The Turkish forces massacre thousands of Christians (mostly Greeks and Armenians) following the capture of the island.

1571 Sack of Moscow by Crimean Tatars 170,000 Tsardom of Russia

In May, 1571 the 120-thousand strong Crimean Tatar army led by the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray invaded Russia, devastated unprotected towns and villages and then sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin. The Tatars enslaved 150,000 Russians and massacred 170,000 in Moscow alone.

1571 Siege of Mount Hiei 20,000-30,000
Mount Hiei, Japan

Daimyo Oda Nobunaga burns down the monastery of Enryaku-ji (Enryakuji), at the time a cultural symbol. His target is the disobedient Buddhist Tendai warrior monks.

1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre 70,000-100,000 France

A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.

1574 Siege of Nagashima 20,000 Nagashima, Japan

The Nagashima complex was set alight, and as many as 20,000 men, women, and children were slaughtered by Oda Nobunaga's forces, even after they attempted to surrender.

1575 Rathlin Island Massacre 600 Rathlin Island, Ireland

MacDonnell clans-people massacred by Francis Drake.

[103] [104]
1576 Sack of Antwerp c. 8,000 Belgium

Badly paid Spanish soldiers loot Antwerp.

[citation needed]
1580 Siege of Smerwick 600 Smerwick, Ireland

English forces under Elizabeth I behead some 600 Spanish, Italian and Irish men and women during the Desmond Rebellions.

[citation needed]
1598 Acoma Massacre c. 800 Acoma, New Mexico

In retaliation for the killing of 11 Spanish soldiers, Juan de Oñate leads punitive expedition to slaughter the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma mesa. Spain's King later punished Oñate for his excesses.

1622 Indian massacre of 1622 c.347 Virginia, North America

Powhatans attack the Virginia Colony, destroying virtually all the settlements save the heavily-fortified Jamestown, and kill 347 English men, women and children, almost one-third of the English population of colony.

1623 Pamunkey Peace Talks c. 200 Virginia

The English poison the wine at a peace conference with Powhatan leaders, killing ca. 200 in retaliation for the Jamestown Massacre.

1637 Mystic Fort Massacre c. 600-700 Fort Mystic, Connecticut

John Underhill leads night attack on sleeping village of Fort Mystic, burning the Pequot inhabitants alive and slaughtering the survivors.

1641 Irish Rebellion of 1641 12,000 Ulster, Ireland

Scots-Irish Protestant planters are killed by dispossessed Irish Catholics.

1643 Wappinger Massacre c. 80 Pavonia, New Jersey

In 1643 an Iroquois tribe, the Mohawks, attacked a band of Wappingers. Wappingers flees to Manhattan Island seeking protection of Dutch governor, who has hired John Underhill. The sleeping village is slaughtered and the group exterminated.

1644 English Massacre of sleeping village c. 500 New Amsterdam (present day New York)

Hired by the Dutch, John Underhill reproduces successful Fort Mystic strategy of burning sleeping village and slaughtering the survivors.

1648 Khmelnytsky Uprising tens of thousands Poland

Jews, Polish nobles and Uniates are killed during a Cossack and peasant uprising led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

[citation needed]
1651 Siege of Limerick 5,000 Ireland

The New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell besieged Limerick. Ireton reckoned that about 5000 persons had perished ‘by the sword without and the famine and plague within’.

1680 Pueblo Revolt 380 New Mexico

Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers and drove the other Spaniards from New Mexico. By 1690s, certain Pueblo groups wanted the Spanish to come back to protect them against Apache and Navajo raiders.

1689 Lachine massacre at least 68 Lachine, New France

Iroquois warriors burn the small village of Lachine, kill 24 civilians and take many prisoners, 44 of them are tortured to death.

[citation needed]
1690 Schenectady massacre at least 60 Schenectady, New York

Unarmed civilians including women and children are massacred by French and Indians.

1692 Candlemas Massacre at least 100 York, Maine

Approximately 100 British colonists, including women and children, massacred by Abenaki Indians, and another 80 taken into captivity and walked to Quebec City, during King William's War.

1704 Deerfield massacre over 56 Massachusetts

The Deerfield massacre occurred during the Queen Anne's War when joint French and Native American forces attacked the English Puritan settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts killing fifty-six colonists.

1711 Tuscaroran Attacks unknown North Carolina, North America

Members of the Tuscarora tribe kill an unknown number of settlers along the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers in northeastern North Carolina, prompting the abandonment of New Bern and the beginning of the Tuscarora War.

[citation needed]
1715 Yamassee Attack unknown South Carolina, North America

Assisted by the Spanish, the Yamassee kill several hundred South Carolinian settlers, triggering the Yamassee War.

[citation needed]
1739 Massacre of Delhi 30,000 Delhi, India

Persian troops under Nader Shah sack and plunder Delhi, massacring thousands.

1754-1758 Qing Empire conquers Jungaria. 600,000 Jungaria, China

Manchu army (Manchu, Chahar and Khalha-Mongol soldiers) killing Oirat (Kalmyk - western Mongol) people.

1768 Massacre of Uman 12,000 - 20,000 Ukraine

Massacre of Poles and Jews in Uman during the Koliyivschyna rebellion.

[citation needed]
1770-1771 125,000-200,000 Central Asia

Kalmyks from east of the Volga set out to return to China but two-thirds of them were massacred on the way by theirs Kazakh enemies.

1778 Cherry Valley massacre 33 Cherry Valley, New York, USA

Iroquois warriors raid a village, killing and scalping civilians.

[citation needed]
1782 Gnadenhutten massacre 96 Gnadenhutten, Ohio, USA Pennsylvanian militia execute Christian Lenape non-combatants, mostly women and children. [citation needed]
1785 Jewish massacre in Libya Hundreds Libya, North Africa

Ali Burzi Pasha murdered hundreds of Jews in Libya.

1792 September massacres 1,000 to 1,500 Paris, France The prison population of Paris is killed in a wave of mob violence. [citation needed]
1793-1796 Revolt in the Vendée 117,000 to 500,000 Vendée, France The Reign of Terror, seen elsewhere in France, was extraordinarily brutal in the Vendée. There was the massacre of 6,000 Vendée prisoners, many of them women, after the battle of Savenay. Then there was the drowning of 3,000 Vendée women at Pont-au-Baux. And 5,000 Vendée priests, old men, women, and children killed by drowning at the Loire River at Nantes. When the campaign dragged to an end in March 1796 the estimated dead numbered between 117,000 and 500,000, out of a population of around 800,000. [125][126][127] [128]
1797 Smyrna massacre (known as the Rebellion of Smyrna) 20,000 Smyrna /  Ottoman Empire Massacre of the Greeks and other Europeans in the city of Smyrna, after a failed revolution against the Turks. [129][130]

1800 to 1938[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1804 Massacre of the French Thousands Haiti

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, first ruler of an independent Haiti, declared Haiti an all black nation, slaughters all the remaining whites on the island and forbids whites from ever again owning property or land there.

1808 The Third of May 1808 5,000 Spain

Some 5,000 Spanish civilians are executed between May 2 and May 3 by Napoleon's troops after the popular uprising in Madrid.

1809 Boyd massacre 66 Whangaroa, New Zealand

All but four passengers on convict ship are murdered by Maori, after the mistreatment of the son of a Maori chief working on board the ship. Many of the slain are cooked and eaten.

[citation needed]
1821 Massacres in Peloponnese 15,000 Peloponnese /  Southern Greece The Turks of Peloponnese, along with Albanian and Jewish minorities, are exterminated by the Greek rebels over a few weeks at the beginning of the Greek War of Independence. [134] [135] [136]
1821 Missolonghi massacre  ? Missolonghi, Greece Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels. [137]
1821 Vrachori massacre 500 families Vrachori, Greece Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels. [138]
1821 Navarino Massacre 3,000 Navarino, Greece Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels. [139]
1821 Siege of Tripoli (1821) 30,000 Tripolis, Greece Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels. [140]
March 1821 Massacre of Bucharest 10,000 Romania Massacre of the Orthodox Christians in Bucharest, "even the women and children are not spared" [141]
March 1821 Massacre of Galatz and Yassy thousands Greek Orthodox Romania "Turks of every rank, merchants, and sailors are surprised and massacred in cold blood" [142] [143]
1821 Constantinople massacre 30,000 Constantinople /  Ottoman Empire As a retaliation for the Greek War of Independence, the Sultan's forces exterminate thousands of Greeks in the capital, including Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V. [144]
1821 Smyrna massacre 10,000 Smyrna /  Ottoman Empire As a retaliation for the Greek War of Independence, the Sultan's forces exterminate thousands of Greeks in Smyrna. [145][146]
1821 Samothrace massacre 15,000 Samothrace, Greece[147] The Greek population of the island is wiped out by the Turks. [148]
1821 Cyprus massacre 10,000 Cyprus /  then part of the Ottoman Empire Massacre of the Greek Cypriots by the Turks. [149]
1822 Chios massacre c. 42,000 massacred Chios island, Greece[147]

Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman occupation. An additional 50,000 are enslaved and shipped off to slave markets of Istanbul, Egypt and Barbary in "The most horrible massacre recorded in modern history".

1824 Kasos massacre 7,000 Chios / Psara islands, Greece [147]

Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman Empire; the island is burnt to the ground.

1824 Psara massacre 17,000 Psara, Greece [147]

Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman Empire; the island is burnt to the ground.

1825 Messolonghi massacre 8,000 Messolonghi, Greece[147] The Greek population of the city is exterminated after its capture by the Turkish forces. [citation needed]
1831 Salsipuedes genocide 40 to 300 Uruguay

President Fructuoso Rivera oversees the slaughter of Charrua chiefs; the Charruas are subsequently exterminated.

[citation needed]
1835 Moriori massacre 300 Chatham Islands, New Zealand

Some 300 Moriori men, women and children are massacred and the remaining 1,200 to 1,300 survivors enslaved by mainland Māori.

1838 Myall Creek massacre 28 Australia

Aborigines are murdered by white stockmen as revenge for lost cattle.

[citation needed]
1838 Haun's Mill massacre 17 Missouri, USA

Mormon men and boys are killed by over 200 militia.

[citation needed]
1838 Weenen massacre c.300 South Africa

Zulus massacre Voortrekker men, women and children.

[citation needed]
1840 Maria massacre 26 Coorong, South Australia

All survivors of the shipwrecked brig Maria are murdered by members of the Ngarrindjeri, resulting in a punitive police expedition from Adelaide. Henry Reynolds, and other historians, estimate up to 3,000 white people killed by Indigenous Australians in the frontier violence.

1841 Rufus River massacre Officially 35+ Australia

Police and volunteers from Adelaide kill a number of Maraura people after a two day conflict.

1847 Assyrian massacre 30,000 Kurdistan, Ottoman Empire

The Assyrian Christians eventually lose their autonomy when the region is conquered, after which 30,000 Assyrians are massacred.

1847 Whitman massacre 17 near Walla Walla, Washington, USA

The Cayuse attack a medical mission established by Marcus Whitman.

[citation needed]
1848 Rabacja massacre unknown Galicia

Polish peasants massacre nobles.[161]

[citation needed]
1852 Bridge Gulch massacre c.150 to 300 Hayfork, California, USA

A posse from Weaverville attacks an undefended Wintu village.

[citation needed]
1853 Gunnison massacre 8 Utah, USA

An exploration party led by John W. Gunnison is massacred by Pahavant Utes.

[citation needed]
1853 Taiping Rebellion 30,000 Nanjing, China

Nanjing is captured and 30,000 massacred by Taiping rebels.

1857 Devil's Wind 100,000 [163] - 10 million [164] India

Amaresh Misra estimates that the number of people who died as a result of the British retaliation for Indian Rebellion of 1857 was 10 million. Other historians have questioned these figures.

[165] [166]
1857 Mountain Meadows massacre 120 Utah, USA

A wagon train of farming families from Arkansas is killed by Mormon militia and local Paiute tribesmen.

[citation needed]
1860 Damascus massacre 3,000 Damascus, Ottoman Empire

An uprising results in the destruction of the Christian quarter and the massacre of many Maronite Christians.

1860 Maronite massacre 10,000 Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire

In a burst of sectarian violence in 1860, the Druze massacre more than 10,000 Christians, mostly Maronites.

1862 Minnesota massacre c.800 Minnesota, USA

European settlers massacred throughout Minnesota as part of the Sioux Uprising.

1863 Lawrence Massacre c.200 Kansas, USA

Quantrill’s Bushwhackers raid the anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas, burning the town and murdering some 200 men and boys.

[citation needed]
1864 Sand Creek massacre c.150 Colorado Territory, USA

United States Cavalry troops attack an undefended Cheyenne/Arapaho village.

[citation needed]
1864 Taiping Rebellion 100,000 Nanjing, China

As Qing Imperial troops retake the Nanjing in 1864, massive slaughtering occurs in the city.

1865-1871 Yahi Massacres c. 200 Northern California

Several massacres of native encampments by American settlers exterminate the Yahi tribe, such as the first in 1865 (74 killed), the 1866 Three Knolls (40 killed) and Dry Camp (33 killed) massacres, ending with the Kingsley Cave/Morgan Camp massacre (30 killed) in 1871. The Yahi were Ishi’s tribe.

1868 War of the Triple Alliance Thousands Paraguay

Imagining a huge conspiracy against himself, Paraguay's dictator Francisco Solano López begins executing people wholesale. Prominent Paraguayan citizens are seized and executed by his order, including his brothers and brothers-in-law, cabinet ministers, judges, military officers, bishops, and nine-tenths of the civil officers, together with 500 foreigners, including some diplomats.

1868 Washita Massacre 103 Washita River, Oklahoma

George Custer leads dawn attack on sleeping Cheyenne tribe led by Black Kettle, who survived the Sand Creek Massacre.

1870s Conquest of the Desert "thousands" Patagonia, Argentina

Military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, inhabited by indigenous peoples, mainly Mapuche.

[citation needed]
1871 Camp Grant Massacre c. 150 Camp Grant, Arizona

Led by ex-Tucson mayor, William Oury, vigilante band from Tucson slaughter Apache women and children while the men are doing their spring planting.

1871 La Semaine sanglante c.20,000 to 50,000 Paris, France

People who took part in the Paris Commune are slaughtered by the French government

[citation needed]
1873 Cypress Hills massacre 16 to 23 Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada

Assiniboine (Nakoda) people are killed by wolf hunters; one hunter is killed.

[citation needed]
1876 Batak massacre c.5,000 Batak[176]

Ottoman army irregulars massacre Bulgarian men, women and children barricaded in Batak's church as reprisal for the April Uprising.

1895-1897 Hamidian massacres 80,000 to 300,000 Ottoman Empire

On the orders of Abdul Hamid II, Ottoman forces massacre Armenians living in Anatolia.

[citation needed]
1897 Crete massacre 55,000 Crete,Greece[147]

Turkish forces massacre Greeks living on Crete after a rebellion.

1903 Kishinev pogrom 49 Chişinău[179]

Three day anti-Jewish riot, fed by false blood libel charges, kills 49 and injures 500. There is no police or military intervention.

1904 Herero and Namaqua Genocide c.75,000 German South West Africa

German colonial troops attempt to exterminate the Herero and Namaqua peoples, directed by General Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha.

[citation needed]
1908 Samos incident 20 Samos Island

Inhabitants of Vathy massacre and mutilate unarmed Ottoman Turkish soldiers.

1915-1917 Armenian Genocide c.400,000 to 1.5 million Ottoman Empire

Forced evacuation and mass killing of Anatolian Armenians during the Young Turks' government.

[citation needed]
1915-1918 Assyrian Genocide c.275,000 Ottoman Empire

The Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia are forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman and Kurdish forces.

[citation needed]
1916-1919 Pontian Greek Genocide c.353,000 Ottoman Empire

Massacres of Pontic Greeks by the Young Turks' government.

[citation needed]
June 16-17, 1919 Menemen massacre 200-1000 Turkey

Massacre of the Turkish population of Menemen by the Greek Army of occupation.

[citation needed]
April 13, 1919 Jallianwallah Bagh or
Amritsar massacre
379-1,000+ British India

British troops led by Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fire 1650 rounds of ammunition into a crowd of 20,000.

1919-1920 Extermination of the Don Cossacks Hundreds of thousands Soviet Union

According to historian Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 1.5 million Don Cossacks, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000".

1920 Croke Park massacre 14 Ireland British troops enter a football stadium during the Irish War of Independence and fire into the crowd, killing 13 spectators and one player [186]
1921 Kronstadt rebellion 1,200 to 2,168 Russian SFSR

1,200 to 2,168 rebels executed after the unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors against the Bolshevik government.

August, September 1922 Greek scorched earth policy Tens of thousands Turkey, Western Anatolia

The Greek army systematically burns and destroys Turkish villages after its defeat in the Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922. On its retreat route, the Greek army massacres Turkish inhabitants.

[citation needed]
January 1923 Rosewood massacre 26-150 Rosewood, Florida, USA

This African-American town is burned and residents are killed by white mobs.

[citation needed]
1923 Kantÿ massacre c.2,700 to 6,415 Kantÿ region, Japan

Korean and Okinawan immigrants, blamed for looting and arson in the wake of the Great Kanto earthquake, are killed by mobs

[citation needed]
1924 Napalpí massacre 200-450 Chaco, Argentina

An uprising of Toba Indians, due to poor treatment by the authorities and European colonizers, is savagely put down by police and white farmers

[citation needed]
1925 Marusia massacre over 500 Antofagasta Region, Chile

Chilean government's response, then headed by Arturo Alessandri, to a strike by the workers of a saltpeter mine, that ended with more than 500 deaths.

[citation needed]
1927 Malaita massacre c. 75 Malaita, Solomon Islands

Kwaio attack on the British Solomon Islands Protectorate authority William R. Bell and deputies, and subsequent punitive expedition

[citation needed]
1929 Hebron massacre c.67 Palestine

An Arab mob wipes out Hebron's old Jewish settlement.

[citation needed]
1931-1945 Japanese biological warfare program 3,000 to 200,000[188] East Asia

An official program of medical experimentation on humans that results in thousands of deaths during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.[189]

[citation needed]
1932 La Matanza c.30,000 El Salvador

Having crushed a peasants' rebellion, the military government sanctions the massacre of indigenous peoples.

[citation needed]
1932 - 1933 Holodomor c.1,000,000 Ukraine and many other parts of the Soviet Union

As a result of collectivization policy in the Soviet Union, many peasants died of famine, and many were killed as the governmental troops prevented them from escaping to cities.

[citation needed]
1933 Simele massacre c.3,000 Iraq

The first ever massacre conducted by the Iraqi government takes place in the North, targeting Assyrian Christians.

[citation needed]
1934 Ranquil massacre 477 Bío-Bío Region, Chile

A massacre of forestry workers made by the Chilean Army in the upper Bio-Bio River in 1934. The worked had previously rebelled and killed the lumbermill administrators they worked for.

[citation needed]
1936 Badajoz massacre 1,800-4,000 Spain On August 14, after taking Badajoz during the Spanish Civil War, Nationalist troops executed Republican supporters or sympathizers. Many were herded into the town's bull ring for execution. [190]
1936 Jarama Valley massacre over 1,000 Spain

On November 11, during the Siege of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, Republican troops took Nationalist prisoners from Madrid and killed them in the Jarama valley, outside the city.

1937-1938 Great Purge 680,000 to 1.3 million Soviet Union

Stalinist purges aimed at ethnic minorities and perceived dissidents.

1938 Kristallnacht 36 to 200 Germany[193]

The major pre-war anti-Jewish pogrom.

[citation needed]

1939 to 1945 - World War II[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1939 Bromberg Bloody Sunday up to 8,000 Bydgoszcz, Poland

As the revenge for death of up to 350 ethnic Germans killed during military action against Polish army in the Polish Defensive War Germans massacred of c.3,000 Polish civilians.

[citation needed]
1940 Katyn massacre c. 15-20,000 Katyn Forest, Poland

Mass killing by Soviets of Polish prisoners of war.

[citation needed]
1941 Białystok massacre 2,200 Poland

In one of the first massacres of Jews during World War II, the German reserve Police Battalion 309 herds the Jews of Białystok into the city's central synagogue and sets fire to it. Those trying to flee are shot.

[citation needed]
NKVD prisoner massacres 100,000 Poland,Lithuania

Before Red Army left the cities occupied in Poland and Lithuania, all prisoners waiting in the NKVD prisons were killed, including arrested for light charges.

[citation needed]
Jedwabne pogrom 380 to 1600 Poland

Jewish residents of Jedwabne and its environs are marched into the center of the village, where they are beaten and killed by a number of their fellow townsmen. Some sources suggest German police and/or military involvement.

[citation needed]
Wąsosz pogrom 400 to 600 Poland

Jewish residents of Wąsosz (Lomza voivodeship)are systematically killed by the Polish police force formed by the Germans after the German invasion.

[citation needed]
Babi Yar 100,000 Ukraine

In reprisals for acts of sabotage they did not commit, the Jewish population of Kiev is marched in small groups to a ditch at Babi Yar and machine-gunned.

[citation needed]
Ponaren c.100,000 Lithuania

Jewish and Polish citizens of Vilnius are marched to Ponary Woods and shot by Lithuanian police units (the "Ponary Rifles") are under German supervision. 40,000 are killed in 1941 alone.

[citation needed]
Dnipropetrovsk 12,000 Ukraine

Most of the remaining Jews in the city are marched to a ravine and massacred by Einsatzkommando 6.

[citation needed]
Odessa massacre 36,000 Ukraine

Mass shootings of the Jews of Odessa.

[citation needed]
Ninth Fort 9,000 Lithuania

Those Jews of Kaunas unable to work – including women and children – are marched to the Ninth Fort and shot. (Over 40,000 Jews will eventually be killed there.)

[citation needed]
Rumbula forest 25,000 Latvia

Over the course of a week, the Jews of Riga are taken to Rumbula forest and shot.

[citation needed]
Simferopol 10,000 Crimea

Mass shooting of Jews. Thereafter, Jews in the region are transported to extermination camps rather than shot.

[citation needed]
1941-1945 Ustashi Genocide ~600,000 Independent State of Croatia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

Pro-Nazi Ustaša movement conducts a wide-scale planned extermination of Serbs, Jews, Roms and political opponents. Most notably at Jasenovac concentration camp.

[citation needed]
1942 Lidice massacre 435 Lidice, Czechoslovakia

German SS soldiers annihilate the whole village.

[citation needed]
1942 South Baãka massacre 3,809 Serbia

Mass executions of Serb, Jewish and Roma civilians are carried out by Hungarian fascist troops.

[citation needed]
1942-1944 Warsaw Concentration Camp 200,000 Warsaw, Poland

Poles are systematically shot or gassed in provisional gas chambers by German Nazis.

[citation needed]
1943 Changjiao massacre more than 30,000 Hunan

Mass killing of Chinese civilians and mass rape of women.

[citation needed]
1943 Pinsk 16,000 Belarus

Mass executions of Jews.

[citation needed]
1943 Khatyn ca. 300 Belarus

The village of Khatyn was totally burnt with its inhabitants by SS people from Oscar Dierlewanger's group with participation of Schutzmannschaft; later this and the next year tens of other Belarussian villages were annihilated together with their inhabitants.

[citation needed]
1943 Bombing of Hamburg 40,000 Hamburg, Germany

On the night of July 27, shortly before midnight, 739 aircraft attacked Hamburg. The effects of the massive raids using a combination of Blockbuster bombs and incendiaries created firestorms in some cites. The most extreme example was caused by the bombing of Hamburg.

[citation needed]
1944-1945 Chameria issue c.2,000 Chameria[194]

Greek royalist militias battle Pro-German Muslims during the liberation from the Nazi German occupation. Over 25,000 Muslims flee to Albania.

[citation needed]
1944 Ardeatine massacre 335 Italy

As retaliation for an Italian Resistance roadside bomb, S.S. soldier Erich Priebke and his men rounded up and killed 330 innocent civilians, stacking the bodies in the Ardeatine caves. Five men had witnessed the event, so Priebke killed them as well since there were to be no witnesses [195]

[citation needed]
1944 Bačka/Bácska killings c.20,000-34,500 Vojvodina, Serbia

Mass executions of Hungarian civilians by Yugoslav communist partisans.

[citation needed]
February 23, 1945 Bombing of Pforzheim c.17,000 Pforzheim, Germany

One fifth of the population is killed in an air raid that destroys 83% of the town's buildings.

1945 Massacre in Trhová Kamenice 14 Czechoslovakia

German soldiers torture innocent villagers to death at the end of the war.

[citation needed]
1945 Ústí massacre c.80 Czechoslovakia

Czech soldiers lynch ethnic Germans.

[citation needed]
1945 Manila massacre c.100,000 Philippines

Filipino civilians were massacred by Japanese troops.

[citation needed]

State-sponsored genocides[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1994 Rwandan Genocide 937,000 Rwanda

Hutus massacre Tutsis and other Hutus.

[citation needed]
1995 Srebrenica massacre 8,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina

Massacre of male Bosniaks primarily by the Army of Republika Srpska; the largest massacre in Europe since World War II.

[citation needed]
2003 Darfur conflict c.400,000 Sudan

Ongoing massacre and forced displacement of the Fur people of Western Sudan by government-sponsored Janjaweed militia.

[citation needed]

Pogroms and religious massacres[edit]

To be in this section, the primary motive for the massacre must have been ethnic or religious hatred.

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1941 Pro-Nazi pogrom in Baghdad 180 Baghdad, Iraq

Following Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, the Farhud ("violent dispossession") pogrom of June 1 and 2, 1941, broke out in Baghdad. Armed Muslim mobs slaughtered 180 Jews and wounded almost 1,000.

1945 Pogrom in Tripoli 140 Tripoli, Libya

Anti-Jewish riots by Muslims break out in Tripoli.

1946 Kielce pogrom 37 Poland

Jewish residents of Kielce, most of them returning survivors of the Holocaust, are killed by their Polish neighbors, prompting an exodus of the Jewish population from Poland.

[citation needed]
1946 Direct Action Day c.4,000 British India

Riots are perpetrated by the Muslim League against Hindus in Calcutta which spread to other regions and are followed by the Noakhali Massacre.

[citation needed]
1947 British Raj c.1,000,000 Pakistan,India

After the partition of United India and the British withdrawal, about 1 million to 4 million Muslims and Hindus are killed in the aftermath.

[citation needed]
1962 Oran massacre 2,000 to 3,500 Algeria

Arabs lynch European, Jewish and pro-French Algeria Harkis Muslim civilians.

[citation needed]
1964 Zanzibar massacre c.5,000 to 20,000 Zanzibar

The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964 put an end to the local Arab dynasty. As many as 20,000 Arabs were massacred by the descendants of black African slaves.

1969 Kilvenmani massacre c.35 Tamil Nadu, India

Farm laborers and their families are burnt alive by their higher-caste landlords.

[citation needed]
1984 Anti-Sikh riots[202] c.2,733 to 4,000 Delhi, India

Mobs massacre Sikhs following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.

[citation needed]
1985 Ras Burqa massacre 7 Ras Burqa, Egypt

Egyptian policeman machine-gun 12 Israeli tourists, including 9 children.

[citation needed]
1988 Sumgait pogrom at least 32 Sumgait, Azerbaijan

Azerbaijanis launch a three-day pogrom against Armenians in the city of Sumgait. 26 Armenians and 6 Azeris perish.

[citation needed]
1993 Sivas Massacre 35 Sivas, Turkey

35 Alevis were incinerated in Turkey

[citation needed]
1998 May 1998 massacre hundreds maybe thousand of Indonesian born Chinese Jakarta,Surakarta,Medan,Indonesia

Indonesia-born ethnic Chinese killed in riots

1999 Reçak/Račak incident over 39 Kosova/Kosovo

Massacre by Serbian forces

[citation needed]
2001 Yakaolang massacre c.300 Yakaolang, Afghanistan

The Taliban executes civilian members of the Shia Sadat and Hazara clans.

[citation needed]
2002 Kaluchak massacre 31 Jammu, India

31 civilians and military personnel are killed by Islamic terrorists from Pakistan.

[citation needed]
2002 Godhra Train Burning 60 Godhra, Gujarat, India

A Muslim mob burns alive Hindu men, women, and children traveling in the S-6 compartment of a Sabarmati Express train.

[citation needed]
2002 Gujarat violence c.800 to 2,000 Gujarat, India

Sectarian violence occurs following the Godhra Train Burning.

[citation needed]
2004 Yelwa massacre c.630 Nigeria

Muslim nomads are killed by Christians during ongoing violence in Nigeria.

[citation needed]
2004 2004 unrest in Kosovo 19 Kosova/Kosovo

Ethnic Albanians go on a rampage against ethnic Serbs

[citation needed]
2004 Gatumba massacre 152 Burundi

Congolese Tutsis are shot, hacked and burned to death during an attack on a refugee camp by Hutu extremists.

[citation needed]
2005 Muhuta Church massacre 6 Bujumbura, Burundi [citation needed] [citation needed]
2005 Turbi Village massacre c.73 Turbi, Kenya

Gunmen, believed to be Borana, open fire on Gabra children making their way to the village's primary school.

[citation needed]

Massacres during armed conflicts[edit]

Prior to 1939[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1520 Stockholm bloodbath c.100 Stockholm, Sweden

Danish forces invading Sweden under the command of Christian II decapitate around 100 people, mostly nobility and clergy.

[citation needed]
1552 Siege of Kazan 20,000-40,000 Kazan, Khanate of Kazan

Civil population of Kazan was massacred just after the fall of the city.

[citation needed]
1570 Cyprus massacre c.30,000 Cyprus, Republic of Venice

The Turkish forces massacre thousands of Christians (mostly Greeks and Armenians) following the capture of the island.

1580 Siege of Smerwick 600 Smerwick, Ireland

English forces under Elizabeth I behead some 600 Spanish, Italian and Irish men and women during the Desmond Rebellions.

[citation needed]
1631 Sack of Magdeburg 20,000 Magdeburg, Germany

Troops of the Holy Roman Empire besiege then storm Magdeburg during the Thirty Years' War, massacring nearly all its inhabitants.

[citation needed]
1644 Massacre of Aberdeen 118 Aberdeen, Scotland

Royalist troops under Montrose kill civilians after the fall of the city.

[citation needed]
1644 Bolton Massacre 1,500 Bolton, England Number of defenders and citizens killed by Royalist forces of Prince Rupert of the Rhine after town stormed. [citation needed]
1644 Massacre of Argyll 900 Aberdeen, Scotland

Royalist troops under Montrose kill civilians across the area.

[citation needed]
1649 Fall of Drogheda at up to 1,000 Drogheda, Ireland Some of the city's non-combatants are massacred by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army [207]
1651 Sack of Dundee 200-800 Dundee, Scotland

Oliver Cromwell's army under the command of George Monck sack the city.

1678 Burning of Örkened parish 20+ Örkened, Sweden

Charles XI of Sweden orders the parish burnt to ground in order to deal with rebels (snapphane)

[citation needed]
1757 Fort William Henry massacre 70-180 Lake George, New York, USA After surrendering to the French and being promised safe passage to Fort Edward, British and Colonial troops plus civilian camp followers (2000 men, women, and children) are attacked while leaving the fort by France's Indian allies. [citation needed]
1768 Massacre at St. George's Fields 6 St. George's Fields (in Southwark, South London), England

British soldiers clashed with angry supporters of John Wilkes, a popular member of Parliament who had just received a prison sentence for seditious libel. Six Wilkes supporters were killed and fifteen wounded in the carnage.

[citation needed]
1778 Wyoming Valley massacre at least 180 to 227 Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, USA

An encounter between Patriot and Loyalist Americans, after which thirty or more Patriots are massacred by Iroquois mercenaries.

[citation needed]
1794 Praga massacre 10,000 to 20,000 Praga, WarsawPoland Kościuszko Uprising: Russian troops massacre civilians as they loot and burn Praga following their victory in battle. [citation needed]
1798 Gibbet Rath massacre 350 Kildare, Ireland Irish Rebellion of 1798: Rebels surrender but are massacred by British troops. [citation needed]
1832 Bad Axe River c.Unknown Bad Axe River, Wisconsin [US] Illinois militia under the command of General Henry Atkinson attack a Sauk camp at the mouth of Bad Axe River where many Sauk women and children are killed in the fighting. Shortly after, the Winnebago will abandon Black Hawk, forcing him and the Sauk to surrender several weeks later ending the Black Hawk War. [citation needed]
1836 Goliad massacre 342 Goliad, Texas the Mexican army executes Texan prisoners of war. [citation needed]
1842 Massacre of Elphinstone's army 16,000 Afghanistan Massacre of Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilian dependents and camp followers by hostile Afghan tribes. Dr William Brydon was reportedly the sole survivor. [209][210]
1847 San Patricios 50 Chapultepec, Mexico Irish Catholic prisoners of war who fought for the Mexican Army are executed by the United States Army for desertion and treason. [211][212]
1857 Cawnpore c.200 Cawnpore, India During the Sepoy Rebellion the British garrison agrees to a safe passage out of Cawnpore organized by Nana Sahib, but are attacked and killed. The 200 remaining women and children are held in the Bibighar where they are killed on July 15, 1857. [213][214]
1863 Lawrence Massacre c.150 Lawrence, Kansas Confederate raiders under William Quantrill loot and burn the town killing over 150 men and boys. [citation needed]
1864 Fort Pillow c.354 Fort Pillow, Tennessee

Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest assaults Fort Pillow, continuing to fire after a white flag is flown by the Union defenders.

[citation needed]
1869 Battle of Acosta Ñu c. 2000 Paraguay The last major battle of the War of the Triple Alliance. Paraguayan forces had 6,000 soldiers, many of them children. The Allied forces suffered only 26 dead. [citation needed]
1873 Canby massacre c.4 Four of seven Americans as part of a peace delegation led by General E. R. S. Canby, under the pretext of peace negotiations, are killed by Modoc leader Captain Jack during the Modoc War. [citation needed]
1890 Wounded Knee massacre 153–300 Wounded Knee, South Dakota The last confrontation of US troops and the Great Sioux Nation [citation needed]
1901 Samar campaign Samar,Philippines During the Philippine-American War, while the Philippines are a colonial possession of the USA, Filipinos armed with machetes kill all American soldiers from the garrison of the port of Balangiga on the island of Samar (see Balangiga massacre). [citation needed]
August 1914 Massacres under German offensive thousands Belgium Invading German troops systematically massacre defenseless civilians in the towns of Andenne, Tamines, Dinant and Louvain. [215]
1918 March Days 3,000–12,000 Baku, Azerbaijan Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolshevik forces massacre ethnic Azerbaijanis. [citation needed]
1918 September Days c.10,000–20,000 Baku, Azerbaijan Enver Pasha's Army of Islam supported by local Azeri forces recaptures Baku and subsequently massacres ethnic Armenians in retaliation for the March Days. [citation needed]
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War c.50,000-100,000 Spain At least 50,000 persons were executed during the civil war. Atrocities were committed on both sides. [216][217]
February 19-21, 1937 Graziani massacre 3,000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Three day massacre ordered by Guido Cortese, Secretary-General of Fascist Party in occupied Ethiopia, committed by Italian Fascist soldiers against Ethiopian citizens, in response to an attempt on the life of Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani. [218][219]
1937-1938 Nanjing massacre (Rape of Nanking) c.200,000-350,000 China Committed by the Japanese Imperial Army in the aftermath of the Battle of Nanking. Reports indicate that six-weeks of murder, rape and looting follow the seizure of the city by the Japanese Imperial Army. [220][221]

During World War II (1939-1945)[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1939 Wawer 107 Poland 120 men caught in a Łapanka are shot as a reprisal for the death of two German soldiers, 13 of them survive the massacre under the pile of bodies. [citation needed]
1939-1940 Palmiry massacre c.2,000 Poland The Gestapo systematically murders members of the Polish intelligentsia, sportsmen, politicians and common people. [citation needed]
1940 Katyn massacre 25,700 Poland Members of the Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers are massacred by the Soviets. [citation needed]
1940 Treznea massacre c.93 Treznea, N. Transylvania, Hungary The Hungarian army massacres Romanian and Jewish civilians. [citation needed]
1940 Ip massacre c.100 Ip, N. Transylvania, Hungary The Hungarians massacre Romanian civilians in Northern Transylvania. [citation needed]
1941 NKVD prisoner massacres c.100,000 Soviet Union The Soviet NKVD massacres tens of thousands of Polish and Ukrainian political prisoners at the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa. [222]
1941 Fântâna Albă massacre c.200 Soviet Union The Soviets massacre Romanian civilians in Northern Bukovina. [citation needed]
June, 1941 Rainiai massacre 79 Soviet Union Soviet soldiers and members of the NKVD torture to death 78-79 Lithuanian civilians (former public servants, rich people, Boy Scouts, non-communists). [citation needed]
1941 massacre of Lwów professors 45 Lwów, Poland Part of the AB Action, forty-five university professors are executed by an Einsatzkommando unit following the German capture of the city on June 30. [citation needed]
1941 Kragujevac massacre 10,000 Serbia Reprisal killings are committed by German forces after the death of 10 soldiers at the hands of partisans. [citation needed]
1942 Sook Ching massacre c.50,000-100,000 (Singapore only) Malaya & Singapore Japanese troops execute ethnic Chinese Malayans and Singaporeans suspected of being hostile. [citation needed]
1942 Bataan Death March 5,650 Philippines American and Philippine POWs are marched to prison camps and killed if they fall behind. [citation needed]
1942 Lidice 340 Lidice, Czechoslovakia After Czech agents assassinate Nazi Protector of Bohemia-Morovia Reinhard Heydrich, German SS execute the men of the Czech village Lidice. The remaining women and children are sent to concentration camps and the village is destroyed. [citation needed]
1942-45 Sandakan POW/Labour Camp 6,000 North Borneo Indonesian romusha (forced labourers), as well as Australian and British POWs are forced to construct an airfield at Sandakan. All of the Indonesians are dead by 1945. In addition to deprivation and physical abuse, including summary executions, the surviving POWs are forced to March 260 kilometres (160 miles) to another camp. Only six of those sent on these marches survive the war. [citation needed]
1943 Khatyn massacre 100+ Belarus The entire village in Belarus is burnt with all its inhabitants by the German Nazis and their Ukrainian collaborators; one of hundreds of Belarusian, Ukrainian and Russian villages to share a similar fate. [223]
1943 massacres of Poles in Volhynia c.100,000 Ukraine By Ukrainian nationalists [citation needed]
1943 Canicatti Slaughter 12 Sicily US Troops kill unarmed civilians at a soap factory. [citation needed]
1943 Biscari massacre 76 Sicily US Troops massacre German and Italian POWs. [citation needed]
1943 Foiba massacre 5,000-10,000 Istria and Dalmatia in Italy Communist troops under Tito's command purge Italian fascists and collaborators until 1947. [citation needed]
1943 Kalavryta massacre 696 Greece The male residents of the town are slaughtered by German troops in revenge for partisan activities. [citation needed]
1944 Manila massacre 100,000 Philippines Retreating Japanese troops slaughter at least 100,000 Filipino civilians. Manila is razed, making it the 2nd most devastated city in World War II after Warsaw. [citation needed]
1944 Koniuchy massacre 38-300 Poland The civilians of Koniuchy are murdered by 120-150 members of Soviet partisan groups. [citation needed]
1944 Ascq massacre c.86 France After two railway cars are derailed, presumably by the French Underground, soldiers of the 12th SS Panzer Division under the command of SS Obersturmführer Walter Hauck murder 86 men in the surrounding area of the Ascq railway station. [citation needed]
1944 Kakolyri (of Kyme) massacre 30 Greece 24 male residents of the village are slaughtered by German troops, who suspect them of helping partisan activities. The partisans previously killed one soldier who was guarding a bridge. 6 male residents of the nearby villages are slaughtered too. [citation needed]
1944 Abbey Ardennes c. 11-20 France Canadian POWs who were captured during the battle are marched out into a garden and interrogated before being shot by members of the 12th SS Panzer Division. [citation needed]
1944 Tulle Murders c. 99 France In response to French Underground activities the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division, upon finding the mutilated remains of 64 German soldiers of the 95th Security Regiment garrison, hangs 99 men and the remaining population of Tulle is sent to labor camps in Germany. Of the 149 townspeople only 48 survive the war. [224]
June 10, 1944 Oradour-sur-Glane massacre 642 France Responding to recent French Resistance activity (e.g. Tulle Murders) in which German soldiers were killed, 120 SS soldiers of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division, commanded by SS Sturmbannführer Adolf Diekmann, execute 642 civilians mostly women and children refuged in the church in the town of Oradour-sur-Glane. [citation needed]
1944 Distomo massacre est. 228-600 Greece More than 200 residents of the village of Distomo are massacred by the Germans. The exact number of the victims remains unknown. [citation needed]
1944 San Polo di Arezzo massacre 48 Italy In reprisal for Italian partisan attacks, German soldiers beat and torture the men of San Polo, before burying them alive with 3 captured partisans and explosives. [citation needed]
1944 Wola massacre up to 50,000 Warsaw, Poland German troops systematically slaughter most of the civilians in the borough of Wola during the early stage of the Warsaw Uprising. [citation needed]
1944 Meligala massacre 1,500 Greece ELAS communist fighters attack the village of Meligalas and massacre 1,500 men, women and children. Their bodies are thrown into a large well, known as the "Pigada of Meligala". Many of the victims were collaborators with the Germans (see Greek Civil War). [citation needed]
1944 Putten atrocity 39 Netherlands General Heinz Helmuth von Wuhlisch orders the execution of 39 Dutch civilians and the village burned after an attack by the Dutch resistance results in the capture of a German soldier despite the later release of the hostage. The remaining men in the village are sent to labor camps and out of 589 only 49 survive at the end of the war. [citation needed]
1944 Amsterdam reprisal 29 Netherlands 29 Dutch civilians are executed and several buildings are set on fire after the assassination of S.D. officer Herbert Oelschagel by the Dutch resistance the previous day. [citation needed]
1944 Malmedy massacre 72-84 Belgium Executions of surrendered American POWs during the Battle of the Ardennes. [citation needed]
1944 Marzabotto massacre 728-1,800 Italy In reprisal of the local support given to the partisans and the resistance movement, as many as 1,800 Italian civilians were massacred by the SS forces. [225]
1945 Chenogne massacre 60 Belgium In reprisal for the Malmedy massacre, sixty German soldiers are executed by a unit of the U.S. 11th Armored Division outside the town of Chenogne. [citation needed]
1945 Pliberk/Bleiburg massacre and similar events 55,000-100,000 Carinthia(Austria) and Slovenia Yugoslav partisans retaliate against Ustashe, Domobrani, soldiers who collaborated with the Nazi occupant, as well as many civilians. [226]
May 3, 1945 SS Cap Arcona sinking 7,000-8,000 Germany British RAF aircraft sink the SS Cap Arcona, Deutschland, and Thielbek, which were carrying POWs from the Neuengamme concentration camp. Hawker Typhoons, then Nazis kill survivors as they attempt to make it ashore. [227]
1945 Setif massacre 150 pied-noirs
1,500–45,000 Algerians
Algeria Immediately following the end of WW2 hostilities in Europe, Algerians demonstrating for independance are massacred by colonial government troops. [citation needed]
1945 Sado atrocity 387 Sado, Japan Japanese soldiers under Lieutenant Yoshiro Tsuda set off an explosion in a nearby gold mine, killing the 387 British, American, Australian and Dutch prisoners of war who had been working in the mine since 1942. [citation needed]
1945 Treuenbrietzen c.1000 Germany Red army soldiers execute German civilians. [citation needed]

After 1945[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1947 228 Incident 10,000-30,000 Taiwan Kuomintang government (Chinese) troops massacre Taiwanese civilians after an uprising. [citation needed]
1948 Deir Yassin massacre 107 Mandate for Palestine 107 Arab civilians are killed by Irgun and Lehi. [citation needed]
1948 Hadassah medical convoy massacre c.77 Mandate for Palestine Medical convoy is attacked by Arab irregulars. Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students are killed by machine gun fire and burning. [citation needed]
1950 Capture of Seoul c.100,000 Korea Civilians are executed after the communist capture of Seoul. [citation needed]
1968 My Lai massacre 347–504 South Vietnam USA soldiers executed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children. [citation needed]
1971 1971 East Pakistan Intellectuals massacre c.100 East Pakistan Pakistan Army and local collaborators kill a large number of doctors, engineers, educators, journalists, and other intellectuals during the flag end of the Bangladesh War of 1971. [citation needed]
January 18, 1976 Karantina massacre c.1,000 Karantina, Lebanon Lebanese Christian Militia massacres Kurds and Armenians, as well as some Lebanese and Palestinians in Karantina a district in Beirut Lebanon during the 1975-1990 Lebanese Civil War. [citation needed]
1976 Damour massacre c.330 Damour, Lebanon Palestinian militants massacre the population of the Christian town of Damour. [citation needed]
1982 Plan de Sánchez massacre c. 250 Plan de Sánchez, Guatemala Government army troops and militias raid Mayan indigenous village, rape women, raze village, and murder unarmed residents, mostly women and children during Guatemalan civil war. [citation needed]
1982 Sabra and Shatila massacre 800–3,000 Beirut, Lebanon Lebanese Christian Militia massacres Palestinian Refugees following Israeli invasion of Beirut. [citation needed]
1985 Massacre near Kandahar, Soviet war in Afghanistan c. 350 Afghanistan In three villages near Kandahar, the Soviets killed women and children in retaliation for a rebel attack in the vicinity. [228]
1991 Lovas massacre 51 Lovas, Croatia Serb paramilitaries kill civilians. [citation needed]
1991 Gospić massacre c. 100 Gospić, Croatia Croat paramilitaries kill civilians. [citation needed]
1991 Vukovar massacre c. 260 Vukovar, Croatia Yugoslav army and Serb paramilitaries massacre POWs and wounded civilians. [citation needed]
1991 Škabrnja massacre 86 Škabrnja, Croatia Serb paramilitaries kill civilians and POWs. [citation needed]
1991 Voćin massacre 32-45 Voćin, Croatia "White Eagles" a Serb paramilitary group massacres civilians. [citation needed]
1992 Khojaly massacre 613 Khojali, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Armenian irregulars massacre Azerbaijani civilians. [citation needed]
1992 Maraghar massacre 145 Maraghar, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Azerbaijani forces massacre Armenian civilians. [citation needed]
1992 Višegrad massacre 3,000 Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Serb army takes over the town and massacres many. [citation needed]
1993 Sukhumi massacre 1,200 Abkhazia, Georgia Abkhaz separatists and their allies commit wide spread atrocities and massacres of Georgian civilians in Sukhumi. The massacre of civilians in Sukhumi lasted one week. [citation needed]
1994 First Markale massacre 68 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Serb army shells a crowded civilian marketplace in downtown Sarajevo [citation needed]
1995 Second Markale massacre 37 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Serb army shells a crowded civilian marketplace in downtown Sarajevo. [citation needed]
1999 Bombing of Serbia 1,500 Serbia US Air Force massacres over 500 Serb civilians in a 3 month bombing campaign. [229]
2001 Dasht-i-Leili massacre 250–3,000 Afghanistan Taliban prisoners are shot and/or suffocated to death in metal truck containers while being transferred between prisons by Northern Alliance soldiers during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. [citation needed]
2004 Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre 42 Iraq U.S. forces attack the village of Mukaradeeb and massacre 42 people at a wedding party. [230]
2007 al Ahamir massacre 10 - 14 Iraq Alleged members of al-Qaeda shoot and kill between 10 and 14 Iraqi non-combatants. [citation needed]
2007 3 February Baghdad market bombing 135 Iraq A suicide attack kills at least 135 people and injures 339 others in a busy market in Baghdad. [231]
2007 Al Hillah bombings 120 Iraq Two alleged Sunni insurgents wearing explosive vests blow themselves up in a large crowd of Shiite pilgrims in Al Hillah. [232]
2007 18 April Baghdad bombings 198 Iraq The attacks target mainly Shia locations and civilians. [233]
2007 Amirli bombing 156 Iraq A truck bomb strikes Amirli on a busy Saturday shopping morning. [234]
2007 Qahtaniya bombings 572 Iraq Truck bombs target Yazidi religious minority. [235][236]

Aerial bombardments[edit]

There is considerable dispute over whether bombing of civilian targets during wartime is appropriately called a massacre.
Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1941 Bombing of Belgrade in World War II 17,000 Yugoslavia The Germans bomb Belgrade, killing 17,000 people. Belgrade is bombed again in 1944, this time by the Allies. [citation needed]
1945 Bombing of Dresden 35,000-300,000 Dresden, Germany

The bombing of Dresden was led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15. Overall, Anglo-American bombing of German cities claimed up to 600,000 civilian lives.

1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 220,000-500,000 Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki follow six months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities. On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" is dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are the only officially acknowledged uses of nuclear weapons in warfare.

August 14, 1945 Japanese post-surrender bombing Thousands Honshu, Japan After the Japanese government surrenders, Henry H. Arnold organizes a final bombing of Japan, dropping six thousand tons of conventional explosives from 1,014 planes onto civilian targets. Leaflets are dropped with the bombs, announcing Japan’s surrender. [240]

State-sponsored or state-condoned massacres during peacetime[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1570 Massacre of Novgorod 2,500 - 12,000 Novgorod, Russia Ivan the Terrible slaughters the population of Novgorod. [citation needed]
1692 Massacre of Glencoe 78 Scotland

The order is signed by King William III

[citation needed]
1770 Boston massacre 5 British colony, now US state of Massachusetts Pre- American Revolution, British soldiers open fire upon a hostile crowd. The soldiers are later acquitted by an all American colonist jury. [citation needed]
1846 Kot massacre 85-90 Kathmandu, Nepal Queen's secret lover is murdered. She orders Jung Bahadur Rana for the investigation who kills every top nobleman and ultimately seizes the absolute power of Nepal establishing Rana autocracy. [citation needed]
1848 Massacre in Běchovice min.100 Běchovice, Bohemia Austrian army massacred unarmed civilians [citation needed]
1905 Bloody Sunday 100-1000 Saint Petersburg, Russia Tsarist soldiers fire on unarmed demonstrators in front of the Winter Palace. [citation needed]
August 16, 1819 Peterloo massacre 11 Manchester, England Cavalry attack civil rights protestors and 11 are killed, 500 are injured (including women and children) [citation needed]
1909 Adana massacre >2,000 Adana, Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid loyalists massacre Armenians. [citation needed]
1918 Romanov Massacre c.10 Yekaterinburg, Russia Bolshevik execution of Nicholas II and the Russian royal household. [citation needed]
1919 Amritsar massacre c.>379 India British troops led by Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fires 1650 rounds of ammunition into a crowd of 20,000 people gathered in a garden with its sole exit blocked to prevent people from escaping. [citation needed]
1921 Tulsa Race Riot 39-300 Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA White mobs invade and burn the segregated black Greenwood district, 1,256 homes. The governor declares martial law, black citizens are rounded up by the National Guard and put into internment camps. [citation needed]
1922 18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt 8 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil The first event of the tenentist revolt. At the end, ten men, one of them a civilian, marched to the encounter of the loyalist troops, and were massacred. [citation needed]
1930 Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre c.200 Peshawar British troops fire on hundreds of non-violent protesters in Peshawar. [citation needed]
1932 MMDC 5 São Paulo, Brazil Five students in a protest died in result of a clash with Getúlio Vargas' federal troops, triggering the Constitutionalist Revolution. The last of them died only a few months after being wounded. [citation needed]
1932 Bonus March 4-5 Washington, D.C., United States Federal cavalry troops with rifles and tear gas evict World War I veterans and their families in protest camps around Washington. Hundreds of veterans are injured, several are killed. [citation needed]
1937 Purge of the Red Army 30,000 Soviet Union With 50% of all army officers executed on Stalin's order, including 3 of 5 marshals, 13 of 15 army commanders and 8 of 9 admirals, the result was that the Red Army officer corps in 1941 had many inexperienced senior officers. [241][242]
1937 Parsley Massacre 17,00 - 35,000 Dominican Republic Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo ordered the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands with Haiti. [citation needed]
1937-1941 Kurapaty 30,000-200,000 Soviet Union During the Stalinist period in the Soviet Union, it was one of the sites where the NKVD had buried thousands of executed. [243]
1939 Mass executions after the Spanish Civil War Tens of thousands Spain Franco's victory was followed by thousands of summary executions. [244][245]
1948 Babrra massacre c.100 Charsadda district of Pakistan Unarmed workers of the Khudai Khidmatgar movements were fired upon by the provincial government of North-West Frontier province on the orders of the then Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan [citation needed]
1948 Jeju massacre 30,000 Korea South Korean troops execute people in Jeju after the communist uprising has been crushed [citation needed]
1949-1953 Annihilation of "class enemies" 700,000[246]-5,000,000[247] People’s Republic of China Mao’s first political campaigns of mass repression targeted former officials, businessmen, former employees of Western companies, intellectuals, and significant numbers of rural gentry. There was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution". [248]
1950 Taejon massacre 7,000 Korea South Korean troops execute North Korean POWs [citation needed]
1953 Qibya massacre c.60 West Bank Israeli soldiers raid Palestinian village, killing at least 60 civilians. [citation needed]
1954 Kengir massacre 700 Soviet Union Forty days of Gulag prisoner resistance ending in a bloody massacre of prisoners by Soviet forces. [citation needed]
1955 6 - 7 September massacres > 28 killed, 30 injured, 300 raped Istanbul, Turkey Killing of members of the Greek community by Turkish civilians during riots against Christianity. [citation needed]
1954-1962 Algerian massacre >500,000 Algeria Killing of Algerian civilians by French Army and the FLN during the Algerian War of Independence. [citation needed]
1956 Kafr Qasim massacre 48 + 1 unborn child Israel Israeli Border Police kill 48 people including a 9-month pregnant woman in the Arab village of Kafr Qasim. [citation needed]
1959 Suppression of the Lhasa Uprising 87,000[249] Tibet The Chinese PLA massacres thousands of Tibetans in the Lhasa region during the rebellion against Chinese rule. [citation needed]
1960 Sharpeville massacre 69 South Africa Police open fire on a crowd of black protesters, 69 people killed and more than 180 injured. [citation needed]
1961 Paris massacre of 1961 32-200[250] Paris, France Killing of Algerian demonstrators [citation needed]
1962 Massacre of Harkis 50,000-150,000 Algeria Algerians who remained loyal to France and their families were massacred by the National Liberation Front (Algeria) and by lynch mobs. [251][252]
1962 Novocherkassk massacre 24 killed, 39 injured Novocherkassk, Soviet Union police open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation [citation needed]
1962 Palma Sola massacre "thousands"[253] Dominican Republic The Dominican military destroys the town of Palma Sola, the base of the (mostly Afro-Dominican) political and religious dissident movement known as the Liboristas [citation needed]
1965-1966 September 30th massacre and aftermath 500,000-1 million Indonesia The Suharto regime massacres ethnic Chinese communists and dissidents in rural areas [254]
1968 Orangeburg massacre 3 South Carolina State University, USA Local police officers fire into a crowd of violent protestors, killing 3 men [citation needed]
1968 Tlatelolco massacre 200–300 Tlatelolco, Mexico Troops open fire on student demonstrators. [citation needed]
1968-1979 Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong 80,000 Equatorial Guinea Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 have been killed. Nguema acted as chief judge who sentenced thousands to death. [255][256] [257]
1970 Kent State massacre 4 killed, 9 wounded Kent State University, Ohio, USA 29 members of the Ohio National Guard open fire on unarmed students protesting against the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom is permanently paralyzed. [258][259][260]
1971 Massacre of Bangladesh c.250,000-3,000,000[261] Bangladesh Starting with Operation Searchlight in March, the Pakistani Army kills c.250,000-3,000,000 Bangladeshis [citation needed]
1971 Corpus Christi massacre c.25 Mexico City, Mexico Special forces open fire on student demonstrators. [citation needed]
1971-1979 Idi Amin Dada 300,000[262]-500,000[263] Uganda The Idi Amin regime massacres other ethnic groups, religious leaders, journalists, senior bureaucrats, judges, lawyers, students and intellectuals [264]
1972 Bloody Sunday 14 Derry, Northern Ireland Shooting of 28 unarmed Irish Catholic Civilians, 14 of whom die, by a Paratroop Regiment of the British Army following a protest march at the introduction of internment without trial. [citation needed]
1973 Caravan of Death 71 to 97 Chile A death squad flew though the country shortly after the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, aiming potential political opponents. [citation needed]
1973 Ezeiza massacre at least 13 Argentina Snipers fired at a large crowd gathered near the airport at Perón's return from exile. [citation needed]
1974-1991 Marxist regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam 150,000[265]-500,000[266] Ethiopia During Mengistu's rule it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts each morning. Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Mengistu's so-called red terror. [267][268]
1975 Operation Colombo 119 Chile Disappearance of political dissidents undertaken by the Chilean secret Police during the dictatorship. [citation needed]
1975-1979 Cambodia under Pol Pot 2,000,000 Cambodia 2 million Cambodians were killed, political executions, starvation, and forced labor, about 25% to 30% of the entire population. [citation needed]
1975-1983 Operation Condor c. 50,000 Southern South America Murders that followed kidnappings and tortures of dissident citizens, journalists and professors by the military governments in South America. The number of deaths include c. 30,000 in Argentina's Dirty War). [citation needed]
1980 Gwangju massacre 191–250–2000 Gwangju, South Korea Government troops attack protesting students and civilians in Gwangju. [citation needed]
1981 Tula massacre 13 Atotonilco de Tula, Mexico

13 people are tortured and killed by order of Arturo Durazo Moreno

[citation needed]
1981 El Mozote massacre c.900 El Mozote, El Salvador Government troops torture and kill the residents of El Mozote. [citation needed]
1982 Hama massacre 5000-20,000 Syria Government troops attack the rebel town of Hama, poison gas is used in some areas. [citation needed]
1983 Black July 1,000-3,000 Sri Lanka Government soldiers along with Sinhalese mobs massacred Tamil civilians. [citation needed]
1983, 1989 The Gukurahundi c.25,000 Zimbabwe Genocide, and suppression of dissident tribal areas by Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwean Fifth Brigade. [citation needed]
1986-89 Al-Anfal Campaign 50,000-100,000 Iraq Ethnic cleansing of Kurds by Saddam Hussein. [citation needed]
1988 Halabja poison gas attack 3,000-5,000 Iraq Gas attack on the Kurdish town by Saddam Hussein. [citation needed]
1988 1988 Massacre of Iranian Prisoners 5,000 + Iran Political prisoners are gathered in special prison quarters. They are then retried on orders from Ayatollah Khomeini by three member judging committees. Between 5000 to 30000 are murdered and buried in secret places. [citation needed]
1988 8888 Uprising 3,000 + Burma Burmese citizens took to the streets and demanded democracy after 26 years of military dictatorship and economic mismanagement. The army cracked down the protests and killed at least three thousand people. [citation needed]
1989 April 9 tragedy c.20 Soviet Union Soviet military troops attack Georgian demonstrators in Tbilisi, Georgia [citation needed]
1989 Tiananmen massacre up to 2,600 Beijing, China Chinese PLA troops open fire on students and civilians gathered in Beijing. [citation needed]
1990 Black January 133 Soviet Union Soviet military troops attack Azeri protesters, passers-by and emergency squad members in Baku, Azerbaijan [citation needed]
1991 Vilnius massacre 13 Vilnius, Lithuania Soviet military troops attacked Lithuanian independence supporters. [citation needed]
1991 Medininkai massacre 7 Medininkai, Lithuania Soviet military troops attacked Lithuanian customs building. [citation needed]
1991 Dili massacre 271 Dili, East Timor Timorese protesting Indonesian rule are killed by Indonesian soldiers. [citation needed]
1991 Barrios Altos massacre 15 Lima, Peru A mistaken attack by the death squad Grupo Colina, originally aimed at a Shining Path meeting. [citation needed]
1992 La Cantuta massacre 10 Lima, Peru Nine students and a teacher from La Cantuta University, were abducted by a death squad two days after a bombing by Sendero Luminoso. [citation needed]
1992 Carandiru massacre 111 São Paulo, Brazil Prison rebellion. [citation needed]
1993 Candelária massacre 8 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Police retaliate against street children at an orphanage, leading to worldwide criticism. [citation needed]
1993 Vigário Geral massacre 21 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Police death squad retaliate the death of 4 officers at a favela. [citation needed]
1994 13 de Marzo 41 Cuba Refugees drown after a confrontation with the Cuban Navy. [citation needed]
1995 Aguas Blancas massacre 17 Guerrero, Mexico Motorized Police kill protesters who demand some rights and the release of a prisoner. [citation needed]
1996 Eldorado dos Carajás massacre 19 Pará, Brazil Police killed landless peasents in a demonstration. [citation needed]
1997 Japanese embassy hostage crisis 17 Lima, Peru After 126 of seizure by the MRTA, government troops invaded the embassy building. One hostage, two commandos and all 14 MRTA members die, some of them executed. [citation needed]
1997 Acteal massacre 45 Chiapas, Mexico Allegedly government-linked paramilitaries attack a prayer meeting professing support for the goals of the EZLN rebels. [citation needed]
1997 Naharaim Peace Island massacre 7 Naharim, Israel A Jordanian soldier of Palestinian origin, shoots and kills 7 girls on a school trip on Jordanian Peace Island. King Hussein comes to Bet Shemesh to ask for forgiveness. [citation needed]
1999 Liquica Church massacre Over 200 East Timor Pro-Indonesian Militia group attacks East Timorese civilians at the Liquica Roman Catholic Church. Using machetes and automatic rifles, over 200 are killed. [citation needed]
1999 Reçak/Račak massacre 45 Kosova/Kosovo A Serbian Special Forces (JSO) attacks the village and kills 45 KLA rebels and civilians. [citation needed]
2002 Itaba massacre 173 to 267 Itaba, Burundi The Burundian Army massacres between 173 and 267 Hutu villagers in reprisal for rebel attacks. [citation needed]
2005 Andijan massacre 200 - 1000 Andijan,Uzbekistan Uzbek Interior Ministry troops fire into a crowd of protesters in May 2005. [citation needed]
2007 2007 Burmese anti-government protests;Saffron Revolution 100 + Burma Buddhist monks took to the streets demonstrating against mistreatment of monks by military authorities. Thousands of civilians joined in. Military troops and riot police killed hundreds of people; Thousands were imprisoned. [citation needed]

Politically motivated non-governmental massacres[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1856 Pottawatomie massacre 5 Franklin County, Kansas, United States Radical abolitionist John Brown murders pro-slavery men with swords in "Bleeding Kansas" [citation needed]
1872 Going Snake massacre 22 Oklahoma Territory, United States Ten US Marshals are ambushed by over thirty Cherokee men during their attempt to arrest a murder suspect. Eight of the Marshals are killed. Fourteen Cherokee men are also killed. [citation needed]
1873 Colfax massacre 100+ Colfax, Louisiana, United States A group of white members of "The White League", a KKK-like organization, attack members of Louisiana's almost all-black post-Civil War militia, initially over an election dispute, culminating in the massacre of over 100 black men, at least half of whom had already surrendered and were murdered in cold blood. [269]
1927 Bath School disaster 45 Bath Township, Michigan, United States Andrew Kehoe sets off three bombs, including two at the Bath Consolidated School, due to anger over property taxes. 38 of the dead were students. [citation needed]
1929 1929 Hebron massacre 67 Hebron, then part of the British Mandate of Palestine Arabs kill 67 Jews in Hebron. [citation needed]
1929 1929 Safed massacre 18 Safed, then part of the British Mandate of Palestine Arabs kill 18 Jews in Safed. [citation needed]
March 17, 1954 Ma'ale Akrabim massacre 11 Ma'ale Akrabim, Israel Palestinians from Jordan ambush a bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv, shooting the driver and all aboard. [citation needed]
1963 16th Street Baptist Church bombing 4 16th Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, United States Ku Klux Klan members Bobby Frank Cherry and Robert Edward Chambliss plant dynamite in the basement of the church. [citation needed]
1972 Lod Airport massacre 26 Ben-Gurion Airport, Israel Japanese terrorists open fire on civilians in the Ben-Gurion Airport near Lod, Israel. 26 are killed and 78 more are injured. [citation needed]
1972 Bloody Friday 9 Belfast, Northern Ireland Explosion of 22 bombs in 90 minutes by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in and around central Belfast. The bombings kill seven civilians, two British soldiers and injure 130 other people. [citation needed]
1972 Munich massacre 17 Munich, Germany At the Olympic Games, eight Palestinian terrorists kidnap eleven Israeli athletes. After a stand-off at an airstrip, the terrorists kill the hostages and a counter-terrorist police officer before five of the terrorists are shot dead, and three others captured. [citation needed]
1972 Claudy bombing 9 Claudy, Northern Ireland Detonation of three car bombs in Claudy village. The Provisional Irish Republican Army and a local Catholic priest are implicated in the attack. [citation needed]
1974 Kiryat Shmona massacre 18 Kiryat Shmona, Israel Palestinian terrorists kill Israeli residents in Kiryat Shmona. [citation needed]
1974 Ma'alot massacre 21 Ma'alot, Israel Palestinian terrorists kill 21 elementary school students in Ma'alot. [citation needed]
1974 Dublin and Monaghan bombings 33 Dublin and Monaghan, Ireland. Three bombs planted in the Republic of Ireland by the Ulster Volunteer Force. Worst number of casualties in any single day of The Troubles. [citation needed]
1974 Birmingham Pub bombings 21 Birmingham, England The Provisional IRA explodes two bombs in busy public houses killing 21 civilians, more than half of whom were under the age of 25. Until the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988, this is Britain's worst act of mass murder. [citation needed]
1976 6 October massacre 46 Bangkok, Thailand University Students from Bangkok demonstrate against the return to Thailand of ousted prime minister, Thanom Kittikachorn. [citation needed]
1977 Atocha massacre 5 Madrid, Spain Far-right activists kill 5 left-wing lawyers during the Spanish transition to democracy. [citation needed]
1978 La Mon restaurant bombing 12 Outside Belfast, Northern Ireland Provisional Irish Republican Army firebomb attack at a Belfast hotel. [citation needed]
1979 Greensboro massacre 5 Greensboro, North Carolina, United States Ku Klux Klansmen and American Nazis open fire on an anti-Klan demonstration. [citation needed]
1986 Plaza de la República Dominicana massacre 12 Madrid, Spain Iñaki de Juana Chaos, an ETA terrorist, sets up a car bomb in the Dominican Republic Square, killing 12 people and injuring 45. [citation needed]
1987 Remembrance Day massacre 11 Enniskillen, Northern Ireland The Provisional IRA explodes a bomb targeted at a civilian war commemoration ceremony in the centre of Enniskillen, Northern Ireland. [citation needed]
1988 The Strijdom Square massacre 8 Pretoria, South Africa 8 people are shot and killed (16 are wounded) by right wing extremist Barend Strydom. [citation needed]
1992 Tarata bombing 40 Lima, Peru Car bomb attack by Sendero Luminoso, triggering the La Cantuta massacre. [citation needed]
1992 Boipatong massacre 46 Boipatong, South Africa Zulu hostel dwellers go on rampage through township. [citation needed]
1993 St James Church massacre 11 Cape Town, South Africa Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) kills 11 and wounds 58 people in church during Sunday church service. [citation needed]
1993 Shankill Road bombing 9 Belfast, Northern Ireland The Provisional IRA kills eight civilians and one of its own by exploding a bomb in a fish shop on the Shankill Road. [citation needed]
1993 Greysteel massacre 8 Greysteel, Northern Ireland Ulster Freedom Fighters slaughter both Catholics and Protestants in an attack on a pub. [citation needed]
1994 Second Hebron massacre 29 Hebron, West Bank Israeli extremist Baruch Goldstein opens fire on a group of Palestinian Muslims praying at the Cave of the Patriarchs site. [citation needed]
1994 Shell House massacre 3 - 19 Johannesburg, South Africa ANC security guards open fire on IFP supporters approaching the ANC headquarters. [citation needed]
1995 Oklahoma City bombing 168 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States Anti-government extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols destroy the 9-story Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building with a truck bomb, killing 168 and injuring 800. [citation needed]
1995 Atiak massacre 170 – 220 Gulu District, Uganda Civilians are killed by the Lord's Resistance Army. [citation needed]
1996 Acholpii massacre c.100 Pader District, Uganda Sudanese refugees in a refugee settlement are killed by the Lord's Resistance Army . [citation needed]
1997 Lokung/Palabek massacre c.412 Kitgum District, Uganda Civilians are bludgeoned or hacked to death by the Lord's Resistance Army. [citation needed]
1997 Thalit massacre 52 Thalit, Algeria 52 out of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit were killed on April 3-4, having their throats slit by armed guerrillas who burned their houses afterwards. Smaller-scale massacres took place the same day at Amroussa, Sidi Naamane, Moretti, and Beni Slimane, killing another 30-odd people. The attack was blamed on Islamist guerrillas such as the Armed Islamic Group(GIA). [citation needed]
1997 Haouch Khemisti massacre 93 Haouch Mokhfi Khemisti, Algeria 93 villagers are killed in 3 hours on April 22, followed the next day by the Omaria massacre near Medea. [citation needed]
1997 Dairat Labguer massacre c.50 Dairat Labguer, Algeria About 50 people are killed on June 16 by some 30 guerrillas, who also kidnap women, kill the livestock, and steal jewels. Five days earlier, another 17 had been killed at a village some 5 km away. The massacre was attributed to Islamist groups such as the GIA. [citation needed]
1997 Souhane massacres 64 Souhane, Algeria 64 people are killed, and 15 women kidnapped on August 20-21; the resulting terror provoked a mass exodus, bringing the town's population down from 4000 before the massacre to just 103 in 2002. Smaller-scale massacres later take place on November 27, 1997 (18 men, 3 women, 4 children killed) and 2 March 2000, when some 10 people from a single household were killed by guerrillas. The massacres were blamed on Islamist groups such as the GIA. [citation needed]
1997 Rais massacre c.200 Rais, Algeria [citation needed]
1997 Bentalha massacre >200 Bentalha, Algeria On September 22-23, 1997, more than 200 villagers (according to Amnesty International) are killed by armed guerrillas. The number of deaths reported ranged from 85 (initial official estimate) to 400 (The Economist). [citation needed]
1997 Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 30 December 1997 412 4 villages near Souk El Had, Algeria [citation needed]
1997 Mapiripán Massacre Unknown Mapiripán, Colombia AUC kill an unknown number of civilians with chainsaws, machetes and gunfire, throwing the bodies into the Guaviare River [citation needed]
1998 Wandhama massacre 24 Wandhama, India 24 Kashmiri Pandits are brutally murdered by Pakistani militants . [citation needed]
1998 Sidi Hamed massacre 103 Sidi Hamed, Algeria [citation needed]
1998 Omagh bombing 29 Omagh, Northern Ireland Car bomb attack carried out by Irish republicans opposed to the Northern Ireland Peace Process. This is the biggest massacre in any single incident in Northern Ireland related to The Troubles. [270][271][272]
1998 Tadjena massacre 42 Algeria [citation needed]
2001 Sbarro restaurant massacre 15 Jerusalem, Israel Suicide bombing committed by a Palestinian terrorist in a crowded restaurant in Jerusalem, Israel. [citation needed]
2001 September 11, 2001 attacks 2,973 New York, Virginia, Pennsylvania (United States) Al-Qaeda hijacks 4 U.S. commercial airliners for use in a suicide bombing attack on major American targets. Two planes strike the twin towers at the World Trade Center in New York, causing the majority of the deaths; one hits the Pentagon; another plane is downed in a Pennsylvania field by its hijackers when passengers rush the cockpit. [citation needed]
2002 Bojayá massacre 119 Bojayá, Colombia FARC guerrillas launch an explosive into a church that is sheltering civilians, killing 119 and wounding 98. [citation needed]
2002 Passover massacre 30 Netanya, Israel An Arab suicide bomber kills civilians. [citation needed]
2002 2002 Bali Bombing 202 Bali,Indonesia The 2002 Bali Bombing occurs in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring a further 209. [citation needed]
2003 Jerusalem bus 2 massacre 23 Jerusalem, Israel Suicide bombing committed by a Palestinian terrorist in a crowded bus in Jerusalem, Israel. [citation needed]
2003 Maxim restaurant massacre 21 Haifa, Israel [citation needed]
2004 Barlonyo massacre >200 Barlonyo, Lira District, Uganda Civilians at an IDP camp are murdered by the Lord's Resistance Army. [citation needed]
2004 Ashoura massacre c.170 Karbala, Baghdad, Iraq [citation needed]
2004 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings 191 Madrid, Spain Islamic terrorists plant several bombs aboard four commuter trains in Madrid. [citation needed]
2004 Beslan school massacre 344 Beslan, Russia Muslim Chechen separatists kill 344 children and parents after a three-day standoff with Russian police. [citation needed]
2005 2005 Bali Bombings 23 Bali, Indonesia Al-Qaeda linked groups explode several bombs at two sites in Jimbaran and Kuta, both in south Bali. Twenty-three people are killed, including three bombers. [citation needed]
2005 7 July 2005 London bombings 55 London, United Kingdom Four Islamic suicide bombers strike London's public transportation system during the morning rush hour. [citation needed]
2006 Hay al Jihad massacre 40 Baghdad, Iraq Shia militants execute Sunni civilians. [citation needed]

Labour conflicts[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1854 Eureka Stockade 28 Ballarat, Victoria Uprising by miners against repression and taxes is put down by soldiers. [citation needed]
1885 Rock Springs massacre 28 Rock Springs, Wyoming Racially and economically motivated attack by white coal miners on Chinese miners. [citation needed]
1886 Haymarket Riot 12 Chicago, Illinois May 4, 1886: A bomb is tossed amongst striking workers and police, who open fire on the crowd. [citation needed]
1886 Bay View Massacre 7 Milwaukee, Wisconsin One day after the Haymarket Riot in Chicago, Wisconsin National Guard troops open fire on striking workers. [citation needed]
1892 Homestead lockout/strike 35 Homestead, Pennsylvania Pinkerton guards are deployed against striking US Steel laborers in the bloodiest labor conflict in the US. [citation needed]
1897 Lattimer massacre 19 Hazleton, Pennsylvania Luzerne County Sheriff's posse fires on strikers at the request of mining companies [citation needed]
1907 Iquique Massacre 500 - 2,000 Iquique, northern Chile (formerly Peru)

Forces under Gen. Roberto Silva-Renard fire on thousands of saltpeter miners, their wives and children, protesting working conditions and wages.

[citation needed]
1914 Ludlow massacre 20 Ludlow, Colorado Suppression of a strike by twelve thousand Colorado coal miners. [citation needed]
1920 Matewan massacre 10 Matewan, West Virginia Confrontation between agents of the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, hired by mine owners, and Matewan police chief Sid Hatfield leading a group of temporarily deputized mine workers attempting to serve warrants. [citation needed]
1928 Banana massacre c.47 to 2,000 Santa Marta, Colombia

Workers of the United Fruit Company killed by military forces to end a month long union strike.

[citation needed]
1927 Columbine Mine massacre at least 6 Serene, Colorado 500 striking coal miners, some with their families, are attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes [citation needed]
1931 Ådalen shootings 5 Sweden Swedish military forces open fire on labor demonstrators, killing 5 people [citation needed]
1988 CSN strike 3 Volta Redonda, Brazil Historical strike in Brazilian history, repressed by police and army. [citation needed]

Criminal and non-political massacres[edit]

See also school massacres and "going postal".
Date Name Deaths Location Summary Claimants
1929 St. Valentine's Day massacre 7 Chicago, Illinois, United States Members of Bugs Moran's gang are murdered by Al Capone's men. [citation needed]
1935 Palace Chophouse Massacre 4 Newark, New Jersey, United States The second deadliest gangland massacre behind the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Mobster Dutch Schultz is killed by members of Murder Inc in a shootout that also claims the lives of one of his henchmen, accountant, and bodyguard. [273] [274]
1938 Tsuyama massacre 31 Tsuyama, Okayama, Japan Mutsuo Toi rampaged through a village near Tsuyama armed with Katanas and a rifle, killing 30 including his grandmother. Toi took his life after the massacre. [citation needed]
1941 Stanley Graham killings 7 Hokitika, New Zealand Farmer Stanley Graham kills seven people during a 12-day rampage which ends when he is shot dead by police. [citation needed]
1948 Teigin Bank poisoning 12 Tokyo, Japan During a robbery, painter Sadamichi Hirasawa gives cyanide to ingest to twelve bank employees, immediately killing eleven. [275]
1949 Howard Unruh Massacre 13 Camden, New Jersey, United States World War II veteran Howard Unruh, armed with a Luger, randomly opens fire inside shops and at pathways, killing thirteen. Unruh was believed to suffer from mental illnesses and required psychiatric needs. [citation needed]
1966 University of Texas Tower Shooting 15 Austin, Texas, United States After killing his mother and wife the night before, Charles Whitman goes on a shooting rampage atop the University of Texas at Austin's observation tower, killing 15 people and injuring 30 before being killed by police. [citation needed]
1977 California State University, Fullerton library massacre 7 Fullerton, California, United States Edward Charles Allaway opens fire at fellow workers at the California State University, Fullerton library, killing 7 and wounding 2. [276]
1977 Neptune massacre 6 New Rochelle, New York, United States Frederick Cowan killed 5 people, wounded 5 others and killed himself at the Neptune Moving Company in New Rochelle, New York where he worked. [citation needed]
1978 Jonestown massacre 913 Jonestown, Guyana Peoples Temple cult attacks Rep. Leo Ryan and delegation. After 5 are killed in shootout, Jim Jones led mass suicide. [citation needed]
1982 Carl Brown massacre 8 Miami, Florida, United States Angry over a dispute of a bill, Carl Brown opens fire in a mechanic shop, killing eight. [277]
1982 Woo Bum-Kon 58 Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea Dispirited police officer rampaged through 5 villages in rural South Korea, killing 57 (and himself) and wounding 35. [citation needed]
1982 George Banks Massacre 13 Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, United States Former state prison guard George Banks kills thirteen in a shooting rampage, including five of his children. [citation needed]
1983 Wah Mee massacre 13 Seattle, Washington, United States Fourteen people are shot and 13 killed at a gambling club in Seattle's International District. [citation needed]
1984 McDonald's massacre 22 San Diego, California, United States Twenty-one killed, 19 injured in a shooting rampage at a McDonald's restaurant before the gunman is shot dead. [citation needed]
1984 Milperra massacre 7 Sydney, NSW, Australia Seven were killed and 19 injured in a clash between outlaw motorcycle gangs, in a suburb of Sydney on Father's Day. [citation needed]
1984 Dorothy Mae Apartment Hotel Blaze 25 Los Angeles, California, United States, 25 people died in a blaze when 21-year old Humberto de la Torre torched the Dorothy Mae Apartment Hotel after a dispute with his uncle who managed the building. [citation needed]
1986 Edmond Postal massacre 15 Edmond, Oklahoma, United States Fired postman Patrick Sherrill shot twenty-one former fellow employees in the Post Office, killing fourteen of them before committing suicide. Between 1986 and 1997, more than 40 people were killed in more than 20 separate incidents involving the United States Postal Service. [citation needed]
1987 Winn-Dixie massacre 6 Palm Bay, Florida, United States William B. Cruse opens fire in a Winn-Dixie supermarket, killing six people and wounding several including police who attempted to confront him. [citation needed]
1987 Hoddle Street massacre 7 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 19-year-old Julian Knight shoots seven people dead and wounded another nineteen in thirty minutes before surrendering to police. [citation needed]
1987 Hungerford massacre 17 Hungerford, Berkshire, England Michael Ryan went a rampage in a small rural town in England, shooting people at random (including his own mother) with an array of firearms before killing himself. [citation needed]
1987 Queen Street massacre 9 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Frank Vitkovic kills eight and injures five in an Australia Post building before jumping 12 stories to his death. [citation needed]
1987 Ronald Gene Simmons Massacre 16 Russellville, Arkansas, United States Retired United States Air Force sergeant Ronald Gene Simmons Jr. strangled and fatally shot fourteen family members four days prior to rampaging through offices and store outlets that left two dead and several injured. [citation needed]
1988 ESL massacre 7 Sunnyvale, California, United States Former employee Richard Farley returns to Electromagnetic Systems Labs (ESL) with guns and explosives, killing seven people and injuring three others, including Laura Black, a woman he had been stalking for four years. [citation needed]
1989 Stockton massacre 6 Stockton, California, United States Patrick Purdy, armed with a semi-automatic rifle, opened fire at an elementary school that killed 5 schoolchildren and wounded nearly 30 others before taking his own life. [citation needed]
1989 École Polytechnique massacre 15 Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Saying "I hate feminists", Marc Lépine kills 14 women and wounds 10 women and 4 men at an engineering school, before killing himself. [citation needed]
1989 Standard Gravure shooting 9 Louisville, Kentucky, United States Employee Joseph Wesbecker went on a rampage and killed eight other employees and himself, while wounding twelve others. He was off work on disability leave due to mental illness at the time of the shootings. [citation needed]
1990 Happy Land Fire 87 New York City, New York, United States Julio González starts an arson at a social club entitled "Happy Land" that kills 87 people. [citation needed]
1990 Aramoana massacre 13 Aramoana, New Zealand Gun collector David Gray opens fire on town residents before being shot dead by the Armed Offenders Squad. [citation needed]
1990 GMAC massacre 10 Jacksonville, Florida, United States James Edward Pough kills nine people and finally himself at a GMAC office after his car is repossessed. [citation needed]
1991 Strathfield massacre 8 Sydney, Australia Wade Frankum opens fire in a suburban shopping mall, killing seven people and wounding a further six before turning the assault rifle on himself. [citation needed]
1991 Luby's massacre 23 Killeen, Texas, United States George Hennard drove his pickup truck into a cafeteria and opened fire before taking his own life. [citation needed]
1991 Gang Lu Massacre 6 Iowa City, Iowa, United States Gang Lu, a Chinese University of Iowa student enrolled in a Ph.D physics program fatally shot three faculty members, a fellow female Ph.D student from China and an advisor before turning the gun on himself. [citation needed]
1992 Ratima killings 7 Masterton, New Zealand Raymond Ratima bludgeons or stabs to death four acquaintances before killing his own three children, aged 7, 5 and 2. [citation needed]
1992 Central Coast massacre 7 Central Sydney, NSW, Australia A gunman shoots his son, an ex-girlfriend, her heavily pregnant sister, the girl's father and another couple with a sawn-off shotgun before finally handing himself in. [citation needed]
1992 Olivehurst High massacre 4 Olivehurst, California,United States Armed with a pistol, 20-year-old Eric Houston took hostages at his former high school, killing four people and wounding 10. [citation needed]
1993 101 California Street shootings 9 San Francisco, California, United States Gian Luigi Ferri kills eight people and injures six with three handguns before turning a concealed fourth handgun on himself. [citation needed]
1993 Brown's Chicken massacre 7 Palatine, Illinois, United States Seven people were slain at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine. [citation needed]
1993 Long Island Rail Road massacre 6 Nassau County, New York, United States Colin Ferguson shoots 25 passengers on a commuter train, killing 6. [citation needed]
1994 The Bain killings 5 Dunedin, New Zealand Five members of the Bain family were shot dead at their home, which was later torched. David Bain spent 12 years in prison before being released on appeal. [citation needed]
1994 Toulon town square massacre 14 Toulon, France 16-year old Eric Borel arms himself with a .22-caliber hunting rifle and opens fire in the village town square, killing ten and wounding several others before turning the gun onto himself. Earlier that day he had killed his stepfather, mother and brother using a baseball bat. [citation needed]
1996 Dunblane massacre 18 Dunblane, Scotland Thomas Hamilton opened fire at a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself. [citation needed]
1996 Port Arthur massacre 35 Tasmania, Australia Martin Bryant shoots 35 people dead and injures 37 at the tourist town of Port Arthur, Tasmania. At 35, this is the largest shooting incident of its type in Australian history. [citation needed]
1997 Sanaa massacre 8 Yemen School massacre in Yemen. [citation needed]
1998 Jonesboro massacre 5 Arkansas, United States Two middle school students attacked their school in a military style ambush. [citation needed]
1998 Thurston High School shooting 4 Springfield, Oregon, United States A day after being expelled from school, Kip Kinkel killed his parents and the next morning, killed two of his former classmates and injured 26 others with a Glock and a .22 semi-automatic rifle before being detained. [citation needed]
1998 Shaanxi Axe Massacre 9 Shaanxi, China After a dispute about stolen geese, farmer Yang Mingxin brutally kills nine villages with an axe, leaving another three in critical condition. [citation needed]
1999 Columbine High School massacre 13 Jefferson County, Colorado, United States Two students (Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold) executed a planned shooting rampage, killing 12 fellow students and a teacher before committing suicide. [citation needed]
1999 Atlanta shooting 10 Atlanta, Georgia On July 29, Mark O. Barton opens fire at two day trading firms, killing nine and injuring 13 before committing suicide . [citation needed]
1999 Wedgwood Baptist Church massacre 8 Fort Worth, Texas, United States Larry Gene Ashbrook shot dead 7 people and injured a further 7 at a concert by Christian rock group Forty Days in Fort Worth, Texas before killing himself. [citation needed]
1999 Xerox murders 7 Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Former Xerox employee Byran Uyesugi opens fire at the workplace building, killing his former supervisor, six co-workers and wounding another co-worker. [citation needed]
2000 Wendy's massacre 5 Flushing, New York, United States Craig Godineaux and John Taylor held a Wendy's outlet hostage where several employees were duct-taped and shot execution-style. [citation needed]
2000 Wichita Massacre 5 Wichita, Kansas, United States Two brothers go on a week-long murder/assault/rape/robbery spree, which culminated with the execution-style shooting of four naked victims on a soccer field. A fifth victim survived thanks to a hair clip that prevented the bullet from entering her skull. [citation needed]
2000 Wakefield massacre 7 Wakefield, Massachusetts, United States Software engineer Michael McDermott carries a shooting rampage at the Edgewater Technology, killing seven co-workers. [citation needed]
2001 Nepalese royal massacre 10 Katmandu, Nepal Prince Dipendra shoots his immediate family and himself at a royal dinner. [citation needed]
2001 Osaka school massacre 8 Ikeda, Osaka prefecture, Japan Former janitor Mamoru Takuma stabbed eight children to death and seriously wounded thirteen other children and two teachers. [citation needed]
2001 Zug massacre 15 Zug, Switzerland Friedrich Leibacher entered the Zug parliament and opened fire, killing three members of the cantonal government and 11 parliamentarians before turning the gun on himself. [citation needed]
2002 Nanterre massacre 8 Paris, France A man at a city council meeting in Nanterre opens fire, killing 8 city officials and wounding another 19. [citation needed]
2002 Erfurt massacre 17 Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany Robert Steinhäuser broke into his former high school and killed 13 teachers, 2 students and a police officer before finally turning a gun on himself. [citation needed]
2003 Lockheed Martin shooting 6 Meridian, Mississippi On July 8, Doug Williams, an employee at Lockheed Martin, opens fire, killing five and injuring nine, after which he commits suicide. [278]
2005 Living Church of God Massacre 8 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States Terry Ratzmann opens fire at the Living Church of God during a congregation, killing seven before taking his own life. [citation needed]
2005 Red Lake High School massacre 10 Red Lake, Minnesota, United States Jeff Weise kills 9 people, consisting of his grandfather and his grandfather's girlfriend and five students, a security guard and a teacher at Red Lake High School. After exchanging fire with police, he took his own life. [citation needed]
2006 Goleta Postal massacre 8 Goleta, California, United States Female former postal worker goes on a rampage, shooting dead seven before killing herself. [citation needed]
2006 Capitol Hill massacre 7 Seattle, Washington, United States Aaron Kyle Huff entered a house party in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and shot eight people, killing six of them. When confronted by police, Huff killed himself. [citation needed]
2006 Amish school shooting 6 Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania, United States Charles Carl Roberts IV entered a one-room Amish schoolhouse in Nickel Mines, a village in Lancaster County, took ten children hostage, and eventually shot and killed five girls aged 7 to 13 before killing himself. [citation needed]
2007 Trolley Square shooting 6 Salt Lake City, Utah, United States Sulejman Talović entered a shopping mall carrying a shotgun and a .38 caliber pistol as well as a backpack full of ammunition, shot five people dead as well as wounding four others before being fatally shot by police. [citation needed]
2007 Virginia Tech massacre 33 Blacksburg, Virginia, United States Gunman Seung-Hui Cho opens fire in a Virginia Tech university dormitory and a classroom building, killing and wounding many, then commits suicide. At 33 (including gunman's suicide), this is the largest shooting incident of its type in US history. [citation needed]
2007 Homecoming Massacre 7 Crandon, Wisconsin, United States Forest County Deputy Sheriff Tyler Peterson opens fire with an AR-15 assault rifle during a homecoming party killing 6 people including his ex-girlfriend and wounding 1 before committing suicide. [citation needed]
2007 Jokela school shooting 9 Jokela, Tuusula, Finland 18-year-old upper secondary school student Pekka-Eric Auvinen shot five boys, one girl, the school nurse and the principal. He also opened fire against police officers. No policemen were wounded. Auvinen was hospitalized with a head injury after an unsuccessful suicide attempt. Auvinen died later at night. [279]


  1. ^ The Holocaust (with a capital H) was the systematic persecution, exploitation and slaughter of Jews and other minorities in Europe by the Third Reich and its collaborators. The table below lists specific events that were massacres; the bulk of the slaughter occurred over a period of years in concentration and extermination camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka.
  2. ^ Edicts of Ashoka
  3. ^ Ancient History
  4. ^ Punic Wars
  5. ^ Manius Aquillius and the First Mithridatic War
  6. ^ Helvetti
  7. ^ Julius Caesar The Conquest of Gaul
  8. ^ Matthew 2:16-18,Catholic Encyclopedia: Holy Innocents
  9. ^ Leaders and Battles: Teutoburg Forest
  10. ^ Jewish Antiquities 18.4.2
  11. ^ Jewish Antiquities 20.5.3, Jewish War 2.12.1
  12. ^ Jewish Wars 2.13.5, Jewish Antiquities 20.8.6, Acts 21:38
  13. ^ Boudicca
  14. ^ Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak
  15. ^ Tacitus XV.44
  16. ^ The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon
  17. ^ Seleucia - LoveToKnow 1911
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Valerian
  19. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Diocletian
  20. ^ Muir William (Bengal Civil Service). Life of Mahomet Volume I. Smith, Elder, & Co., London, 1861.Section 5: Sketch of the Chief Nomad Tribes in the Centre of the Peninsula: Their conversion to Christianity in the 5th century
  21. ^ Byzantium: Justinian and the Nika Riots
  22. ^ Conybeare F.C. Antiochus Strategos, The Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614 AD English Historical Review 25 (1910) pp. 502-517;
    Horowitz, Elliott. "The Vengeance of the Jews Was Stronger Than Their Avarice": Modern Historians and the Persian Conquest of Jerusalem in 614 Jewish Social Studies Volume 4, Number 2
  23. ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (2007-01-29). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 13. 978-0745639994. 
  24. ^ Islam and Fragmentation, to 1200 CE
  25. ^ A Brief History of al-Andalus
  26. ^ The Forgotten Refugees - Historical Timeline
  27. ^ Moroccan Jews
  28. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  29. ^ present-day Uzbekistan.
  30. ^ Central Asian world cities
  31. ^ The Destruction of Kiev
  32. ^ History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion
  33. ^ The Mongols
  34. ^ Sicilian Vespers
  35. ^ Hetoum II (1289‑1297)
  36. ^ History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian
  37. ^ Third Crusade: Siege of Acre
  38. ^ Now in England.
  39. ^ Crow Creek Massacre
  40. ^ Battle of Visby Burials, Sweden
  41. ^ Medieval times battle in Visby, Sweden
  42. ^ A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Author: Barbara Tuchman. Publisher: Ballantine Books; Reissue edition (July 12, 1987) ISBN-10: 0345349571
  43. ^ Timur's history
  44. ^ Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World by Justin Marozzi
  45. ^ Grant, R G. Battle a Visual Journey Through 5000 Years of Combat. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2005 pg 122
  46. ^ Tamerlane
  47. ^ The Magnitude of Muslim Atrocities
  48. ^ Sivas, Asia Minor
  49. ^ Tamerlane's Living Legacy
  50. ^ Timur (Tamerlane)
  51. ^ New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism
  52. ^ History of Central Europe
  53. ^ Vlad the Impaler
  54. ^ The Real Prince Dracula
  55. ^ Vlad Tepes - The Historical Dracula
  56. ^ The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
  57. ^ Norman Stillman,The Jews of the Arab lands, (PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979), pp. 59, 284.
  58. ^ The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice
  59. ^ Hassig, Ross (2003). "El sacrificio y las guerras floridas". Arqueología mexicana, p. 46-51.
  60. ^ Stannard, D., American Holocaust, p. 70.
  61. ^ Las Casas, B. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, p. 22.
  62. ^ Marrano History, The forgotten massacre
  63. ^ Las Casas, B, pp. 27-30; Stannard, D., American Holocaust, p. 71.
  64. ^ Varner and Varner, The Dogs of Conquest, pp. 36-39; Todorov, T., The Conquest of America, p. 141.
  65. ^ St Thomas More Studies
  66. ^ The Ottoman Conquest
  67. ^ Hernando Cortez
  68. ^ Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 241-250.
  69. ^ Cortés, H., Second Letter to King Charles V of Spain, Letter from Mexico, p. 73.
  70. ^ History of Sweden
  71. ^ History of Sweden, 1448-1523
  72. ^ Empires Past: Aztecs: Conquest
  73. ^ Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 383-393.
  74. ^ Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 261.
  75. ^ Peasants' War
  76. ^ The Catholic and the Lutheran Church
  77. ^ The Fall of The Medieval Kingdom of Hungary: Mohacs 1526 - Buda 1541
  78. ^ Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia
  79. ^ The Sacking of Rome
  80. ^ Pope's guards celebrate 500 years
  81. ^ Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, p. 136.
  82. ^ Hemming, J., The Conquest of the Incas, pp. 23-45.
  83. ^ The mysteries and majesties of the Aeolian Islands
  84. ^ Hernando de Soto Arrives and Explores Florida
  85. ^ Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 285-291.
  86. ^ Biography - Hernando de Soto - by Dr. Lawrence A. Clayton
  87. ^ De Soto'S Trail: Courage and Cruelty Come Alive
  88. ^ Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 376-384. Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 15.
  89. ^ Sauer, C. Sixteenth Century North America, p. 141.
  90. ^ Vieste
  91. ^ Hall of Heroes : Maharana Pratap Singh
  92. ^ Ivan The Terrible
  93. ^ Novgorod, Russia (Capital)
  94. ^ Massacre at Novgorod - Loyola University
  95. ^ The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
  96. ^ Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
  97. ^ Moscow - Historical background
  98. ^ Vasily Klyuchevsky, The Course of Russian History, Vol. 2.
  99. ^ Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
  100. ^ Paris and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: August 24, 1572
  101. ^ Oda Clan Timeline
  102. ^ 1574
  103. ^ Brief mention of the massacre
  104. ^ John Sugden, "Sir Francis Drake", Touchstone-book, published Simon+Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-75863-2
  105. ^ Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage
  106. ^ Weber, D., The Spanish Frontier in North America, pp. 85-86.
  107. ^ Around 347 people were massacred in the attack
  108. ^ Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 47.
  109. ^ Cave, A., The Pequot War, pp. 144-154.
  110. ^ Secrets of Lough Kernan
  111. ^ Churchill, W., A Little Matter of Genocide, p. 198.
  112. ^ Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 116.
  113. ^ The curse of Cromwell - BBC
  114. ^ Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
  115. ^ [1]
  116. ^ [2]
  117. ^ [3]
  118. ^ [4]
  119. ^ Iran in the Age of the Raj
  120. ^ China (1755-57)
  121. ^ NUPI - Centre for Russian Studies
  122. ^ Kalmyks History and Cultural Relations
  123. ^ Kalmucks
  124. ^ The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
  125. ^ Three State and Counterrevolution in France by Charles Tilly
  126. ^ Vive la Contre-Revolution!
  127. ^ McPhee, Peter Review of Reynald Secher, A French Genocide: The Vendée H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26
  128. ^ The Heart of Darkness: How Visceral Hatred of Catholicism Turns Into Genocide
  129. ^ Journal of a Tour in the Levant. Volume 3, William Turner, p.408
  130. ^ Economies méditerranéennes: équilibres et intercommunications, XIIIe-XIX siècles, Kentro Neoellēnikōn Ereunōn, 1985, p.425
  131. ^ A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal
  132. ^ Slave Revolt in St. Domingue
  133. ^ Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, 3rd May 1808
  134. ^ W.Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833, New York, 1897 p.48
  135. ^ George Finlay, History of Greek Revolution, London, 1861, p. 187.
  136. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans, 18th and 19th Centuries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 204-205. ISBN 0-521 27458-3.
  137. ^ George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 152
  138. ^ George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 165
  139. ^ George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 215
  140. ^ Bouboulina Museum, Spetses Greece. Greek Island Spetses. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  141. ^ Putnam's Home Cyclopedia, p.343
  142. ^ George Finlay, A history of Greece, 1877, p. 119.
  143. ^ Phillips, p. 32-33
  144. ^ The British and Foreign Review: Or, European Quarterly Journal, The late Revolution in Greece, p.244
  145. ^ Lord Aberdeen, Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain, 1983, p.199
  146. ^ A History of Greece: From Its Conquest by the Romans to the Present Time, B.C. 146 to A.D. 1864, George Finlay, 1877, p.190
  147. ^ a b c d e f Then part of the Ottoman Empire; now part of Greece.
  148. ^ La population des îles de la Grèce: essai de géographie insulaire en Méditerranée orientale, Émile Y Kolodny, 1974, p.128
  149. ^ Syria and Egypt Under the Last Five Sultans of Turkey, John Barker, 1973, p.19
  150. ^ Putnam's Home Cyclopedia, p.343
  151. ^ Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century
  152. ^ Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century
  153. ^ Moriori - The impact of new arrivals
  154. ^ New Zealand A to Z: Chatham Islands
  155. ^ The Statistics of Frontier Conflict
  156. ^ Doolette, Peter (1997) Murder, Mishap & Misfortune: A select history of the Coorong Coorong Publications ISBN 0 646 33895 1
  157. ^ Foster, Robert (2001) Fatal Collisions Wakefield Press ISBN 1 86254 533 2
  158. ^ Deadly attacks against the Assyrian Christians of Iraq
  159. ^ The Massacres of the Khilafah
  160. ^ New-York Weekly Tribune. January 2, 1847
  161. ^ Part of the Revolutions of 1848.
  162. ^ Taiping Rebellion: The destruction of the Chinese culture
  163. ^ Lessons from 1857
  164. ^ Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
  165. ^ Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
  166. ^ [5]
  167. ^ Damascus - LoveToKnow 1911
  168. ^ Lebanon - Religious Conflicts
  169. ^ Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (2002-08-21). "Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  170. ^ On Your Own In China
  171. ^ Cook, S., The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization.
  172. ^ Paraguay - The War of the Triple Alliance
  173. ^ War of the Triple Alliance
  174. ^ Andrist, R., The Long Death, pp. 157-162.
  175. ^ Terrell, J., Land Grab, pp. 4-10.
  176. ^ Then part of the Ottoman Empire; now in Bulgaria.
  177. ^ BATAK-muzey
  178. ^ Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-1999, Michael Clodfelter, 2002, p.214
  179. ^ Then in Imperial Russia; now the capital of Moldova.
  180. ^ "Jewish Massacre Denounced", New York Times, April 28, 1903, p 6.
  181. ^
  182. ^ L'indépendance belge, 16 june 1908 (Evening edition)
  183. ^
  184. ^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
  185. ^ Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed
  186. ^ [6]
  187. ^ Pukhov, A. S. Kronshtadtskii miatezh v 1921 g. Leningrad, OGIZ-Molodaia Gvardiia.
  188. ^ Chinese, Korean and Allied civilians and POWs.
  189. ^ See also Unit 731.
  190. ^
  191. ^ Anthony Beevor, Spanish Civil War (1999), p.133
  192. ^ What were the most important human rights violations committed by Stalin?
  193. ^ plus parts of Austria.
  194. ^ Part of Greece.
  195. ^ (Sam Donaldson, Primetime Live, 1994).
  196. ^ Germany's forgotten victims
  197. ^ The Jews of Iraq
  198. ^ The Jews of Libya
  199. ^ Country Histories - Empire's Children
  200. ^ Heartman, Adam (2006-09-26). "A Homemade Genocide". Who's Fault Is It?.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  201. ^ Zanzibar Revolution 1964
  202. ^ Also known as "Black November".
  203. ^ Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia
  204. ^ Chinese diaspora: Indonesia
  205. ^ The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
  206. ^ Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
  207. ^
  208. ^
  209. ^ Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838-42
  210. ^ Massacre of Elphinstone's army
  211. ^ Hogan, Irish Soldiers of Mexico. Fondo Editorial Universitario. Guadalajara: 1997
  212. ^ Mexicanos: A history of Mexicans in the United States. Manuel G. Gonzales, Indiana University Press P.86-87 ISBN 0-253-33520-5
  213. ^ V. S. "Amod" Saxena (2003-02-17). "Revolt and Revenge; a Double Tragedy (delivered to The Chicago Literary Club)". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  214. ^ Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (1994). "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857: Reply". Past and Present. 142: 178–189.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  215. ^ French Wikipedia: The Tamines Massacre
  216. ^ Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco
  217. ^ Spanish Civil War: Casualties
  218. ^ Richard Pankhurst. "The Graziani Massacre and Consequences". Addis Tribune/Ethiopia Online. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  219. ^ Michael B. Lentakis (2004). Ethiopia: Land of the Lotus Eaters. Janus. pp. 60–61. ISBN 1857565584. 
  220. ^ Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre
  221. ^ The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography
  222. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
  223. ^ "Khatyn" - Genocide policy - Punitive operations
  224. ^
  225. ^ Italy convicts Nazis of massacre.
  226. ^ World War II mass graves open a wound in Slovenia
  227. ^ History of the tragedy.
  228. ^ Casualties and War Crimes in Afghanistan
  229. ^ Who NATO Killed
  230. ^ Rory McCarthy. "'US soldiers started to shoot us'". Guardian,UK. Retrieved 2007-11-17.  Unknown parameter |dtae= ignored (help)
  231. ^ At Least 130 Die as Blast Levels Baghdad Market
  232. ^ Scores of Iraqi pilgrims killed
  233. ^ Up to 200 killed in Baghdad bombs
  234. ^ Iraqi PM slams 'heinous' bombers
  235. ^ Damien Cave and James Glanz, "Toll in Iraq Truck Bombings Is Raised to More Than 500", New York Times (August 21, 2007).
  236. ^ "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: [7]
  237. ^ Germany's forgotten victims
  238. ^ Hiroshima marks 62nd anniversary of atomic bombing
  239. ^ Morality, Reduced To Arithmetic
  240. ^ Craven and Cate, The Army Air Forces in World War II, Vol. V, pp. 732-733.
  241. ^ Glantz, David M., Stumbling Colossus, p. 58.
  242. ^ Great Purges
  243. ^ Haunted By History's Horrors
  244. ^ A revelatory account of the Spanish civil war
  245. ^ Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War
  246. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, pg 337: "Mao claimed that the total number executed was 700,000, but this did not include those beaten or tortured to death in the post-1949 land reform, which would at the very least be as many again. Then there were suicides, which, based on several local inquiries, were very probably about equal to the number of those killed." Also cited in Mao Zedong, by Jonathan Spence, as cited here.
  247. ^ The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stephane Courtois, et al; China: A Long March into Night by Jean-Louis Margolin, pg 479
  248. ^ Twitchett, Denis. The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052124336X. Retrieved 2007-03-25.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  249. ^
  250. ^
  251. ^ Ex-minister sued over Algeria war
  252. ^ Unearthing betrayal in France's Algerian war
  253. ^
  254. ^ Time to End the Silence on Imperiled Indonesian Chinese
  255. ^ Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
  256. ^ If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle
  257. ^ Equatorial Guinea - Country Profile
  258. ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  259. ^ Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  260. ^ John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  261. ^ White, Matthew, Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century
  262. ^ Obituary: The buffoon tyrant
  263. ^ Idi Amin: 'Butcher of Uganda', CNN, August 16, 2003
  264. ^ 2003: 'War criminal' Idi Amin dies
  265. ^ Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison
  266. ^ Zimbabwe won't extradite former Ethiopian dictator
  267. ^ International Justice Tribune - Lettre d’information
  268. ^ Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa by Jonathan Clayton, The Times Online, December 13, 2006
  269. ^ PBS American Experience
  270. ^ "International Herald Tribune". 
  271. ^ "Belfast Telegraph". 
  272. ^ "Irish Times". 
  273. ^ [8]
  274. ^ [9]
  275. ^ List of major crimes in Japan
  276. ^
  277. ^ "Murderers' Row: Shooting Spree in Miami". 1982-08-30. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  278. ^,2933,91334,00.html
  279. ^ Teen dead after shooting and killing 8 people at Finnish secondary school

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Category:Lists of massacres|*]] Category:Military lists|Massacres]] Category:Murder]] Category:Riots]] Category:Massacres| ]] Category:Bleeding Kansas]]