Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres. They are typically, but not exclusively, single events that resulted in large numbers of deliberate and direct civilian deaths.
Generally, the list includes individual events only, but where such an event includes too many individual massacres to list separately (e.g., the Holocaust, the Great Purge), the wider event may be listed as well as some of the more prominent individual massacres. Note that the figure for deaths is usually an estimate, and is frequently contested. See the individual article on each massacre for more information. Furthermore, the distinction between a genocide and a massacre may be difficult and controversial, so this categorization should be seen as neither definitive nor authoritative. Please see relevant articles for further information.
- 1 Antiquity and the European Middle Ages (to 1500)
- 2 Modern times (from 1500)
- 2.1 1500 to 1799
- 2.2 1800 to 1938
- 2.3 1939 to 1945 - World War II
- 2.4 State-sponsored genocides
- 2.5 Pogroms and religious massacres
- 2.6 Massacres during armed conflicts
- 2.7 State-sponsored or state-condoned massacres during peacetime
- 2.8 Politically motivated non-governmental massacres
- 3 Labour conflicts
- 4 Criminal and non-political massacres
- 5 Footnotes
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
|Light yellow background||Massacres in which 10,000 or more civilians were intentionally killed.|
|Dark grey background||Massacres forming part of the Holocaust.|
|Grey background||Massacres during World War II other than those forming part of the Holocaust.|
Antiquity and the European Middle Ages (to 1500)
|334 BCE||Destruction of Thebes||c.6,000 to 8,000||Greece|||
|332 BCE||Siege of Tyre||8,000||Tyre, Phoenicia||
Macedonian victory over the Persians.
|265 BCE||Kalinga War||c.100,000||Orissa, India||
The Kalinga War was fought between the Mauryan Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga, a feudal republic located on the coast of the present-day Indian state of Orissa. slaughters the population of the city following a revolt.
|260 BCE||Battle of Changping||c.400,000||Jincheng, China|||
|194 BCE||Hispania Citerior massacres||"multitudes"||Spain|||
|150 BCE||Lusitanian massacres||c.8,000||Portugal|||
|146 BCE||The Fall of Carthage||c.450,000||Carthage|||
|146 BCE||Destruction of Corinth||Corinth||
The Romans under Lucius Mummius Achaicus destroyed Corinth after a siege in 146 BCE. All men were put to the sword, and the women and children enslaved.
|88 BCE||Asiatic Vespers||c.80,000||Anatolia|||
|71 BCE||Third Servile War||c.6,000||Roman Republic||
Surrendering slaves are crucified along the Via Appia
|58 BCE||Helvetii campaign||c.260,000||Gaul|||
|c. 4 BCE||Massacre of the Innocents||c.14,000-64,000||Iudaea province|||
|9||Battle of the Teutoburg Forest||c.15,000-20,000||Teutoburg Forest, Germania|||
|36||Pontius Pilate's Massacre of Samaritans||Iudaea province||Pilate murdered Samaritans attempting to "escape the violence of Pilate", considered excessive by Roman standards, action resulted in his recall to Rome|||
|c. 50||Jerusalem Passover Riot||c.20,000-30,000||Iudaea province||Passover riot in Jerusalem|||
|c. 55||Egyptian Prophet Massacre||c.30,000||Iudaea province||30,000 unarmed Jews doing The Exodus reenactment massacred by Procurator Antonius Felix|||
|60-61||Boudica's revolt||c.70,000||Roman Britain|||
|64-68||Nero's persecution after the Great Fire of Rome||Roman Empire||"...a vast multitude, were convicted ... they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights."|||
|164||Sack of Seleucia||c.300,000||Seleucia, Parthian Empire||Hellenistic city of Seleucia on the Tigris, despite the welcome it reserved for the Roman general Avidius Cassius, was sacked and destroyed by the Romans.|||
|258||Valerian's Massacre||Roman Empire||All Christian bishops, priests, and deacons were executed immediately|||
|303-312||Diocletian Persecution||3,000–3,500||Roman Empire||The last, and most severe, episode of persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire|||
|518 or 523||Najran massacre||unknown||Najran (on the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula)|||
|532||Nika riots||c.30,000||Byzantine Empire||
After a sports rivalry turns into a full-scale riot, Emperor Justinian I locks the rioters in the Hippodrome and has them killed.
Persian invaders, aided by local Jews, massacre up to 90,000 Christians.
|627||Qurayza massacre||600-900||Medina||After the Battle of the Trench, Muslims besiege the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and after its surrender kill all adult males, while women and children are enslaved.|||
|750||Abbasid massacre of the Umayyads||80||Arab Empire||The successful Abbasid Revolt overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred.|||
|782||Bloody Verdict of Verden||4,500||Verden, Germany|||
|1002||St. Brice's Day massacre||unknown||England|||
|1033||Fez massacre||6,000||Fez, Morocco||
Jews slaughtered in Fez by Muslim mobs.
|1066||Granada massacre||4,000||Granada, Spain||
Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.
|1096||German Crusade||c.10,000||Rhine River|||
|1098||Siege of Antioch||c.20,000||Antioch, Syria||
Almost all Muslim inhabitants are slaughtered after the fall of the city to the Crusaders.
|1099||Siege of Jerusalem||c.70,000||Jerusalem||
Almost all Muslim and Jewish inhabitants are slaughtered after the fall of the city to the Crusaders.
|1190||Clifford's Tower||c.150||York, England||
A mob attacks Jewish residents; many commit suicide.
|1191||Siege of Acre (Akko)||2,750||Akko||
Richard the Lionheart slaughters Muslim and Jewish prisoners taken during the siege.
|1209||Albigensian Crusade||20,000 to 100,000||Béziers, France|||
|1220||Samarkand massacre||c.75,000||Samarkand, Khwarezm|||
Genghis Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population.
|1240||Sack of Kiev||Tens of thousands||Kiev, Kievan Rus||
Batu Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population. Over the three years (1237-1240) the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of Russia with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov. Approximately half of the Russian population died during the Mongol invasion of Rus.
|1258||Battle of Baghdad||90,000 to 1,000,000||Baghdad||
Hulagu Khan's Mongols destroy the city and massacre the population.
|1268||Siege of Antioch||40,000||Antioch, Syria||
Sultan Baibars' of Egypt attacks, captures and loots the Christian-held city of Antioch. His armies slaughter or enslave every Christian in the city. This marks the end of Antioch's 1500-year history; the city never recovers.
|1289||Siege of Tripoli||c.10,000||Palestine||
Muslim conquest of Christian County of Tripoli; virtually the whole Christian population is killed.
|1291||Siege of Tyre||10,000||Tyre, Palestine||
Khalil' army destroys the city and massacres the Christian population.
|1291||Siege of Acre||Thousands||Palestine||
Those Christians unable to leave the city were slaughtered by the Egyptian Mamluks.
|1296||Massacre of Berwick||30,000||Berwick, Scotland||
As they invade Scotland, forces under the command of Edward I massacre the population of Berwick.
|1325||Crow Creek Massacre||c.500||South Dakota||
Several hundred Initial Coalescent men, women and children were slaughtered, mutilated and scalped by the Middle Missouri villagers.
|1348||Black Death Scapegoats||6,000 to 16,000||Germany|||
|1358||Jacquerie Revolts||8,000||Meaux, France||
Peasants are massacred in the aftermath of a revolt.
|1361||Battle of Visby||2,800||Gotland, Sweden||
Danish King Valdemar's troops massacred the peasant army of Gotland.
|1370||Siege of Limoges||3,000||France||Edward, the Black Prince oversaw a cruel siege, which concluded with the massacre of some 3,000 residents according to the chronicler Froissart.|||
|1387||Massacre of Isfahan||70,000||Isfahan, Persia|||
|1396||Battle of Nicopolis||3,000-10,000||Bulgaria|||
|1398||Massacre of Delhi||100,000||Delhi, India||
Massacre of prisoners under Timur Lenk.
|1400||Siege of Sivas||4,000||Anatolia||
Timur Lenk buried alive 4,000 Christian soldiers of the garrison of Sivas after their capitulation; but the Muslim prisoners he spared.
|1401||Massacre of Baghdad||20,000-90,000||Baghdad, Iraq||
Timur Lenk sacked Baghdad and massacred at least 20,000.
|1415||Agincourt||c.5,000||Agincourt, France|||
|1453||Constantinople||c.10,000||Byzantine Empire||Following the fall of the city, the Ottoman Turks massacre the Greek Orthodox population for three days .|||
|1459||Braşov massacre||c.30,000||Braşov, Transylvania||
Vlad the Impaler, also known as Vlad Dracula, voivode of Wallachia in present-day Romania, had 30,000 of the Saxon merchants and officials of the Transylvanian city of Braşov that were breaking his authority impaled.
|1462||The Night Attack||c.20,000||Wallachia||
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, during his campaign against Wallachia, is “greeted” by the sight of a veritable forest of stakes on which Wallachian ruler Vlad the Impaler has impaled 20,000 Turkish prisoners.
|1465||Jewish massacre in Fez||Thousands||Fez, Morocco||
Arab mobs in Fez slaughtered thousands of Jews, leaving only 11 alive.
|1480||Sack of Otranto||12,000||Otranto, Italy||the Italian city of Otranto is held by the Ottoman Empire|||
|1487||Aztec human sacrifice||10,000-80,400||Aztec Empire, Mexico||
For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they slaughtered about 80,400 prisoners over the course of four days. According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony.
|March 1495||Hispaniola Pacification campaign||Several thousand||Central Hispaniola|||
Modern times (from 1500)
1500 to 1799
|1503||Xaraguá Massacre||c.300||Xaraguá, Hispaniola|||
|1506||Lisbon Massacre||c.2000-4000||Lisbon, Portugal||
In a Lisbon riot, Jewish converts to Christianity are slaughtered.
|1511||Cuba expedition under Diego Velázquez||At least 20,000||Cuba|||
|1513||Pacra Massacre||c. 600||Pacra, Panama|||
|1513||Shiite Massacre||c.40,000||Ottoman Empire|||
|1519||Tlaxcala Massacres||Thousands||Tlaxcala, Mesoamerica||
On way to Aztec capital, Hernán Cortés was attacked by the Tlaxcalan state and engages in battles for two weeks. After he burns a dozen towns and slaughters thousands of non-combatants – a style of warfare unknown in Mesoamerica – and prevails in several battles against Tlaxcalan warriors, the Tlaxcalans capitulate and become his most faithful allies.
|1519||Cholula Massacre||c. 3,000||Cholula, Mexico||
On way to Aztec capital, Hernán Cortés and his 400 men, accompanied by about 6,000 Tlaxcalan warriors, visits religious center of Cholula and slaughters city residents who he accuses of “plotting” against him.
|1520||Stockholm bloodbath||c.100||Stockholm, Sweden|||
|1520||Huitzilopochtli Festival Massacre||c. several hundred-3,000||Tenochtitlan, Mexico|||
|1521||Post-siege massacre of Tenochtitlan||c. 40,000||Tenochtitlan, Mexico|||
|1524-1526||Peasants' War||c. 100,000||Germany||
It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt, usually after the battles had ended.
|1526||Battle of Mohács||2,000||Mohács, Hungary|||
|1527||Sack of Rome||c. 4,000||Rome, Italy||
Rome is sacked by the mutinous troops of Emperor Charles V. Of 189 Swiss Guards on duty only 42 survived. After the execution of some 1,000 defenders, the pillage began. Nuns and other women were freely raped; men were tortured and killed.
|1532||Cajas Massacre||Hundreds||Cajas, Ecuador|||
|1532||Cajamarca Massacre||c. 3,000||Cajamarca, Ecuador|||
|1535||Mahon Massacre||Hundreds||Minorca, Spain|||
|1539||Napituca Massacre||c. 200||Napituca, Florida||
Hernando de Soto's expedition prevails in battle against Timucuan warriors near town of Napituca in what became northern Florida. De Soto violated Charles V's ordinance to treat the natives well. Two hundred captured warriors were taken into Napituca and subsequently slaughtered at Soto’s command, making it the first documented large-scale massacre of natives by Europeans on soil that became the United States.
|1540||Mabila Massacre||c. 2,500||Mabila, Alabama|||
|1541||Moho Pueblo Massacre||c. 200||Moho Pueblo, New Mexico||
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expedition conquers Moho Pueblo, near the Rio Grande River, after a two-month siege. After the pueblo surrenders, the defenders are slaughtered, mostly by being burned at the stake.
|1554||Vieste Massacre||Hundreds||Vieste, Italy||In 1554, Vieste in Calabria, Italy, was raided by the Bey of Algiers and Turkish admiral Turgut Reis. Several hundreds citizens were beheaded and 7,000 inhabitants enslaved.|||
|1570||Massacre of Novgorod||15,000-60,000||Tsardom of Russia||
Between 500 and 1000 people were gathered every day by the troops, then tortured and killed in front of the Tsar Ivan the Terrible. According to the Third Novgorod Chronicle, the massacre lasted for five weeks. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60,000.
|  |
|1570||Cyprus massacre||30,000||Cyprus, Republic of Venice|||
|1571||Sack of Moscow by Crimean Tatars||170,000||Tsardom of Russia||
In May, 1571 the 120-thousand strong Crimean Tatar army led by the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray invaded Russia, devastated unprotected towns and villages and then sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin. The Tatars enslaved 150,000 Russians and massacred 170,000 in Moscow alone.
|1571||Siege of Mount Hiei||20,000-30,000
||Mount Hiei, Japan|
|1572||St. Bartholomew's Day massacre||70,000-100,000||France|||
|1574||Siege of Nagashima||20,000||Nagashima, Japan|||
|1575||Rathlin Island Massacre||600||Rathlin Island, Ireland||
MacDonnell clans-people massacred by Francis Drake.
|1576||Sack of Antwerp||c. 8,000||Belgium|||
|1580||Siege of Smerwick||600||Smerwick, Ireland|||
|1598||Acoma Massacre||c. 800||Acoma, New Mexico||
In retaliation for the killing of 11 Spanish soldiers, Juan de Oñate leads punitive expedition to slaughter the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma mesa. Spain's King later punished Oñate for his excesses.
|1622||Indian massacre of 1622||c.347||Virginia, North America||
Powhatans attack the Virginia Colony, destroying virtually all the settlements save the heavily-fortified Jamestown, and kill 347 English men, women and children, almost one-third of the English population of colony.
|1623||Pamunkey Peace Talks||c. 200||Virginia||
The English poison the wine at a peace conference with Powhatan leaders, killing ca. 200 in retaliation for the Jamestown Massacre.
|1637||Mystic Fort Massacre||c. 600-700||Fort Mystic, Connecticut|||
|1641||Irish Rebellion of 1641||12,000||Ulster, Ireland|||
|1643||Wappinger Massacre||c. 80||Pavonia, New Jersey||
In 1643 an Iroquois tribe, the Mohawks, attacked a band of Wappingers. Wappingers flees to Manhattan Island seeking protection of Dutch governor, who has hired John Underhill. The sleeping village is slaughtered and the group exterminated.
|1644||English Massacre of sleeping village||c. 500||New Amsterdam (present day New York)|||
|1648||Khmelnytsky Uprising||tens of thousands||Poland|||
|1651||Siege of Limerick||5,000||Ireland|||
|1680||Pueblo Revolt||380||New Mexico||
Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers and drove the other Spaniards from New Mexico. By 1690s, certain Pueblo groups wanted the Spanish to come back to protect them against Apache and Navajo raiders.
|1689||Lachine massacre||at least 68||Lachine, New France||
Iroquois warriors burn the small village of Lachine, kill 24 civilians and take many prisoners, 44 of them are tortured to death.
|1690||Schenectady massacre||at least 60||Schenectady, New York||
Unarmed civilians including women and children are massacred by French and Indians.
|1692||Candlemas Massacre||at least 100||York, Maine||
Approximately 100 British colonists, including women and children, massacred by Abenaki Indians, and another 80 taken into captivity and walked to Quebec City, during King William's War.
|1704||Deerfield massacre||over 56||Massachusetts||
The Deerfield massacre occurred during the Queen Anne's War when joint French and Native American forces attacked the English Puritan settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts killing fifty-six colonists.
|1711||Tuscaroran Attacks||unknown||North Carolina, North America||
Members of the Tuscarora tribe kill an unknown number of settlers along the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers in northeastern North Carolina, prompting the abandonment of New Bern and the beginning of the Tuscarora War.
|1715||Yamassee Attack||unknown||South Carolina, North America|||
|1739||Massacre of Delhi||30,000||Delhi, India||
Persian troops under Nader Shah sack and plunder Delhi, massacring thousands.
|1754-1758||Qing Empire conquers Jungaria.||600,000||Jungaria, China|||
|1768||Massacre of Uman||12,000 - 20,000||Ukraine|||
|1778||Cherry Valley massacre||33||Cherry Valley, New York, USA|||
|1782||Gnadenhutten massacre||96||Gnadenhutten, Ohio, USA||Pennsylvanian militia execute Christian Lenape non-combatants, mostly women and children.|||
|1785||Jewish massacre in Libya||Hundreds||Libya, North Africa||
Ali Burzi Pasha murdered hundreds of Jews in Libya.
|1792||September massacres||1,000 to 1,500||Paris, France||The prison population of Paris is killed in a wave of mob violence.|||
|1793-1796||Revolt in the Vendée||117,000 to 500,000||Vendée, France||The Reign of Terror, seen elsewhere in France, was extraordinarily brutal in the Vendée. There was the massacre of 6,000 Vendée prisoners, many of them women, after the battle of Savenay. Then there was the drowning of 3,000 Vendée women at Pont-au-Baux. And 5,000 Vendée priests, old men, women, and children killed by drowning at the Loire River at Nantes. When the campaign dragged to an end in March 1796 the estimated dead numbered between 117,000 and 500,000, out of a population of around 800,000.|| |
|1797||Smyrna massacre (known as the Rebellion of Smyrna)||20,000||Smyrna / Ottoman Empire||Massacre of the Greeks and other Europeans in the city of Smyrna, after a failed revolution against the Turks.|||
1800 to 1938
|1804||Massacre of the French||Thousands||Haiti||
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, first ruler of an independent Haiti, declared Haiti an all black nation, slaughters all the remaining whites on the island and forbids whites from ever again owning property or land there.
|1808||The Third of May 1808||5,000||Spain|||
|1809||Boyd massacre||66||Whangaroa, New Zealand||
All but four passengers on convict ship are murdered by Maori, after the mistreatment of the son of a Maori chief working on board the ship. Many of the slain are cooked and eaten.
|1821||Massacres in Peloponnese||15,000||Peloponnese / Southern Greece||The Turks of Peloponnese, along with Albanian and Jewish minorities, are exterminated by the Greek rebels over a few weeks at the beginning of the Greek War of Independence.||  |
|1821||Missolonghi massacre||?||Missolonghi, Greece||Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels.|||
|1821||Vrachori massacre||500 families||Vrachori, Greece||Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels.|||
|1821||Navarino Massacre||3,000||Navarino, Greece||Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels.|||
|1821||Siege of Tripoli (1821)||30,000||Tripolis, Greece||Massacre of Turks, committed by Greek rebels.|||
|March 1821||Massacre of Bucharest||10,000||Romania||Massacre of the Orthodox Christians in Bucharest, "even the women and children are not spared"|||
|March 1821||Massacre of Galatz and Yassy||thousands||Greek Orthodox Romania||"Turks of every rank, merchants, and sailors are surprised and massacred in cold blood"|| |
|1821||Constantinople massacre||30,000||Constantinople / Ottoman Empire||As a retaliation for the Greek War of Independence, the Sultan's forces exterminate thousands of Greeks in the capital, including Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V.|||
|1821||Smyrna massacre||10,000||Smyrna / Ottoman Empire||As a retaliation for the Greek War of Independence, the Sultan's forces exterminate thousands of Greeks in Smyrna.|||
|1821||Samothrace massacre||15,000||Samothrace, Greece||The Greek population of the island is wiped out by the Turks.|||
|1821||Cyprus massacre||10,000||Cyprus / then part of the Ottoman Empire||Massacre of the Greek Cypriots by the Turks.|||
|1822||Chios massacre||c. 42,000 massacred||Chios island, Greece||
Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman occupation. An additional 50,000 are enslaved and shipped off to slave markets of Istanbul, Egypt and Barbary in "The most horrible massacre recorded in modern history".
|1824||Kasos massacre||7,000||Chios / Psara islands, Greece ||
Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman Empire; the island is burnt to the ground.
|1824||Psara massacre||17,000||Psara, Greece ||
Reprisals are committed after the Greek Christian population rebels against the Ottoman Empire; the island is burnt to the ground.
|1825||Messolonghi massacre||8,000||Messolonghi, Greece||The Greek population of the city is exterminated after its capture by the Turkish forces.|||
|1831||Salsipuedes genocide||40 to 300||Uruguay|||
|1835||Moriori massacre||300||Chatham Islands, New Zealand|||
|1838||Myall Creek massacre||28||Australia|||
|1838||Haun's Mill massacre||17||Missouri, USA||
Mormon men and boys are killed by over 200 militia.
|1838||Weenen massacre||c.300||South Africa|||
|1840||Maria massacre||26||Coorong, South Australia||
All survivors of the shipwrecked brig Maria are murdered by members of the Ngarrindjeri, resulting in a punitive police expedition from Adelaide. Henry Reynolds, and other historians, estimate up to 3,000 white people killed by Indigenous Australians in the frontier violence.
|1841||Rufus River massacre||Officially 35+||Australia|||
|1847||Assyrian massacre||30,000||Kurdistan, Ottoman Empire||
The Assyrian Christians eventually lose their autonomy when the region is conquered, after which 30,000 Assyrians are massacred.
|1847||Whitman massacre||17||near Walla Walla, Washington, USA|||
|1848||Rabacja massacre||unknown||Galicia|||
|1852||Bridge Gulch massacre||c.150 to 300||Hayfork, California, USA|||
|1853||Gunnison massacre||8||Utah, USA|||
|1853||Taiping Rebellion||30,000||Nanjing, China||
Nanjing is captured and 30,000 massacred by Taiping rebels.
|1857||Devil's Wind||100,000  - 10 million ||India|| |
|1857||Mountain Meadows massacre||120||Utah, USA|||
|1860||Damascus massacre||3,000||Damascus, Ottoman Empire||
An uprising results in the destruction of the Christian quarter and the massacre of many Maronite Christians.
|1860||Maronite massacre||10,000||Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire||
In a burst of sectarian violence in 1860, the Druze massacre more than 10,000 Christians, mostly Maronites.
|1862||Minnesota massacre||c.800||Minnesota, USA|||
|1863||Lawrence Massacre||c.200||Kansas, USA|||
|1864||Sand Creek massacre||c.150||Colorado Territory, USA|||
|1864||Taiping Rebellion||100,000||Nanjing, China|||
|1865-1871||Yahi Massacres||c. 200||Northern California||
Several massacres of native encampments by American settlers exterminate the Yahi tribe, such as the first in 1865 (74 killed), the 1866 Three Knolls (40 killed) and Dry Camp (33 killed) massacres, ending with the Kingsley Cave/Morgan Camp massacre (30 killed) in 1871. The Yahi were Ishi’s tribe.
|1868||War of the Triple Alliance||Thousands||Paraguay||
Imagining a huge conspiracy against himself, Paraguay's dictator Francisco Solano López begins executing people wholesale. Prominent Paraguayan citizens are seized and executed by his order, including his brothers and brothers-in-law, cabinet ministers, judges, military officers, bishops, and nine-tenths of the civil officers, together with 500 foreigners, including some diplomats.
|1868||Washita Massacre||103||Washita River, Oklahoma|||
|1870s||Conquest of the Desert||"thousands"||Patagonia, Argentina|||
|1871||Camp Grant Massacre||c. 150||Camp Grant, Arizona|||
|1871||La Semaine sanglante||c.20,000 to 50,000||Paris, France||
People who took part in the Paris Commune are slaughtered by the French government
|1873||Cypress Hills massacre||16 to 23||Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada||
Assiniboine (Nakoda) people are killed by wolf hunters; one hunter is killed.
|1895-1897||Hamidian massacres||80,000 to 300,000||Ottoman Empire|||
Three day anti-Jewish riot, fed by false blood libel charges, kills 49 and injures 500. There is no police or military intervention.
|1904||Herero and Namaqua Genocide||c.75,000||German South West Africa|||
|1908||Samos incident||20||Samos Island|||
|1915-1917||Armenian Genocide||c.400,000 to 1.5 million||Ottoman Empire|||
|1915-1918||Assyrian Genocide||c.275,000||Ottoman Empire|||
|1916-1919||Pontian Greek Genocide||c.353,000||Ottoman Empire|||
|June 16-17, 1919||Menemen massacre||200-1000||Turkey|||
|April 13, 1919||Jallianwallah Bagh or
|1919-1920||Extermination of the Don Cossacks||Hundreds of thousands||Soviet Union|||
|1920||Croke Park massacre||14||Ireland||British troops enter a football stadium during the Irish War of Independence and fire into the crowd, killing 13 spectators and one player|||
|1921||Kronstadt rebellion||1,200 to 2,168||Russian SFSR||
1,200 to 2,168 rebels executed after the unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors against the Bolshevik government.
|August, September 1922||Greek scorched earth policy||Tens of thousands||Turkey, Western Anatolia||
The Greek army systematically burns and destroys Turkish villages after its defeat in the Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922. On its retreat route, the Greek army massacres Turkish inhabitants.
|January 1923||Rosewood massacre||26-150||Rosewood, Florida, USA||
This African-American town is burned and residents are killed by white mobs.
|1923||Kantÿ massacre||c.2,700 to 6,415||Kantÿ region, Japan||
Korean and Okinawan immigrants, blamed for looting and arson in the wake of the Great Kanto earthquake, are killed by mobs
|1924||Napalpí massacre||200-450||Chaco, Argentina||
An uprising of Toba Indians, due to poor treatment by the authorities and European colonizers, is savagely put down by police and white farmers
|1925||Marusia massacre||over 500||Antofagasta Region, Chile|||
|1927||Malaita massacre||c. 75||Malaita, Solomon Islands|||
An Arab mob wipes out Hebron's old Jewish settlement.
|1931-1945||Japanese biological warfare program||3,000 to 200,000||East Asia|||
|1932||La Matanza||c.30,000||El Salvador|||
|1932 - 1933||Holodomor||c.1,000,000||Ukraine and many other parts of the Soviet Union||
As a result of collectivization policy in the Soviet Union, many peasants died of famine, and many were killed as the governmental troops prevented them from escaping to cities.
The first ever massacre conducted by the Iraqi government takes place in the North, targeting Assyrian Christians.
|1934||Ranquil massacre||477||Bío-Bío Region, Chile|||
|1936||Badajoz massacre||1,800-4,000||Spain||On August 14, after taking Badajoz during the Spanish Civil War, Nationalist troops executed Republican supporters or sympathizers. Many were herded into the town's bull ring for execution.|||
|1936||Jarama Valley massacre||over 1,000||Spain|||
|1937-1938||Great Purge||680,000 to 1.3 million||Soviet Union|||
|1938||Kristallnacht||36 to 200||Germany||
The major pre-war anti-Jewish pogrom.
1939 to 1945 - World War II
|1939||Bromberg Bloody Sunday||up to 8,000||Bydgoszcz, Poland|||
|1940||Katyn massacre||c. 15-20,000||Katyn Forest, Poland||
Mass killing by Soviets of Polish prisoners of war.
In one of the first massacres of Jews during World War II, the German reserve Police Battalion 309 herds the Jews of Białystok into the city's central synagogue and sets fire to it. Those trying to flee are shot.
|NKVD prisoner massacres||100,000||Poland,Lithuania||
Before Red Army left the cities occupied in Poland and Lithuania, all prisoners waiting in the NKVD prisons were killed, including arrested for light charges.
|Jedwabne pogrom||380 to 1600||Poland||
Jewish residents of Jedwabne and its environs are marched into the center of the village, where they are beaten and killed by a number of their fellow townsmen. Some sources suggest German police and/or military involvement.
|Wąsosz pogrom||400 to 600||Poland||
Jewish residents of Wąsosz (Lomza voivodeship)are systematically killed by the Polish police force formed by the Germans after the German invasion.
In reprisals for acts of sabotage they did not commit, the Jewish population of Kiev is marched in small groups to a ditch at Babi Yar and machine-gunned.
Most of the remaining Jews in the city are marched to a ravine and massacred by Einsatzkommando 6.
Mass shootings of the Jews of Odessa.
Those Jews of Kaunas unable to work – including women and children – are marched to the Ninth Fort and shot. (Over 40,000 Jews will eventually be killed there.)
Over the course of a week, the Jews of Riga are taken to Rumbula forest and shot.
Mass shooting of Jews. Thereafter, Jews in the region are transported to extermination camps rather than shot.
|1941-1945||Ustashi Genocide||~600,000||Independent State of Croatia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)|||
|1942||Lidice massacre||435||Lidice, Czechoslovakia||
German SS soldiers annihilate the whole village.
|1942||South Baãka massacre||3,809||Serbia|||
|1942-1944||Warsaw Concentration Camp||200,000||Warsaw, Poland|||
|1943||Changjiao massacre||more than 30,000||Hunan||
Mass killing of Chinese civilians and mass rape of women.
Mass executions of Jews.
The village of Khatyn was totally burnt with its inhabitants by SS people from Oscar Dierlewanger's group with participation of Schutzmannschaft; later this and the next year tens of other Belarussian villages were annihilated together with their inhabitants.
|1943||Bombing of Hamburg||40,000||Hamburg, Germany||
On the night of July 27, shortly before midnight, 739 aircraft attacked Hamburg. The effects of the massive raids using a combination of Blockbuster bombs and incendiaries created firestorms in some cites. The most extreme example was caused by the bombing of Hamburg.
|1944-1945||Chameria issue||c.2,000||Chameria|||
As retaliation for an Italian Resistance roadside bomb, S.S. soldier Erich Priebke and his men rounded up and killed 330 innocent civilians, stacking the bodies in the Ardeatine caves. Five men had witnessed the event, so Priebke killed them as well since there were to be no witnesses 
|1944||Bačka/Bácska killings||c.20,000-34,500||Vojvodina, Serbia|||
|February 23, 1945||Bombing of Pforzheim||c.17,000||Pforzheim, Germany||
One fifth of the population is killed in an air raid that destroys 83% of the town's buildings.
|1945||Massacre in Trhová Kamenice||14||Czechoslovakia||
German soldiers torture innocent villagers to death at the end of the war.
Czech soldiers lynch ethnic Germans.
|1945||Manila massacre||c.100,000||Philippines|||
|1994||Rwandan Genocide||937,000||Rwanda|||
|1995||Srebrenica massacre||8,000||Bosnia and Herzegovina|||
|2003||Darfur conflict||c.400,000||Sudan|||
Pogroms and religious massacres
To be in this section, the primary motive for the massacre must have been ethnic or religious hatred.
|1941||Pro-Nazi pogrom in Baghdad||180||Baghdad, Iraq|||
|1945||Pogrom in Tripoli||140||Tripoli, Libya||
Anti-Jewish riots by Muslims break out in Tripoli.
Jewish residents of Kielce, most of them returning survivors of the Holocaust, are killed by their Polish neighbors, prompting an exodus of the Jewish population from Poland.
|1946||Direct Action Day||c.4,000||British India|||
After the partition of United India and the British withdrawal, about 1 million to 4 million Muslims and Hindus are killed in the aftermath.
|1962||Oran massacre||2,000 to 3,500||Algeria|||
|1964||Zanzibar massacre||c.5,000 to 20,000||Zanzibar|||
|1969||Kilvenmani massacre||c.35||Tamil Nadu, India||
Farm laborers and their families are burnt alive by their higher-caste landlords.
|1984||Anti-Sikh riots||c.2,733 to 4,000||Delhi, India||
Mobs massacre Sikhs following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.
|1985||Ras Burqa massacre||7||Ras Burqa, Egypt||
Egyptian policeman machine-gun 12 Israeli tourists, including 9 children.
|1988||Sumgait pogrom||at least 32||Sumgait, Azerbaijan|||
|1993||Sivas Massacre||35||Sivas, Turkey||
35 Alevis were incinerated in Turkey
|1998||May 1998 massacre||hundreds maybe thousand of Indonesian born Chinese||Jakarta,Surakarta,Medan,Indonesia||
Indonesia-born ethnic Chinese killed in riots
|1999||Reçak/Račak incident||over 39||Kosova/Kosovo||
Massacre by Serbian forces
|2001||Yakaolang massacre||c.300||Yakaolang, Afghanistan|||
|2002||Kaluchak massacre||31||Jammu, India|||
|2002||Godhra Train Burning||60||Godhra, Gujarat, India||
A Muslim mob burns alive Hindu men, women, and children traveling in the S-6 compartment of a Sabarmati Express train.
|2002||Gujarat violence||c.800 to 2,000||Gujarat, India||
Sectarian violence occurs following the Godhra Train Burning.
Muslim nomads are killed by Christians during ongoing violence in Nigeria.
|2004||2004 unrest in Kosovo||19||Kosova/Kosovo||
Ethnic Albanians go on a rampage against ethnic Serbs
|2004||Gatumba massacre||152||Burundi|||
|2005||Muhuta Church massacre||6||Bujumbura, Burundi|||||
|2005||Turbi Village massacre||c.73||Turbi, Kenya|||
Massacres during armed conflicts
Prior to 1939
|1520||Stockholm bloodbath||c.100||Stockholm, Sweden|||
|1552||Siege of Kazan||20,000-40,000||Kazan, Khanate of Kazan||
Civil population of Kazan was massacred just after the fall of the city.
|1570||Cyprus massacre||c.30,000||Cyprus, Republic of Venice|||
|1580||Siege of Smerwick||600||Smerwick, Ireland|||
|1631||Sack of Magdeburg||20,000||Magdeburg, Germany|||
|1644||Massacre of Aberdeen||118||Aberdeen, Scotland||
Royalist troops under Montrose kill civilians after the fall of the city.
|1644||Bolton Massacre||1,500||Bolton, England||Number of defenders and citizens killed by Royalist forces of Prince Rupert of the Rhine after town stormed.|||
|1644||Massacre of Argyll||900||Aberdeen, Scotland||
Royalist troops under Montrose kill civilians across the area.
|1649||Fall of Drogheda||at up to 1,000||Drogheda, Ireland||Some of the city's non-combatants are massacred by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army|||
|1651||Sack of Dundee||200-800||Dundee, Scotland|||
|1678||Burning of Örkened parish||20+||Örkened, Sweden|||
|1757||Fort William Henry massacre||70-180||Lake George, New York, USA||After surrendering to the French and being promised safe passage to Fort Edward, British and Colonial troops plus civilian camp followers (2000 men, women, and children) are attacked while leaving the fort by France's Indian allies.|||
|1768||Massacre at St. George's Fields||6||St. George's Fields (in Southwark, South London), England||
British soldiers clashed with angry supporters of John Wilkes, a popular member of Parliament who had just received a prison sentence for seditious libel. Six Wilkes supporters were killed and fifteen wounded in the carnage.
|1778||Wyoming Valley massacre||at least 180 to 227||Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, USA|||
|1794||Praga massacre||10,000 to 20,000||Praga, Warsaw, Poland||Kościuszko Uprising: Russian troops massacre civilians as they loot and burn Praga following their victory in battle.|||
|1798||Gibbet Rath massacre||350||Kildare, Ireland||Irish Rebellion of 1798: Rebels surrender but are massacred by British troops.|||
|1832||Bad Axe River||c.Unknown||Bad Axe River, Wisconsin [US]||Illinois militia under the command of General Henry Atkinson attack a Sauk camp at the mouth of Bad Axe River where many Sauk women and children are killed in the fighting. Shortly after, the Winnebago will abandon Black Hawk, forcing him and the Sauk to surrender several weeks later ending the Black Hawk War.|||
|1836||Goliad massacre||342||Goliad, Texas||the Mexican army executes Texan prisoners of war.|||
|1842||Massacre of Elphinstone's army||16,000||Afghanistan||Massacre of Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilian dependents and camp followers by hostile Afghan tribes. Dr William Brydon was reportedly the sole survivor.|||
|1847||San Patricios||50||Chapultepec, Mexico||Irish Catholic prisoners of war who fought for the Mexican Army are executed by the United States Army for desertion and treason.|||
|1857||Cawnpore||c.200||Cawnpore, India||During the Sepoy Rebellion the British garrison agrees to a safe passage out of Cawnpore organized by Nana Sahib, but are attacked and killed. The 200 remaining women and children are held in the Bibighar where they are killed on July 15, 1857.|||
|1863||Lawrence Massacre||c.150||Lawrence, Kansas||Confederate raiders under William Quantrill loot and burn the town killing over 150 men and boys.|||
|1864||Fort Pillow||c.354||Fort Pillow, Tennessee|||
|1869||Battle of Acosta Ñu||c. 2000||Paraguay||The last major battle of the War of the Triple Alliance. Paraguayan forces had 6,000 soldiers, many of them children. The Allied forces suffered only 26 dead.|||
|1873||Canby massacre||c.4||Four of seven Americans as part of a peace delegation led by General E. R. S. Canby, under the pretext of peace negotiations, are killed by Modoc leader Captain Jack during the Modoc War.|||
|1890||Wounded Knee massacre||153–300||Wounded Knee, South Dakota||The last confrontation of US troops and the Great Sioux Nation|||
|1901||Samar campaign||Samar,Philippines||During the Philippine-American War, while the Philippines are a colonial possession of the USA, Filipinos armed with machetes kill all American soldiers from the garrison of the port of Balangiga on the island of Samar (see Balangiga massacre).|||
|August 1914||Massacres under German offensive||thousands||Belgium||Invading German troops systematically massacre defenseless civilians in the towns of Andenne, Tamines, Dinant and Louvain.|||
|1918||March Days||3,000–12,000||Baku, Azerbaijan||Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolshevik forces massacre ethnic Azerbaijanis.|||
|1918||September Days||c.10,000–20,000||Baku, Azerbaijan||Enver Pasha's Army of Islam supported by local Azeri forces recaptures Baku and subsequently massacres ethnic Armenians in retaliation for the March Days.|||
|1936-1939||Spanish Civil War||c.50,000-100,000||Spain||At least 50,000 persons were executed during the civil war. Atrocities were committed on both sides.|||
|February 19-21, 1937||Graziani massacre||3,000||Addis Ababa, Ethiopia||Three day massacre ordered by Guido Cortese, Secretary-General of Fascist Party in occupied Ethiopia, committed by Italian Fascist soldiers against Ethiopian citizens, in response to an attempt on the life of Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani.|||
|1937-1938||Nanjing massacre (Rape of Nanking)||c.200,000-350,000||China||Committed by the Japanese Imperial Army in the aftermath of the Battle of Nanking. Reports indicate that six-weeks of murder, rape and looting follow the seizure of the city by the Japanese Imperial Army.|||
During World War II (1939-1945)
|1939||Wawer||107||Poland||120 men caught in a Łapanka are shot as a reprisal for the death of two German soldiers, 13 of them survive the massacre under the pile of bodies.|||
|1939-1940||Palmiry massacre||c.2,000||Poland||The Gestapo systematically murders members of the Polish intelligentsia, sportsmen, politicians and common people.|||
|1940||Katyn massacre||25,700||Poland||Members of the Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers are massacred by the Soviets.|||
|1940||Treznea massacre||c.93||Treznea, N. Transylvania, Hungary||The Hungarian army massacres Romanian and Jewish civilians.|||
|1940||Ip massacre||c.100||Ip, N. Transylvania, Hungary||The Hungarians massacre Romanian civilians in Northern Transylvania.|||
|1941||NKVD prisoner massacres||c.100,000||Soviet Union||The Soviet NKVD massacres tens of thousands of Polish and Ukrainian political prisoners at the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.|||
|1941||Fântâna Albă massacre||c.200||Soviet Union||The Soviets massacre Romanian civilians in Northern Bukovina.|||
|June, 1941||Rainiai massacre||79||Soviet Union||Soviet soldiers and members of the NKVD torture to death 78-79 Lithuanian civilians (former public servants, rich people, Boy Scouts, non-communists).|||
|1941||massacre of Lwów professors||45||Lwów, Poland||Part of the AB Action, forty-five university professors are executed by an Einsatzkommando unit following the German capture of the city on June 30.|||
|1941||Kragujevac massacre||10,000||Serbia||Reprisal killings are committed by German forces after the death of 10 soldiers at the hands of partisans.|||
|1942||Sook Ching massacre||c.50,000-100,000 (Singapore only)||Malaya & Singapore||Japanese troops execute ethnic Chinese Malayans and Singaporeans suspected of being hostile.|||
|1942||Bataan Death March||5,650||Philippines||American and Philippine POWs are marched to prison camps and killed if they fall behind.|||
|1942||Lidice||340||Lidice, Czechoslovakia||After Czech agents assassinate Nazi Protector of Bohemia-Morovia Reinhard Heydrich, German SS execute the men of the Czech village Lidice. The remaining women and children are sent to concentration camps and the village is destroyed.|||
|1942-45||Sandakan POW/Labour Camp||6,000||North Borneo||Indonesian romusha (forced labourers), as well as Australian and British POWs are forced to construct an airfield at Sandakan. All of the Indonesians are dead by 1945. In addition to deprivation and physical abuse, including summary executions, the surviving POWs are forced to March 260 kilometres (160 miles) to another camp. Only six of those sent on these marches survive the war.|||
|1943||Khatyn massacre||100+||Belarus||The entire village in Belarus is burnt with all its inhabitants by the German Nazis and their Ukrainian collaborators; one of hundreds of Belarusian, Ukrainian and Russian villages to share a similar fate.|||
|1943||massacres of Poles in Volhynia||c.100,000||Ukraine||By Ukrainian nationalists|||
|1943||Canicatti Slaughter||12||Sicily||US Troops kill unarmed civilians at a soap factory.|||
|1943||Biscari massacre||76||Sicily||US Troops massacre German and Italian POWs.|||
|1943||Foiba massacre||5,000-10,000||Istria and Dalmatia in Italy||Communist troops under Tito's command purge Italian fascists and collaborators until 1947.|||
|1943||Kalavryta massacre||696||Greece||The male residents of the town are slaughtered by German troops in revenge for partisan activities.|||
|1944||Manila massacre||100,000||Philippines||Retreating Japanese troops slaughter at least 100,000 Filipino civilians. Manila is razed, making it the 2nd most devastated city in World War II after Warsaw.|||
|1944||Koniuchy massacre||38-300||Poland||The civilians of Koniuchy are murdered by 120-150 members of Soviet partisan groups.|||
|1944||Ascq massacre||c.86||France||After two railway cars are derailed, presumably by the French Underground, soldiers of the 12th SS Panzer Division under the command of SS Obersturmführer Walter Hauck murder 86 men in the surrounding area of the Ascq railway station.|||
|1944||Kakolyri (of Kyme) massacre||30||Greece||24 male residents of the village are slaughtered by German troops, who suspect them of helping partisan activities. The partisans previously killed one soldier who was guarding a bridge. 6 male residents of the nearby villages are slaughtered too.|||
|1944||Abbey Ardennes||c. 11-20||France||Canadian POWs who were captured during the battle are marched out into a garden and interrogated before being shot by members of the 12th SS Panzer Division.|||
|1944||Tulle Murders||c. 99||France||In response to French Underground activities the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division, upon finding the mutilated remains of 64 German soldiers of the 95th Security Regiment garrison, hangs 99 men and the remaining population of Tulle is sent to labor camps in Germany. Of the 149 townspeople only 48 survive the war.|||
|June 10, 1944||Oradour-sur-Glane massacre||642||France||Responding to recent French Resistance activity (e.g. Tulle Murders) in which German soldiers were killed, 120 SS soldiers of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division, commanded by SS Sturmbannführer Adolf Diekmann, execute 642 civilians mostly women and children refuged in the church in the town of Oradour-sur-Glane.|||
|1944||Distomo massacre||est. 228-600||Greece||More than 200 residents of the village of Distomo are massacred by the Germans. The exact number of the victims remains unknown.|||
|1944||San Polo di Arezzo massacre||48||Italy||In reprisal for Italian partisan attacks, German soldiers beat and torture the men of San Polo, before burying them alive with 3 captured partisans and explosives.|||
|1944||Wola massacre||up to 50,000||Warsaw, Poland||German troops systematically slaughter most of the civilians in the borough of Wola during the early stage of the Warsaw Uprising.|||
|1944||Meligala massacre||1,500||Greece||ELAS communist fighters attack the village of Meligalas and massacre 1,500 men, women and children. Their bodies are thrown into a large well, known as the "Pigada of Meligala". Many of the victims were collaborators with the Germans (see Greek Civil War).|||
|1944||Putten atrocity||39||Netherlands||General Heinz Helmuth von Wuhlisch orders the execution of 39 Dutch civilians and the village burned after an attack by the Dutch resistance results in the capture of a German soldier despite the later release of the hostage. The remaining men in the village are sent to labor camps and out of 589 only 49 survive at the end of the war.|||
|1944||Amsterdam reprisal||29||Netherlands||29 Dutch civilians are executed and several buildings are set on fire after the assassination of S.D. officer Herbert Oelschagel by the Dutch resistance the previous day.|||
|1944||Malmedy massacre||72-84||Belgium||Executions of surrendered American POWs during the Battle of the Ardennes.|||
|1944||Marzabotto massacre||728-1,800||Italy||In reprisal of the local support given to the partisans and the resistance movement, as many as 1,800 Italian civilians were massacred by the SS forces.|||
|1945||Chenogne massacre||60||Belgium||In reprisal for the Malmedy massacre, sixty German soldiers are executed by a unit of the U.S. 11th Armored Division outside the town of Chenogne.|||
|1945||Pliberk/Bleiburg massacre and similar events||55,000-100,000||Carinthia(Austria) and Slovenia||Yugoslav partisans retaliate against Ustashe, Domobrani, soldiers who collaborated with the Nazi occupant, as well as many civilians.|||
|May 3, 1945||SS Cap Arcona sinking||7,000-8,000||Germany||British RAF aircraft sink the SS Cap Arcona, Deutschland, and Thielbek, which were carrying POWs from the Neuengamme concentration camp. Hawker Typhoons, then Nazis kill survivors as they attempt to make it ashore.|||
|1945||Setif massacre||150 pied-noirs
|Algeria||Immediately following the end of WW2 hostilities in Europe, Algerians demonstrating for independance are massacred by colonial government troops.|||
|1945||Sado atrocity||387||Sado, Japan||Japanese soldiers under Lieutenant Yoshiro Tsuda set off an explosion in a nearby gold mine, killing the 387 British, American, Australian and Dutch prisoners of war who had been working in the mine since 1942.|||
|1945||Treuenbrietzen||c.1000||Germany||Red army soldiers execute German civilians.|||
|1947||228 Incident||10,000-30,000||Taiwan||Kuomintang government (Chinese) troops massacre Taiwanese civilians after an uprising.|||
|1948||Deir Yassin massacre||107||Mandate for Palestine||107 Arab civilians are killed by Irgun and Lehi.|||
|1948||Hadassah medical convoy massacre||c.77||Mandate for Palestine||Medical convoy is attacked by Arab irregulars. Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students are killed by machine gun fire and burning.|||
|1950||Capture of Seoul||c.100,000||Korea||Civilians are executed after the communist capture of Seoul.|||
|1968||My Lai massacre||347–504||South Vietnam||USA soldiers executed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.|||
|1971||1971 East Pakistan Intellectuals massacre||c.100||East Pakistan||Pakistan Army and local collaborators kill a large number of doctors, engineers, educators, journalists, and other intellectuals during the flag end of the Bangladesh War of 1971.|||
|January 18, 1976||Karantina massacre||c.1,000||Karantina, Lebanon||Lebanese Christian Militia massacres Kurds and Armenians, as well as some Lebanese and Palestinians in Karantina a district in Beirut Lebanon during the 1975-1990 Lebanese Civil War.|||
|1976||Damour massacre||c.330||Damour, Lebanon||Palestinian militants massacre the population of the Christian town of Damour.|||
|1982||Plan de Sánchez massacre||c. 250||Plan de Sánchez, Guatemala||Government army troops and militias raid Mayan indigenous village, rape women, raze village, and murder unarmed residents, mostly women and children during Guatemalan civil war.|||
|1982||Sabra and Shatila massacre||800–3,000||Beirut, Lebanon||Lebanese Christian Militia massacres Palestinian Refugees following Israeli invasion of Beirut.|||
|1985||Massacre near Kandahar, Soviet war in Afghanistan||c. 350||Afghanistan||In three villages near Kandahar, the Soviets killed women and children in retaliation for a rebel attack in the vicinity.|||
|1991||Lovas massacre||51||Lovas, Croatia||Serb paramilitaries kill civilians.|||
|1991||Gospić massacre||c. 100||Gospić, Croatia||Croat paramilitaries kill civilians.|||
|1991||Vukovar massacre||c. 260||Vukovar, Croatia||Yugoslav army and Serb paramilitaries massacre POWs and wounded civilians.|||
|1991||Škabrnja massacre||86||Škabrnja, Croatia||Serb paramilitaries kill civilians and POWs.|||
|1991||Voćin massacre||32-45||Voćin, Croatia||"White Eagles" a Serb paramilitary group massacres civilians.|||
|1992||Khojaly massacre||613||Khojali, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan||Armenian irregulars massacre Azerbaijani civilians.|||
|1992||Maraghar massacre||145||Maraghar, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan||Azerbaijani forces massacre Armenian civilians.|||
|1992||Višegrad massacre||3,000||Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian Serb army takes over the town and massacres many.|||
|1993||Sukhumi massacre||1,200||Abkhazia, Georgia||Abkhaz separatists and their allies commit wide spread atrocities and massacres of Georgian civilians in Sukhumi. The massacre of civilians in Sukhumi lasted one week.|||
|1994||First Markale massacre||68||Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian Serb army shells a crowded civilian marketplace in downtown Sarajevo|||
|1995||Second Markale massacre||37||Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian Serb army shells a crowded civilian marketplace in downtown Sarajevo.|||
|1999||Bombing of Serbia||1,500||Serbia||US Air Force massacres over 500 Serb civilians in a 3 month bombing campaign.|||
|2001||Dasht-i-Leili massacre||250–3,000||Afghanistan||Taliban prisoners are shot and/or suffocated to death in metal truck containers while being transferred between prisons by Northern Alliance soldiers during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan.|||
|2004||Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre||42||Iraq||U.S. forces attack the village of Mukaradeeb and massacre 42 people at a wedding party.|||
|2007||al Ahamir massacre||10 - 14||Iraq||Alleged members of al-Qaeda shoot and kill between 10 and 14 Iraqi non-combatants.|||
|2007||3 February Baghdad market bombing||135||Iraq||A suicide attack kills at least 135 people and injures 339 others in a busy market in Baghdad.|||
|2007||Al Hillah bombings||120||Iraq||Two alleged Sunni insurgents wearing explosive vests blow themselves up in a large crowd of Shiite pilgrims in Al Hillah.|||
|2007||18 April Baghdad bombings||198||Iraq||The attacks target mainly Shia locations and civilians.|||
|2007||Amirli bombing||156||Iraq||A truck bomb strikes Amirli on a busy Saturday shopping morning.|||
|2007||Qahtaniya bombings||572||Iraq||Truck bombs target Yazidi religious minority.|||
- There is considerable dispute over whether bombing of civilian targets during wartime is appropriately called a massacre.
|1941||Bombing of Belgrade in World War II||17,000||Yugoslavia||The Germans bomb Belgrade, killing 17,000 people. Belgrade is bombed again in 1944, this time by the Allies.|||
|1945||Bombing of Dresden||35,000-300,000||Dresden, Germany||
The bombing of Dresden was led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15. Overall, Anglo-American bombing of German cities claimed up to 600,000 civilian lives.
|1945||Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki||220,000-500,000||Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan||
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki follow six months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities. On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" is dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are the only officially acknowledged uses of nuclear weapons in warfare.
|August 14, 1945||Japanese post-surrender bombing||Thousands||Honshu, Japan||After the Japanese government surrenders, Henry H. Arnold organizes a final bombing of Japan, dropping six thousand tons of conventional explosives from 1,014 planes onto civilian targets. Leaflets are dropped with the bombs, announcing Japan’s surrender.|||
State-sponsored or state-condoned massacres during peacetime
|1570||Massacre of Novgorod||2,500 - 12,000||Novgorod, Russia||Ivan the Terrible slaughters the population of Novgorod.|||
|1692||Massacre of Glencoe||78||Scotland||
The order is signed by King William III
|1770||Boston massacre||5||British colony, now US state of Massachusetts||Pre- American Revolution, British soldiers open fire upon a hostile crowd. The soldiers are later acquitted by an all American colonist jury.|||
|1846||Kot massacre||85-90||Kathmandu, Nepal||Queen's secret lover is murdered. She orders Jung Bahadur Rana for the investigation who kills every top nobleman and ultimately seizes the absolute power of Nepal establishing Rana autocracy.|||
|1848||Massacre in Běchovice||min.100||Běchovice, Bohemia||Austrian army massacred unarmed civilians|||
|1905||Bloody Sunday||100-1000||Saint Petersburg, Russia||Tsarist soldiers fire on unarmed demonstrators in front of the Winter Palace.|||
|August 16, 1819||Peterloo massacre||11||Manchester, England||Cavalry attack civil rights protestors and 11 are killed, 500 are injured (including women and children)|||
|1909||Adana massacre||>2,000||Adana, Ottoman Empire||Abdul Hamid loyalists massacre Armenians.|||
|1918||Romanov Massacre||c.10||Yekaterinburg, Russia||Bolshevik execution of Nicholas II and the Russian royal household.|||
|1919||Amritsar massacre||c.>379||India||British troops led by Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fires 1650 rounds of ammunition into a crowd of 20,000 people gathered in a garden with its sole exit blocked to prevent people from escaping.|||
|1921||Tulsa Race Riot||39-300||Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA||White mobs invade and burn the segregated black Greenwood district, 1,256 homes. The governor declares martial law, black citizens are rounded up by the National Guard and put into internment camps.|||
|1922||18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt||8||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||The first event of the tenentist revolt. At the end, ten men, one of them a civilian, marched to the encounter of the loyalist troops, and were massacred.|||
|1930||Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre||c.200||Peshawar||British troops fire on hundreds of non-violent protesters in Peshawar.|||
|1932||MMDC||5||São Paulo, Brazil||Five students in a protest died in result of a clash with Getúlio Vargas' federal troops, triggering the Constitutionalist Revolution. The last of them died only a few months after being wounded.|||
|1932||Bonus March||4-5||Washington, D.C., United States||Federal cavalry troops with rifles and tear gas evict World War I veterans and their families in protest camps around Washington. Hundreds of veterans are injured, several are killed.|||
|1937||Purge of the Red Army||30,000||Soviet Union||With 50% of all army officers executed on Stalin's order, including 3 of 5 marshals, 13 of 15 army commanders and 8 of 9 admirals, the result was that the Red Army officer corps in 1941 had many inexperienced senior officers.|||
|1937||Parsley Massacre||17,00 - 35,000||Dominican Republic||Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo ordered the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands with Haiti.|||
|1937-1941||Kurapaty||30,000-200,000||Soviet Union||During the Stalinist period in the Soviet Union, it was one of the sites where the NKVD had buried thousands of executed.|||
|1939||Mass executions after the Spanish Civil War||Tens of thousands||Spain||Franco's victory was followed by thousands of summary executions.|||
|1948||Babrra massacre||c.100||Charsadda district of Pakistan||Unarmed workers of the Khudai Khidmatgar movements were fired upon by the provincial government of North-West Frontier province on the orders of the then Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan|||
|1948||Jeju massacre||30,000||Korea||South Korean troops execute people in Jeju after the communist uprising has been crushed|||
|1949-1953||Annihilation of "class enemies"||700,000-5,000,000||People’s Republic of China||Mao’s first political campaigns of mass repression targeted former officials, businessmen, former employees of Western companies, intellectuals, and significant numbers of rural gentry. There was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution".|||
|1950||Taejon massacre||7,000||Korea||South Korean troops execute North Korean POWs|||
|1953||Qibya massacre||c.60||West Bank||Israeli soldiers raid Palestinian village, killing at least 60 civilians.|||
|1954||Kengir massacre||700||Soviet Union||Forty days of Gulag prisoner resistance ending in a bloody massacre of prisoners by Soviet forces.|||
|1955||6 - 7 September massacres||> 28 killed, 30 injured, 300 raped||Istanbul, Turkey||Killing of members of the Greek community by Turkish civilians during riots against Christianity.|||
|1954-1962||Algerian massacre||>500,000||Algeria||Killing of Algerian civilians by French Army and the FLN during the Algerian War of Independence.|||
|1956||Kafr Qasim massacre||48 + 1 unborn child||Israel||Israeli Border Police kill 48 people including a 9-month pregnant woman in the Arab village of Kafr Qasim.|||
|1959||Suppression of the Lhasa Uprising||87,000||Tibet||The Chinese PLA massacres thousands of Tibetans in the Lhasa region during the rebellion against Chinese rule.|||
|1960||Sharpeville massacre||69||South Africa||Police open fire on a crowd of black protesters, 69 people killed and more than 180 injured.|||
|1961||Paris massacre of 1961||32-200||Paris, France||Killing of Algerian demonstrators|||
|1962||Massacre of Harkis||50,000-150,000||Algeria||Algerians who remained loyal to France and their families were massacred by the National Liberation Front (Algeria) and by lynch mobs.|||
|1962||Novocherkassk massacre||24 killed, 39 injured||Novocherkassk, Soviet Union||police open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation|||
|1962||Palma Sola massacre||"thousands"||Dominican Republic||The Dominican military destroys the town of Palma Sola, the base of the (mostly Afro-Dominican) political and religious dissident movement known as the Liboristas|||
|1965-1966||September 30th massacre and aftermath||500,000-1 million||Indonesia||The Suharto regime massacres ethnic Chinese communists and dissidents in rural areas|||
|1968||Orangeburg massacre||3||South Carolina State University, USA||Local police officers fire into a crowd of violent protestors, killing 3 men|||
|1968||Tlatelolco massacre||200–300||Tlatelolco, Mexico||Troops open fire on student demonstrators.|||
|1968-1979||Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong||80,000||Equatorial Guinea||Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 have been killed. Nguema acted as chief judge who sentenced thousands to death.|| |
|1970||Kent State massacre||4 killed, 9 wounded||Kent State University, Ohio, USA||29 members of the Ohio National Guard open fire on unarmed students protesting against the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom is permanently paralyzed.|||
|1971||Massacre of Bangladesh||c.250,000-3,000,000||Bangladesh||Starting with Operation Searchlight in March, the Pakistani Army kills c.250,000-3,000,000 Bangladeshis|||
|1971||Corpus Christi massacre||c.25||Mexico City, Mexico||Special forces open fire on student demonstrators.|||
|1971-1979||Idi Amin Dada||300,000-500,000||Uganda||The Idi Amin regime massacres other ethnic groups, religious leaders, journalists, senior bureaucrats, judges, lawyers, students and intellectuals|||
|1972||Bloody Sunday||14||Derry, Northern Ireland||Shooting of 28 unarmed Irish Catholic Civilians, 14 of whom die, by a Paratroop Regiment of the British Army following a protest march at the introduction of internment without trial.|||
|1973||Caravan of Death||71 to 97||Chile||A death squad flew though the country shortly after the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, aiming potential political opponents.|||
|1973||Ezeiza massacre||at least 13||Argentina||Snipers fired at a large crowd gathered near the airport at Perón's return from exile.|||
|1974-1991||Marxist regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam||150,000-500,000||Ethiopia||During Mengistu's rule it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts each morning. Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Mengistu's so-called red terror.|||
|1975||Operation Colombo||119||Chile||Disappearance of political dissidents undertaken by the Chilean secret Police during the dictatorship.|||
|1975-1979||Cambodia under Pol Pot||2,000,000||Cambodia||2 million Cambodians were killed, political executions, starvation, and forced labor, about 25% to 30% of the entire population.|||
|1975-1983||Operation Condor||c. 50,000||Southern South America||Murders that followed kidnappings and tortures of dissident citizens, journalists and professors by the military governments in South America. The number of deaths include c. 30,000 in Argentina's Dirty War).|||
|1980||Gwangju massacre||191–250–2000||Gwangju, South Korea||Government troops attack protesting students and civilians in Gwangju.|||
|1981||Tula massacre||13||Atotonilco de Tula, Mexico||
13 people are tortured and killed by order of Arturo Durazo Moreno
|1981||El Mozote massacre||c.900||El Mozote, El Salvador||Government troops torture and kill the residents of El Mozote.|||
|1982||Hama massacre||5000-20,000||Syria||Government troops attack the rebel town of Hama, poison gas is used in some areas.|||
|1983||Black July||1,000-3,000||Sri Lanka||Government soldiers along with Sinhalese mobs massacred Tamil civilians.|||
|1983, 1989||The Gukurahundi||c.25,000||Zimbabwe||Genocide, and suppression of dissident tribal areas by Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwean Fifth Brigade.|||
|1986-89||Al-Anfal Campaign||50,000-100,000||Iraq||Ethnic cleansing of Kurds by Saddam Hussein.|||
|1988||Halabja poison gas attack||3,000-5,000||Iraq||Gas attack on the Kurdish town by Saddam Hussein.|||
|1988||1988 Massacre of Iranian Prisoners||5,000 +||Iran||Political prisoners are gathered in special prison quarters. They are then retried on orders from Ayatollah Khomeini by three member judging committees. Between 5000 to 30000 are murdered and buried in secret places.|||
|1988||8888 Uprising||3,000 +||Burma||Burmese citizens took to the streets and demanded democracy after 26 years of military dictatorship and economic mismanagement. The army cracked down the protests and killed at least three thousand people.|||
|1989||April 9 tragedy||c.20||Soviet Union||Soviet military troops attack Georgian demonstrators in Tbilisi, Georgia|||
|1989||Tiananmen massacre||up to 2,600||Beijing, China||Chinese PLA troops open fire on students and civilians gathered in Beijing.|||
|1990||Black January||133||Soviet Union||Soviet military troops attack Azeri protesters, passers-by and emergency squad members in Baku, Azerbaijan|||
|1991||Vilnius massacre||13||Vilnius, Lithuania||Soviet military troops attacked Lithuanian independence supporters.|||
|1991||Medininkai massacre||7||Medininkai, Lithuania||Soviet military troops attacked Lithuanian customs building.|||
|1991||Dili massacre||271||Dili, East Timor||Timorese protesting Indonesian rule are killed by Indonesian soldiers.|||
|1991||Barrios Altos massacre||15||Lima, Peru||A mistaken attack by the death squad Grupo Colina, originally aimed at a Shining Path meeting.|||
|1992||La Cantuta massacre||10||Lima, Peru||Nine students and a teacher from La Cantuta University, were abducted by a death squad two days after a bombing by Sendero Luminoso.|||
|1992||Carandiru massacre||111||São Paulo, Brazil||Prison rebellion.|||
|1993||Candelária massacre||8||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Police retaliate against street children at an orphanage, leading to worldwide criticism.|||
|1993||Vigário Geral massacre||21||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Police death squad retaliate the death of 4 officers at a favela.|||
|1994||13 de Marzo||41||Cuba||Refugees drown after a confrontation with the Cuban Navy.|||
|1995||Aguas Blancas massacre||17||Guerrero, Mexico||Motorized Police kill protesters who demand some rights and the release of a prisoner.|||
|1996||Eldorado dos Carajás massacre||19||Pará, Brazil||Police killed landless peasents in a demonstration.|||
|1997||Japanese embassy hostage crisis||17||Lima, Peru||After 126 of seizure by the MRTA, government troops invaded the embassy building. One hostage, two commandos and all 14 MRTA members die, some of them executed.|||
|1997||Acteal massacre||45||Chiapas, Mexico||Allegedly government-linked paramilitaries attack a prayer meeting professing support for the goals of the EZLN rebels.|||
|1997||Naharaim Peace Island massacre||7||Naharim, Israel||A Jordanian soldier of Palestinian origin, shoots and kills 7 girls on a school trip on Jordanian Peace Island. King Hussein comes to Bet Shemesh to ask for forgiveness.|||
|1999||Liquica Church massacre||Over 200||East Timor||Pro-Indonesian Militia group attacks East Timorese civilians at the Liquica Roman Catholic Church. Using machetes and automatic rifles, over 200 are killed.|||
|1999||Reçak/Račak massacre||45||Kosova/Kosovo||A Serbian Special Forces (JSO) attacks the village and kills 45 KLA rebels and civilians.|||
|2002||Itaba massacre||173 to 267||Itaba, Burundi||The Burundian Army massacres between 173 and 267 Hutu villagers in reprisal for rebel attacks.|||
|2005||Andijan massacre||200 - 1000||Andijan,Uzbekistan||Uzbek Interior Ministry troops fire into a crowd of protesters in May 2005.|||
|2007||2007 Burmese anti-government protests;Saffron Revolution||100 +||Burma||Buddhist monks took to the streets demonstrating against mistreatment of monks by military authorities. Thousands of civilians joined in. Military troops and riot police killed hundreds of people; Thousands were imprisoned.|||
Politically motivated non-governmental massacres
|1856||Pottawatomie massacre||5||Franklin County, Kansas, United States||Radical abolitionist John Brown murders pro-slavery men with swords in "Bleeding Kansas"|||
|1872||Going Snake massacre||22||Oklahoma Territory, United States||Ten US Marshals are ambushed by over thirty Cherokee men during their attempt to arrest a murder suspect. Eight of the Marshals are killed. Fourteen Cherokee men are also killed.|||
|1873||Colfax massacre||100+||Colfax, Louisiana, United States||A group of white members of "The White League", a KKK-like organization, attack members of Louisiana's almost all-black post-Civil War militia, initially over an election dispute, culminating in the massacre of over 100 black men, at least half of whom had already surrendered and were murdered in cold blood.|||
|1927||Bath School disaster||45||Bath Township, Michigan, United States||Andrew Kehoe sets off three bombs, including two at the Bath Consolidated School, due to anger over property taxes. 38 of the dead were students.|||
|1929||1929 Hebron massacre||67||Hebron, then part of the British Mandate of Palestine||Arabs kill 67 Jews in Hebron.|||
|1929||1929 Safed massacre||18||Safed, then part of the British Mandate of Palestine||Arabs kill 18 Jews in Safed.|||
|March 17, 1954||Ma'ale Akrabim massacre||11||Ma'ale Akrabim, Israel||Palestinians from Jordan ambush a bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv, shooting the driver and all aboard.|||
|1963||16th Street Baptist Church bombing||4||16th Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, United States||Ku Klux Klan members Bobby Frank Cherry and Robert Edward Chambliss plant dynamite in the basement of the church.|||
|1972||Lod Airport massacre||26||Ben-Gurion Airport, Israel||Japanese terrorists open fire on civilians in the Ben-Gurion Airport near Lod, Israel. 26 are killed and 78 more are injured.|||
|1972||Bloody Friday||9||Belfast, Northern Ireland||Explosion of 22 bombs in 90 minutes by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in and around central Belfast. The bombings kill seven civilians, two British soldiers and injure 130 other people.|||
|1972||Munich massacre||17||Munich, Germany||At the Olympic Games, eight Palestinian terrorists kidnap eleven Israeli athletes. After a stand-off at an airstrip, the terrorists kill the hostages and a counter-terrorist police officer before five of the terrorists are shot dead, and three others captured.|||
|1972||Claudy bombing||9||Claudy, Northern Ireland||Detonation of three car bombs in Claudy village. The Provisional Irish Republican Army and a local Catholic priest are implicated in the attack.|||
|1974||Kiryat Shmona massacre||18||Kiryat Shmona, Israel||Palestinian terrorists kill Israeli residents in Kiryat Shmona.|||
|1974||Ma'alot massacre||21||Ma'alot, Israel||Palestinian terrorists kill 21 elementary school students in Ma'alot.|||
|1974||Dublin and Monaghan bombings||33||Dublin and Monaghan, Ireland.||Three bombs planted in the Republic of Ireland by the Ulster Volunteer Force. Worst number of casualties in any single day of The Troubles.|||
|1974||Birmingham Pub bombings||21||Birmingham, England||The Provisional IRA explodes two bombs in busy public houses killing 21 civilians, more than half of whom were under the age of 25. Until the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988, this is Britain's worst act of mass murder.|||
|1976||6 October massacre||46||Bangkok, Thailand||University Students from Bangkok demonstrate against the return to Thailand of ousted prime minister, Thanom Kittikachorn.|||
|1977||Atocha massacre||5||Madrid, Spain||Far-right activists kill 5 left-wing lawyers during the Spanish transition to democracy.|||
|1978||La Mon restaurant bombing||12||Outside Belfast, Northern Ireland||Provisional Irish Republican Army firebomb attack at a Belfast hotel.|||
|1979||Greensboro massacre||5||Greensboro, North Carolina, United States||Ku Klux Klansmen and American Nazis open fire on an anti-Klan demonstration.|||
|1986||Plaza de la República Dominicana massacre||12||Madrid, Spain||Iñaki de Juana Chaos, an ETA terrorist, sets up a car bomb in the Dominican Republic Square, killing 12 people and injuring 45.|||
|1987||Remembrance Day massacre||11||Enniskillen, Northern Ireland||The Provisional IRA explodes a bomb targeted at a civilian war commemoration ceremony in the centre of Enniskillen, Northern Ireland.|||
|1988||The Strijdom Square massacre||8||Pretoria, South Africa||8 people are shot and killed (16 are wounded) by right wing extremist Barend Strydom.|||
|1992||Tarata bombing||40||Lima, Peru||Car bomb attack by Sendero Luminoso, triggering the La Cantuta massacre.|||
|1992||Boipatong massacre||46||Boipatong, South Africa||Zulu hostel dwellers go on rampage through township.|||
|1993||St James Church massacre||11||Cape Town, South Africa||Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) kills 11 and wounds 58 people in church during Sunday church service.|||
|1993||Shankill Road bombing||9||Belfast, Northern Ireland||The Provisional IRA kills eight civilians and one of its own by exploding a bomb in a fish shop on the Shankill Road.|||
|1993||Greysteel massacre||8||Greysteel, Northern Ireland||Ulster Freedom Fighters slaughter both Catholics and Protestants in an attack on a pub.|||
|1994||Second Hebron massacre||29||Hebron, West Bank||Israeli extremist Baruch Goldstein opens fire on a group of Palestinian Muslims praying at the Cave of the Patriarchs site.|||
|1994||Shell House massacre||3 - 19||Johannesburg, South Africa||ANC security guards open fire on IFP supporters approaching the ANC headquarters.|||
|1995||Oklahoma City bombing||168||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States||Anti-government extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols destroy the 9-story Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building with a truck bomb, killing 168 and injuring 800.|||
|1995||Atiak massacre||170 – 220||Gulu District, Uganda||Civilians are killed by the Lord's Resistance Army.|||
|1996||Acholpii massacre||c.100||Pader District, Uganda||Sudanese refugees in a refugee settlement are killed by the Lord's Resistance Army .|||
|1997||Lokung/Palabek massacre||c.412||Kitgum District, Uganda||Civilians are bludgeoned or hacked to death by the Lord's Resistance Army.|||
|1997||Thalit massacre||52||Thalit, Algeria||52 out of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit were killed on April 3-4, having their throats slit by armed guerrillas who burned their houses afterwards. Smaller-scale massacres took place the same day at Amroussa, Sidi Naamane, Moretti, and Beni Slimane, killing another 30-odd people. The attack was blamed on Islamist guerrillas such as the Armed Islamic Group(GIA).|||
|1997||Haouch Khemisti massacre||93||Haouch Mokhfi Khemisti, Algeria||93 villagers are killed in 3 hours on April 22, followed the next day by the Omaria massacre near Medea.|||
|1997||Dairat Labguer massacre||c.50||Dairat Labguer, Algeria||About 50 people are killed on June 16 by some 30 guerrillas, who also kidnap women, kill the livestock, and steal jewels. Five days earlier, another 17 had been killed at a village some 5 km away. The massacre was attributed to Islamist groups such as the GIA.|||
|1997||Souhane massacres||64||Souhane, Algeria||64 people are killed, and 15 women kidnapped on August 20-21; the resulting terror provoked a mass exodus, bringing the town's population down from 4000 before the massacre to just 103 in 2002. Smaller-scale massacres later take place on November 27, 1997 (18 men, 3 women, 4 children killed) and 2 March 2000, when some 10 people from a single household were killed by guerrillas. The massacres were blamed on Islamist groups such as the GIA.|||
|1997||Rais massacre||c.200||Rais, Algeria|||
|1997||Bentalha massacre||>200||Bentalha, Algeria||On September 22-23, 1997, more than 200 villagers (according to Amnesty International) are killed by armed guerrillas. The number of deaths reported ranged from 85 (initial official estimate) to 400 (The Economist).|||
|1997||Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 30 December 1997||412||4 villages near Souk El Had, Algeria|||
|1997||Mapiripán Massacre||Unknown||Mapiripán, Colombia||AUC kill an unknown number of civilians with chainsaws, machetes and gunfire, throwing the bodies into the Guaviare River|||
|1998||Wandhama massacre||24||Wandhama, India||24 Kashmiri Pandits are brutally murdered by Pakistani militants .|||
|1998||Sidi Hamed massacre||103||Sidi Hamed, Algeria|||
|1998||Omagh bombing||29||Omagh, Northern Ireland||Car bomb attack carried out by Irish republicans opposed to the Northern Ireland Peace Process. This is the biggest massacre in any single incident in Northern Ireland related to The Troubles.|||
|1998||Tadjena massacre||42||Algeria|||
|2001||Sbarro restaurant massacre||15||Jerusalem, Israel||Suicide bombing committed by a Palestinian terrorist in a crowded restaurant in Jerusalem, Israel.|||
|2001||September 11, 2001 attacks||2,973||New York, Virginia, Pennsylvania (United States)||Al-Qaeda hijacks 4 U.S. commercial airliners for use in a suicide bombing attack on major American targets. Two planes strike the twin towers at the World Trade Center in New York, causing the majority of the deaths; one hits the Pentagon; another plane is downed in a Pennsylvania field by its hijackers when passengers rush the cockpit.|||
|2002||Bojayá massacre||119||Bojayá, Colombia||FARC guerrillas launch an explosive into a church that is sheltering civilians, killing 119 and wounding 98.|||
|2002||Passover massacre||30||Netanya, Israel||An Arab suicide bomber kills civilians.|||
|2002||2002 Bali Bombing||202||Bali,Indonesia||The 2002 Bali Bombing occurs in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring a further 209.|||
|2003||Jerusalem bus 2 massacre||23||Jerusalem, Israel||Suicide bombing committed by a Palestinian terrorist in a crowded bus in Jerusalem, Israel.|||
|2003||Maxim restaurant massacre||21||Haifa, Israel|||
|2004||Barlonyo massacre||>200||Barlonyo, Lira District, Uganda||Civilians at an IDP camp are murdered by the Lord's Resistance Army.|||
|2004||Ashoura massacre||c.170||Karbala, Baghdad, Iraq|||
|2004||11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings||191||Madrid, Spain||Islamic terrorists plant several bombs aboard four commuter trains in Madrid.|||
|2004||Beslan school massacre||344||Beslan, Russia||Muslim Chechen separatists kill 344 children and parents after a three-day standoff with Russian police.|||
|2005||2005 Bali Bombings||23||Bali, Indonesia||Al-Qaeda linked groups explode several bombs at two sites in Jimbaran and Kuta, both in south Bali. Twenty-three people are killed, including three bombers.|||
|2005||7 July 2005 London bombings||55||London, United Kingdom||Four Islamic suicide bombers strike London's public transportation system during the morning rush hour.|||
|2006||Hay al Jihad massacre||40||Baghdad, Iraq||Shia militants execute Sunni civilians.|||
|1854||Eureka Stockade||28||Ballarat, Victoria||Uprising by miners against repression and taxes is put down by soldiers.|||
|1885||Rock Springs massacre||28||Rock Springs, Wyoming||Racially and economically motivated attack by white coal miners on Chinese miners.|||
|1886||Haymarket Riot||12||Chicago, Illinois||May 4, 1886: A bomb is tossed amongst striking workers and police, who open fire on the crowd.|||
|1886||Bay View Massacre||7||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||One day after the Haymarket Riot in Chicago, Wisconsin National Guard troops open fire on striking workers.|||
|1892||Homestead lockout/strike||35||Homestead, Pennsylvania||Pinkerton guards are deployed against striking US Steel laborers in the bloodiest labor conflict in the US.|||
|1897||Lattimer massacre||19||Hazleton, Pennsylvania||Luzerne County Sheriff's posse fires on strikers at the request of mining companies|||
|1907||Iquique Massacre||500 - 2,000||Iquique, northern Chile (formerly Peru)||
Forces under Gen. Roberto Silva-Renard fire on thousands of saltpeter miners, their wives and children, protesting working conditions and wages.
|1914||Ludlow massacre||20||Ludlow, Colorado||Suppression of a strike by twelve thousand Colorado coal miners.|||
|1920||Matewan massacre||10||Matewan, West Virginia||Confrontation between agents of the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, hired by mine owners, and Matewan police chief Sid Hatfield leading a group of temporarily deputized mine workers attempting to serve warrants.|||
|1928||Banana massacre||c.47 to 2,000||Santa Marta, Colombia||
Workers of the United Fruit Company killed by military forces to end a month long union strike.
|1927||Columbine Mine massacre||at least 6||Serene, Colorado||500 striking coal miners, some with their families, are attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes|||
|1931||Ådalen shootings||5||Sweden||Swedish military forces open fire on labor demonstrators, killing 5 people|||
|1988||CSN strike||3||Volta Redonda, Brazil||Historical strike in Brazilian history, repressed by police and army.|||
Criminal and non-political massacres
|1929||St. Valentine's Day massacre||7||Chicago, Illinois, United States||Members of Bugs Moran's gang are murdered by Al Capone's men.|||
|1935||Palace Chophouse Massacre||4||Newark, New Jersey, United States||The second deadliest gangland massacre behind the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Mobster Dutch Schultz is killed by members of Murder Inc in a shootout that also claims the lives of one of his henchmen, accountant, and bodyguard.|| |
|1938||Tsuyama massacre||31||Tsuyama, Okayama, Japan||Mutsuo Toi rampaged through a village near Tsuyama armed with Katanas and a rifle, killing 30 including his grandmother. Toi took his life after the massacre.|||
|1941||Stanley Graham killings||7||Hokitika, New Zealand||Farmer Stanley Graham kills seven people during a 12-day rampage which ends when he is shot dead by police.|||
|1948||Teigin Bank poisoning||12||Tokyo, Japan||During a robbery, painter Sadamichi Hirasawa gives cyanide to ingest to twelve bank employees, immediately killing eleven.|||
|1949||Howard Unruh Massacre||13||Camden, New Jersey, United States||World War II veteran Howard Unruh, armed with a Luger, randomly opens fire inside shops and at pathways, killing thirteen. Unruh was believed to suffer from mental illnesses and required psychiatric needs.|||
|1966||University of Texas Tower Shooting||15||Austin, Texas, United States||After killing his mother and wife the night before, Charles Whitman goes on a shooting rampage atop the University of Texas at Austin's observation tower, killing 15 people and injuring 30 before being killed by police.|||
|1977||California State University, Fullerton library massacre||7||Fullerton, California, United States||Edward Charles Allaway opens fire at fellow workers at the California State University, Fullerton library, killing 7 and wounding 2.|||
|1977||Neptune massacre||6||New Rochelle, New York, United States||Frederick Cowan killed 5 people, wounded 5 others and killed himself at the Neptune Moving Company in New Rochelle, New York where he worked.|||
|1978||Jonestown massacre||913||Jonestown, Guyana||Peoples Temple cult attacks Rep. Leo Ryan and delegation. After 5 are killed in shootout, Jim Jones led mass suicide.|||
|1982||Carl Brown massacre||8||Miami, Florida, United States||Angry over a dispute of a bill, Carl Brown opens fire in a mechanic shop, killing eight.|||
|1982||Woo Bum-Kon||58||Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea||Dispirited police officer rampaged through 5 villages in rural South Korea, killing 57 (and himself) and wounding 35.|||
|1982||George Banks Massacre||13||Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, United States||Former state prison guard George Banks kills thirteen in a shooting rampage, including five of his children.|||
|1983||Wah Mee massacre||13||Seattle, Washington, United States||Fourteen people are shot and 13 killed at a gambling club in Seattle's International District.|||
|1984||McDonald's massacre||22||San Diego, California, United States||Twenty-one killed, 19 injured in a shooting rampage at a McDonald's restaurant before the gunman is shot dead.|||
|1984||Milperra massacre||7||Sydney, NSW, Australia||Seven were killed and 19 injured in a clash between outlaw motorcycle gangs, in a suburb of Sydney on Father's Day.|||
|1984||Dorothy Mae Apartment Hotel Blaze||25||Los Angeles, California, United States,||25 people died in a blaze when 21-year old Humberto de la Torre torched the Dorothy Mae Apartment Hotel after a dispute with his uncle who managed the building.|||
|1986||Edmond Postal massacre||15||Edmond, Oklahoma, United States||Fired postman Patrick Sherrill shot twenty-one former fellow employees in the Post Office, killing fourteen of them before committing suicide. Between 1986 and 1997, more than 40 people were killed in more than 20 separate incidents involving the United States Postal Service.|||
|1987||Winn-Dixie massacre||6||Palm Bay, Florida, United States||William B. Cruse opens fire in a Winn-Dixie supermarket, killing six people and wounding several including police who attempted to confront him.|||
|1987||Hoddle Street massacre||7||Melbourne, Victoria, Australia||19-year-old Julian Knight shoots seven people dead and wounded another nineteen in thirty minutes before surrendering to police.|||
|1987||Hungerford massacre||17||Hungerford, Berkshire, England||Michael Ryan went a rampage in a small rural town in England, shooting people at random (including his own mother) with an array of firearms before killing himself.|||
|1987||Queen Street massacre||9||Melbourne, Victoria, Australia||Frank Vitkovic kills eight and injures five in an Australia Post building before jumping 12 stories to his death.|||
|1987||Ronald Gene Simmons Massacre||16||Russellville, Arkansas, United States||Retired United States Air Force sergeant Ronald Gene Simmons Jr. strangled and fatally shot fourteen family members four days prior to rampaging through offices and store outlets that left two dead and several injured.|||
|1988||ESL massacre||7||Sunnyvale, California, United States||Former employee Richard Farley returns to Electromagnetic Systems Labs (ESL) with guns and explosives, killing seven people and injuring three others, including Laura Black, a woman he had been stalking for four years.|||
|1989||Stockton massacre||6||Stockton, California, United States||Patrick Purdy, armed with a semi-automatic rifle, opened fire at an elementary school that killed 5 schoolchildren and wounded nearly 30 others before taking his own life.|||
|1989||École Polytechnique massacre||15||Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada||Saying "I hate feminists", Marc Lépine kills 14 women and wounds 10 women and 4 men at an engineering school, before killing himself.|||
|1989||Standard Gravure shooting||9||Louisville, Kentucky, United States||Employee Joseph Wesbecker went on a rampage and killed eight other employees and himself, while wounding twelve others. He was off work on disability leave due to mental illness at the time of the shootings.|||
|1990||Happy Land Fire||87||New York City, New York, United States||Julio González starts an arson at a social club entitled "Happy Land" that kills 87 people.|||
|1990||Aramoana massacre||13||Aramoana, New Zealand||Gun collector David Gray opens fire on town residents before being shot dead by the Armed Offenders Squad.|||
|1990||GMAC massacre||10||Jacksonville, Florida, United States||James Edward Pough kills nine people and finally himself at a GMAC office after his car is repossessed.|||
|1991||Strathfield massacre||8||Sydney, Australia||Wade Frankum opens fire in a suburban shopping mall, killing seven people and wounding a further six before turning the assault rifle on himself.|||
|1991||Luby's massacre||23||Killeen, Texas, United States||George Hennard drove his pickup truck into a cafeteria and opened fire before taking his own life.|||
|1991||Gang Lu Massacre||6||Iowa City, Iowa, United States||Gang Lu, a Chinese University of Iowa student enrolled in a Ph.D physics program fatally shot three faculty members, a fellow female Ph.D student from China and an advisor before turning the gun on himself.|||
|1992||Ratima killings||7||Masterton, New Zealand||Raymond Ratima bludgeons or stabs to death four acquaintances before killing his own three children, aged 7, 5 and 2.|||
|1992||Central Coast massacre||7||Central Sydney, NSW, Australia||A gunman shoots his son, an ex-girlfriend, her heavily pregnant sister, the girl's father and another couple with a sawn-off shotgun before finally handing himself in.|||
|1992||Olivehurst High massacre||4||Olivehurst, California,United States||Armed with a pistol, 20-year-old Eric Houston took hostages at his former high school, killing four people and wounding 10.|||
|1993||101 California Street shootings||9||San Francisco, California, United States||Gian Luigi Ferri kills eight people and injures six with three handguns before turning a concealed fourth handgun on himself.|||
|1993||Brown's Chicken massacre||7||Palatine, Illinois, United States||Seven people were slain at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine.|||
|1993||Long Island Rail Road massacre||6||Nassau County, New York, United States||Colin Ferguson shoots 25 passengers on a commuter train, killing 6.|||
|1994||The Bain killings||5||Dunedin, New Zealand||Five members of the Bain family were shot dead at their home, which was later torched. David Bain spent 12 years in prison before being released on appeal.|||
|1994||Toulon town square massacre||14||Toulon, France||16-year old Eric Borel arms himself with a .22-caliber hunting rifle and opens fire in the village town square, killing ten and wounding several others before turning the gun onto himself. Earlier that day he had killed his stepfather, mother and brother using a baseball bat.|||
|1996||Dunblane massacre||18||Dunblane, Scotland||Thomas Hamilton opened fire at a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.|||
|1996||Port Arthur massacre||35||Tasmania, Australia||Martin Bryant shoots 35 people dead and injures 37 at the tourist town of Port Arthur, Tasmania. At 35, this is the largest shooting incident of its type in Australian history.|||
|1997||Sanaa massacre||8||Yemen||School massacre in Yemen.|||
|1998||Jonesboro massacre||5||Arkansas, United States||Two middle school students attacked their school in a military style ambush.|||
|1998||Thurston High School shooting||4||Springfield, Oregon, United States||A day after being expelled from school, Kip Kinkel killed his parents and the next morning, killed two of his former classmates and injured 26 others with a Glock and a .22 semi-automatic rifle before being detained.|||
|1998||Shaanxi Axe Massacre||9||Shaanxi, China||After a dispute about stolen geese, farmer Yang Mingxin brutally kills nine villages with an axe, leaving another three in critical condition.|||
|1999||Columbine High School massacre||13||Jefferson County, Colorado, United States||Two students (Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold) executed a planned shooting rampage, killing 12 fellow students and a teacher before committing suicide.|||
|1999||Atlanta shooting||10||Atlanta, Georgia||On July 29, Mark O. Barton opens fire at two day trading firms, killing nine and injuring 13 before committing suicide .|||
|1999||Wedgwood Baptist Church massacre||8||Fort Worth, Texas, United States||Larry Gene Ashbrook shot dead 7 people and injured a further 7 at a concert by Christian rock group Forty Days in Fort Worth, Texas before killing himself.|||
|1999||Xerox murders||7||Honolulu, Hawaii, United States||Former Xerox employee Byran Uyesugi opens fire at the workplace building, killing his former supervisor, six co-workers and wounding another co-worker.|||
|2000||Wendy's massacre||5||Flushing, New York, United States||Craig Godineaux and John Taylor held a Wendy's outlet hostage where several employees were duct-taped and shot execution-style.|||
|2000||Wichita Massacre||5||Wichita, Kansas, United States||Two brothers go on a week-long murder/assault/rape/robbery spree, which culminated with the execution-style shooting of four naked victims on a soccer field. A fifth victim survived thanks to a hair clip that prevented the bullet from entering her skull.|||
|2000||Wakefield massacre||7||Wakefield, Massachusetts, United States||Software engineer Michael McDermott carries a shooting rampage at the Edgewater Technology, killing seven co-workers.|||
|2001||Nepalese royal massacre||10||Katmandu, Nepal||Prince Dipendra shoots his immediate family and himself at a royal dinner.|||
|2001||Osaka school massacre||8||Ikeda, Osaka prefecture, Japan||Former janitor Mamoru Takuma stabbed eight children to death and seriously wounded thirteen other children and two teachers.|||
|2001||Zug massacre||15||Zug, Switzerland||Friedrich Leibacher entered the Zug parliament and opened fire, killing three members of the cantonal government and 11 parliamentarians before turning the gun on himself.|||
|2002||Nanterre massacre||8||Paris, France||A man at a city council meeting in Nanterre opens fire, killing 8 city officials and wounding another 19.|||
|2002||Erfurt massacre||17||Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany||Robert Steinhäuser broke into his former high school and killed 13 teachers, 2 students and a police officer before finally turning a gun on himself.|||
|2003||Lockheed Martin shooting||6||Meridian, Mississippi||On July 8, Doug Williams, an employee at Lockheed Martin, opens fire, killing five and injuring nine, after which he commits suicide.|||
|2005||Living Church of God Massacre||8||Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States||Terry Ratzmann opens fire at the Living Church of God during a congregation, killing seven before taking his own life.|||
|2005||Red Lake High School massacre||10||Red Lake, Minnesota, United States||Jeff Weise kills 9 people, consisting of his grandfather and his grandfather's girlfriend and five students, a security guard and a teacher at Red Lake High School. After exchanging fire with police, he took his own life.|||
|2006||Goleta Postal massacre||8||Goleta, California, United States||Female former postal worker goes on a rampage, shooting dead seven before killing herself.|||
|2006||Capitol Hill massacre||7||Seattle, Washington, United States||Aaron Kyle Huff entered a house party in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and shot eight people, killing six of them. When confronted by police, Huff killed himself.|||
|2006||Amish school shooting||6||Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania, United States||Charles Carl Roberts IV entered a one-room Amish schoolhouse in Nickel Mines, a village in Lancaster County, took ten children hostage, and eventually shot and killed five girls aged 7 to 13 before killing himself.|||
|2007||Trolley Square shooting||6||Salt Lake City, Utah, United States||Sulejman Talović entered a shopping mall carrying a shotgun and a .38 caliber pistol as well as a backpack full of ammunition, shot five people dead as well as wounding four others before being fatally shot by police.|||
|2007||Virginia Tech massacre||33||Blacksburg, Virginia, United States||Gunman Seung-Hui Cho opens fire in a Virginia Tech university dormitory and a classroom building, killing and wounding many, then commits suicide. At 33 (including gunman's suicide), this is the largest shooting incident of its type in US history.|||
|2007||Homecoming Massacre||7||Crandon, Wisconsin, United States||Forest County Deputy Sheriff Tyler Peterson opens fire with an AR-15 assault rifle during a homecoming party killing 6 people including his ex-girlfriend and wounding 1 before committing suicide.|||
|2007||Jokela school shooting||9||Jokela, Tuusula, Finland||18-year-old upper secondary school student Pekka-Eric Auvinen shot five boys, one girl, the school nurse and the principal. He also opened fire against police officers. No policemen were wounded. Auvinen was hospitalized with a head injury after an unsuccessful suicide attempt. Auvinen died later at night.|||
- The Holocaust (with a capital H) was the systematic persecution, exploitation and slaughter of Jews and other minorities in Europe by the Third Reich and its collaborators. The table below lists specific events that were massacres; the bulk of the slaughter occurred over a period of years in concentration and extermination camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka.
- Edicts of Ashoka
- Ancient History
- Punic Wars
- Manius Aquillius and the First Mithridatic War
- Julius Caesar The Conquest of Gaul
- Matthew 2:16-18,Catholic Encyclopedia: Holy Innocents
- Leaders and Battles: Teutoburg Forest
- Jewish Antiquities 18.4.2
- Jewish Antiquities 20.5.3, Jewish War 2.12.1
- Jewish Wars 2.13.5, Jewish Antiquities 20.8.6, Acts 21:38
- Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak
- Tacitus XV.44
- The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon
- Seleucia - LoveToKnow 1911
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Valerian
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Diocletian
- Muir William (Bengal Civil Service). Life of Mahomet Volume I. Smith, Elder, & Co., London, 1861.Section 5: Sketch of the Chief Nomad Tribes in the Centre of the Peninsula: Their conversion to Christianity in the 5th century
- Byzantium: Justinian and the Nika Riots
- Conybeare F.C. Antiochus Strategos, The Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614 AD English Historical Review 25 (1910) pp. 502-517;
Horowitz, Elliott. "The Vengeance of the Jews Was Stronger Than Their Avarice": Modern Historians and the Persian Conquest of Jerusalem in 614 Jewish Social Studies Volume 4, Number 2
- Irving M. Zeitlin (2007-01-29). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 13. 978-0745639994.
- Islam and Fragmentation, to 1200 CE
- A Brief History of al-Andalus
- The Forgotten Refugees - Historical Timeline
- Moroccan Jews
- Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
- present-day Uzbekistan.
- Central Asian world cities
- The Destruction of Kiev
- History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion
- The Mongols
- Sicilian Vespers
- Hetoum II (1289‑1297)
- History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian
- Third Crusade: Siege of Acre
- Now in England.
- Crow Creek Massacre
- Battle of Visby Burials, Sweden
- Medieval times battle in Visby, Sweden
- A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Author: Barbara Tuchman. Publisher: Ballantine Books; Reissue edition (July 12, 1987) ISBN-10: 0345349571
- Timur's history
- Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World by Justin Marozzi
- Grant, R G. Battle a Visual Journey Through 5000 Years of Combat. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2005 pg 122
- The Magnitude of Muslim Atrocities
- Sivas, Asia Minor
- Tamerlane's Living Legacy
- Timur (Tamerlane)
- New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism
- History of Central Europe
- Vlad the Impaler
- The Real Prince Dracula
- Vlad Tepes - The Historical Dracula
- The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
- Norman Stillman,The Jews of the Arab lands, (PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979), pp. 59, 284.
- The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice
- Hassig, Ross (2003). "El sacrificio y las guerras floridas". Arqueología mexicana, p. 46-51.
- Stannard, D., American Holocaust, p. 70.
- Las Casas, B. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, p. 22.
- Marrano History, The forgotten massacre
- Las Casas, B, pp. 27-30; Stannard, D., American Holocaust, p. 71.
- Varner and Varner, The Dogs of Conquest, pp. 36-39; Todorov, T., The Conquest of America, p. 141.
- St Thomas More Studies
- The Ottoman Conquest
- Hernando Cortez
- Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 241-250.
- Cortés, H., Second Letter to King Charles V of Spain, Letter from Mexico, p. 73.
- History of Sweden
- History of Sweden, 1448-1523
- Empires Past: Aztecs: Conquest
- Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 383-393.
- Thomas, H., Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés and the Fall of Old Mexico, pp. 261.
- Peasants' War
- The Catholic and the Lutheran Church
- The Fall of The Medieval Kingdom of Hungary: Mohacs 1526 - Buda 1541
- Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia
- The Sacking of Rome
- Pope's guards celebrate 500 years
- Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, p. 136.
- Hemming, J., The Conquest of the Incas, pp. 23-45.
- The mysteries and majesties of the Aeolian Islands
- Hernando de Soto Arrives and Explores Florida
- Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 285-291.
- Biography - Hernando de Soto - by Dr. Lawrence A. Clayton
- De Soto'S Trail: Courage and Cruelty Come Alive
- Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 376-384. Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 15.
- Sauer, C. Sixteenth Century North America, p. 141.
- Hall of Heroes : Maharana Pratap Singh
- Ivan The Terrible
- Novgorod, Russia (Capital)
- Massacre at Novgorod - Loyola University
- The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
- Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
- Moscow - Historical background
- Vasily Klyuchevsky, The Course of Russian History, Vol. 2.
- Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- Paris and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: August 24, 1572
- Oda Clan Timeline
- Brief mention of the massacre
- John Sugden, "Sir Francis Drake", Touchstone-book, published Simon+Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-75863-2
- Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage
- Weber, D., The Spanish Frontier in North America, pp. 85-86.
- Around 347 people were massacred in the attack
- Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 47.
- Cave, A., The Pequot War, pp. 144-154.
- Secrets of Lough Kernan
- Churchill, W., A Little Matter of Genocide, p. 198.
- Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 116.
- The curse of Cromwell - BBC
- Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
- Iran in the Age of the Raj
- China (1755-57)
- NUPI - Centre for Russian Studies
- Kalmyks History and Cultural Relations
- The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
- Three State and Counterrevolution in France by Charles Tilly
- Vive la Contre-Revolution!
- McPhee, Peter Review of Reynald Secher, A French Genocide: The Vendée H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26
- The Heart of Darkness: How Visceral Hatred of Catholicism Turns Into Genocide
- Journal of a Tour in the Levant. Volume 3, William Turner, p.408
- Economies méditerranéennes: équilibres et intercommunications, XIIIe-XIX siècles, Kentro Neoellēnikōn Ereunōn, 1985, p.425
- A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal
- Slave Revolt in St. Domingue
- Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, 3rd May 1808
- W.Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833, New York, 1897 p.48
- George Finlay, History of Greek Revolution, London, 1861, p. 187.
- Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans, 18th and 19th Centuries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 204-205. ISBN 0-521 27458-3.
- George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 152
- George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 165
- George Finlay, A History of Greece (Edited by H. F. Tozer), vol.VI. Oxford, 1877 p. 215
- Bouboulina Museum, Spetses Greece. Greek Island Spetses. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
- Putnam's Home Cyclopedia, p.343
- George Finlay, A history of Greece, 1877, p. 119.
- Phillips, p. 32-33
- The British and Foreign Review: Or, European Quarterly Journal, The late Revolution in Greece, p.244
- Lord Aberdeen, Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain, 1983, p.199
- A History of Greece: From Its Conquest by the Romans to the Present Time, B.C. 146 to A.D. 1864, George Finlay, 1877, p.190
- Then part of the Ottoman Empire; now part of Greece.
- La population des îles de la Grèce: essai de géographie insulaire en Méditerranée orientale, Émile Y Kolodny, 1974, p.128
- Syria and Egypt Under the Last Five Sultans of Turkey, John Barker, 1973, p.19
- Putnam's Home Cyclopedia, p.343
- Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century
- Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century
- Moriori - The impact of new arrivals
- New Zealand A to Z: Chatham Islands
- The Statistics of Frontier Conflict
- Doolette, Peter (1997) Murder, Mishap & Misfortune: A select history of the Coorong Coorong Publications ISBN 0 646 33895 1
- Foster, Robert (2001) Fatal Collisions Wakefield Press ISBN 1 86254 533 2
- Deadly attacks against the Assyrian Christians of Iraq
- The Massacres of the Khilafah
- New-York Weekly Tribune. January 2, 1847
- Part of the Revolutions of 1848.
- Taiping Rebellion: The destruction of the Chinese culture
- Lessons from 1857
- Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
- Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
- Damascus - LoveToKnow 1911
- Lebanon - Religious Conflicts
- Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (2002-08-21). "Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- On Your Own In China
- Cook, S., The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization.
- Paraguay - The War of the Triple Alliance
- War of the Triple Alliance
- Andrist, R., The Long Death, pp. 157-162.
- Terrell, J., Land Grab, pp. 4-10.
- Then part of the Ottoman Empire; now in Bulgaria.
- Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-1999, Michael Clodfelter, 2002, p.214
- Then in Imperial Russia; now the capital of Moldova.
- "Jewish Massacre Denounced", New York Times, April 28, 1903, p 6.
- L'indépendance belge, 16 june 1908 (Evening edition)
- Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
- Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed
- Pukhov, A. S. Kronshtadtskii miatezh v 1921 g. Leningrad, OGIZ-Molodaia Gvardiia.
- Chinese, Korean and Allied civilians and POWs.
- See also Unit 731.
- Anthony Beevor, Spanish Civil War (1999), p.133
- What were the most important human rights violations committed by Stalin?
- plus parts of Austria.
- Part of Greece.
- (Sam Donaldson, Primetime Live, 1994).
- Germany's forgotten victims
- The Jews of Iraq
- The Jews of Libya
- Country Histories - Empire's Children
- Heartman, Adam (2006-09-26). "A Homemade Genocide". Who's Fault Is It?. Check date values in:
- Zanzibar Revolution 1964
- Also known as "Black November".
- Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia
- Chinese diaspora: Indonesia
- The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
- Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
- Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838-42
- Massacre of Elphinstone's army
- Hogan, Irish Soldiers of Mexico. Fondo Editorial Universitario. Guadalajara: 1997
- Mexicanos: A history of Mexicans in the United States. Manuel G. Gonzales, Indiana University Press P.86-87 ISBN 0-253-33520-5
- V. S. "Amod" Saxena (2003-02-17). "Revolt and Revenge; a Double Tragedy (delivered to The Chicago Literary Club)". Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (1994). "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857: Reply". Past and Present 142: 178–189. Unknown parameter
- French Wikipedia: The Tamines Massacre
- Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco
- Spanish Civil War: Casualties
- Richard Pankhurst. "The Graziani Massacre and Consequences". Addis Tribune/Ethiopia Online. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- Michael B. Lentakis (2004). Ethiopia: Land of the Lotus Eaters. Janus. pp. 60–61. ISBN 1857565584.
- Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre
- The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography
- Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
- "Khatyn" - Genocide policy - Punitive operations
- Italy convicts Nazis of massacre.
- World War II mass graves open a wound in Slovenia
- History of the tragedy.
- Casualties and War Crimes in Afghanistan
- http://www.counterpunch.org/dead.html Who NATO Killed
- Rory McCarthy. "'US soldiers started to shoot us'". Guardian,UK. Retrieved 2007-11-17. Unknown parameter
- At Least 130 Die as Blast Levels Baghdad Market
- Scores of Iraqi pilgrims killed
- Up to 200 killed in Baghdad bombs
- Iraqi PM slams 'heinous' bombers
- Damien Cave and James Glanz, "Toll in Iraq Truck Bombings Is Raised to More Than 500", New York Times (August 21, 2007).
- "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: 
- Germany's forgotten victims
- Hiroshima marks 62nd anniversary of atomic bombing
- Morality, Reduced To Arithmetic
- Craven and Cate, The Army Air Forces in World War II, Vol. V, pp. 732-733.
- Glantz, David M., Stumbling Colossus, p. 58.
- Great Purges
- Haunted By History's Horrors
- A revelatory account of the Spanish civil war
- Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War
- Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, pg 337: "Mao claimed that the total number executed was 700,000, but this did not include those beaten or tortured to death in the post-1949 land reform, which would at the very least be as many again. Then there were suicides, which, based on several local inquiries, were very probably about equal to the number of those killed." Also cited in Mao Zedong, by Jonathan Spence, as cited here.
- The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stephane Courtois, et al; China: A Long March into Night by Jean-Louis Margolin, pg 479
- Twitchett, Denis; John K. Fairbank. The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052124336X. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Ex-minister sued over Algeria war
- Unearthing betrayal in France's Algerian war
- Time to End the Silence on Imperiled Indonesian Chinese
- Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
- If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle
- Equatorial Guinea - Country Profile
- "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- White, Matthew, Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century
- Obituary: The buffoon tyrant
- Idi Amin: 'Butcher of Uganda', CNN, August 16, 2003
- 2003: 'War criminal' Idi Amin dies
- Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison
- Zimbabwe won't extradite former Ethiopian dictator
- International Justice Tribune - Lettre d’information
- Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa by Jonathan Clayton, The Times Online, December 13, 2006
- PBS American Experience
- "International Herald Tribune".
- "Belfast Telegraph".
- "Irish Times".
- List of major crimes in Japan
- "Murderers' Row: Shooting Spree in Miami". Time.com. 1982-08-30. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Teen dead after shooting and killing 8 people at Finnish secondary school
- German war crimes
- Red Terror
- Soviet war crimes
- Mass graves in the Soviet Union
- NKVD prisoner massacres
- List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s
- List of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
- List of massacres committed during the Al-Aqsa Intifada
- List of massacres of indigenous Australians
- List of wars and disasters by death toll
- North American Indian massacres
- Crow Creek massacre
- Haditha massacre
- KwaMakhutha massacre, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa
- Massacres of Harkis
- Massacre of Elphinstone's army
- Japanese war crimes
- Consequences of German Nazism
- Allied war crimes during World War II
- Great Purge
- Genocides in history
- Ethnic cleansing
- School massacre
- List of school related attacks
- The Historical Atlas of the 20th century listing of 20th century wars and battles. See also the listing of atrocities before the 20th century
- Gerald Duncan's list of WWII atrocities
- PBS Timeline of Nazi Abuses
- Encarta Encyclopedia article on "Genocide"
- Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe
- Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
- The world's worst massacres Whole Earth Review
Category:Lists of massacres|*]] Category:Military lists|Massacres]] Category:Murder]] Category:Riots]] Category:Massacres| ]] Category:Bleeding Kansas]]