TRIZ - the theory of the decision изобретательских problems was declared by its author G.S.Altshuller as alternative to numerous and ineffective methods of activization of search of the variants, allowing " to transform process of the decision изобретательских problems into the exact science ". Than actually is TRIZ? What its real opportunities and prospects?
The Brief information on classical TRIZ
The theory of the decision изобретательских problems has appeared in 60th years in the USSR.
The Founder of the theory was G.S.Altshuller (15.10.1926 - 24.09.1998) - the science fiction writer, the engineer, the inventor.
TRIZ represents a set of the methods incorporated by the general theory. TRIZ helps with the organization of thinking of the inventor by search of idea of the invention, and does this search more purposeful, productive, promotes a finding of idea of higher изобретательского a level.
In TRIZ as a mainstream for the first time there was a studying and use in invention of laws of development of technical systems.
The Basic tool of TRIZ was the Algorithm of the decision изобретательских problems (АРИЗ). АРИЗ represents a number of consecutive logic steps which purpose is revealing and the resolution of conflicts, existing in technical system and interfering its perfection. In development АРИЗ had a number of updatings. Practical application had модификаци АРИЗ-77 and АРИЗ-85В.
In TRIZ a number of tools for the decision of problems is used. To them concern:
The Table of elimination of technical contradictions in which contradictions are represented by two clashing parameters. These parameters get out of the list. For each combination of parameters it is offered to use some receptions of elimination of the contradiction. Only 40 receptions. Receptions are formulated and classified on the basis of statistical researches of inventions.
Standards of the decision of problems. Standard problem situations are formulated. For the sanction of these situations typical decisions are offered.
Вепольный (вещественно-field) analysis. Possible variants of communications between components of technical systems are certain and classified. Laws are revealed and principles of their transformation for the decision of a problem are formulated. On the basis of вепольного the analysis standards of the decision of problems have been expanded.
The Index of physical effects. The physical effects most widespread for invention and an opportunity of their use for the decision изобретательских problems are described.
Methods of development of creative imagination. A number of receptions and the methods is used, allowing to overcome инерционность thinking at the decision of creative problems. Examples of such methods are the Method of small little men, Operator РВС.
The big number of talented experts participated In development and popularization of TRIZ. Among them - Shuvalov Valentine Nikolaevich.
About what TRIZ to its author saw is written in the introductory chapter of the book of G.S.Altshuller " Creativity as the exact science ".
In the middle of 80th years of the last century of the Theory of the decision изобретательских problems have started to train experts of the enterprises of electrotechnical branch within the limits of a method of the is functional-cost analysis taken root there (ФСА). However because of crisis of industrial production in Russia, the beginning which have followed as a result of reforms of 90th years, use at the enterprises of branch FSA has completely stopped. It has appeared not demanded and TRIZ.
TRIZ: a reality and illusions
TRIZ reflected " as the exact science ". What actually represents TRIZ?
Doubtless advantage of TRIZ became that in it attempt to use for the decision изобретательских problems the dialectic approaches connected with revealing and resolution of conflicts has been undertaken. With this purpose in TRIZ the special algorithm (АРИЗ), representing sequence of the logic procedures directed on representation solved изобретательской of a problem in the form of contradictions and a number of recommendations for their sanction has been developed. Besides in books on TRIZ the big number of interesting examples and problems was resulted, which in itself had greater cognitive value.
However the Theory of the decision изобретательских problems had a number of essential defects which, obviously, and have led to stagnation in its development after death of the author, and also to essential complexities in its practical application. In what these defects consist. In TRIZ attempt to formulate laws of development of technical systems which should lay down in a basis of TRIZ and in a basis of the general methodology of the decision of problems has been undertaken. However the majority of the formulated laws those are not. They should be named laws of development of technics more likely, and it is far not full. For this reason of harmonous methodology of the decision of the problems, based on laws of development and has not appeared. And the formulated laws basically were used as methodical substantiations to resulted examples of inventions.
The Dialectic approach (the analysis of contradictions), incorporated in the basic tool of the decision of problems which was АРИЗ, has been deformed by introduction of new concepts (the technical and physical contradiction). These new concepts deformed an essence of the dialectic contradiction formulated in dialectic logic that led to difficulties in revealing the contradiction at attempts of the decision by means of АРИЗ real изобретательских problems.
Improvement АРИЗ (creation of new updatings from АРИЗ-77 up to АРИЗ-85В) went not on a way of elimination of the admitted discrepancies to procedures revealing of the contradiction, and on a way of complication of algorithm. As a result last official updating of algorithm АРИЗ-85В has turned to extremely bulky and poorly suitable design for practical use.
Precise mechanisms of transition have not been found In TRIZ and from the formulated contradiction to its practical sanction. It created serious complexities in the decision of real problems by means of АРИЗ.
TRIZ declared refusal of methodology of activization of search of variants, however the basic part of so-called tools of TRIZ represented such methods (a method of small little men, operator РВС, вепольный the analysis).
Вепольный the analysis was represented to TRIZ by the scientific approach in which basis the analysis of laws of structural development of technical objects is incorporated. However an assumption of use in веполях nonexistent physical fields, and also an opportunity of ambiguous treatment вепольных designs and rules of their transformation allow to carry вепольный the analysis to methods of activization of search of variants, but in any way to the scientific analysis more likely.
Most to idea of formalization of procedure of the decision изобретательских problems creation in TRIZ of the table and receptions of the sanction of technical contradictions was close. This approach has been based on the statistical analysis of descriptions of inventions existing on that time. However, despite of available prospects, it has not received in TRIZ of the further development, and owing to of some available lacks and moral obsolescence of statistical conclusions has lost the urgency for practical use.
There Is a widespread illusion about an opportunity of introduction of TRIZ in real manufacture. Inherently TRIZ is an individual method of the decision of problems which application is a personal choice for the person. For this reason to make TRIZ a part of this or that production it is impossible. At the best the enterprise can organize training of TRIZ of the employees with the purpose of increase of their creative opportunities. During the active development (80th years of the last century) the specified lacks and mistakes were successfully compensated by enthusiasm of adherents of TRIZ. Nevertheless, existing defects of TRIZ and leaving from TRIZ as a result of crisis of manufacture of its basic developers, capable to see these lacks, have led to stagnation in development of the theory. In it in our opinion a principal cause of that for last decade in TRIZ has not appeared anything a new worthy close attention.