User:Ansumang/Greek roots

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Root Meaning In English Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
acr-, acro- height, summit, tip ἄκρος (ákros) acrobat, acrophobia, acronym, acromegalia
aer-, aero- air, atmosphere (aer) aeronautics, aerosol
aesth- feeling, sensation (aisthētikos) from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) aesthetics
agr-, agri- field ἀγρός (agros)
amphi- around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds (amphi) amphibian, amphibolic
an-, a- not, without ἀν-/ἀ- anhydrous
ana-, an- again, against, back, up (ana-) anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anode
ant-, anti- against, opposed to ἀντί (anti) antibiotic, antipodes
anth-, antho- flower ἄνθος (anthos) anther, anthology
anthropo- human (anthropos) anthropology, anthropomorphic
arche-, archi- ruler ἀρχή (arche) (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) archangel, archetype
archaeo-, archeo- ancient ἀρχαῖος (archaios) from archē archaeology or archeology, archaic
arct-, arcto- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; ἄρκτος (arktos) Arctic Ocean
arthr-, arthro- joint (arthron) arthritis, arthropod
astr-, astro- star (astron) astronomy
athl- prize ἄθλος (athlos) athlete
aut- , auto- self; directed from within αὐτός (autos) automobile, autonomy
axio- merit ἄξιος (axios) axiology, axiom


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin from baculum "rod" bacilla, bacteria
baro- weight, pressure Greek βαρύς (barus) barometer, barograph, baroreceptor
basi- at the bottom Greek from βαίνω, I walk, march, βάσις "step" basic, basis
bathy-, batho- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús, bathýs) "deep" batholith
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell(i)- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benignity
bi- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" binoculars, bigamy, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus imbibe
bibl- book Greek βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bibliography, bible
bi(o)- life Greek βίος (bíos) "life" biology, biologist, biosphere
blenn(o)- slime Greek βλέννος (blennos) blennophobia, blennosperma
blast- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλασταίνω, "I put forth shoots" sideroblast
bon(i)- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bor- north Greek / Latin (boreas) Greek βορρᾶς (borras) "the north wind" borealis
botan- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon) botany
bov- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine
brachi(o)- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) "arm" brachial artery, brachiosaurus
brachy- short Greek βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs) "short" brachydactyly
brady- slow Greek βραδύς (bradús, bradýs) bradycardia
branch- gill Greek βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion) "gill" branchiopod
brev(i)- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevity
briz- nod Greek βρίζω (brizō)
brom- oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, bróme) "oats" Bromus ramosus
brom- oats Greek βρόμος (brómos) "stench, clangor" bromide
bronch- windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos) bronchitis
bront- thunder Greek βροντή (brontē) Brontosaurus
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccinator muscle
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbous, bulbule
bull- bubble, flask Latin bulla, "bubble" ebullient, ebullism
burs- pouch, purse Latin bursarius bursary, disburse


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
cac(o)- bad Greek κακος (kakos) cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut Latin caedere, caesus caesura, incisor
calc- stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx "lime", and from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble" "limestone" calculus, calcite, calcium
calli- beautiful Greek from Greek kallos "beauty" calligraphy
calor- heat Latin calor "heat" calorie
calyp- cover Greek (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign
can(i)- dog Latin canis "dog" canine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant- sing Latin canere "sing" cantata, canto, cantor
cand- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candid, incandescent, candle, candela
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (note the vowel change from a to i in compounds) capture, captive, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis "head" capital, chief, chef, decapitate
capr- goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carci- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek karkinos "crab" carcinoma
cardi(o)- relating to the heart Greek kardia "heart" cardiology, cardiograph
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnival, carnivore
carpo- relating to fruit Greek from Greek karpos "fruit" carpology
carp- relating to the wrist Greek from Greek karpos "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cata- down Greek kata "down" catastrophe, catatonia
caten- chain Latin catena concatenation
cathar- pure Greek καθαρός (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal
cav- hollow Latin cavus "hollow" cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- go Latin cedere, cessus procession, recede
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen(o)- new Greek καινός (kainos) Cenozoic
cen(o)- empty Greek (kenos) cenotaph
cen(o)- common Greek (koinos) cenobite, cenospecies
cens- Latin censere "to estimate" census
cent- hundred Latin centum "hundred" cent, centennial, centurion
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
cephalo- head Greek κεφαλή kephale "head" cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) "horn" ceratin
cern- Latin cernere discern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chiro- of the hand or hands Greek χείρ kheir "hand" chiroptera, chiropractic
chelono- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη khelone "tortoise" chelonia
chloro- green Greek from Greek χλωρός khlōros "green" chlorine, chlorophyll
choreo- relating to dance Greek from Greek khoreia "dancing in unison" from χορός khoros "chorus" choreography
chord- cord Latin chorda "rope" chordata
chrom- color Greek χρῶμα khrōma "color" chromosome, chromium
chryso- gold Greek χρυσός khrusos "gold" chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia
cine- motion Greek κινέω (kineo) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle Latin circus circus
circum- around Latin circum "around" circumference
cirr- orange Greek κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
civ- citizen Latin civis civility
clad- branch Greek κλάδος (klados) clade
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close Latin claudere, clausus clause, exclusion, include
clav- key Greek from Greek kleis "key" from κλείειν, kleiein "to close" conclave
cl(e)ist- closed Greek
cleithr- bar, key Greek
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed, lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined
cochl- shell Greek κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos)
cogn- know Latin cognoscere cognitive, cognizant, recognize
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander
coll- neck Latin collum collar
color- color Latin color coloration
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- with, together Latin cum connect, collide, compress
condi- season Latin condire condiment
con(o)- cone Greek κῶνος (konos) conic, conical
contra- against Latin contra contrast
copro- dung Greek κόπρος (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac- raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial
corn- horn Latin cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis
cosm(o)- universe Greek κόσμος (kosmos) cosmonaut
cosmet(o)- Greek (kosmet-) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
crani- skull Greek (kranion) cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
cre- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature
crep- boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum "a sieve" cribble, cribrate
cric- ring Greek κρίκος (krikos)
cris-, crit- judge Greek κρίσις (crisis) crisis, critic
crisp- curled Latin crispus crispate
crist- crest Latin crista cristate
cross(o)- fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossos)
cruc(i)- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify
crur(i)- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural
crypt- hidden Greek (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
cten(o)- comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
cub- cube Greek κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
curr-, curs- run Latin currere, cursus concurrent, recursion
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cut(i)- skin Latin cutis cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl(o)- circular Greek κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind- roll Greek κύλινδρος (kulindros) cylinder
cyn(o)- dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos) cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek κύστις (kustis) cystic
cyt(o)- cell Greek κύτος (kutos) cytoplasm


Root Meaning In English Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
dactyl- finger δάκτυλος (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten (deka) decagram, decahedron
delt- (delta) deltoid
dem- people δῆμος (demos) demagogue, democracy
dendr-, dendro- tree δένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, "tree" dendrite
derm- skin δέρμα (derma) hypodermic
deuter- second δεύτερος (deuteros) Deuteronomy
dextro- right δεξ-, right
di- two dicot, dipole
dia- apart, through διά (dia) diameter
dino- terrible, fearfully great δεινός (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- diploid, diplosis
dodec- twelve δώδεκα (dodeka) dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, teaching dogmatic
dy- two (duo) dyad
dynam- δύναμις (dunamis)
dys- badly, ill δυσ- (dus-) dysentery


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ec- out Greek (ek) eccentric
eco- house Greek (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible
ego- self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ egocentric
ego-, eg- goat Greek αἴξ (aix) egophony
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, redeem
eme- vomit Greek (emetos) emetic
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulation
en-, em- in Greek (en) emphasis
endo- inside Greek (endo) endocrine
engy- narrow Greek
ennea- nine Greek (ennea) ennead, enneagon
ens- sword Latin ensis
eo-, eos-, eoso- dawn, east Greek Eocene
epi-, ep- upon Greek (epi) epicenter, epoch
epistem- knowledge or science Greek epistemic
equ-, -iqu- even, level Latin aequus equal
equ- horse Latin equus Equestrian
erg- work Greek (ergon) ergonomics
err- stray Latin errare aberration, errant
erythr(o)- red Greek ερυθρος (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek (esō) esoteric
etho-, eth-, ethi- custom, habit Greek ἦθος (ethos) ethology
ethm- sieve Greek ethmoid
ethn- people, race, tribe, nation Greek (ethnos) ethnic, ethnarch
etym(o)- true Greek (etumos) etymology
eu- well Greek (eu) euphoria
eur- wide Greek (eurus) Europe
ex-, e-, ef- from, out of Latin ex exclude, extrude, extend
exo- outside Greek exothermic
exter-, extra- outer Latin exterior
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extremity, extremophile


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
f-, fat- say, speak Latin fari, fatus fate, infant, preface
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect- make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis falciform
fall-, -fell-, fals- deceive Latin fallere, falsus falsity, infallibility
fallac- false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy
famili- Latin familiarity
fant- to show Greek fantasy
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fasciculation
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal
fel- cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral
fend-, fens- Latin fendere, -fensus defend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra fenestration
fer- carry Latin ferre reference, transfer
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin ficus Ficus
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fides, fidere, fisus confidence, fidelity
fil- thread Latin filum filament
fili- Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin finis finish, final
find-, fiss- split Latin findere, fissus fission
firm- fix, settle Latin firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula
fl- blow Latin flare, flatus flatulence, inflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus flexor, inflection
flig-, flict- strike Latin fligere, flictus conflict, inflict
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx
foc- hearth Latin focus focal
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin faenum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fons, fontis
for- bore Latin forare, foratus perforation
form- shape Latin forma conformity, deformity, formation
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fortification
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag- break Latin frangere, fractus fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus effusion, profusion
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- steal Latin furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
galact- milk Greek (gala, galaktos) galactic
gastr- stomach Greek (gaster) gastric, gastroenterologist
ge(o)- earth Greek γη (gē), γεω- (geō) geology
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelid
gen- race, kind Greek γένος genocide
ger-, gest- bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus digest, gestation
germin- sprout Latin germen, germinis germination
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination
grad-, -gred-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradus, gradere, gressus grade, regress
gramm- letter Greek γραμμα (gramma) grammatic
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous
graph- draw, write Greek (graphē) graphic, graphology
grat- thank, please Latin gratus gratitude
grav- heavy Latin gravis gravity
greg- flock Latin grex, gregis gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus gusto
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek (gymnos) gymnasium


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
haem(o)- blood Greek αἷμα (haima) haemophilia
hal(o)- salt Greek (hals, halos) halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale
hapl(o)- simple Greek ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaust
heli(o)- sun Greek ἥλιος helium, heliotrope
hemi- half Greek ἥμισυς (hemisus) hemisphere
hen- one Greek ἕν (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek ἕνδεκα (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon
her-, hes- cling Latin haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent
herb- grass Latin herba herbicide
hered- heir Latin heres, heredis heredity
herp- creep Greek herpetology
heter(o)- different, other Greek ἑτερος (heteros) heterodox
heur- find Greek εὑρίσκω heuristic
hex- six Greek ἕξ (hex) hexagon
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hipp(o)- horse Greek ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity
histri- actor Latin histrionic
hod- way Greek ὁδός (hodos) cathode, hodometer
hol(o)- whole Greek (holos) holistic
hom(o)- same Greek (homos) homosexual
homeo- like Greek (homoios) homeostasis
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
homal- even, flat Greek (homalos) anomalous
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable
horm- that which excites Greek hormone
hort(i)- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospitality
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhumation, inhume
hyal- glass Greek ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr(o)- water Greek ὕδωρ hydrology, hydrologist, Hydrogen, Hydrate, dehydrate, Hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydraulic, Hydrolysis, hydrous, hydrophilic
hygr- wet Greek (hugros) hygrometer
hyo- U-shaped Greek
hyp(o)- under Greek ὑπό (hupo) hypothermia
hyper- above, over Greek ὑπέρ (huper)
hypn- sleep Greek ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis
hyster- later Greek ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ichth- fish Greek (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id(o)- shape Greek (eidos) idol
ide(o)- idea Greek (idea) ideology, ideogram
idi(o)- personal Greek (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in invite, incur, intend
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- in, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) – among, between intermission, intercollegiate, intercourse
intra- within Latin intra intracollegiate
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
is(o)- equal, the same Greek (isos) isomorphic, isometric, isoceles
-(i)tat- property of, quality of Latin quality, liberty
iter- again Latin iterum iteration
itin- route, way Latin iter, itinis – march, journey itinerary


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac- (originally IAC), -ject- cast, throw Latin iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus – "to throw" (and cognates thereof) eject, interject, ejaculate, trajectory
jan- door Latin janua janitor
joc- joke Latin jocus jocularity
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
junior- younger Latin junior juniority
jus-, jur, judic (originally IVS) law, justice Latin ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis; iusticia, iusticiae, etc. justice, jury, judge
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek χίλιοι (chilioi) kilogram, kilometer, kilobyte
kine- movement, motion Greek κινέω (kineo) telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
klept- steal Greek κλέπτης (kleptēs) kleptomania
kudo- glory Greek κῦδος (kudos) kudos


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- toil Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima "tear" lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- shine Greek lampas "torch" lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat(i)- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudere laud
lav- wash Latin lavare lavatory
lax- not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leg- law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislative
leio- smooth Greek leios leiomyoma
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis "lion" Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek lepis Lepidoptera
leps- grasp, seize Greek lepsis epilepsy
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)- white Greek leukos leucocyte
lev- lift, light Latin levis "light" (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
liber- free Latin liber, liberare liberation
libr- book Latin liber, libri library
lig- bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
lin- line Latin linea linearity, line
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua tongue, language bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
lip(o)- fat Greek lipos lipolysis
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith(o)- stone Greek lithos "stone" lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
loc- place Latin locus local, location
log- thought, word Greek logos "word" logic, monologue, morphological
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquence
luc- bright, light Latin lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere, lusus allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
lun- moon Latin luna lunar, lunatic


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
macr- long Greek μακρός (makros) macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched, evil Latin malus malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary gland
man- flow Latin manare emanationism, immanant
man- stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, permanent, remanence
mand- hand Latin mandāre, mandatus mandate, remand
mania crazy Greek μανία kleptomania, maniac
manu- hand Latin manus manual, manuscript
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris matriarch, matrix
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximal
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius, mediare median, medieval
meg- great, large Greek (megas) megaphone
mei- less Greek (meiōn) meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin melior amelioration
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
memor- remember Latin memor memorial
mening- membrane Greek (meninx) meningitis
men(o)- moon Greek μήν (men) menstruation, menopause
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer- part Greek (meros) polymer
merc- Latin merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek (metron) metric, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek μετά (meta) metaphor, metaphysics
mic- grain Latin mica micelle
micr(o)- small Greek μικρός (mikros) microphone, microscope
migr- wander Latin migrare emigrant, migrate
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
mill- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- repeat Greek (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
mis- hate Greek μῖσος (misos) misandry, misogyny
misce-, mixt- mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
mit- thread Greek μίτος (mitos) mitochondrion
mitt-, miss- send Latin mittere, missus intermittent, missionary, transmission
mne- memory Greek μνήμη (mnēmē) mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola, molere, molitus molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon(o)- one Greek (monos) monolith, monotone, monism
monil- string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
morph- form, shape Greek μορφή (morphe) anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin moveo, movere, motus mobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
mult(i)- many, much Latin multus multitude, multiple, multiplex
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mut- change Latin mutare mutation
my- mouse Greek (mus)
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek (murios) myriad
myth- story Greek (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek (muxa)
myz- suck Greek


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
nar- nostril Latin naris
narc- numb Greek (narkē) narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native
naut- ship Greek (naus) astronaut
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne(o)- new Greek (neos) neologism
necr(o)- dead Greek (nekros) necrophobia
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connection
necto-, nect- swimming Greek nektos nectopod
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek
nemor- grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral
nephr- kidney Greek nephritis
nes- island Greek (nesos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek (neuron) neurology, neurosurgeon
nict- wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox, noctis nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law Greek (nomos)
nomad- Greek (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomination
non- not Latin non
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
not- letter, note, paper Latin notare notaphily
noth- spurious
noto- back, south Greek (notos)
nov- nine Latin novem novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovation, nova
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim
nox-, noc- harmful Latin noxa noxious
nu- nod Latin nuere innuendo
nub- Latin nubes, nubis nubile
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis nucleus
nuch- back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null(i)- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus numeral
-nunci- announce Latin nuntius pronunciation
nupti- Latin nuptial
nutri- nourish Latin nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ob-, o-, oc-, os- against Latin ob obstinate, ostentatious, obstreperous
oct- eight Greek (oktō) octagon, octahedron
oct- eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octāvus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus
od- path, way Greek (hodos) anode, odometer
od- hate Latin odium odious
odont- tooth Greek (odous, odontos) odontology
odor- fragrant
oecious- house of Greek (oikos)
oed- swollen Greek (oidēma) oedema
oen- wine Greek (oinos) oenology
oesoph- gullet Greek (oisophagos) oesophagus
ogdo- eighth Greek (ogdoos)
-oid like Greek (-oeidēs)
ole- oily Latin
olecran- skull of elbow Latin from Greek (ōlekranon) olecranon
olig- few Greek (oligos) oligarchy
oliv- olive Latin oliva
-oma cancer Greek
omas- paunch Latin omasum omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum
omin- Latin omen, ominis ominous
omm- eye Greek ὄμμα (omma) ommatidium
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnivore
omo- shoulder Latin
omphal- navel Greek (omphalos) omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris onerous
onom- name Greek όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek (ontos) ontogeny, ontology
-onym name Greek (onuma) pseudonym
oo- egg Greek (oion) oocyte
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis opera
opercul- little cover Latin operculum
ophi- snake Greek (ophis)
ophthalm- eye Greek (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter- either Greek ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt- eye Greek optos optical
opt- choose Latin optare adopt, optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle Greek (orchis)
ordin- order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
organ- Greek (organon) organism
ori-, ort- eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient
orn- Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos) ornithology
orth(o)- straight Greek ὀρθός (orthos) orthodoxy, orthosis
oscill- swing Latin oscillum oscillation
oss(i)- bone Latin os, ossis
osteo- bone Greek ὀστοῦν (ostoun) osteoporosis
osti- entrance Latin ostium ostiole
ostrac- shell Greek (ostrakon) ostracism
ot- ear Greek οὖς (ous, ōtos) otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek (oxus) oxymoron


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis pacifism
pach- thick Greek παχύς (pachus) pachydermata
paed- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) paediatric
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek παλαιός (palaios) paleontology
palin- back Greek παλιν (palin) palindrome
pall- pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- mantle Latin pallium pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustr(i)- in marshes Latin paluster palustral
pan-, pam- all Greek πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) pandemic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par(a)- beside, near Greek παρά (para) parallel, parameter
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part(i)- part Latin pars, partis partition
parthen(o)- maiden Greek παρθένος (parthenos) parthenogenesis
parv- little Latin parvus
pasc-, past- feed Latin pascere, pastus pasture, repast
pass- pace, step Latin passus
passer- sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine
pat- be open Latin patere patent
path- to feel, hurt Greek πάθος (pathos) pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass- suffer; feel; endure; permit Latin pati, passus passive, patient
patr(i)- father Latin pater, patris patriarch, patrilocal
pauc- Latin paucus paucity
pav- Latin pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pecun- money Latin pecunia pecuniary
ped- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) pedagogy
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis pedal
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pel-, puls- drive Latin pellere propellent, propulsion
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens- hang Latin pendere suspend
penia- deficiency Greek πενία (penia)
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna pennate
pent- five Greek πέντε (pente) pentagon
pentecost- fiftieth Greek (pentekostos) pentecostalism
pept- Greek πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) peptic
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfect, persistent
peran- across, beyond Greek
peri- around Greek περί perimeter, periscope
persic- peach Greek περσικός (persikos)
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- Latin petere appetite, competition
petr- rock Greek πέτρα (petra) petroglyph
phaeo- dark Greek φαιός (phaios)
phag- eat Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) sarcophagus
phalang- close formation of troops, finger bones Greek φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalange(s)
phalar- having a patch of white Greek φάλαρος (phalāros)[1]
phanero- visible Greek φανερός
pher- bear, carry Greek φέρω pheromone
philia- love, friendship Greek φιλια
phleg- Greek
phloe- tree bark Greek φλοιός(phloios)
phob(ia)- fear Greek φόβος () hydrophobia
phon(o)- sound Greek φωνή (phone) microphone, phonograph
phor- carry Greek (phoros) metaphor
phos-, phot- light Greek φῶς photograph
phragm- fence Greek (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind Greek φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) schizophrenia
phryn(o)- toad, toad-like Greek (phrunē)
phyl- tribe Greek (phulon) phylum
phyll- leaf Greek (phullon) chlorophyll
physa- bladder Greek (phusa)
phys- nature Greek physics
phyt- plant Greek (phuton) neophyte
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis
pil- hair Latin
pin- pine Latin
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere picture
pino- drink Greek (pinein) pinocytosis
pir- pear Latin
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces
pis- pea Greek (pisos)
plac- plate, tablet Greek (plax, plakos)
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus placate
plac-, -plic- please Latin placēre, placitus placid
plagi- oblique Greek (plagios)
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar
plang- Latin plangere plangent
plas- mould Greek plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek (platus) platypus
plaud-, plaus- clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complete, suppletive
pleb- people Latin plebs, plebis plebian
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex
plec- interwoven Greek πλέκω (pleko) Plectics
plen- full Latin plenus plenary
plesi- near Greek πλησίος (plēsios)
pleth- full Greek πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek πλευρά pleura
plic- fold, braid Latin plicare, plicatus duplication, replicate
plinth- brick Greek πλίνθος (plinthos)
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin pluere
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate
plumb- lead Latin plumbum
plur- more Latin pluris plural
plurim- most Latin plurimus
plus- more Latin plus
pluvi- rain Latin pluvia pluvial
pneu- air, lung Greek πνεῦμα pneumatic
pod- foot Greek πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
pogon(o)- beard Greek πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
poie- make Greek ποιέω poiesis
pole-, poli- city Greek πόλις (polis) metropolis, politics
pol- pole Greek πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
pol- stake, pale Latin palus pole-vault
polem- war Greek πόλεμος (polemos) polemic
poli(o)- grey Greek πολιός (polios)
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis
pollin- Latin pollen, pollinis pollination
poly- many Greek πολύς (polus) polygon
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere, positus component, position, postpone
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis ponderable
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon
popul- people Latin populus population
por- passage Greek πόρος (poros) pore
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porphyr- purple Greek πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
port- gate Latin porta portal
port- carry Latin portare, portatus export, transportation
post- after, behind Latin post posterior, postscript
pot- drink Latin potare potable
potam- river Greek ποταμός (potamos) Mesopotamia, hippopotamus
prasin- leek-green Greek πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin prex, precare deprecation
pred- Latin praedari predator
prehend-, prend- grasp Latin prehendere comprehend
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere, pressus pressure
presb- old Greek πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission
preti- price Latin pretium
prim- first Latin primus primary, primeval, primitive
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privare, privatus deprivation
pro- before, in front of Greek πρό (pro)
pro- for, forward Latin pro propulsion
prob- try Latin probare probation
proct- anus Greek πρωκτός (proktos) proctology
propri- Latin proprius appropriate
pros(o)- forward Greek πρός (pros)
prot(o)- first Greek πρῶτος (prōtos) protoplasm
proxim- nearest Latin proximus proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamma- sand Greek ψάμμος (psammos)
pseud(o)- false Greek ψεῦδος (pseudos) pseudonym
psil(o)- bare Greek ψιλός (psilos) epsilon
psych(o)- mind Greek ψυχη (psychē) psycho
psychr(o)- cold Greek ψυχρος (psuchros)
pter- wing, fern Greek (pteron) helicopter
pto- fall Greek ptosis
ptyal- saliva Greek πτύον (ptyon)
ptych- fold, layer Greek πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
pubi- sexually mature Latin pubic, pubescent
public- Latin publicus publication
pude- Latin pudere impudent
pugn- fight Latin pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere puncture, pungent
puni- punish Latin punire punitive
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet
pur- pure Latin purus impure, purity
purg- Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory
purpur- purple Latin purpura
put- think Latin putare compute, putative
pygo- rump Greek (pugē)
pyl- gate Greek πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn) pylon
pyr(o)- heat, fire Greek πύρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary, quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- rest Latin quies quiet
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quota, quotient


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiance, radiation
radic- root Latin rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin rāmus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- turnip Latin rapum rapeseed
raph- seam Greek (raphē)
rar- Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight Latin regere, rectus dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd- rod Greek ῥάβδος (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach- spine Greek ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
rhag- tear, rent Greek ῥαγίζω rhagades
rhe- flow Greek ῥεῖν (rhein) rheostat
rhig- chill Greek ῥῖγος (rhigos) rhigosaurus
rhin- nose, snout Greek ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos) rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek ῥίζα (rhiza) rhizome
rhod(o)- rose Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) rhododendron
rhomb- Greek ῥόμβος (rhombos) rhombus
rhynch- snout Greek ῥύγχος Rhynchobatus
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere, risus derision, ridicule
robor- oak, strength Latin robur, roboris corroboration
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare interrogation
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation
ruber-, rubr- red Latin ruber rubric, ruby
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus eruption, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
sacchar- sugar Greek σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
sarc(o)- flesh Greek σάρξ (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
saur- lizard, reptile Greek σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
scalen- uneven Greek skalenos scalene
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek
schem- plan Greek σχῆμα (schema) schematic
schis- split Greek σχίσμα (schisma) schism
sci- know Latin scire prescient, science
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere scissors
scler- hard Greek σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma
scoli- crooked Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scopy, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek σκοπός (skopos) kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scyph- cup Greek Scyphozoa
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- settle, calm Latin sedare sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere reside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
seget- in cornfields Latin segetum
sei- shake Greek σεισμός (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek σελήνη (selene) Selene
sell- saddle, seat Latin sella
sema- Greek σῆμα (sema) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis semi-final
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus
sept- Latin saeptum
sept- seven Latin septem septennium
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere consecutive, sequence
ser(o)- any body fluid Latin serum
ser(ot)- late Latin serus
serp- crawl Latin serpere serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- save, protect, serve Latin servare conservation
sesqui- Latin sesqui
set- hair Latin seta
sever- severe Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccation
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- sign Latin signum design, designate, signal
sil- Latin silere silence
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil- likeness, trust, group Latin similis assimilate, similarity
simul- Latin simulare simulation
singul- one each Latin singuli singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay Latin sinus
siph(o)- tube Greek siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere consist
sito- food, grain, wheat Greek σίτος (sitos) sitology
solen- pipe, channel Greek σωλήν (solen) solenoid
solv-, solut- loosen, set free Latin solvere solution
soma- body Greek σῶμα (sōma) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia
somni- dream Latin somnium
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- Wise Greek σοφός (sophos) sophist
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation, esperance
sperm- seed Greek σπέρμα (sperma)
sphen(o)- wedge Greek σφήν (sphen)
spher- ball Greek σφαῖρα (sphaira) spheroid, sphere
sphinct- closing Greek
spondyl- vertebra
stagn- pool of standing water Latin stagnare stagnant
stalact- Greek (stalaktites) stalactite
stalagm- Greek (stalagmos) stalagmite
stea- fat, tallow Greek (stear, steatos) stearic acid
steg- covering Greek steganography
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
sten- narrow Greek στενός (stenos) stenography
stere- solid Greek στερεός (stereos)
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone Greek στέρνον (sternon) sternum
stich- line, row Greek στίχος (stichos)
stig- Greek στίγμα stigma
still- drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation
stimul- goad, rouse, excite stimulate
stingu-, stinct- Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek στόχος stochastic
stom- mouth Greek στόμα
strept- twisted Greek στρεπτός (streptos)
strig- compress Latin strix, strigis strigogyps
string-, strict- upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus stringent
strigos- having stiff bristles Latin
stroph- turning Greek στροφή (strophe)
stru-, struct- Latin struere construction, construe
stud- Latin studere student
stup- wonder Latin stupere stupor
styl- column, pillar Greek στῦλος (stulos) stylus
su-, sut- sew Latin suere suture
sui- self suicide
suad-, suas- Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek σύν (sun) symbol, system, synonym, symmetry
syring- pipe Greek σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos)


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
tach- swift Greek ταχυς (tachus) tachometer
taenia- ribbon Greek (tainia)
tars- ankle Greek ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket) tarsal
taur- bull Greek ταῦρος (tauros) Minotaur
tax- arrangement, order Greek (taxis) taxonomy
techn- Greek τέχνη (techne) technology
tele- far, end Greek τῆλε- telephone, telescope, telegram
teleo- complete Greek τέλος teleology
temno- cut Greek τέμνω
tetr- four Greek (tetra-) tetrahedron
thalam- chamber, bed Greek θάλαμος (thalamos) thalamus
thalass- sea Greek θάλασσα (thalassa) Panthalassa
than- death Greek θάνατος (thanatos) euthanasia
the- put Greek τίθημι (tithemi) theme, thesis thesaurus
-theca case Greek θήκ
thel(o)- nipple, female Greek θηλή
the(o)-, thus- god Greek θεός (theos) theology, enthusiasm
theori- Greek θεωρία theorem, theory
therm- heat Greek θερμός (thermos) thermometer
thero- beast, animal Greek θήρ, θηρός
thyreo- large shield Greek θυρεός thyroid
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture
tom- cut Greek τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) ectomy, atom, tome
ton- stretch Greek τόνος (tonos)
top- place Greek τόπος (topos) topic, topography
torn- cut Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tornos)
torpe- numb Latin torpere torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus total
tox(o)- arrow, bow Greek τόξον (toxon)
trab- beam Latin trabs, trabis
trachy- rough Greek (trachus)
trag(o)- goat Greek (tragos) tragus
trah-, tract- pull Latin trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez- four-sided, table Greek (trapeza) trapezoid
traum- wound Greek (trauma) trauma, traumatic
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek τρεισκαίδεκα triskaidekaphobia
trema- hole Greek τρῆμα (trēma)
tri- three Greek τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, tripod
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) trichopathophobia
trin- three each Latin trini trinity
troch- wheel Greek τροχός
trop- turning Greek τρόπος (tropos) tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek τροφός pogonotrophy
tympan- drum Greek τύμπανον (tumpanon) tympani


Root Meaning in English Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ulo- wooly
ur-, uro- tail οὐρά (oura) uroborus, uroid
ur-, uro- urine οὖρον (ouron) urology


Root Meaning in English Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
xanth- yellow (xanthos) xanthogenic
xen- foreign ξενος (xenos) xenophobia
xer- dry (xēros) xerography
xiph- sword (xiphos) xiphoid
xyl- wood (xulon) xylophone


Root Meaning In English Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
zo- animal, living being ζῷον (zōion) protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon- belt, girdle ζώνη (zōnē) zone
zyg- yoke ζυγον (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment, yeast ζύμη (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme


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