User:Antidiskriminator/Drafts of articles/Myth of Skanderbeg before Slavisation

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Skanderbeg's monument in Tirana
Skanderbeg's painting

The Myth of Skanderbeg is one of the main constitutive myths of the Albanian nationalism.[1][2][3] Albanian nationalist writers transformed Skanderbeg's figure and deeds into a mixture of historical facts, truths, half-truths, inventions, and folklore.[4] The Myth of Skanderbeg is the only myth of Albanian nationalism that is based on a person; the other myths are based on ideas, abstract concepts, and collectivism.[5] There are two different Skanderbegs today - the historic Skanderbeg and a myth of national hero, as presented in Albanian schools and nationalist intellectuals in Tirana and Pristina.[6]


History transformed into myth[edit]

Built-in part of antemurale myth complex[edit]

Skanderbeg is built in part of antemurale myth complex which portrays Albanians united by Skanderbeg as protectors of the nation and Christendom against "invading Turks".[7] In the 16th century, the "Defence against the Turks" had become a central topic in East Central and South East Europe. It was put in functional use and served as a propaganda tool and to mobilize religious feelings of the population.[8] People who participated in campaigns against the Ottoman Empire were referred to as “antemurale Christianitatis” (the protective wall of Christianity).[9] The Pope Calixtus III gave Skanderbeg the title Athleta Christi, or Champion of Christ.[10] Furthermore, during the 18th, century the Myth of Skanderbeg was moulded and transformed to suit the taste and the anxieties of the British readers.[11]

Under the influence of the Myth of Skanderbeg and antemurale myth, the Albanian Catholic clergy seems to understand the figure of Mother Theresa as Skanderbeg's ideological heir who completes his task of guarding the boundaries of Catholicism and Albanianism, introducing a new era after the end of glorious era that culminated with Skanderbeg.[12][13] On the contrary to the Skanderbegs' myths of Albanian Christians, the Myth of Skanderbeg of Albania's Muslim community had a happy ending and the glorious era does not end with Skanderbeg, but continues into the Ottoman era.[14]

Albanisation of Skanderbeg[edit]

In "Istori'e Skenderbeut" written by Naim Frasheri in 1898 Skanderbeg's figure assumed a new dimension of the Albanian national hero.

Background[edit]

Although Skanderbeg has already been used in the construction of the Albanian national code, especially in communities of Arbėresh, it was only after the last years of the 19th century and the publishing of the work of Naim Frasheri "Istori'e Skenderbeut" in 1898 when his figure assumed a new dimension.[15] Naim Frasheri was the biggest inspiration and guide for most Albanian poets and intellectuals.[16] The Albanian nationalists needed an episode from the medieval history for the centre of the Albanian nationalistic mythology and they chose Skanderbeg, in the absence of the medieval kingdom or empire.[17]

The figure of Skanderbeg was subjected to the Albanisation, and he was displayed as a national hero.[18] The other books and periodicals published later also began to consider Skanderbeg as the national hero.[19] The nationalist writers subjected Skanderbeg to the laboratory which transformed the history into myth.[20] Transformation of Skanderbeg into a national symbol served both as national cohesion and as an argument for Albania's cultural affinity to Europe because the national narrative of Skanderbeg symbolized the sacrifice of the Albanians in "defending Europe from Asiatic hordes".[21] In Albanian historiography there was significant effort to adapt the facts about Skanderbeg to meet the requests of the contemporary ideology.[22]

Creation of Skanderbeg as the Albanian national hero[edit]

Southern Albanian promoters of the Albanianism, like Naim Frasheri and Sami Frashëri, were directly inspired by Hellenism.[23] Northern Albanian promoters of Albanianism were inspired by the Croatian and Montenegrin nationalisms.[24] This inspiration led to adoption of anti-Slavic component trough the work of the Franciscan monks who had studied in monasteries in Austria-Hungary.[25] They imitated and transposed national epics of the literature produced there, like Gjergj Fishta did with his Lahuta e Malcis, but substituted the struggle against Turks with struggle against the Slavs, propagating Anti-Slavic feelings.[26][27] Albanian intelligentsia proudly asserted: "We Albanians are the original and autochthonous race of the Balkans. The Slavs are conquerors and immigrants who came but yesterday from Asia."[28]

Those borrowings of the national epics and nationalisms of Greeks, Croats and Serbs of Montenegro trough the both northern and southern Albanianists channels largely contributed the creation of Skanderbeg as the Albanian national hero.[29] The religious aspect of Skanderbeg's struggle against Muslims was eluded by Albanian nationalists because it could divide Albanians and undermine their unity because Albanians are both Muslims and Christians.[30] Therefore Albanian nationalists selectively used elements of the Skanderbeg's image and painted it as nationalist myth presenting Skanderbeg as hero of the nation.[31]

Exploits of Skanderbeg's figure[edit]

Skanderbeg's name, horse, and sword summarize exploits of his figure:[32]

  1. Nomen est omen is used in the exploitation of Skanderbeg's figure by connecting his name with Alexander the Great, who defended his territory, and implying that Skanderbeg also struggled to defend his territory from the Ottoman Empire.
  2. The sword used by Skanderbeg was a present of the sultan and was equipped with magical powers.
  3. The horse connects the mythological hero with both earthly and spiritual powers, also making the hero look taller. The neighing of Skanderbeg's horse would trigger a huge terror among his enemies.

At the dawn of the 20th century, the figure of Skanderbeg as the Albanian national hero took another dimension through the appearance of pretenders to the throne who claimed his descent.[33] Being aware of the myth of Skanderbeg, many pretenders on the Albanian throne, like the German nobleman Wilhelm of Wied and several European adventurers, named themselves and their descendants after Skanderbeg.[34] Both Zogu and Enver Hoxha presented themselves as heirs of Skanderbeg.[35] One of the important reasons for the regime of Enver Hoxha to emphasize the interest in Skanderbeg's period was to justify the building of a totalitarian dictatorship.[36]

The main components of various interpretations of the picture of Skanderbeg are still present, except that communist ideological components installed by Hoxha's regime are replaced by nationalist ones. In some historical and commercial publications, Adem Jashari (1955—1998) is portrayed as the new Albanian national hero in a historical succession of Skanderbeg.[37][38]

Consequences[edit]

Since Skanderbeg occupies the central place in Albanian national myths, it complicates his critical analysis by the historians.[39] Those who performed a critical analysis of Skanderbeg, like Oliver Jens Schmitt (a historian from Vienna) did, would be soon accused of committing sacrilege and sullying the Albanian national honor.[40] There is a danger of emphasis on Skanderbeg's struggle as symbol of the unitary state because it no longer refers to the territory of the Republic of Albania, but to the whole Balkan area settled by Albanians.[41]

...the creation of national myths and memories over the centuries has provided the seedbed for the conflicts in the Balkans, but that such memories can also show the way to an open society and provide hope for the future.

Scientific research of the Myth of Skanderbeg[edit]

Myth of Skanderbeg was included in the program of the following academic conferences:

  • The Role of Myths in History and Development in Albania, held in London, Great Britain, on June 11—13, 1999[43]
  • The myth of Skanderbeg, held in Palermo, Italy on March 29, 2007[44]
  • A living Skanderbeg, the multidisciplinary analysis of the myth, historical facts and current knowledge about George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, held in Lecce, Italy, in March 12—13, 2009[45]
  • George Kastriot Skanderbeg: the history and image held on May 28, 2010 in Durres, Albania[46]
  • Recycling Myths, Inventing Nations, held in July 14—16, 2010 at Gregynog Hall, the University of Wales Conference Centre, UK[47]

The key question in scientific research of the Myth of Skanderbeg is not its historical basis, or whether it has one at all, but the investigation of its meanings and purposes.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ King, Russell, "Social Exclusion and Integration", Out of Albania: From Crisis Migration to Social Inclusion in Italy, Berghahn Books, p. 212, ISBN 978-1-84545-544-6, ...three main constitutive myths at work within Albanian nationalism ...Secondly, the myth of Skanderbeg, ... Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  2. ^ Steinke, Klaus. "Recension of the The living Skanderbeg : the Albanian hero between myth and history / Monica Genesin ... (eds.) Hamburg : Kovač, 2010 Schriftenreihe Orbis ; Bd. 16" (in German). QUELLE Informationsmittel (IFB) : digitales Rezensionsorgan für Bibliothek und Wissenschaft. Retrieved March 24, 2011. Im nationalen Mythus der Albaner nimmt er den zentralen Platz ein,... More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  3. ^ Nixon, N., Always already European: The figure of Skënderbeg in contemporary Albanian nationalism, National Identities, 12, March 2010, Routledge, doi:10.1080/14608940903542540, retrieved May 3, 2011, (From abstract) … Through the figure of Skënderbeg, Albanian nationalism produces an image of the nation as a seamless continuity of 'Europeanness' from the fifteenth century to the present. … It constitutes, it is argued in this article, a misdirected appeal to Europe - driven by a desire for future European Union membership - to recognise Albania as always already European. … More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  4. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002), Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 43, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, retrieved March 24, 2011, The nationalist writers... transform history into myth ... As with most myths his figure and deeds became a mixture of historical facts, truths, half-truths, inventions and folklore. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  5. ^ Free, Jan, "Skanderbeg als historisher Mythos", Von den Schwierigkeiten historischer Bezugnahme: Der albanische Nationalheld Skanderbeg (PDF) (in German), Düsseldorf: Mythos Magazin, p. 14, retrieved March 25, 2011, Betrachtet man die Gesamtheit der albanischen Nationalmythen, so ist offensichtlich, dass es fur Albaner mehr als nur den Skanderbeg-Mythos gibt und dass nicht nur auf diesem Mythos die albanische Identitat beruht. Es gibt noch weitere wichtige Mythenfiguren, doch diese beziehen sich auf Vorstellungen, abstrakte Konzepte und Kollektive, aber nicht auf Personen. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  6. ^ Jens Schmitt, Oliver. "Skanderbeg Ein Winterkönig an der Zeitenwende" (in German). Retrieved 7 April 2011. Heute gibt es zwei Skanderbegs - den historischen und den zum Nationalhelden erhobenen Mythos, wie er in albanischen Schulen und von nationalistischen Intellektuellen in Tirana oder Prishtina dargestellt wird. Beide haben weniger miteinander zu tun als entfernte Verwandte. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  7. ^ Endresen, Cecilie (2010), Oliver Jens Schmitt, ed., Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa, 4, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, p. 249, ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9, The antemurale myth and Skanderbeg: A built-in part of antemurale myth complex is Skanderbeg... united Albanians in the fight against invading Turks and that his primary motive was defence of the nation (although the churchmen equate that with defence of the Christendom) More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  8. ^ Maner, Hans–Christian. "The "Repelling of the great Turk" in Southeast European Historiography". University of Mainz. Retrieved 31 March 2011. ...“Defence against the Turks”, that had already become central topics in East Central and Southeast Europe in the sixteenth century, ... was also put to functional use... also a propaganda function, .... mobilising religious feelings
  9. ^ Maner, Hans–Christian. "The "Repelling of the great Turk" in Southeast European Historiography". University of Mainz. Retrieved 31 March 2011. ...Contemporary accounts already used the topos of the defence of Christian Europe...others claimed the title, too...antemurale Christianitatis
  10. ^ Babinger 1992, pp. 152–153
  11. ^ Marshall, Louise (2010). "Scanderbeg, myth, heroism and the eighteenth-century stage" (PDF). Retrieved March 27, 2010. Through the representation of a Christian/Turk hero and his struggle against the Ottoman empire I will consider the ways in which the mythology surrounding this ambiguous historical character is moulded and transformed to suit the taste, and the anxieties, of eighteenth-century British audiences. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  12. ^ Endresen, Cecilie (2010), Oliver Jens Schmitt, ed., Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa, 4, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, p. 250, ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9, The Catholic clergy seems to understand Mother Theresa as Skanderbeg's ideological heir, who completes his holy task of guarding the boundaries of Catholicism and Albanianism. In these myths the two figures symbolize transition: Skanderbeg is culmination of glorious era, while Mother Theresa introduces a new one. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  13. ^ Alpion, Gëzim I. (2007). Mother Teresa: saint or celebrity?. New York: Routledge. p. 64. Retrieved April 4, 2011. Albanian media, the Albanian Catholic Church, the political establishment in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia and numerous intellectuals were trying to present Mother Teresa as Albania's modern "national hero", something of contemporary kindred spirit of Skanderbeg More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  14. ^ Endresen, Cecilie (2010), Oliver Jens Schmitt, ed., Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa, 4, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, p. 250, ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9, Compared to other Communities' Skanderbeg myths, that of ulama had a happy ending... In their myths, the glory of Illirian era does not end with the death of Skanderbeg but continues into the Ottoman era More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  15. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007), Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation, Karthala, p. 441, ISBN 978-2-84586-816-8, Avant 1896, une image de Skanderbeg heros de l orthodoxie Grecque s'etait largement developpee dans les regions meridionales tandis que, dans le regions proches du Montenegro, en 1897 encore, des poemes epiques dans lesqueles il etait celebre comme un guerrier slave etaient de plus en plus difuses. Meme s'il etait egalement deja apparu dans la construction d'un passe national albanais (en particulier Arberesh) , dans les toutes dernieres annes du XIX siecle, sa figure prit une nuovelle dimension.
  16. ^ Elsie, Robert (2005), "Writing in the independence period", Albanian literature: a short history, London: I.B. Tauris in association with the Centre for Albanian Studies, p. 100, ISBN 1845110315, retrieved January 18, 2011, major source of inspiration and guiding lights for most Albanian poets and intellectuals More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  17. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002), "Invention of nationalism: Myth and amnesia", Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 43, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, ..an episode taken from medieval history was central for Albanian national mythology. In the absence of medieval kingdom or empire the Albanian nationalists choose Skanderbeg.... Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  18. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007), Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation, Karthala, p. 441, ISBN 978-2-84586-816-8, L'une des evolutions les plus remarquables fut l'albanisation de la figure de Skanderbeg et sa mise en avant en tant que heros national
  19. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007), Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation, Karthala, p. 441, ISBN 978-2-84586-816-8, La parution en 1898 de l'Historie de Skanderbeg, un poeme epique compose par Naim Frasheri, y contribua beacoup. Mais, d'autres ouvrages et periodiques mirent aussi l'accent sur celui qui etait de plus en plus largement considere comme le "heros national". Faik Konica rassembla des materiaux sur Skanderbeg, afin d'alimenter les pages de l'Albania.
  20. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002), "Invention of nationalism: Myth and amnesia", Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, The nationalistic writers...subjecting him to that laboratory that serves to transform history into myth. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  21. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002), Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 43, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, ... transformation of Skanderbeg into national symbol did not just serve national cohesion... in the national narrative Skanderbeg symbolised the sublime sacrifice of the Albanians in defending Europe from the Asiatic hordes. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  22. ^ Nitsiakos, Vassilis (2010), On the Border - Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries along the Albanian-Greek Frontier, Berlin: Lit Verlag, p. 213, ISBN 978-3-643-10793-0, OCLC 700517914, Even a quick look into the historiography of those times suffices to see the effort to adapt the story of Skenderbeg to contemporary ideological stipulations. Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  23. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang S.A., p. 220, ISBN 90-5201-297-0, Indeed Naim and Sami...were promoters of Albanianism,... directly inspired by hellenism. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  24. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang S.A., p. 220, ISBN 90-5201-297-0, a for of Albanianism, developed among catholics of the Shkoder area was directly inspired by Croatian and Montenegrin nationalisms Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  25. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang S.A., p. 220, ISBN 90-5201-297-0, it led to adoption of anti-Slavic component Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  26. ^ Elsie, Robert. "Gjergj Fishta, The Voice of The Albanian Nation". Archived from the original on April 5, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011. Fishta was not uninfluenced or unmoved by the literary achievements of the southern Slavs in the second half of the nineteenth century...the role played by Franciscan pater Grga Martic whose works served the young Fishta as a model...by the writings of an earlier Franciscan writer, Andrija Kacic-Miosic ...by the works of Croatian poet Ivan Mazhuranic... the Montenegrin poet-prince Petar Petrovic Njegos... His main work, the epic poem, Lahuta e Malësisë (The highland lute), ... propagates anti-Slavic feelings and makes the struggle against the Ottoman occupants secondary. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  27. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang S.A., p. 220, ISBN 90-5201-297-0, ... substitution of the central motif of the fight against the Turks by that of the fight against Slavs. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  28. ^ Kolarz, Walter (1972), Myths and realities in eastern Europe, Kennikat Press, p. 227, ISBN 9780804616003, Albanian intelligentsia, despite the backwardness of their country and culture: "We Albanians are the original and autochthonous race of the Balkans. The Slavs are conquerors and immigrants who came but yesterday from Asia." Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  29. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2005), Developing cultural identity in the Balkans: convergence vs divergence, Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang S.A., p. 220, ISBN 90-5201-297-0, Even the creation of national hero is largely due to such borrowings.. trough both channels, the Southern and the Northern one. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  30. ^ Nitsiakos, Vassilis (2010), On the Border - Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries along the Albanian-Greek Frontier, Berlin: Lit Verlag, p. 210, 211, ISBN 978-3-643-10793-0, OCLC 700517914, The case of Skanderbeg offered Albanian nationalists a basis to develop a national rhetoric and ideology of national resistance,.... adapted for the purposes of national myth... and religious dimension of his identity is eluded. Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  31. ^ Nitsiakos, Vassilis (2010), On the Border - Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries along the Albanian-Greek Frontier, Berlin: Lit Verlag, p. 210, 211, ISBN 978-3-643-10793-0, OCLC 700517914, ... Albanian nationalists ... against enemy who is threatening the integrity of the fatherland and unity of Albanian people. The case of Skanderbeg... the selective use of the elements of his story...the image of the Skanderbeg is painted with materials of national myth... Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  32. ^ di Miceli, Francesca, Miti e Cultura Arbereshe (PDF) (in Italian), Italy: Centro Internazionale Studi sul Mito Delegazione Siciliana, p. 5, retrieved March 24, 2011, Un nome, una spada e un destriero quindi compendiano le gesta di Giorgio Kastriota...Nomen omen ...Infatti come l’eroico macedone Alessandro Magno aveva lottato contro i Greci per proteggere la sua terra così l’albanese Giorgio Kastriota lottava contro i Turci a difesa dell’Albania mettendo ...possedeva poteri magici...ma uno dei ruoli che maggiormente la caratterizza è quello di guida dell’uomo nei mpondi superiori...il suo cavallo e ciò avrebbe scatenato un enorme terrore fra i turchi Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); line feed character in |quote= at position 180 (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  33. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007), Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation, Karthala, p. 441, ISBN 978-2-84586-816-8, A l'aube XX siècle, la figure de Skanderbeg comme heros national albanais prit egalement une autre dimension a travers l apparition des pretendants au trone qui se reclamerent de sa descendance.
  34. ^ Jazexhi, Olsi (2002), "Another approach towards certain 'exported' myths on Albanian historiography between Occident and Islâm", Africana (PDF), Pisa, Italy: Edistudio di Brunetto Casini, pp. 93–101, The Europeans that pretended to ... like... Wilhelm von Wied, who being aware of Scanderbeg’s myth, named his son and daughter Skender and Donika...Other European adventurers who aimed on getting the Albanian throne and playing on the Scanderbeg’s myth...named themselves Scanderbeg and worked out on creating their own historical connections with the said man. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  35. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002), Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 47, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, retrieved March 24, 2011, ...both Zogu and Enver Hoxha tried their best to present themselves as heirs of Skanderbeg. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |firstn= ignored (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  36. ^ Maner, Hans–Christian. "The "Repelling of the great Turk" in Southeast European Historiography". University of Mainz. Retrieved 31 March 2011. For the Hoxha regime it was... central to elucidate the topicality of the Skanderbeg period,... to historically justify the building of a totalitarian dictatorship.
  37. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2010). Maria Todorova, ed. Post-Communist Nostalgia. Berghahn Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-84545-671-9. Retrieved 20 July 2011. Today, Adem Jashari, who died in 1998, is situated in line with Skanderbeg and his death is perceived as testimony to the existence of the Albanian nation. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  38. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2007). Schnittstellen: Gesellschaft, Nation, Konflikt und Erinnerung in Südosteuropa. Festschrift für Holm Sundhaussen zum 65. Geburtstag. Mit Beitr. in engl. Sprache (in German). Oldenbourg. p. 567. ISBN 978-3-486-58346-5. Retrieved 20 July 2011. Die historiographischen Veröffentlichungen und die an der neuen Pilgerstätte entstehende kommerzielle Literatur feiern den neuen Nationalhelden als "Legendären Kommandanten" in historischer Nachfolge von Skanderbeg....The historiographical publications and forms on the new commercial literary pilgrimage to celebrate the new national hero as the "Legendary Commander" in a historical succession of Skanderbeg... Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  39. ^ Steinke, Klaus. "Recension of the The living Skanderbeg : the Albanian hero between myth and history / Monica Genesin ... (eds.) Hamburg : Kovač, 2010 Schriftenreihe Orbis ; Bd. 16" (in German). QUELLE Informationsmittel (IFB) : digitales Rezensionsorgan für Bibliothek und Wissenschaft. Retrieved March 24, 2011. Im nationalen Mythus der Albaner nimmt er den zentralen Platz ein, was die kritische Auseinandersetzung der Historiker mit ihm erschwert. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  40. ^ Steinke, Klaus. "Recension of the The living Skanderbeg : the Albanian hero between myth and history / Monica Genesin ... (eds.) Hamburg : Kovač, 2010 Schriftenreihe Orbis ; Bd. 16" (in German). QUELLE Informationsmittel (IFB) : digitales Rezensionsorgan für Bibliothek und Wissenschaft. Retrieved March 24, 2011. Wer es dennoch versucht, wird, wie der Wiener Osthistoriker Oliver Jens Schmitt erfahren mußte, schnell in der albanischen Öffentlichkeit zum Buhmann, der ein Sakrileg begeht und die nationale Ehre beschmutzt. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  41. ^ Maner, Hans–Christian. "The "Repelling of the great Turk" in Southeast European Historiography". University of Mainz. Retrieved 31 March 2011. What is explosive is the emphasis on Skanderbeg’s struggle against the Turks as the symbol for the creation of the unitary state which, differently to under Hoxha, no longer just referred to the territory of the Republic of Albania, but to the whole of the Albanian area of settlement in the Balkans
  42. ^ Lubonja, Fatos. "Re-Inventing Skenderbeg Albanian nationalism and Nato neo-colonialism". Eurozine. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  43. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie. "Bericht über die internationale Tagung "The Role of 'Myths' in History and Development in Albania", 11. bis 13. Juni 1999 an der School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) in London" (in German). Switzerland: Schweizer Zeitschrift für die Zusammenarbeit mit Albanien - Informationen für an Albanien Interessierte. Archived from the original on March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011. ... in einen großen Bogen als albanische »Schlüsselmythen« (von Illyrianismus über Skanderbeg ... More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  44. ^ "Conferenza prof. ssa Francesca di Miceli: "Il mito di Skanderbeg"" [The conference of professor Francesca di Miceli: "The myth of Skanderbeg"] (in Italian). Centro Internazionale di Studi sul Mito, Delegazione Siciliana. Archived from the original on March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011. ...una conversazione sul mito di Skanderbeg, evidenziando il processo attraverso il quale un personaggio storico assume la dimensione mitica e l’importanza di questa figura per la definizione della identità nazionale degli Albanesi nei vari periodi della loro storia.
  45. ^ "Scanderbeg vivo — Una riflessione interdisciplinare tra mito, storia e attualità sulla figura di Giorgio Castriota Scanderbeg" [A living Skanderbeg, the multidisciplinary analysis of the myht, historical facts and current knowledge about George Kastrioti Skanderbeg] (in Italian). Osservatorio Balcani. 2009. Archived from the original on March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  46. ^ "Convegno internazionale "Giorgio Castriota Scanderbeg: la storia e l'immagine" a Durazzo" (in Italian). Italy: dirittodicronaca. June 1, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011. Il 28 maggio 2010, nella sala delle conferenze dell’hotel “Adriatik” a Durrazzo, l’Università “Marino Barlezio” e il Centro di Studi Albanologici di Tirana hanno organizzato il convegno internazionale “Giorgio Castriota Scanderbeg: la storia e l’immagine”..." avvolta nel mito"..
  47. ^ Marshall, Louise (2010). "Scanderbeg, myth, heroism and the eighteenth-century stage" (PDF). Aberystwyth University. Retrieved March 27, 2010. Scanderbeg, myth, heroism and the eighteenth-century stage More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  48. ^ Free, Jan, "Skanderbeg als historisher Mythos", Von den Schwierigkeiten historischer Bezugnahme: Der albanische Nationalheld Skanderbeg (PDF) (in German), Düsseldorf: Mythos Magazin, p. 14, retrieved March 25, 2011, Doch die entscheidende Frage in Bezug auf einen Mythos ist nicht, was die historische Grundlage des Mythos ist oder ob er uberhaupt eine besitzt; was fur einen Inhalt er hat und auch nicht, wie die Wirkungs geschichchte dieser Erzahlung war oder ist. Notwendig ist eine Beantwortung der Frage, wieso an Skanderbeg uberhaupt geglaubt wird, warum Albaner sich auf ihn wie selbstverstandlich beziehen und welchen Zweck der Skanderbeg-Mythos hatte und hat. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)

Literature[edit]