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Jimmy Wales at Wikimania 2014 closing ceremony.

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Antony McCallum: Who is the uploader, photographer, full copyright owner and proprietor of WyrdLight.com

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http://www.wyrdlight.com Author: Antony McCallum

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Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience involving the search for creatures whose existence has not been proven due to lack of evidence. The animals cryptozoologists study are referred to as cryptids by cryptozoologists. This includes living examples of creatures that are otherwise considered extinct, such as non-avian dinosaurs; animals whose existence lacks physical evidence but which appear in folklore, such as Bigfoot and chupacabras;[1] and wild animals dramatically outside their normal geographic ranges, such as phantom cats.


Ruins of a garum factory in Baelo Claudia in Spain.

Garum was a fermented fish sauce used as a condiment[2] in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. Liquamen was a similar preparation, and at times the two were synonymous. Although it enjoyed its greatest popularity in the Roman world, the sauce was earlier used by the Greeks. The Romans thought the Latin word garum derived from the Greek garos, a fish from which it was supposed to have been originally made, but this fish-name is unattested in classical Greek.[3] It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.[4]

Manufacture[edit]

Garum factory in Portugal
Composition of garum
What is called liquamen is thus made: the intestines of fish are thrown into a vessel, and are salted; and small fish, especially atherinae, or small mullets, or maenae, or lycostomi, or any small fish, are all salted in the same manner; and they are seasoned in the sun, and frequently turned; and when they have been seasoned in the heat, the garum is thus taken from them. A small basket of close texture is laid in the vessel filled with the small fish already mentioned, and the garum will flow into the basket; and they take up what has been percolated through the basket, which is called liquamen; and the remainder of the feculence is made into allec.

  – Geōponika: Agricultural pursuits, Vol. II, pp. 299-300; translated from the Greek by Thomas Owen; London 1806.

Garum[edit]

The best Garum is thought to have been prepared from the blood and eviscerate of the Mediterranean Mackerel. Being an oily fish it was, according to archeological evidence (and still is) considered best to snout them immediately they where hauled up and whilst still alive, to improve their keeping quality. This involves (in simple terms) cutting a vee shape notch in the snout (without immediately killing the fishes) so that they bleed out in a cask of sea water whilst still on board the fishing vessel. Afterwords, the fish are eviscerate and theses added to the blood in the cask. Extra salt was then added. It was important to keep the fish parts submerged, usually done with a wooden mesh on top and weighted down by stones. Any loss through evaporation would be made up by adding more liquid to ensure the fish parts did not get exposed to air which would have encouraged bacterial decomposition. The enzymes in the gut and muscle cells digest the solid matter through the process of autolysis. The resulting black past is the condiment Garum. This was normally served at the table. It is thought that unlike modern fish sauces (which which have a salt content of 25% by weight), the Romans used just 15%. This explains the shorter fermentation times recorded in ancient texts, as salt slows down the fermentation process. In practice the Romans would not have used percentages but more convenient fractions. One sextantis of salt by weight and the salt already in the fish and sea water in which it was fermented in would add up to just over 15%.

Liquamen

The liquor strained of from Garum vessels was referred to as Liquamen. Liquamen and garum are fewquently confused as being the same product but this can be traced back to just one source. A book which is a collection of recipes and translation has suffered. Liquamen was only used in the kitchens as a flavorant, much as modern fish sources are used to day.

Another way of producing liquamen was to ferment 'whole' fishes, often of the more common fish such as anchovies, herrings, sardines and sprats etc. Calamari, shellfish and other sea food could also be used. Intestines of other fishes (containing the digestive enzymes) where often added to these pots to speed up the process of autolisis. The strained of liquor was also called Liquamen and used in cooking.

Alec

This was the paste from the bottom of the fermentation pot from lesser quality seafood. Archaeological evidence suggests that this was transported with the bones of the fishes still in the amphorae. It may be that the constant agitation during the sea voyage improved the quality. The bones were then removed. Any liquor strained off could also be called Liquamen.

Muria

In order to get the most out of the fermentation process, fresh brine was often added at various stages.The final stage yielded a low quality brine that was evaporated down to salt crystals and called Muria.


[5]

refer back to:Template:Cite book

Veriations[edit]

Many souces are made from seafoodrecipes used autolysis o


fish through the process of autolysis. Fishermen would lay out their catch according to the type and part of the fish, allowing makers to pick the exact ingredients they wanted.[6] The fish parts were then macerated in salt, and cured in the sun for one to three months. The mixture fermented and liquified in the dry warmth, with the salt inhibiting the common agents of decay. Garum was the clear liquid that formed on the top, drawn off by means of a fine strainer inserted into the fermenting vessel. The sediment or sludge that remained was allec.[7] Concentrated decoctions of aromatic herbs might be added. Flavors would vary according to the locale, with ingredients sometimes from in-house gardens.[6][8]

The end product was very nutritious, retaining a high amount of protein and amino acids, along with a good deal of minerals and B vitamins.[9]

Economic role[edit]

Garum jugs from Pompeii

The manufacture and export of garum was an element of the prosperity of coastal Greek emporia from the Ligurian coast of Gaul to the coast of Hispania Baetica, and perhaps an impetus for Roman penetration of these coastal regions.[10] Amphorae recovered from shipwreck sites off Ansérune and Agde bear the traces of the garum they contained and date as early as the 5th century BC. In the ruins of Pompeii, jars were even found containg kosher garum,[11] suggesting an equal popularity among Roman Jews.

Each port had its own traditional recipe, but by the time of Augustus, Romans considered the best to be garum from Cartagena and Gades in Baetica. This product was called garum sociorum, "garum of the allies".[10] The ruins of a garum factory remain at the Baetian site of Baelo Claudia (in present-day Tarifa) and Carteia (San Roque). Garum was a major export product from Hispania to Rome, and gained the towns a certain amount of prestige. The garum of Lusitania (in present-day Portugal) was also highly prized in Rome, and was shipped directly from the harbour of Lacobriga (Lagos). A former Roman garum factory can be visited in the Baixa area of central Lisbon.[12] Fossae Marianae in southern Gaul, located on the southern tip of present-day France, served as a distribution hub for Western Europe, including Gaul, Germania, and Roman Britain.[13]

Umbricius Scaurus' production of garum was key to the economy of Pompeii. The factories where garum was produced in Pompeii have not been uncovered, perhaps indicating that they lay outside the walls of the city. The production of garum created such unpleasant smells that factories were generally relegated to the outskirts of cities. In 2008, archaeologists used the residue from garum found in containers in Pompeii to confirm the August date of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The garum had been made entirely of bogues, fish that congregate in the summer months.[14]

Cuisine[edit]

Mosaic depicting a "Flower of Garum" jug with a titulus reading "from the workshop of [the garum importer Aulus Umbricius] Scaurus"[15]

Like the modern fermented soy product soy sauce, fermented garum is rich in the natural amino acid monosodium glutamate, a source of umami flavoring.[16] It was used along with murri to give an umami flavor to dishes.[17]

Garum was produced in various grades consumed by all social classes. After the liquid garum was ladled off of the top of the mixture, the remains of the fish, called allec or alec, was used by the poorest classes to flavour their staple porridge or polenta. The finished product—the nobile garum of Martial's epigram[18]—was apparently mild and subtle in flavor. The best garum fetched extraordinarily high prices,[19] and salt could be substituted for a simpler dish. Garum appears in most of the recipes featured in the Roman cookbook Apicius.

In the 1st century AD, liquamen was a sauce distinct from garum, as indicated throughout the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum IV. By the 5th century or earlier, however, liquamen had come to refer to garum.[7] The available evidence suggests that the sauce was typically made by crushing the innards of (fatty) pelagic fishes, particularly anchovies, but also sprats, sardines, mackerel or tuna, and then fermenting them in brine.[20][21][22][23] In most surviving tituli picti inscribed on amphorae, where the fish ingredient is shown, the fish is mackerel.[7]

When mixed with wine (oenogarum, a popular Byzantine sauce), vinegar, black pepper, or oil, garum enhances the flavor of a wide variety of dishes, including boiled veal and steamed mussels, even pear-and-honey soufflé. Diluted with water (hydrogarum) it was distributed to Roman legions. Pliny remarked that it could be diluted to the colour of honey wine and drunk.[24]

Social aspects[edit]

The taste for garum had a social dimension that might be compared to an aversion to garlic in some modern Western societies, or to the adoption of fish sauce in Vietnamese cuisine (called nước mắm there).[7] Seneca, holding the old-fashioned line against the expensive craze, cautioned against it, even though his family was from Baetian Corduba:

Do you not realize that garum sociorum, that expensive bloody mass of decayed fish, consumes the stomach with its salted putrefaction?

— Seneca, Epistle 95.

A surviving fragment of Plato Comicus speaks of "putrid garum". Martial congratulates a friend on keeping up amorous advances to a girl who had indulged in six helpings of it.[7]

Garum was also employed as a medicine. It was thought to be one of the best cures for many ailments, including dog bites, dysentery, and ulcers, and to ease chronic diarrhea and treat constipation. Garum was even used as an ingredient in cosmetics and for removal of unwanted hair and freckles.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simpson, George G. (1984). "Mammals and Cryptozoology". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 128 (1): 1–19. JSTOR 986487. 
  2. ^ (R. Zahn), Real-Encyclopaedia der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, s.v. "Garum", 1st Series 7 (1912) pp. 841-849.
  3. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 31.93; Isidore of Seville, Origines 20.3.19; Thomas H. Corcoran, "Roman Fish Sauces," Classical Journal 58.5 (1963), p. 205, citing D'Arcy W. Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Fishes (London, 1947), p. 43.
  4. ^ http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/10/26/240237774/fish-sauce-an-ancient-roman-condiment-rises-again
  5. ^ Saberi, Helen, ed. (2011). "Roman fish sauce. An experiment in archaeology". Cured, Smoked, and Fermented: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food. Prospect Books, Oxford Symposium, 2011. p. 121. ISBN 9781903018859. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Curtis, Rober I. 1979. The Garum Shop of Pompeii. Cronache Pompeiane. XXXI. 94. p5-23.
  7. ^ a b c d e Curtis, Robert I (1983) "In Defense of Garum" The Classical Journal, 78 (3): 232–240.
  8. ^ Francesca Lugli,Alessandr a Assunta Stoppiello, Stefano Biagetti. Atti del 4° Convegno Nazionaledi Etnoarcheologia, Roma,17-19 maggio 2006. Rome: ArchaeopressPublishers of British Archaeological ReportsGordon House276 Banbury RoadOxford OX2 7EDEnglan Atti del 4° Convegno Nazionaledi Etnoarcheologia, Roma,17-19 maggio 2006 Proceedings of the 4th Italian Congress of Ethnoarchaeology, Rome, 17–19 May 2006 BAR International Series 22352011. p. 70. ISBN 978 1 4073 0797 8.  line feed character in |publisher= at position 105 (help); line feed character in |title= at position 12 (help); Missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  9. ^ a b Curtis, Robert I. (1984) "Salted Fish Products in Ancient Medicine". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, XXXIX, 4:430-445.
  10. ^ a b Toussaint-Samat (2009).
  11. ^ [1],
  12. ^ Fundação Millennium bcp Fundação Millennium bcp—Núcleo Arqueológico
  13. ^ Curtis, Robert I. 1988. Spanish Trade in Salted Fish Products in the 1st and 2nd Centuries A.D. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration. XXXIX. 205-210.
  14. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella Fish Sauce Used to Date Pompeii Eruption
  15. ^ G(ari) F(los) SCOM(bri) SCAURI EX OFFI(ci)NA SCAURI, from Pompeii
  16. ^ Lewicka, Paulina. Food and Foodways of Medieval Cairenes: Aspects of Life in an Islamic Metropolis of the Eastern Mediterranean. p. 296. 
  17. ^ Perry, Charles (October 31, 2001), "The Soy Sauce That Wasn't", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 2009-03-21 
  18. ^ Martial, Epigrams 13.
  19. ^ Toussaint-Samat, The History of Food, revised ed. 2009, p. 338f.
  20. ^ Curtis RI (2009) "Umami and the foods of classical antiquity" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90 (3): 712S–718S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462C
  21. ^ Grainger S (2006) "Towards an Authentic Roman Sauce" In: Pages 206–210, Richard Hosking (Ed.) Authenticity in the Kitchen, Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 2005. ISBN 9781903018477.
  22. ^ Jashemski WMF and Meyer FG (2002) The Natural History of Pompeii Cambridge University Press, page 274. ISBN 9780521800549.
  23. ^ Zaret, PM (2004) Liquamen and other fish sauces" Repast, 20 (4) : 3–4 and 8.
  24. ^ Pliny, Historia Naturalis 13.93.

Further reading[edit]

  • Atik, S. "Marcus Gavius Apicius ve Garum" III-IV. Ulusal Arkeolojik Arastirmalar Sempozyumu, Anadolu / Anatolia Ek Dizi No. 2 / Suppl. Series No. 2, 15–25, Ankara, 2008.
  • Butterworth, Alex and Ray Laurence. Pompeii: The Living City. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2005.
  • Davidson, James N. (1997) Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens London: Harper Collins ISBN 9780002555913
  • Downie D (2003) "A Roman Anchovy's Tale" Gastronomica - The Journal of Food and Culture, 3 (2).
  • McCann, A.M. (1994). "The Roman Port of Cosa",(273 BC), Scientific American, Ancient Cities, pp. 92–99, by Anna Marguerite McCann. Covers: modifying harbor, for the garum industry, amphora factory, hydraulic concrete, of "Pozzolana mortar" and the five piers, of the Cosa harbor, the lighthouse on pier 5, diagrams, and photographs. Height of Port city: 100 BC. For: Garum Industry at port of Cosa, Italy, 273 BC.'
  • Smith A.F. (1998) "From Garum to Ketchup. A Spicy Tale of Two Fish Sauces" Pages 299–306 in: Harlan Walker (Ed.) Food from the Waters, Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1997. ISBN 9780907325895.
  • Grant, M. (2008) "Roman Cookery: Ancient Recipes for Modern Kitchens" pp. 26–29 Recipes for garum and vegetarian garum London: Serif ISBN 9781897959602

External links[edit]


THIS ARTICLE NEEDS A COMPLETE REWRITE
Special:Randompage A prescription is is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.[1] A qualified practitioner might be a physician, Physician Assistant, dentist, nurse practitioner, pharmacist, psychologist, or other health care providers. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient, caretaker, nurse, pharmacist, physician, other therapist, or by automated equipment, such as an intravenous infusion pump. Formerly, prescriptions often included detailed instructions regarding compounding of medications but as medications have increasingly become pre-packaged manufactured products, the term "prescription" now usually refers to an order that a pharmacist dispense and that a patient take certain medications. Prescriptions have legal implications, as they may indicate that the prescriber takes responsibility for the clinical care of the patient and in particular for monitoring efficacy and safety. As medical practice has become increasingly complex, the scope of meaning of the term "prescription" has broadened to also include clinical assessments, laboratory tests, and imaging studies relevant to optimizing the safety or efficacy of medical treatment.

Format and definition[edit]

Prescription symbol U+211E prescription take (HTML ℞)

Prescriptions may be entered into an electronic medical record system and transmitted electronically to a pharmacy. Alternatively, a prescription may be handwritten on preprinted prescription forms that are assembled into pads, or printed onto similar forms using a computer printer. In some cases, a prescription may be transmitted from the physician to the pharmacist verbally by telephone, although this practice may increase the risk of medical error. The content of a prescription includes the name and address of the prescribing provider and any other legal requirement such as a registration number (e.g. DEA Number in the United States). Unique for each prescription is the name of the patient. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the patient's name and address must also be recorded. Each prescription is dated and some jurisdictions may place a time limit on the prescription.[2] In the past, prescriptions contained instructions for the pharmacist to use for compounding the pharmaceutical product but most prescriptions now specify pharmaceutical products that were manufactured and require little or no preparation by the pharmacist. Prescriptions also contain directions for the patient to follow when taking the drug. These directions are printed on the label of the pharmaceutical product.

is a symbol meaning "prescription". It is sometimes transliterated as "Rx" or just "Rx". This symbol originated in medieval manuscripts as an abbreviation of the Late Latin verb recipe, the imperative form of recipere, "to take" or "take thus".[3] Literally, the Latin word recipe means simply "Take...." and medieval prescriptions invariably began with the command to "take" certain materials and compound them in specified ways.[4]

Folk theories about the origin of the symbol note its similarity to the Eye of Horus,[5][6] or to the ancient symbol for Zeus or Jupiter, (), gods whose protection may have been sought in medical contexts.[7]

The word "prescription", from "pre-" ("before") and "script" ("writing, written"), refers to the fact that the prescription is an order that must be written down before a compound drug can be prepared. Those within the industry will often call prescriptions simply "scripts".

The fact that a prescription instructs someone to "take" rather than "give" is not a trivial distinction, but makes clear it is directed at the patient, and is not directly an instruction to anyone else. In certain states medical marijuana legislation has been drafted calling for a health care professional's written or oral "recommendation", in the belief that a written one would be legally distinguishable from a prescription, but since written advice to a patient is what a prescription is, that belief is mistaken. Jurisdictions may adopt a statutory definition of "prescription" that applies as a term of art only to the operation of that statute (see below about prescriptions that may legally be filled with prescription-only items), but the general legal definition of the word is this broad one.

Contents[edit]

Many brand name drugs have cheaper generic drug substitutes that are therapeutically and biochemically equivalent. Prescriptions will also contain instructions on whether the prescriber will allow the pharmacist to substitute a generic version of the drug. This instruction is communicated in a number of ways.

In some jurisdictions, the preprinted prescription contains two signature lines: one line has "dispense as written" printed underneath; the other line has "substitution permitted" underneath. Some have a preprinted box "dispense as written" for the prescriber to check off (but this is easily checked off by anyone with access to the prescription). Other jurisdictions the protocol is for the prescriber to handwrite one of the following phrases: "dispense as written", "DAW", "brand necessary", "do not substitute", "no substitution", "medically necessary", "do not interchange".[8] In other jurisdictions they may use completely different languages, never mind a different formula of words. In some jurisdictions, it may be a legal requirement to include the age of child on the prescription.[9] For pediatric prescriptions some advise the inclusion of the age of the child if the patient is less than twelve and the age and months if less than five. (In general, including the age on the prescription is helpful.) Adding the weight of the child is also helpful.

Prescriptions often have a "label" box.[10] When checked, the pharmacist is instructed to label the medication. When not checked, the patient only receives instructions for taking the medication and no information about the prescription itself.

Some prescribers further inform the patient and pharmacist by providing the indicator for the medication; i.e. what is being treated. This assists the pharmacist in checking for errors as many common medications can be used for multiple medical conditions.

Some prescriptions will specify whether and how many "repeats" or "refills" are allowed; that is whether the patient may obtain more of the same medication without getting a new prescription from the medical practitioner. Regulations may restrict some types of drugs from being refilled.

In group practices, the preprinted portion of the prescription may contain multiple prescribers' names. Prescribers typically circle themselves to indicate who is prescribing or there may be a checkbox next to their name.

Writing prescriptions[edit]

Who can write prescriptions (that may legally be filled with prescription-only items)[edit]

National or local (i.e. state or provincial) legislation governs who can write a prescription. In North America, physicians (either M.D. or D.O.) have the broadest prescriptive authority. All 50 states and the District of Columbia allow licensed certified Physician Assistants (PAs) prescription authority (with some limitations to controlled substances). All 50 states allow registered certified nurse practitioners and other advanced practice registered nurses (such as certified nurse-midwives) prescription power (with some states including limitations to controlled substances).[11][12] Many other healthcare professions also have prescriptive authority related to their area of practice. Veterinarians, dentists, and podiatrists have prescribing power in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Clinical pharmacists are allowed to prescribe in some states through the use of a drug formulary or collaboration agreements. Florida Pharmacists can write prescriptions for a limited set of drugs.[13] In all states, optometrists prescribe medications to treat certain eye diseases, and also issue spectacle and contact lens prescriptions for corrective eyewear.[14] Several states have passed RxP legislation, allowing clinical psychologists (PhDs or PsyDs) who are registered as medical psychologists and have also undergone specialized training in script-writing to prescribe drugs to treat emotional and mental disorders. Physicians who practice chiropractic medicine may have the ability to write a prescription, depending on scope of practice laws in a jurisdiction.

Legibility[edit]

Prescriptions, when handwritten, are notorious for being often illegible. In the US, medical practitioners' sloppy handwriting kills more than 7,000 people annually,[neutrality is disputed] according to a July 2006 report from the National Academies of Science's Institute of Medicine (IOM).[15] Historically, physicians used Latin words and abbreviations to convey the entire prescription to the pharmacist. Today, many of the abbreviations are still widely used and must be understood to interpret prescriptions. At other times, even though some of the individual letters are illegible, the position of the legible letters and length of the word is sufficient to distinguish the medication based on the knowledge of the pharmacist. When in doubt, pharmacists call the medical practitioner. Some jurisdictions have legislated legible prescriptions (e.g. Florida).[16] Some have advocated the elimination of handwritten prescriptions altogether[17] and computer printed prescriptions are becoming increasingly common in some places.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ herbalist prescription Veterinary physician

Nomenclature of Medical prescription forms by country.[edit]

By alphabetical order....

vet scipts can treat a group not just limited to individual named patients. [2]

TEXT: Medical prescriptions forms usually require the following: Patients name. Address of patient. The doctors name and signature. the doctors registration number Suuper XXXX ect



Help:Table/HTML and tables


Prescription form
Country Name of form Human Vet
United Kingdom Prescription abbaa xxx
Germany Recipy row2cell3

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Prescription Reading Translation
For off-the-shelf morphine tablets:
Rp.
Sevredol tbl. 60x20 mg
Exp. orig. No II (duas)
D.S. For pain 4x1 by mouth
Recipe
Sevredol tabulettae sexaginties milligrammae viginti
Expeditiones originales numero duas
Da Signa: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Take
Sevredol, sixty twenty-milligramme tablets
Two packages
Directions for use: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Individually compounded medication
Rp.
Pentobarbitali natrici 3
Morphiae sulphas 2
Chlorali hydrati 15
Saccharum ad 50
M.f.plv.
Div. in doses aeq. No XXX (triginta)
D.S. For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Recipe
Pentobarbitali natrici grammata tres
Morphiae sulphas grammata duo
Chlorali hydrati grammata quindecim
Saccharum ad grammata quinquaginta
Misce fiat pulvis
Divide in doses aequales numero triginta
Da Signa: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Take
of pentobarbitone sodium, three grammes
of sulphate of morphia, two grammes
of hydrate of chloral, fifteen grammes
of table sugar, enough to make fifty grammes
Mix to make powder
Divide into thirty equal doses
Directions for use: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime


Help:Table/Manual tables

For off-the-shelf morphine tablets: header 1 header 2 header 3
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2 row 1, cell 3
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2 row 2, cell 3




Prescription form reads Reading on Continental Europe Translation
For off-the-shelf morphine tablets
Name of the pateint Address Rp.
Sevredol tbl. 60x20 mg
Exp. orig. No II (duas)
D.S. For pain 4x1 by mouth
Recipe
Sevredol tabulettae sexaginties milligrammae viginti
Expeditiones originales numero duas
Da Signa: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Take
Sevredol, sixty twenty-milligramme tablets
Two packages
Directions for use: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Individually compounded medication
Rp.
Pentobarbitali natrici 3
Morphiae sulphas 2
Chlorali hydrati 15
Saccharum ad 50
M.f.plv.
Div. in doses aeq. No XXX (triginta)
D.S. For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Recipe
Pentobarbitali natrici grammata tres
Morphiae sulphas grammata duo
Chlorali hydrati grammata quindecim
Saccharum ad grammata quinquaginta
Misce fiat pulvis
Divide in doses aequales numero triginta
Da Signa: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Take
of pentobarbitone sodium, three grammes
of sulphate of morphia, two grammes
of hydrate of chloral, fifteen grammes
of table sugar, enough to make fifty grammes
Mix to make powder
Divide into thirty equal doses
Directions for use: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
NOT NOTABLE

Weird Beard Brew Co.[edit]

Weird Beard Brew Co.
Type Handcrafted Beer
Location Boston Business Park, Trumpers Way, Hanwell, London W7 2QA, England, United Kingdom
Coordinates 51°30′0.13″N 0°20′17.48″W / 51.5000361°N 0.3381889°W / 51.5000361; -0.3381889Coordinates: 51°30′0.13″N 0°20′17.48″W / 51.5000361°N 0.3381889°W / 51.5000361; -0.3381889
Opened 17th March 2013
Key people Head Brewer: Gregg Irwin Brand Manager:Bryan Spooner
Website http://weirdbeardbrewco.com/#

Logo is called Lup'in No Isinglass insted they use Protofloc made from sea weed or rather sea vegetables

The Weird Beard Brew Company is a small craft brewery in Hanwell, West London. It is now the only brewery in the whole of the London Borough of Ealing. In its first year of production it was voted 5th in Top Ten Brewers In the World. http://www.ratebeer.com/RateBeerBest/newbrewers_012014cc.asp

Apart from distributing beers all over the UK they also exported to Sweden and Italy.

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<!-- Please only add significant events to this time-line -->

John Sloane [a] John Sloane [b] John Sloane [c] John Sloane [d] John Sloane [e] John Sloane [f]


[a]

Notes[edit]

First photo. ^ Sir Hans Sloane, an engraving from a portrait by T. Murray.jpg b. ^ Sir Hans Sloane, an engraving from a portrait by T. Murray.jpg c. ^ Sir Hans Sloane, an engraving from a portrait by T. Murray.jpg f. XXX Sir Hans Sloane, an engraving from a portrait by T. Murray.jpg


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Additional licence verification. See http://wyrdlight.com/clients.htm for Wiki user page link. |other_versions=Additional licence verification. See http://wyrdlight.com/clients.htm for Wiki user page link


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Source

http://www.wyrdlight.com Author: Antony McCallum

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  2. ^ Guide to Good Prescribing - A Practical Manual: Part 3: Treating your patients: Chapter 9. STEP 4: Write a prescription
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  8. ^ "State Laws or Statutes Governing Generic Substitution by Pharmacists". : Epilepsy.com/Professionals. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
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  13. ^ "Florida's Pharmacists Can Write Prescriptions". The New York Times. May 2, 1986. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  14. ^ Features, November 2000
  15. ^ http://www.iblogscience.com/doctor-laments-underutilization-of-filipino-developed-software-for-prescription/
  16. ^ "456.42 Written prescriptions for medicinal drugs". Florida Statutes. 
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