User:Blumbergashley/Smoking and Type II Diabetes
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Diabetes
- 3 Smoking
- 4 Smoking with Type II Diabetes
- 5 Smoking Leading to Diabetes
- 6 Notes
Diabetes and smoking having serious health consequences. The following article describes the risks associated with both Type II Diabetes as well as smoking. In addition, it shows the increased risks for Type II diabetics if they are smokers. Lastly, it shows that smoking will increase the risks of developing Type II Diabetes.
Diabetes, a chronic disease, occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively utilize the insulin that it produces. This creates problem because insulin is the hormone that regulates blood sugar. When blood sugar is raised over time, also known as hyperglycemia, there is serious damage to the body. If Diabetes is not under control, there can be serious complications. 
There are three main types of Diabetes:
Type I Diabetes (also known as Juvenile Diabetes) Type II Diabetes Gestational Diabetes
There is also IGT and IFG. IGT, Impaired glucose tolerance, and IFG, impaired fasting glucose, are the intermediate conditions of the transition between normality and diabetes. People with IGT or IFG are at a high risk to developing Type II Diabetes.
Type II Diabetes Facts
Type II was formally called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset. Type II results from the body’s ineffective usage of insulin. Type II is typically the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. The symptoms and complications of Type II are similar to those of Type 1, but are usually less noticeable. Until recently, Type II Diabetes was only seen in adults, but is now being seen in children.
Type II Diabetes Statistics
Type II is the most common form of Diabetes. About 7.8% of population has been diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. Of the 220 million people who have a form of Diabetes, about 90% have Type II. Diabetes (all forms) was the seventh leading cause of death listed on U.S. death certificates in 2006. According to death certificate reports, diabetes contributed to a total of 233,619 deaths in 2005, the latest year for which data on contributing causes of death are available. Lastly, deaths due to diabetes are expected to increase by more than 50% in the next ten years. The World Health Organization projects that diabetes deaths will double between 2005 and 2030.  
Complications from Type II Diabetes
There are many complications from Diabetes, including blindness or vision problems, limb amputations, cardiovascular disease (Heart Disease and Stroke primarily), high blood pressure, nerve damage, kidney disease, mental health problems, and more. Because this article is about smoking and Diabetes Type II, it will focus on the cardiovascular issues associated with Diabetes. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes. In addition, the risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher among people with diabetes. 
Smoking lowers the amount of oxygen that gets to organs, raises bad cholesterol, and raises blood pressure. All of these can raise your risk of heart attack or stroke. The specific heart and blood vessel problems associated with smoking from the New York Times Health guide are as follows:
• Blood clots and aneurysms in the brain, which can lead to strokes • Blood clots in the legs, which may travel to the lungs • Coronary artery disease, including angina and heart attacks • High blood pressure • Poor blood supply to the legs • Problems with erections because of decreased blood flow into the penis 
Smoking is very harmful to the body. These risks, added to the risks of Type II Diabetes, can be very serious. It is not recommended that anyone smoke, especially those with Type II Diabetes.
Smoking with Type II Diabetes
Affects on Blood Sugar Levels and Control
Because smoking raises blood sugar levels and decreases the body’s ability to efficiently use insulin, diabetes is more difficult to control. This does not only apply to heavy smokers. One cigarette reduces the body’s ability to use insulin by 15%. Not only does smoking affect you body’s use of insulin and blood sugar levels, but it also increases the risks of cardiovascular disease, just like Diabetes does.
Affects on Cardiovascular Issues
Smoking increases cholesterol and fat levels in the blood, thus increasing the chance of heart attacks. Smoking also cuts the amount of oxygen that reaches the tissues in the body. This also leads to heart attacks and strokes.
Diabetics, before smoking, are about three times as likely to die from a cardiovascular disease than a non-Diabetic. With smoking, a Diabetic is eleven times as likely to die from a cardiovascular disease, such as a heart attack or a stroke.
Smoking diabetics are twice as likely to have circulation and wound healing problems. These issues can lead to foot and leg infections, which can lead to amputations.
Smoking diabetics are more likely to develop neuropathy (nerve damage) and nephropathy (kidney disease).
Smoking diabetics have more issues with dental disease, bleeding gums, and ulcers.
Smoking Leading to Diabetes
If you don’t have Diabetes, smoking will increase the likelihood of developing it.
According to Maria Collazo-Clavell, M.D. at the Mayo Clinic, tobacco use does increase the risk of Type II Diabetes. She says that tobacco use can increase blood sugar levels and lead to insulin resistance. She says that the more you smoke, the greater your risk of Diabetes. In addition, she says that heavy smokers, those that smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, are at a doubled risk of developing diabetes (compared to nonsmokers). 
However, according to a study published by the American Journal of Epidemiology, heavy smokers are even more likely to develop Type II Diabetes than non-smokers (more likely than what Maria Collazo-Clavell states). The study says that smoking 16-25 cigarettes a day increases the risk of Type II Diabetes by three times, compared to non-smokers. The study also states that there are risk factors that also increase the chances of developing diabetes. The risk factors for Type II Diabetes include:
• Family history of diabetes • Being of African-American, Hispanic, or Native American race or ethnic background • Obesity (This means a person is 20 percent or more over his or her desired body weight.) • Physical stress (This includes things such as surgery or illness.) • Use of certain medicines • Injury to the pancreas (Injuries can occur from things such as infection, tumor, surgery, or accident) • Autoimmune disease • Hypertension • Elevated blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels • Age (Risk increases with age.) • Alcohol (Risk increases with years of heavy alcohol use.) • Smoking • Pregnancy (Women can develop diabetes during pregnancy. If this happens, the chance of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life also increases.)