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Updates to do for HIES[edit]

Creation of HIES - Freemasons Tavern, Great Queen St -

Idea was Fraser's influenced by WHG Kingston (Balfour p439) and Lady Franklin

Mention St Andrews Immigration Soc (510 also 511 Loch Broom people may have cancelled with HIES to be on Storm Cloud)

James Chant deserves to be mentioned (515)

Emigrants leaving the ship Sydney Cove.jpg [1]

Scenes on board an Australian emigrant ship.jpg

Contents of defunct Angel Fire website[edit]


Was signed by but this email address is no longer active.

Capture this info here in case site ever disappears.

Main page[edit]

The emigration organised by the Highland and Island Emigration Society in the 1850's was the last substantial chapter in the story of the Clearances. This society represented a short-term response to a specific problem in a particular geographical area. The potato blight which brought on the Great Famine in Ireland earlier in the decade, struck the Isles and western Highlands in 1846. Sir Charles Trevelyan, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, became very interested in the problems of the Highlands. He properly saw emergency food supplies as a "useless palliative". He wrote to the Sheriff Substitute of Skye, Thomas Fraser, concerning the necessity of adopting a final measure of relief for the Western Highlands and Islands by transferring the surplus of the population to Australia. Trevelyan was joined in his concern and planning by two other distinguished civil servants, Sir John McNeill and Sir Thomas Murdoch. These three were the backbone of the HIES in London although it is clear that much credit for the plan belongs to Thomas Fraser.

The support given to this project by the British public is amply demonstrated by the list of benefactors. Queen Victoria gave £300, Prince Albert £105, three Scots Dukes £100 each, and various Members of Parliament, Anglican clergy, the Australian Agricultural Company, Mr Rothschild and many other prominent persons headed the list. The Scheme ran from 1852 to 1857 and brought 4910 men, women and children from the Western Isles and western Highlands, mainly from Skye but the other areas were Harris, North Uist, Ardnamurchan, Morven, Strathaird, Raasay, Iona and St Kilda. The passage was not easy, either. The Georgiana experienced a mutiny by a gold-hungry crew, the Hercules has cases of smallpox, the Priscilla experienced many deaths from fever, and typhus broke out on the Ontario.

Taken from "The Scots in Australia – A Study of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, 1788-1900" by Malcolm D Prentis.

TOTAL - 4,910 Souls Emigrating This does not include the Births on Board: Geelong 7, Portland 5, Adelaide 4 1/2, Melbourne 5 1/2, Hobart 4, Sydney 2.

Footnote: It must be remembered that all of the Emigrants assisted by the HIES were travelling under the scheme laid down by "Her Majesty's Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners" who charted the HIES ships and in most cases selected the emigrants. Mr Chant, the emigration officer mentioned in HIES records was an employee of the Australian Land Commissioners. They received their funds from the Colonial Government selling Crown Land in Australia. Bill Clarke


This site is dedicated to Peter J. McDonald's memory as it was a very important project for him to have placed online for all to search their roots from Scotland to Australia.

In 1852 the Society published, what was to become known as "The Blue Book" (Because of the colour of its cover). It was titled "Emigration from the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, and was sent to the various Colonial Governments, business firms and other interested people, seeking funds and support for the Society.

The book sets out in some detail the formation of the "Skye Emigration Society" in 1851, it gives details of the various meetings held and the terms and conditions under which the Society would operate. When the HIES was formed it accepted these conditions and the Skye Emigration Society became the Skye Committee of the HIES.

In December 1850 a meeting of local men of influence on the Isle of Skye, was held at Portree. The meeting considered "the present distressed state of the island and what remedy should be adopted for bettering the condition of the inhabitants". A committee under the chairmanship of Thomas Frazer, Sheriff Substitute of the Island, was appointed, and given the task of communicating the views of the meeting to the Home Secretary.

In the summer of 1851 Frazer and the committee circulated a friendly address to the people of Skye, in which they asked them to seriously consider their position, and suggested that they should consider leaving the island for distant shores. Some 400 heads of families , representing more than 2000 persons, intimated their willingness to depart.

Frazer reconstituted his committee into a fund raising body, and so the Skye Emigration Society was born. The aim of the society was to raise the necessary funds to assist the people to apply for passages to Australia under the conditions of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commission.

A public meeting was held in the Hopeton Rooms, Edinburgh on the 23rd February "to promote measures for aiding persons in some parts of the Highlands and especially in the Island of Skye, who desire to emigrate to the British Colonies, but who are prevented by the want of sufficient means." This resolution was passed by those present and a committee formed to implement the same. This committee became the Edinburgh committee of the HIES.

Sir John McNeil, encouraged by the response at the meeting prevailed upon Thomas Frazer to journey to London and lay his plans before Sir Charles Trevelynan, Assistant Secretary at the Treasury and other senior government figures.

Impressed by what he heard, Trevelynan arranged for it to be presented to a public meeting, presided over by Lord Shaftesbury and attended by upwards of thirty gentlemen of sound position and influence. They resolved to form a committee under the Chairmanship of Trevelynan to oversee its implementation under the auspices of his vast and influential department

In April with the London committee firmly established, Trevelynan took the opportunity of co-ordinating the work of the three committees as to enable them to operate "in perfect concert", as one body with his office as its headquarters and himself as chairman. He named this body the "Highland and Island Emigration Society"

The above material is taken from "The Blue Book" and also an extensive work by R. Balfour M.A; M.Litt; LL.B: of Inverness and published in the Journal of the Gaelic Society of Inverness Volume.LV11. 1990-92 (A copy of the "Blue Book" was sent to Government of the day in Van Diemens Land, now Tasmania; fortunately the copy is held at the State Archives. Anyone interested in obtaining a copy could contact me at <>)

Rules of HIES[edit]

1 The emigration will be conducted as much as possible, by entire families, and in accordance with the Rules of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners.

2 Passages to Australia are provided by the Commissioners, from Colonial funds, for able bodied men and women of good character, and not exceeding a specified age, with a certain proportion of children, on production of a stated quantity and description of clothing, and on payment of a deposit from œ1 to œ2 for adults and 10s for children. For persons exceeding a specified age, a larger amount of deposit is required. The emigrants asking for aid will be required to apply all their available means to defraying the expense of their outfit and deposit.

3 The Society will advance the sum necessary to make good whatever may be deficient for these purposes, as far as its funds will admit, in the Districts to which it may be determined to extend its operations.

4 The owners or trustees of the properties from which the emigrants depart, will be expected to pay one-third of the sum disbursed on account of the emigrants by the society. The emigrants will be requited to repay to the Society the whole of the sum advanced to them, which will again be applied in the same manner as the original Fund.


The Skye Emigration Society, having advanced to me...........................œ money, and clothing, to the value of œ ....... in order to enable me and my family to emigrate to Australia, upon the condition that the whole amount so advanced being in all œ..... should be repaid by me and my family, in order to be again used by the said Society in assisting other poor persons to emigrate, I hereby bind and oblige myself on the expiration of twelve months from the date of my landing in Australia, to pay to Thomas Frazer, Esquire, Sheriff-Substitute of Skye, Chairman of the said Society, or to the Chairman of the said Society, for the time being, or to any person in Australia duly authorised by such Chairman to receive the same, the said sum of œ.... and on the part of my wife and children I engage that in the event of my not paying the said sum at the time above mentioned, the sum shall be repaid by my wife and children.

In witness whereof I have subscribed this obligation (which is written by my mark, I being unable to write), at Portree, this fifth day of May, eighteen hundred and fifty two years, before these witnesses.

(Note adult members of families to join the obligation)

COLONIAL LAND & EMIGRATION COMMISSIONERS No 15 December 1851 Government Emigration Office Park St. Westminster


Qualifications of Emigrants

The Emigrants must be of those callings which from time to time are most in demand in the Colony. They must be sober, industrious, and of general good moral character of all which decisive certificates will be required. They must also be in good health, free from all bodily or mental defects; and the adults must, in all respects be capable of labour, and going out to work for wages. The Candidates most acceptable are young married couples without children.

The separation of husbands and wives, and of parents from children under 18, will in no case be allowed.

Single women cannot be taken without their parents, unless they go under the immediate care of some near relative. Single women with illegitimate children can in no case be taken.

Widowers and widows with young children, persons who intend to buy land, or to invest capital in trade, or who are in the habitual receipt of parish relief, or who have not been vaccinated, or had the small-pox, or whose families comprise more than four children under twelve years of age cannot be accepted.

Payment Towards Passage The contributions above mentioned, out of which the Commissioners will provide bedding and mess utensils, etc, for the voyage, will be as follows:-

CLASSES age Under 45 45 & 50 & under 50 UNDER 60

Married Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, £1 £5 £11 Herdsmen,and their wives; also Female Domestic and Farm Servants, per head

Single men. of any of the above callings. and whether part of a family or not, each £2

Country mechanics. each as Blacksmiths, Bricklayers,Carpenters, Masons, Sawyers, Wheelwrights. And Gardeners, and their wives: £5 £8 £15 . also females of the Working Class; not being Domestic or Farm Servants. (when theycan be taken) per head

Children under 14 per head 10s.

Passages to the port of Embarkation from Dublin, Cork, Granton Pier, and Hull, are provided by the Commissioners for Emigrants proceeding through these ports. All other travelling expenses must be borne by the Emigrants themselves.

Outfit Etc The Commissioners supply provisions, medical attendants, and cooking utensils at their Depot and on board the ship. Also, new mattresses, bolsters, blankets, and counterpanes, canvas bags to contain linen etc, knives and forks, spoons, metal plates and drinking mugs, which articles will be given after arrival in the Colony to the Emigrants who have behaved well on the voyage.

The Emigrants must bring their own clothing, which will be inspected at the port by an officer of the Commissioners; and they will not be allowed to embark unless they have sufficient stock for the voyage, not less, for each person, than:-

FOR MALES ; Six pair stockings; two pair shoes; two complete suits of exterior clothing FOR FEMALES ; Six Shifts; Two Flannel Petticoats; Six Pair Stockings: Two Pair Shoes: Two Gowns. with sheets, towels and soap. But the larger the stock of clothing, the better for health and comfort during the voyage, which usually last about four months, and as the Emigrants have always to pass through very hot and very cold weather, they should be prepared for both; two or three serge shirts for men, and flannel for women and children, are strongly recommended.

The Emigrants should take out with them the necessary tools of their trades, that are not bulky. But the whole quantity of baggage for each Adult, must not measure more than 20 cubic or solid feet, nor exceed half a ton in weight. It must be closely packed in one or more boxes; but no box must exceed in size 10 cubic feet. Large packages, and extra baggage, if it can be taken at all, must be paid for. Mattrasses (sic) and feather beds will in no case be taken.

On arrival in the Colony, the Emigrants will be at perfect liberty to engage themselves to any one willing to employ them, and to make their own bargain for wages;; but if they quit the Colony within 4 years after landing, they must repay to the Colonial Government a proportionate part of their passage money, at the rate of œ3 per adult, for each year wanting to complete four years residence.

(This is the more relevant parts of the agreement, which was altered over the years. The HIES was able to have the conditions changed for the emigrants that they assisted.)


"The growth of the population of the Scottish Highlands stands at the centre of the story of the clearances...In the west and north of the Highlands numbers increased by 34 per cent from 1755-1800, and then by a further 53 per cent before 1841...Even without the introduction of sheep farming the region in the north and west confronted an unprecedented crisis of numbers simply because, apart from the production of potatoes, there was no concomitant and consistent growth of food supplies or employment... When famine descended, in 1847, emigration at last surged swiftly, producing a spectacular response to the needs of the moment." [2]


"Precepts of Warning" were fixed to the door of the parish kirk to:

flit and remove yourself, your wife, bairns, family, subtenants, cottars, servants and dependants, and all and sundry, your goods, gear and cattle, forth and from your possession of the said land

The Precept was sometimes read out after divine service by the minister. [3]

The run-down of the old economy was registered by the ministers of the church, themselves often increasingly at odds with their landlords and the established church. They were the authors of the second great Statistical Account Of Scotland, which was written mainly at the end of the 1830s, recording, usually en passant, the coming of the sheep in many Highland parishes. This was often the only record of the transformation. [4]

Disruption of 1843 - ministers appointed by landlords. Led to Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900)

Service described in Glencalvie by London Times reporter:

At this service there were gathered about 250 people drawn from the adjacent straths. On that day the local established church was able to draw a congregation of ten. It was a fair reflection of the contest of the kirks in the Highlands in the years after the Disruption. [5]

Voluntary Departures[edit]

Emigration from the Highlands pre-dated the Clearances and much of the later emigration was not directly associated with the Clearances. People would have left the Highlands in any case; the Clearances were a complicating and an accelerating factor. [6]

Concurrent with the coercive effect of the Clearances were streams of ‘voluntary’ migrants both seasonal and permanent. In the 1850s young emigrants left the Highlands for North America and Australasia in a spirit of adventure, escape and liberation: [7]

At Upper Glen Gairn, Glen Feardar and Wester Morvern there were no clearances but they ‘lost all their people by non-enforced emigration’, which effectively emptied the glens. [8] [9]

Gold rush

By the mid 1880's in the USA, for example, ... They were not fleeing subsistence crises, or even, for the most part, escaping grinding poverty into ‘exile’. Instead, they were drawn by higher wages (often three- to fourfold increases), opportunity, advancement and the search for ‘independence’. [10]


Other[edit] - various good lists

McMillan paper on Trevelyan [12]

HIES rules -

Mutiny of crew in Geelong from Giorgiana - has good section on HIES

With the ending of transportation to Tasmania in 1853, local immigration societies were formed: - "responsible for importing some 3000 immigrants between 1855 and 1862, from Scotland and the eastern counties of England." - including the St Andrews Immigration Society -

St Andrews Immigration Society letter - - mentions Storm Cloud

As Devine says, ‘Gradual and relentless displacement rather than mass eviction was the norm.’ [13] [14]


  1. ^ Picken, Thomas, active 1853-1878; Brierly, Oswald W. B. (Oswald Walters B.), 1817-1894; Ackermann and Co; Day and Son (1853), Emigrants leaving the ship, Sydney Cove, N.S.W. [picture] / O.W. Brierly del.; T. Picken lith.; Day and Son, lithrs. to the Queen, Ackermann & Co 
  2. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 3, Section VII - The population imperative". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  3. ^ Macdonald, Stuart (1994). Back to Lochaber. The Pentland Press Ltd. p. 190. 
  4. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 12, Section II - The changed context". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  5. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 2, Section I - Glencalvie". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  6. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 19, Section I - Rural flights". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  7. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 19, Section IV - A people adrift". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  8. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 12, Section II - The changed context". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  9. ^ Watson, A. and Allan, E., ‘Depopulation by clearances and non-enforced emigration in the north-east Highlands’, Northern Scotland 10 (1990), Edinburgh University Press,
  10. ^ Devine, T.M. (2008). "Chapter 6, Section 2". ???Diaspora. 
  11. ^ Mcleod, Donald (1892), "Letter VII", Gloomy Memories in the Highlands of Scotland 
  12. ^ MacMillan, David (1963). "Sir Charles Trevelyan and the Highland and Island Emigration Society, 1849-1859". Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. 49. 
  13. ^ Richards, Eric (2008). "Chapter 12, Section I - Clearance by attrition and by stealth". The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. 
  14. ^ Devine, T. M. (1994). Clanship to Crofter's War. Manchester. p. 37. 

List of Australian Supermarket Own Brand Wine[edit]

Woolworths and Coles, whose Dan Murphy’s, Vintage Cellars, 1st Choice, Liquorland, Woolworths Liquor and BWS stores dominate wine retailing in Australia, own hundreds of their own wine brands. The ownership of these brands is not publicly disclosed.


  • 12km Stretch
  • Akita
  • Armada
  • Blue Kube
  • Brookridge
  • Cabaret
  • Chalkboard
  • Chateau Louise
  • Coconut Beach
  • Coorong Plains
  • Counting Sheep
  • Cradle Bay
  • Cradle Bay Sauvignon Blanc
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  • Debonaire
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  • Whispers
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  • Buckey
  • Buckle My Shoe
  • C’est La Vie
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  • CC Cuvee Coonawarra Chardonnay Pinot Noir Brut
  • Central Otago Freeland Pinot Noir 2009
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  • Folio
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  • MSB Mum’s Block Barossa Valley Shiraz 1999
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  • Paragon Shiraz
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