User:Carolingfield/Unorthodox (Cold) Big Bang Cosmology

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Unorthodox (fringe) (Cold) Big Bang Cosmology is, as any unorthodox (fringe) formulation, a model that deviates from the mainstream (Cold) Big Bang Cosmology.

Examples of Unorthodox (Cold) Big Bang Cosmology[edit]

Assis, Armando V.D.B. On the Cold Big Bang Cosmology. Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 2, 58-63[edit]

This source is from the journal Progress in Physics. You may obtain the online version of the source article following the link

The author, Armando V.D.B. Assis, a brazilian physicist, claims that the Einstein's (GR) field equations under the cosmological context lead to an absolute zero temperature at the beginning of the universe (Cold Big Bang, Cold Big Bang Cosmology). To reach this alleged result, the author uses an extra postulate in which the positive energy is due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

The Inherent Hypotheses and the Solution[edit]

Beginning with the Cosmological Principle and the Weyl's postulate, the author revisits the basic arguments used in (GR) cosmology. Invoking a theorem from the differential geometry, namely the Schur's theorem, the author assumes the Riemann tensor of a constant curvature 3-space, leading to the spacetime geometry, for a comoving frame observer, as given by the Robertson-Walker metric.

From the Einstein's (GR) field equations in natural units, the author reachs the Friedmann equations in the following form

The author refers to as being the magnification lenght scale of the cosmological dynamics, depending on the cosmological time. In author's words: this measures how an unitary length of the pervading cosmological substratum becomes stretched as the universe goes through a time evolution between two cosmological instants. The author includes the cosmological constant within the vacuum density and vacuum Pressure .

The author seems to refer to the following local energy conservation criteria, since, in author's words: the question of energy conservation in cosmology is weakened, supported by the known lack of scope of the Noether's theorem in cosmology

where is the stress-energy tensor. This local covariant implementation leads to the first law of thermodynamics

The author writes down the equation of state for the Weyl's fluid within the ultrarelativistic limit, firstly considering an universe dominated by radiation.

Integrating the Friedmann equations within this scenario, the author takes into consideration the absolute value, leading to the following result for the pressure

where is an arbitrary constant of integration.

The author neglects the vacuum terms, neglecting the vacuum density, , and the vacuum pressure, , in relation to the radiation; applies the initial conditions at the beginning of the universe:

at , obtaining for the pressure

where is the normalized curvature.

Invoking internal consistency, robustness, the author obtains , implying in an open universe.

Within the appendix, the author raises an argument from Quantum mechanics, using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and postulates[1]:

"The actual energy content of the universe is a consequence of the increasing indeterminacy of the primordial era. Any origin of a co-moving reference frame within the cosmological substratum has an inherent indeterminacy. Hence, the indeterminacy of the energy content of the universe may create the impression that the universe has not enough energy, raising illusions as dark energy and dark matter speculations. In other words, since the original source of energy emerges as an indeterminacy, we postulate this indeterminacy continues being the energy content of the observational

universe: "

From the Bose-Einstein statistics, the author reachs the following expression for the Cosmic background radiation (MBR) temperature as a function of R

from which the author obtains an absolute zero temperature at the Big Bang, 2.7 K for the actual cosmic background radiation temperature. Also, the value for the Big Bang ignition.

In a recently published derivation, in which this cosmologically persistent Heisenberg indeterminacy is derived from a quantization criteria, a discreteness criteria [2]:


the same previously postulated amount of energy indeterminacy is obtained, where , an increasingly function on the cosmological time , is the number of elementary discrete fluctuations of energy within a spherical shell full of cosmological fluid at the cosmological instant of the cosmological time. The points within this shell have got an inherent position indeterminacy, also quantized, such that these points pertain to the cosmological fluid in its simultaneity hypersurface at the instant , i.e., the points inside this shell are cosmologically simultaneous.


  1. ^ Armando V.D.B. Assis (2011). "Assis, Armando V.D.B. On the Cold Big Bang Cosmology. Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 2, 58-63" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 2/2011: 58–63. 
  2. ^ Armando V.D.B. Assis (2011). "Assis, Armando V.D.B. A Note on the Quantization Mechanism within the Cold Big Bang Cosmology. Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 4, 40-41" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 4/2011: 40–41.