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Sir Michael Murray Hordern, CBE (3 October 1911 – 2 May 1995) was an English actor. He started his career on the stage before moving into film, playing in more than fifty cinema roles. Later in his career, he had some considerable success in television.


Family background[edit]

Hordern's birthplace in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire

Hordern's maternal grandparents, James Murray and Fanny née Brereton, married shortly after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, and moved from Buckinghamshire to Bray in County Wicklow. There, they had five sons and a daughter.[1] After brief employment working for Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Murray studied in pharmaceuticals. His research into digestion led to the discovery of the stomach aid milk of magnesia in 1829. The invention brought him a knighthood and the family experienced great wealth.[n 1] They remained in Ireland until Fanny's death, shortly after the birth of their only daughter, Margaret Emily.[3][n 2]

In the months after Fanny's funeral, Murray returned to Buckinghamshire where he rekindled a former romance with Annie Tyrwhitt-Drake, a daughter of the zoologist and author Garrard Tyrwhitt-Drake. They married and Murray moved back to Ireland with his family where he concentrated on the growing success of his milk of magnesia business. After a few years, he was killed in a drunken hunting accident and upon his death, Annie moved with Margaret back to Buckinghamshire to the small village of Little Kimble. There, Annie lived in retirement while Margaret was sent to a private school for girls in Somerset.[3]

Hordern's father, Edward, was the son of a Lancastrian vicar who was the rector at the Holy Trinity Church in Bury. Edward joined the Royal Indian Marines as a young man and quickly rose to the rank of lieutenant. It was during a short break on home-leave that he met and fell in love with Margaret after they were introduced by one of his brothers. The courtship was brief and the young couple married in Burma on 28 November 1903.[5] They had their first child, a son called Geoffrey, in 1905, followed by another, Peter, in 1907.[6][n 3]

Early life[edit]

Four years after the birth of Peter, a pregnant Margaret returned to England where Michael Hordern, her third son, was born on 3 October 1911 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire. Still stationed abroad, Edward was commissioned to the rank of captain for which he received a good salary. This enabled his family to live comfortably and allowed Margaret to employ a scullery maid, nanny, groundsman, and full-time cook.[9] Margaret left for India to join her husband in 1916. The trip, although only planned as a short term visit, lasted two years owing to the ferocity of the First World War. In the meantime Hordern was sent into premature education at Windlesham House School in Sussex. Owing to his age, he was exempt from full-time studies but was allowed to take part in extracurricular activities instead, including swimming, football, rugby and fishing.[10] The school was also the venue of his stage debut in an epic called The Man with the Speckled Face. Hordern enjoyed the experience and along with a group of fellow enthusiasts, he set up "A Acting Association" (AAA), a small theatrical committee which organised productions within the school.[11] He stayed at Windlesham House for nine years,[12] and described his time there as being "enormous fun".[10]

Hordern was 14 when he left Windlesham House to begin further education at Brighton College.[13][14] His interest in acting was maturing and he appeared in a different Gilbert and Sullivan production at the college each Christmas. In his 1993 autobiography, A World Elsewhere, he admitted: "I didn't excel in any area apart from singing; I couldn't read music but I sang quite well."[14] The first of these operas were The Gondoliers in which he played the role of the Duchess. His performance was "a great success" according to his tutors and he was given a position within the men's chorus in the next play, Iolanthe.[15] Over the next few years, he took part in The Mikado, as a member of the choir, and as the Major-Genral in The Pirates of Penzance. It was this period that he later acknowledged as being the start of his career.[16] After the culmination of the war in 1918, Edward, who was by now a port officer in Calcutta, arranged for Margaret to return to England. With her, she bought home an orphaned baby girl named Jocelyn, whom she adopted.[17][n 4] The following year, Edward retired from active service and joined his family in England where he relocated his family to Haywards Heath in Sussex. There, Hordern developed a love for fishing, a hobby which he remained passionate about for the rest of his life.[18]

Theatrical beginnings[edit]

In his autobiography Hordern noted his family's disinterest in the theatre. Unlike his friends, who were making annual visits to the local Christmas pantomime, Hordern was seldom ever taken to see the festive productions and didn't see his first straight play, Ever Green, until he was 19.[19] It was at around this time that he met Christopher Hassall, a fellow student at Brighton College. Hassall, who himself went on to have a successful career as an actor, was, as Hordern credits, instrumental in his decision to embark on a theatrical career.[20] In 1925 Hordern moved to Dartmoor with his family where they set up home in a disused barn which his parents had converted into a farm house. For Hordern the move was ideal; his love of fishing had become stronger and he was able to explore the remote landscape and its isolated rivers.[21]

Hordern left college in the early 1930s and started work at a prep school in Beaconsfield, where he worked as a teaching assistant. In his spare time, he joined his first amateur dramatics company.[22] The group only managed to produce one play, Ritzio's Boots, which was entered into a British Drama League competition, with Hordern playing the title role. The play lost out to Not This Man, a drama written by Sydney Box. So envious was he of the rival show's success, Hordern supplied a scathing review to The Welwynn Times calling Box's show "a blasphemous bunk and cheap theatrical claptrap." The comment infuriated Box who issued the actor with a writ to attend court on a count of slander. Hordern, much to his surprise, won the case leaving Box liable for the proceedings expenses. Years later the two men met on a film set where Box thanked him for helping to "kick-start his career in film-making" owing to the publicity the court case received.[23]

With the death of Margaret in January 1933,[24] Hordern decided to leave Sussex to pursue a career in professional acting. He quit his job at the prep school[25] and became a traveling salesman for the British Educational Suppliers Association.[26] Alongside this, he joined another amateur dramatics company, this time in Stevenage. During his time there he appeared in two plays; Journey's End, in which he played "Raleigh", and Diplomacy, a play which Hordern disliked and called "old-fashioned". Both productions provided him with the chance to work with a cue-script, a method which he found to be helpful for the rest of his career.[25][n 5] That summer he joined a Shakespearian theatre company which toured the United Kingdon, staging open-air plays on lawns belonging to the gentry. His first performance was as Orlando in As You Like It, followed by Love's Labour's Lost, in which he starred alongside Osmond Daltry, who later became a successful theatre manager, and an instigator of Hordern's professional acting career.[27]

In addition to his Shakespearian commitments, Hordern joined the St. Pancras People's Theatre, a London-based amateur dramatics company which was part-funded by the actor-manager Lilian Baylis. He took his membership within the company seriously and despite finding the commute from Sussex to London tiresome, he stayed with the company for five years. By the end of 1936, and with the managers at the theatre keen to promote him into having a professional career, Hordern took the decision to leave his old desk-making job in Sussex to pursue a full-time acting career.[28] He moved to the capital and into a small flat at Marble Arch and became one of the many jobbing actors keen to make a name for themselves on the London stage.[29]

London debut[edit]

Hordern's first London engagement came in January 1937, as an understudy to Bernard Lee in the play Night Sky at the Savoy Theatre.[13] On nights when he was not required as an actor, he was called upon to use his knowledge of stage craft by undertaking the duties of the assistant stage manager, for which he was paid £2.10s a week. Hearing of his old friend's venture, Daltry, who had since formed Westminster Productions, engaged Hordern in what would be his first, paid role within a theatre company. The part was Lodovico in Othello which ran at the People's Theatre in Mile End later that year.[30] The play starred the English actor Stephen Murray, in the title role, but he became contractually occupied elsewhere towards the end of the two-week run. As such, the play's director paid Hordern £1 a week extra to understudy for the play's leading man.[31][n 6]

Immediatley after Othello had closed, Hordern was contacted by Daltry who offered the young actor the chance to conduct a tour of Scandinavia and the Baltic in two plays.[13] The first, Outward Bound, in which he starred in the minor role of Henry, was a huge success. This was followed by Arms and the Man, in the slightly bigger part of Sergius. The tour was a point in Hordern's career which he acknowledged to be the start of his professional acting career, and an experience which he described as being "great fun". Upon his return to London, and having spent a few weeks unemployed, he was offered a part in the ill-fated play Ninety Sail, which was about Sir Christopher Wren's time in the Royal Navy; the play was cancelled on the day Hordern was due to start work with "unforeseen problems" cited as the reason by its producers.[31]

Bristol repertory theatre[edit]

During the summer of 1937, Hordern accepted a job from the theatre proprietor Ronald Russell who had auditioned him for a part in Russell's repertory company, the Rapier Players, who were based at Colston Hall in Bristol.[13][31] Hordern's first acting role within the company was as Uncle Harry[33] in the play Someone at the Door.[34] Russell was pleased with his new signing and frequently employed him in the same type of role. The monotony of this frustrated Hordern who longed to play the leading man. It was whilst with the Rapier Players that Hordern met Eve Mortimer, a juvenile actress who appeared in many of Russell's productions. Hordern and Eve fell in love and the two quickly formed a relationship.[33] Hordern considered his experience within the Rapier Players to be invaluable and educational inasmuch that it taught him about how a professional theatre company worked under a strict time frame and an even stricter budget. As an actor he was allowed two minutes per page to study his script which resulted in long and thorough rehearsals. Props were made to a high standard, albeit on a shoe-string budget.[35]

After a brief holiday with Eve in Scotland in 1938, Hordern returned to London where he appeared in Quinneys, a radio play which was broadcast by the BBC. The main part went to Henry Ainley whom Hordern described as "a great actor, who, sadly, was past his best."[36] Next, Hordern returned to Bristol to prepare for the next season with the Rapier Players.[36] One production that was singled out by the Western Daily Press for being particularly good was Love in Idleness in which Hordern played the lead character. A reporter for the paper thought that the play "had been noticed" among theatrical critics and that the players "filled their respective roles excellently."[37] By now, Edward, Hordern's father, had sold the family farmhouse and had bought a cottage in Bristol which Hordern used as a base for the the summer months. The arrangement was convenient for the young actor who used the premises as a base while he appeared in various shows with the Rapier Players. One such piece was Cold Comfort Farm, which starred its author Stella Gibbons. It also featured the radio actress Mabel Constanduros, who had also, with Gibbon's permission, adapted the book; Hordern was cast in the supporting role of Seth, a part which he described as being "fun" to perform. The modernised script was "adored" by the cast, according to Hordern, but loathed by the audience who expected it to be exactly like the book.[36][n 7]

War service and film debut[edit]

Hordern and Eve left Bristol in 1939 and moved to Harrogate where Eve joined a small repertory company called the White Rose Players. Hordern became unemployed but before long, war broke out in England and he volunteered for a post within the Air Raid Precautions (ARP).[38] He was accepted but grew frustrated at not conducting any rescues owing to a lack enemy action. He decided that it was "not a very good way to fight the war" and enlisted within the Royal Navy,[39] as a gunner.[13] In the meantime, he and Eve responded to an advertisement in The Stage asking for actors to audition for a repertory company in Bath, Somerset. To his amazement, they were both appointed as the company's leading man and lady. Their first and only engagement was in a play entitled Bats in Belfry which opened at the city's Assembly Rooms on 16 October.[40] Hordern's elation at eventually becoming a leading man was short-lived; he received his conscription that Christmas. In the interests of helping to boost public morale, Hordern sought permission from the navy to allow him to complete his theatrical commitment in Bath; his request was accepted, and he was told to report for duty at Plymouth Barracks when the show had finished in the early months of 1940.[41]

In 1940 he enjoyed a minor role in Without the Prince at the Whitehall Theatre and made his first, brief, screen appearance in the Carol Reed thriller The Girl in the News.[26] This was followed by another minor role, this time in the Arthur Askey comedy Band Waggon. In it, Hordern played the small, uncredited part of a BBC official, alongside James Hayter. The British Film Institute described the film as a "farcical musical extravaganza with an element of burlesque espionage".[42] Soon after he took up his gunner post within the Navy on board City of Florence, a defensively equipped merchant ship (DEMS), which began its war service by delivering ammunition to the city of Alexandria on behalf of the British fleet.[43] He found that although his middle class upbringing hindered his ability to make friends on board the ship,[44] it helped in his appeal to his commanding officers who commissioned him within a year.[45]

By 1941 radar was slowly being introduced within the navy and Hordern was appointed as one of the first radar operatives who commentated enemy movements to the RAF. He admitted that the post was again owed to his well-ellocuted diction and vocal range.[45] His radio commentary impressed his commanding officers so much that by the spring of 1942 he had been given the job as a Fighter Direction Officer, and then first lieutenant on board HMS Illustrious.[46] Shortly after the departure of his lieutenant commander, he was promoted to that rank which he occupied for two years. Simultaneous to his naval responsibilities, he was also the ship's entertainment officer, and was responsible for staging shows featuring various members of Illustriouss' crew as the show's cast.[47]

Marriage and post war[edit]

It was during a short visit to Liverpool in 1943 that Hordern proposed to Eve; they were married on 27 April of that year with the actor Cyril Luckham acting as best man. After the honeymoon, Hordern resumed his duties on Illustrious and Eve returned to repertory theatre in Southport. In the months after the end of the war in 1945, he was relocated to the Admiralty where he worked as a ship dispatcher within the office occupied by the Naval Assistant to the Second Sea Lord. Hordern's job required him to designate ships to certain parts of the world and he remained in the post until 1949.[48] Now back in civilian life, he and Eve rented a flat in Elvaston Place in Kensington, London.[49] Soon after, he was approached by André Obey who offered him his first televised role, as Noah in a play of the same name. Hordern was initially apprehensive about performing within the new medium but accepted the offer. He found the experience to be exhausting owing to the live, twice-weekly performances. For his efforts he was paid £45.[50]

Hordern's first role for 1946 came as Torvald Helmar in A Doll's House which appeared at the Intimate Theatre in Palmers Green.[51] Next, he starred as the murdered victim Richard Fenton in Dear Murderer which premiered at the Aldwych Theatre on 31 July. The play was a success[51] and ran for 85 performances until its closure on 12 October.[52] Hordern was singled out by one critic for the Hull Daily Mail who thought that the actor brought "sincerity to a difficult role."[53] The following month he fathered his only child,[26] a daughter, Joanna, who was born at Queen Charlotte's Hospital in Chelsea.[50] That Christmas he took the role of Bottom in a festive reworking of Henry Purcell's The Fairy-Queen.[54] By now the Horderns' rented accommodation had become uninhabitable owing to severe damp and dereliction and they were forced to move; shortly before Christmas, they bought their first home at 49 North Road, Highgate.[55]

Towards the end of the Spring months of 1947 Hordern accepted the part of Captain Hoyle in Richard Llewellyn's comic drama Noose. A critic for The Spectator thought that the play suffered owing to "the cast [who] in general did not appear to believe in it all...".[56] Hordern accepted two small film roles in 1947 with the first being Maxim de Winter in Rebecca which was based on the novel of the same name,[57] and then as a detective in Good-Time Girl, alongside Dennis Price and Jean Kent.[58] The following year he took part in three plays. The Indifferent Shepherd was the first and was written and directed by the playwright Peter Ustinov. It appeared at the newly-opened Q Theatre in Brentford, West London. His next role was Pastor Manders in the Willard Stoker-directed thriller Ghosts, and the year ended with an engagement at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon in The Wind in the Willows in which Hordern took the part of Mr Toad.[59]

Hordern took the minor role of "Bashford" in the critically acclaimed Ealing comedy Passport to Pimlico.[60] He described his performance as "tense and hyperactive" and attributed it to being "just how he was in those days".[61]

up to here[edit]

Mr. Hordern made his Broadway debut in 1959, co-starring with Wally Cox in Marcel Ayme's Moonbirds "

Whistle and I'll Come to You in 1968

On stage[edit]

His stage work, in Stratford for the Royal Shakespeare Company and in London at the Old Vic and in the West End, demonstrated his wide range and distinctive, rich voice. In addition to his many Shakespearean roles (Jaques in As You Like It, Cassius in Julius Caesar, Polonius in Hamlet, Malvolio in Twelfth Night), Hordern performed in plays by Strindberg, Chekhov, Ibsen, Pinero, Pinter, Dürrenmatt, Albee, Alan Ayckbourn, David Mercer and Tom Stoppard.

He played the title role in King Lear, directed by Jonathan Miller, at the Nottingham Playhouse in 1970. He reprised the role for Miller on two further occasions, in 1975 and in the BBC Television Shakespeare series in 1982. In 1978 he returned to Stratford to play a wise Prospero in The Tempest. This was also replicated for the BBC Shakespeare series in 1980.

Film, television and radio[edit]

He made more than 160 film appearances, usually in character roles, including Passport to Pimlico (1949), Scrooge (1951, as Jacob Marley; he was to play Ebenezer Scrooge himself in a 1977 TV adaptation), The Heart of the Matter (1953), Grand National Night (1953),The Spanish Gardener (1956), Sink the Bismarck! (1960), El Cid (1961), Cleopatra (1963), The V.I.P.s (1963), The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965), Khartoum (1966), A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966), The Taming of the Shrew (1967), Where Eagles Dare (1969), Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), England Made Me (1972), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972), Juggernaut (1974), The Slipper and the Rose (1976), Shogun (1980) and Gandhi (1982). In 1968 he appeared as the central character in Jonathan Miller's television adaptation of M.R. James's ghost story Whistle and I'll Come to You. Some years later Hordern narrated nineteen unabridged supernatural stories by M.R. James, released across four audio cassette collections by Argo Records in the 1980s. In 1986 he appeared in the TV series Paradise Postponed. In 1992 he narrated the two-cassette recording of the John Mortimer story Rumpole on Trial.

Hordern was also in demand for other voice-over work. He was the narrator of FilmFair Productions' Paddington, and was the voice of Badger in the 1980s TV series The Wind in the Willows. He also provided the ironic voice-over narration in Stanley Kubrick's film Barry Lyndon, and can be heard playing the part of the rabbits' god Frith in Martin Rosen's animated adaptation of Richard Adams' Watership Down (1978).

On radio he played Horatio Hornblower in a 46-episode adaptation of C.S. Forester's Hornblower novels produced by Harry Alan Towers (1952–53); Gandalf in the BBC radio adaptation of Tolkien's Lord of the Rings (1981); another great wizard, Merlin, in an adaptation of T.H. White's The Sword in the Stone (1982); and P.G. Wodehouse's valet Jeeves in several series in the 1970s and early 1980s. Hordern was the reader for an abridged 1991 recording of C.S. Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia, and was the narrator of several radio adaptations of Ellis Peters' Brother Cadfael novels.

Later years and death[edit]

On television Hordern played Tartuffe for the BBC's Play of the Month series in 1971 and Professor Marvin in The History Man in 1980. He also appeared in several classic drama serials, his last performance being in the BBC adaptation of Middlemarch (1994).

He had bought a house in Bagnor, near the town of Newbury, Berkshire, in 1956, and spent his final years there. He enjoyed fishing on the River Lambourn which was close to the house, and where dramatist Tom Stoppard "shared a rod" with him (as Stoppard once put it).

Hordern was appointed CBE in 1972 and knighted in 1983.[62] He died as a result of kidney disease in May 1995, at the age of 83. Shortly before his death, Brighton College named a room in his honour where a bronze portrait bust stands; the National Portrait Gallery in London has another copy.


Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Murray used a fluid magnesia preparation of his own design to treat the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland's stomach pain. It was so effective that it was approved by the Royal College of Surgeons in 1838.[2]
  2. ^ Margaret Emily Murray was born in County Wicklow in 1874. She died in 1933 aged 59. Hordern gave her cause of death as "exhaustion".[4]
  3. ^ Peter "Shrimp" Hordern (1907–1987)[7] was a keen sportsman and exceeded at Rugby. After he left school he went to Oxford College where he won a blue, and later played rugby for England.[8]
  4. ^ Jocelyn was the last one of triplet sisters to be born. She was the only child to survive the birth which also claimed the life of her mother. Jocelyn was spurned by her only living relative, an English aunt, owing to the child's illegitimacy. Margaret made the decision to adopt her as a result.[17]
  5. ^ A cue-script was a process in which an entire script would be printed whilst the actor's script featured cue-lines. Each cue-line acted as a prompt for the other performer and until the show was complete; the main script would be followed by the director.[25]
  6. ^ £1 a week equates to £58 in 2015 (adjusted for inflation).[32]
  7. ^ Writing in his autobiography Hordern explained the reason why the play was so unsuccessful: "Cold Comfort Farm horrified Bristol audiences, who imagined they would be in for an evening of pastoral idyll. Instead they were treated to a complete send-up of all pastoral idylls and they left in droves."[36]
  1. ^ Hordern, p. 1.
  2. ^ "Sir James Murray's condensed solution of fluid magnesia", The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 October 1846, accessed 5 July 2015.
  3. ^ a b Hordern, p. 2.
  4. ^ Hordern, p. 35.
  5. ^ Hordern, pp. 2–3.
  6. ^ Hordern, pp. 3–4.
  7. ^ Hordern, p. 105.
  8. ^ Hordern, p. 12.
  9. ^ Hordern, p. 4.
  10. ^ a b Hordern, p. 6.
  11. ^ Hordern, p. 8.
  12. ^ Hordern, p. 4.
  13. ^ a b c d e Sir Michael Hordern. The Daily Telegraph, 4 May 1995, accessed 28 June 2015.
  14. ^ a b Hordern, p. 12.
  15. ^ Hordern, pp. 12–13.
  16. ^ Hordern, p. 13.
  17. ^ a b Hordern, p. 9.
  18. ^ Hordern, p. 11.
  19. ^ Hordern, p. 13.
  20. ^ Hordern, p. 15.
  21. ^ Hordern, p. 20.
  22. ^ Hordern, pp. 29–30.
  23. ^ Hordern, pp. 30–31.
  24. ^ Hordern, p. 35.
  25. ^ a b c Hordern, p. 40.
  26. ^ a b c Morley, Sheridan. "Hordern, Michael Murray (1911–1995)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, online edition, May 2009, accessed 22 July 2015 (subscription required)
  27. ^ Hordern, p. 41.
  28. ^ Hordern, pp. 41–42.
  29. ^ Hordern, p. 42.
  30. ^ Hordern, pp. 37–38.
  31. ^ a b c Hordern, p. 48.
  32. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2015), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  33. ^ a b Hordern, pp. 52–53.
  34. ^ "New Players in Company", Western Daily Press, 22 July 1937, p. 8.
  35. ^ Hordern, p. 54.
  36. ^ a b c d Hordern, p. 57.
  37. ^ "Author Takes Lead In His Own Play", Western Daily Press, 19 October 1938, p. 11.
  38. ^ Hordern, pp. 57–59.
  39. ^ Hordern, p. 59.
  40. ^ "Bath's New Players", Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette, 14 October 1939, p. 8.
  41. ^ Hordern, p. 60.
  42. ^ "Band Waggon (1940)", British Film Institute, accessed 4 July 2015.
  43. ^ Hordern, pp. 57–59.
  44. ^ Hordern, p. 61.
  45. ^ a b Hordern, pp. 66–67.
  46. ^ Hordern, p. 67.
  47. ^ Hordern, p. 68.
  48. ^ Hordern, p. 78–79
  49. ^ Hordern, p. 78.
  50. ^ a b Hordern, p. 80.
  51. ^ a b Hordern, p. 82.
  52. ^ Wearing, p. 251.
  53. ^ "Dear Murderer, Dramatic Thriller at the New Theatre", Hull Daily Mail, 30 April 1946, p. 1.
  54. ^ "'Gallimaufry' at Covent Garden: Purcell's The Fairy-Queen in 1946". Early Music by Michael Burden, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 268–284.
  55. ^ Hordern, p. 81.
  56. ^ Noose, by Richard Llewellyn. (Seville). The Spectator, 26 June 1947, p. 13.
  57. ^ Rebecca (1947), British Film Institute, accessed 22 July 2015.
  58. ^ Good Time Girl, (1947), British Film Institute, accessed 22 July 2015.
  59. ^ Hordern, p. 86.
  60. ^ "Passport to Pimlico (1949)", British Film Institute, accessed 21 July 2015.
  61. ^ Hordern, p. 84.
  62. ^ "Michael Hordern", Variety (online), 8 May 1995, accessed 2 July 2015.


  • Hordern, Michael (1993). A World Elsewhere. London: Michael O'Mara Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85479-188-7. 
  • Wearing, J.P. (2014). The London Stage 1940-1949: A Calendar of Productions, Performers, and Personnel. London: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-81089-306-1. 

External links[edit]