User:Cberlet/Fascism

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Kill Sign Bot! --Cberlet (talk) 13:17, 5 February 2008 (UTC)

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"NEO-NAZISM, a general term for the related fascist, nationalist, white supremacist, antisemitic beliefs and political tendencies of the numerous groups that emerged after World War II seeking to restore the Nazi order or to establish a new order based on doctrines similar to those underlying Nazi Germany. Some of these groups closely adhered to the ideas propounded in Hitler's Mein Kampf; others espoused related beliefs deriving from older Catholic, nationalist, or other local traditions."
--Hearst, Ernest, Chip Berlet, and Jack Porter. "Neo-Nazism." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 15. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 74-82. 22 vols. Thomson Gale.--Cberlet (talk) 22:55, 16 November 2007 (UTC)



This from a review at a conservative magazine online, The National Interest:
  • "Walter Laqueur's Fascism: Past, Present, Future and Roger Eatwell's Fascism: A History are two recent additions to the growing literature.... Laqueur's Fascism is a sweeping overview of the two paradigmatic cases of "historical fascism", fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.... Eatwell's Fascism tells the story of fascism in four countries: Italy, Germany, France, and Britain. It traces Italian fascism from its birth in the wake of the First World War to near-death experience in the Second World War to mature respectability today, and it follows Nazism and its posterity from Hitler's Munich days to post-reunification...."


Griffin: :::::Roger Griffin, entry on Fascism in Encarta:

"Fascist movements surfaced in most European countries and in some former European colonies in the early 20th century....fascists managed to win control of the state and attempted to dominate all of Europe, resulting in millions of deaths in the Holocaust and World War II (1939-1945). Because fascism had a decisive impact on European history from the end of World War I until the end of the World War II, the period from 1918 to 1945 is sometimes called the fascist era. Fascism was widely discredited after Italy and Germany lost World War II, but persists today in new forms....Some scholars view fascism in narrow terms, and some even insist that the ideology was limited to Italy under Mussolini. When the term is capitalized as Fascism, it refers to the Italian movement. But other writers define fascism more broadly to include many movements, from Italian Fascism to contemporary neo-Nazi movements in the United States."Encarta


Nazism as form of fascism Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp.xvii-xxiv, 21, 26-31, 114-140, 352.</ref>


  • "Organized White Supremacist groups in the United States evolved from their historic base of various predecessor Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi organizations (Schmaltz 1999; Trelease 1995; Chalmers 1965). Over time, they spread into a wide range of competing forms and ideologies."
--Chip Berlet and Stanislav Vysotsky. (2006, Summer). "Overview of U.S. white supremacist groups." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 34(1), 11-48. (Special Issue on the white power movement in the United States, B. A. Dobratz and L. K. Walsner).



Here is what Nicholas Goodrick-Clark writes:

  • “This book originated as a sequal volume to The Occult Roots of Nazism in order to document the survival of occult Nazi themes in the postwar period. As work progressed, however, my perspective broadened considerably. Far from tracing faded fascist mystics and redundant ideas, I found that I was actually having to write a new history of contemporary neo-völkish groups and ideology in America and Europe.” p. 6. (emphasis added)
--Nicholas Goodrick-Clark. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press.


  • A number of studies of racist and anti-Semitic groups in the U.S. and in Europe suggest that contemporary white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups are less monolithic and ideologically unified than had been previously understood. In fact, such groups have a wide range of ideologies and membership strategies. They range from white-power skinheads who are loosely structured, extremely transient and attract young, fairly apolitical adherents to Klans and neo-Nazi groups which are tightly organized, geographically stable and recruit entire families. Ideologies of nationalism and xenophobia, characteristic of earlier organized racism, now are on the decline as U.S. hate groups foster links to counterparts in Europe and South Africa and as allegiance to race increasingly supersedes loyalty to nation. Moreover, issues of white identity and white culture quickly are replacing those of national identity and economic competition as major themes of hate group literature and rhetoric..Kathleen Blee.


Professor Roger Griffin: "

  • Griffin, R. 1991. The nature of fascism. New York: Routledge.
  • Griffin, R. ed. 1995. Fascism. Oxford Readers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Griffin, R. ed. 1998. International fascism: Theories, causes, and the new consensus. London: Arnold.
  • Griffin, R. 1999. “Fascism Is More Than Reaction,” Searchlight; online at <http://www.searchlightmagazine.com/stories/understandFascism.htm>.
  • Griffin, R. 2001 ‘Fascism’, in Brenda E. Brasher (ed.) Encyclopedia of Fundamentalism (New York: Routledge), pp. 171–178.
  • Griffin, R. and Matthew Feldman, eds. 2003. Fascism. Vols. 1-5, Critical Concepts in Political Science, New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Griffin, R. 2003. “From Slime Mould to Rhizome: an Introduction to the Groupuscular Right.” Patterns of Prejudice 37:27-50.
  • Griffin, R. 2003. “Shattering Crystals: The Role of ‘Dream Time’ in Extreme Right–Wing Political Violence,” Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 15, no. 1.
  • Griffin, R. 2004. “Introduction: God’s Counterfeiters? Investigating the Triad of Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:291-325.




Interwar - movement & ideology[edit]

  • Eatwell, Roger. 1996. “On Defining the ‘Fascist Minimum,’ the Centrality of Ideology,” Journal of Political Ideologies 1(3):303-19.
  • Eatwell, Roger. 1997. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
  • Ellwood, Robert. 2000. “Nazism as a Millennialist Movement.” In Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases, ed. Catherine Wessinger, 241-260. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
  • Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • Kele, Max H. (1972). Nazis and Workers: National Socialist Appeals to German Labor, 1919–1933. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  • Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Postone, Moishe. 1986. “Anti-Semitism and National Socialism.” In Germans & Jews Since the Holocaust: The Changing Situation in West Germany, ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes, 302-314. New York: Homes & Meier.
  • Redles, David . 2005. Hitler’s Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief and the Search for Salvation, New York Univ. Press.
  • Renton, Dave. 1999. “Fascism Is More Than An Ideology,” Searchlight, (August); online at <http://www.searchlightmagazine.com/stories/understandFascism.htm> (14 June 2004).
  • Rhodes, James M. 1980. The Hitler Movement: A Modern Millenarian Revolution. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University.
  • Vondung, Klaus. 2000. The Apocalypse in Germany, Columbia, MO: University. of Missouri Press.

Post WW-II movement & ideology[edit]

  • Barkun, Michael. [1994] 1997. Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Movement, Identity. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Berbrier, Mitch. 1998a. “‘Half the Battle’: Cultural Resonance, Framing Process, and Ethnic Affecta-tions in Contemporary White Separatist Rhetoric.” Social Problems 45: 431-47.
  • Berlet, Chip. 2001. “Hate Groups, Racial Tension and Ethnoviolence in an Integrating Chicago Neighborhood 1976-1988.” Pp. 117–163 in Do-bratz, Walder, and Buzzell, eds., 2001.
  • Berlet, Chip. 2004a. “Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements.” Pp. 19-48 In Home-Grown Hate: Gender and Or-ganized Racism, edited by Abby L. Ferber. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Berlet, Chip. 2004b. “Christian Identity: The Apocalyptic Style, Political Religion, Palingenesis and Neo-Fascism.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:469-506.
  • Blazak, Randy. 2001. “White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads.” American Behavioral Scientist 44:982-1000.
  • Coogan, Kevin. 1999. Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist Interna-tional. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Autonomedia.
  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1995. “Conflict in the White Supremacist/Racialist Movement in the United States.” International Journal of Group Tensions 25:57-75.
  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 2000. “White Power, White Pride!” The White Separatist Movement in the United States. Balti-more, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Durham, Martin. 2002. “From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right” Patterns of Prejudice 36:50-61.
  • Durham, Martin. 2004. “The Upward Path: Palingenesis, Political Religion and the National Alliance.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:454-468.
  • Ezekiel, Raphael S. 1995. The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen. New York, NY: Viking.
  • Futrell, Robert and Pete Simi. 2004. “Free Spaces, Collective Identity, and the Persistence of U.S. White Power Activism.” Social Problems 51:16-42.
  • Gardell, Mattia. 2003. Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Gerstenfeld, Phyllis, Diana R. Grant and Chau-Pu Chiang. 2003. “Hate Online: A Content Analysis of Extremist Internet Sites.” Analyses of Social Is-sues and Public Policy 3:29-44.
  • Goodrick-Clark, Nicholas. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Na-zism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press.
  • Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Griffin, Roger. 2003. “From Slime Mould to Rhizome: an In-troduction to the Groupuscular Right.” Patterns of Prejudice 37:27-50.
  • Griffin, Roger. 2004. “Introduction: God’s Counterfeiters? Investigating the Triad of Fascism, Totalitarian-ism and Political Religion.” Totalitarian Move-ments and Political Religions 5:291-325.
  • Hamm, Mark S. 1993. American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. West Port, CT: Praeger Publishers.
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey and Leonard Weinberg. 1998. The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey and Tore Bjørgo, eds. 1998. Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1996. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Ridgeway, James. 1995. Blood in the Face : The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press.
  • Schmaltz, William H. (1999). Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. Washing-ton, DC: Brassey’s.
  • Ware, Von and Les Back. 2002. “Wagner and Power Chords: Skinheadism, White Power Music, and the Internet.” Pp. 94-132 in Out of Whiteness: Color, Politics, and Culture. Chicago, IL: Univer-sity of Chicago Press.
  • Whitsel, Brad. 1998. “The Turner Diaries and Cosmotheism: William Pierce’s Theology of Revolution.” Nova Religio 1:183-197.



Barkun, Michael. [1994] 1997. Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Movement, Identity. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Berlet, Chip, and Stanislav Vysotsky. (2006, Summer). Overview of U.S. white supremacist groups. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 34(1), 11-48. (Special Issue on the white power movement in the United States, B. A. Dobratz and L. K. Walsner).

Berlet, Chip. 2005. “When Alienation Turns Right: Populist Conspiracism, the Apocalyptic Style, and Neofascist Movements.” In Lauren Langman & Devorah Kalekin Fishman, (eds.), Trauma, Promise, and the Millennium: The Evolution of Alienation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Berlet, Chip. 2005. “Christian Identity: The Apocalyptic Style, Political Religion, Palingenesis and Neo-Fascism.” In Roger Griffin, ed., Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Political Religion. London: Routledge.

Blazak, Randy. 2001. “White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads.” American Behavioral Scientist 44:982-1000.

Blee, Kathleen. 1999. “Racist Activism and Apocalyptic/Millennial Thinking.” Journal of Millennial Studies 2:1. Retrieved July 4, 2004 (http://www.mille.org/publications/summer99/blee.PDF).

Blee, Kathleen. 2002. Inside Organized Racism: Women in the Hate Movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Burghart, Devin and Justin Massa. 2001. “Damned, Defiant and Dangerous: Continuing White Supremacist Violence in the U.S.” Searchlight July, online archive.

Burghart, Devin, ed. 1999. Soundtracks to the White Revolution: White Supremacist Assaults on Youth Music Subcultures. Chicago, IL: Center for New Community [in cooperation with Northwest Coalition for Human Dignity].

Dobratz, Betty A. 2001. “The Role of Religion in the Collective Identity of the White Racialist Movement.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40:287-302.

Dobratz, Betty A. and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1995. “Conflict in the White Supremacist/Racialist Movement in the United States.” International Journal of Group Tensions 25:57-75.

Dobratz, Betty A. and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 1996. “Ideology and the Framing Process in the White Separatist/Supremacist Movement in the United States.” Quarterly Journal of Ideology 19:3-29.

Dobratz, Betty A. and Stephanie Shanks-Meile. 2000. “White Power, White Pride!” The White Separatist Movement in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dobratz, Betty A., Lisa K. Walder, and Timothy Buzzell, eds. 2001. Research in Political Sociology 9: The Politics of Social Inequality, edited by. Amsterdam: Jai/Elsevier.

Durham, Martin. 2000. The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Durham, Martin. 2002. “From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right” Patterns of Prejudice 36:50-61.

Durham, Martin. 2004. “The Upward Path: Palingenesis, Political Religion and the National Alliance.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:454-468.

Eatwell, Roger. 2003. “Reflections on Fascism and Religion.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 4: 145-66.

Gardell, Mattia. 2003. Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Goodrick-Clark, Nicholas. [1985] 2004. The Occult Roots of Nazism. London: I. B. Tauris.

Goodrick-Clark, Nicholas. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press.

Green, D. P., D.Z. Strolovich, and J.S. Wong. 1998. “Defended Neighborhoods, Integration, and Racially Motivated Crimes.” American Journal of Sociology 104: 372-403.

Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Griffin, Roger. ed. 1998. International fascism: Theories, causes, and the new consensus. London: Arnold.

Griffin, Roger. 2003. “From Slime Mould to Rhizome: an Introduction to the Groupuscular Right.” Patterns of Prejudice 37:27-50.

Griffin, Roger. 2004. “Introduction: God’s Counterfeiters? Investigating the Triad of Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:291-325.

Kaplan, Jeffrey and Tore Bjørgo, eds. 1998. Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Kaplan, Jeffrey and Leonard Weinberg. 1998. The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1997a. Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Ridgeway, James. 1995. Blood in the Face : The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press.

Shanks-Meile, Stephanie. 2001. “The Changing Faces of the White Power Movement and the Anti-Racist Resistance.” Pp. 191-195 in Dobratz, Walder, and Buzzell, eds., 2001.

Vysotsky, Stanislav. 2004. “Understanding the Racist Right in the Twenty First Century: A Typology of Modern White Supremacist Organizations.” Paper, American Sociological Association annual meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Whitsel, Brad. 1998. “The Turner Diaries and Cosmotheism: William Pierce’s Theology of Revolution.” Nova Religio 1:183-197.


from the Wiki entry National socialist party:

"National Socialist" Parties that existed before the rise of Nazism
  • Parti Socialiste National, in France, founded by Pierre Biétry in 1903. It became the "Fédération Nationale des Jaunes de France" (or the "Yellow socialists") in 1904.
  • Czech National Social Party, founded in 1898
  • National-Social Association, founded in 1896
  • National Socialist Party (UK),1916 to 1919
  • National Socialist Party (Philippines) (Aguinaldo), founded 1930
  • Austrian National Socialism


Spylab[edit]

The following references call Neo-Nazism an ideology.

  1. "Neo-Nazism is the name for a modern offshoot of Nazism. It is a radically right-wing ideology..."
  2. "Neo-Nazism: An ideology which draws upon the legacy of the Nazi Third Reich..."
  3. "Where parents and teachers have fallen short of educating German children about the horrors of their past, as well as the dangers that come with allowing neo-Nazism to continue, the promoters of neo-Nazi ideology and organizations have been able to make inroads."
  4. "...the ideology of neo-Nazism is secondary to the cult of the music itself."


More references that describe neo-Nazism as an ideology:

  1. "None of the suspects admitted of embracing the neo-Nazi ideology"
  2. "...their movement offered a new approach to the neo-Nazi ideology"
  3. "They are dedicated to the neo-Nazi ideology..."
  4. "The ADL report suggests that the neo-Nazi ideology combined with the gang lifestyle provides..."
  5. The neo-Nazi ideology is made very attractive to the young...
  6. At the beginning, racism and neo-Nazi ideology were (generally speaking) unknown within skinhead subculture.
  7. What is a fact is that in the Czech society there is quite a significant minority of youngsters who like the neo-Nazi ideology...
  8. "They are dedicated to the neo-Nazi ideology and attracted to violence."
  9. At the same time, the denial of the Holocaust is a central component of the neo-Nazi ideology.
  10. It is appropriately symbolic, given the neo-Nazi ideology of many of those involved..."
  11. ...the law enforcement authorities recognized the neo-Nazi ideology behind these crimes...
  12. "...to pay homage to the memory of millions of Holocaust victims and join forces in combating the neo Nazi ideology"
  13. documented at least 8 acts of vandalism motivated by the neo-Nazi ideology...
  14. ..."denial stirrings are closely connected with the neo-Nazi ideology and the rise of the radical right in politics
  15. A common characteristic of "Blood and Honour" and Hammerskins is the neo-Nazi ideology..."


discussion from Nazism[edit]

International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus, Edited by Roger Griffin, Oxford University Press, May 1998.
  • "This reader focuses on the definition and ideology of generic fascism, bringing together articles, essays, and political writings by several key figures to lay bare the structural affinity that relates fascism not only to Nazism but to the many failed fascist movements that surfaced in inter-war Europe and elsewhere. In both his introduction and his editorial commentary Griffin locates the driving force behind all fascist movements in a distinctive utopian myth, that of the regenerated national community, destined to rise up from the ashes of a decadent society." --Oxford University Press
Try actually reading the books rather than doing Internet searches.--Cberlet (talk) 02:42, 27 November 2007 (UTC)
Max Weber, Charisma, 1947. Discusses Nazism as a variety of fascism. --Cberlet (talk) 02:54, 27 November 2007 (UTC)



When did the DAP become the NSDAP?[edit]

"The party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party on April 1, 1920" — I have one generally reliable authority, at least on factual details (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 150), who dates the name change to "the end of February 1920" but without being precise. Follow the link to 1920 and you will find that on February 24, "Adolf Hitler present[ed] his National Socialist program in Munich", which indeed is the date given in the Yad Vashem reference only a few sentences earlier ("Nazi Party Established"). I've altered the date in the article and sourced it to Y.V. Come to think of it, April 1 does look like somebody's idea of a joke. Gnostrat 13:49, 30 November 2007 (UTC)

This is a disputed point. In "Mein Kampf," Hitler referred to Feb. 24, 1920 as "the first great public demonstration of our young movement," and it was indeed on this day that the 25-point program of the party was presented. In many histories, it is named as the founding date of the N.S.D.A.P.
However, some historians dispute this version of events. In "The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler," Robert Payne notes that Hitler was only one of several speakers. He quotes a newspaper account of the event: "Herr Hitler (DAP) developed some striking political ideas, which evoked spirited applause, but also roused his numerous already prejudiced opponents to contradiction; and he gave a survey of the the party's program, which in its features comes close to that of the Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei."
In "Nazism, A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts" (v.1 p.18) by J. Noakes and G. Pridham, I read that the party was renamed in February 1920, but further that Hitler was officially only propaganda chief, not yet the "Führer."
According to Shirer's "Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" (p.41)"its name was altered on April 1, 1920, to the National Socialist German Worker's Party." The source, so far as I can tell, was Konrad Heiden, "A History of National Socialism," a book which is not available to me.
Alan Bullock, in "Hitler, A Study in Tyranny," p. 42, dates the re-naming to August, 1920.
I am able to confirm Bullock's version from a Nazi-era publication, Daten der Geschichte der NSDAP by Dr. Hans Volz, published in 1935 by the publishing house A.G. Ploetz: der "Deutschen Arbeiterpartei"(seit dem Salzburger Parteitag [7./8. August 1920]: "Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei" [NSDAP]). That is the best information I have. --Forrest Johnson 04:23, 1 December 2007 (UTC)


REF[edit]

The term Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus) refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler; and the policies adopted by the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, a period also known as the Third Reich.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp.xvii-xxiv, 21, 26-31, 114-140, 352.</ref>


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  2. ^ Kele, Max H. (1972). Nazis and Workers: National Socialist Appeals to German Labor, 1919–1933. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  3. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  4. ^ Eatwell, Roger. 1996. "On Defining the ‘Fascist Minimum,’ the Centrality of Ideology", Journal of Political Ideologies 1(3):303-19. Eatwell, Roger. 1997. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]