User:Cboursnell/Sandbox/Abhydrolase 4

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Abhydrolase_4
File:PDB NULL EBI.jpg
Identifiers
Symbol Abhydrolase_4
Pfam PF08386
Pfam clan CL0028
InterPro IPR013595

In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:

Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.

Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.

Proteolytic enzymes that exploit serine in their catalytic activity are ubiquitous, being found in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes.[1] They include a wide range of peptidase activity, including exopeptidase, endopeptidase, oligopeptidase and omega-peptidase activity. Over 20 families (denoted S1 - S66) of serine protease have been identified, these being grouped into clans on the basis of structural similarity and other functional evidence.[1] Structures are known for members of the clans and the structures indicate that some appear to be totally unrelated, suggesting different evolutionary origins for the serine peptidases.[1]

Not withstanding their different evolutionary origins, there are similarities in the reaction mechanisms of several peptidases. Chymotrypsin, subtilisin and carboxypeptidase C have a catalytic triad of serine, aspartate and histidine in common: serine acts as a nucleophile, aspartate as an electrophile, and histidine as a base.[1] The geometric orientations of the catalytic residues are similar between families, despite different protein folds.[1] The linear arrangements of the catalytic residues commonly reflect clan relationships. For example the catalytic triad in the chymotrypsin clan (PA) is ordered HDS, but is ordered DHS in the subtilisin clan (SB) and SDH in the carboxypeptidase clan (SC).[1][2]

This is a C-terminal domain associated with putative hydrolases and bacterial peptidases that belong to MEROPS peptidase family S33 (clan SC). They are related to tripeptidyl-peptidase B from Streptomyces lividans (<a class="ext" href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q54410">SWISSPROT</a>). A member of this family (<a class="ext" href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6E3K7">SWISSPROT</a>) is thought to be involved in the C-terminal processing of propionicin F, a bacteriocidin characterised from Propionibacterium freudenreichii.[3]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ (1994). "Families of serine peptidases". Meth. Enzymol. 244: 19–61. PMID 7845208.  C1 control character in |pages= at position 4 (help)
  2. ^ Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ (1993). "Evolutionary families of peptidases". Biochem. J. 290 ( Pt 1): 205–18. PMC 1132403Freely accessible. PMID 8439290.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); C1 control character in |pages= at position 5 (help)
  3. ^ Brede DA, Faye T, Johnsborg O, OdegÃ¥rd I, Nes IF, Holo H (2004). "Molecular and genetic characterization of propionicin F, a bacteriocin from Propionibacterium freudenreichii". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (12): 7303–10. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.12.7303-7310.2004. PMC 535160Freely accessible. PMID 15574930.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); C1 control character in |pages= at position 6 (help)

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR013595

Category:Protein families