User:Ceceliadid/Global Interoperability Program
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The NOAA Global Interoperability Program (GIP), initiated in 2009, supports and promotes the development of software infrastructure for a set of weather and climate applications that have been recognized as being critically important. These are:
- climate research and prediction, with a focus on data distribution for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
- model development to support operational weather forecasting
- local application of climate information to assess impacts of climate change
- simulation of coastal and maritime environments for military and other purposes
- teaching students how to build and use climate models
The need for greater coordination in software infrastructure development among U.S. and international weather and climate modeling centers, as manifested in GIP, has been discussed in numerous papers and reports.    
Motivation and Purpose
There is increased demand for climate and weather information since the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report identified climate change as a potential hazard to human health and welfare. Much of this information relies on software infrastructure for its creation and dissemination.
The needed infrastructure includes software frameworks and other Common Modeling Infrastructure, data distribution portals, and data analysis and visualization services. These software elements have been developed by multiple agencies and organizations. Often they need to interact with each other in scientific workflows. Some software elements are used in multiple application areas, and enable these groups to leverage each others products and collaborate across disciplines.
The purpose of the GIP program is to serve as a coordination point for these infrastructure projects, to foster cross-disciplinary activities, and to improve the capabilities in each of the critical application areas by improving the base of distributed infrastructure that lies beneath them all. Participating agencies and organizations include NOAA, NASA, the National Science Foundation, the United States Department of Defense, the United States Department of Energy, European Union centers that are part of the METAFOR collaboration, and several universities.
Software Infrastructure for Weather and Climate Modeling
The table shows how tasks in the workflows of the GIP focus applications in weather and climate rely on an overlapping software infrastructure base. Where different organizations use different packages for the same task, or different conventions are used for different kinds of modeling, incompatibility issues can hinder cross-disciplinary development and collaborations.
|Climate simulation||Weather prediction||Assessing climate impacts||Coastal and maritime modeling||Teaching modeling|
|MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND COUPLING||OASIS coupler, Model Coupling Toolkit, ESMF, Flexible Modeling System||ESMF||OpenMI Standard for hydrological modeling||ESMF, MCEL, Model Coupling Toolkit||Generally ad hoc|
|MODEL METADATA CONVENTIONS||METAFOR CIM for simulation metadata, NetCDF Climate and Forecast conventions for variables||Stated intent to use METAFOR CIM for simulation metadata||OpenMI Standard||NetCDF Climate and Forecast conventions||NetCDF Climate and Forecast conventions|
|MODEL RUN-TIME ENVIRONMENT||Flexible Modeling System, NASA Modeling Guru||Specialized||Purdue University CCSM Climate Portal|
|MODEL DATA FORMATS||NetCDF||NetCDF, GRIB, BUFR||NetCDF, GIS file formats||NetCDF||NetCDF|
|OBSERVATIONAL DATA FORMATS||Hierarchical Data Format||GRIB||GIS file formats|
|MODEL AND OBSERVATIONAL DATA ARCHIVAL||Earth System Grid, National Climatic Data Center Portal||Hydrologic Information System||Earth System Grid, National Climatic Data Center Portal|
|MODEL DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION||Climate Data Analysis Tool, NCAR Command Language, many other packages||NWS specialized visualization displays, many visualization packages||NCAR Command Language, many other visualization packages|
- Global Forecast System
- Community Climate System Model (CCSM)
- NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model
- NASA Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program
- Department of Defense Battlespace Environments Institute
- United States National Unified Operational Prediction Capability
Integration and Standardization Efforts
- Global Organization of Earth System Science Portals (GO-ESSP)
- NOAA Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE)
- Colorado State University
- University of Michigan
- United States Department of Energy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
- NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction
- NOAA National Climatic Data Center
- NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
- NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
- NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
- Department of Defense Naval Research Laboratory
- NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
- University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Unidata Program
- National Center for Atmospheric Research
- Dickinson, R. E.; S. E. Zebiak, J. L. Anderson, M. L. Blackmon, C. DeLuca, T. F. Hogan, M. Iredell, M. Ji, R. B. Rood, M. J. Suarez, and K. E. Taylor (2002). "How Can We Advance Our Climate and Weather Models as a Community?". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 83: 431–434. doi:10.1175/1520-0477. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (Report). U.S. Climate Change Science Program. 2003.
- Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling (Report). The National Academies Press. 2001.
- Final Report from the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (Report). 2009.
- Improving the Scientific Foundation for Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Simulations: Report of a Workshop (Report). The National Academies Press. 2005.