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Below is an incomplete list of academic conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers and other types of academic writing which focus on Wikipedia as their subject. Works that mention Wikipedia only in passing are unlikely to be listed.

Unpublished works of presumably academic quality are listed in a dedicated section. For non-academic research, as well as tools that may be useful in researching Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Researching Wikipedia. For a WikiProject focused on doing research on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Wikidemia.

For academic papers using Wikipedia as a source, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia as an academic source, and the bibliography links listed at the bottom of this page. For teaching with Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:School and university projects. For researching with Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia. For non-academic works focused on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia in the media.

Over time[edit]

Growth of academic interest in Wikipedia: number of publications by year, from creation of Wikipedia to end of 2007. Source: based on mid-May 2008 revision of this page.

Peer reviewed[edit]

Conference presentations and papers[edit]

See also: Wikimania and WikiSym conference series
This table is sortable.
Authors Title Conference / published in Year Online Notes Abstract Keywords
Amir Hossein Jadidinejad, Fariborz Mahmoudi Cross-Language Information Retrieval Using Meta-language Index Construction and Structural Queries Proceeding of the Multilingual Information Access Evaluation I. Text Retrieval Experiments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 6241/2011, pp. 70-77 2011 [1] CLEF2009
Structural Query Language allows expert users to richly represent its information needs but unfortunately, the complexity of SQLs make them impractical in the Web search engines. Automatically detecting the concepts in an unstructured user’s information need and generating a richly structured, multilingual equivalent query is an ideal solution. We utilize Wikipedia as a great concept repository and also some state of the art algorithms for extracting Wikipedia’s concepts from the user’s information need. This process is called “Query Wikification”. Our experiments on the TEL corpus at CLEF2009 achieves +23% and +17% improvement in Mean Average Precision and Recall against the baseline. Our approach is unique in that, it does improve both precision and recall; two pans that often improving one, hurt the another.
Wikipedia-Mining, Indri Structural Query Language, CLEF
Darren Hardy Geospatial signatures of anonymous Wikipedia authorship AAG Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 2010 [2]
We've seen a rapid rise of volunteered geographic information on websites and Google Earth, some of which is produced en masse by global virtual communities. In this talk, I discuss whether the first law of geography applies to Wikipedia. My recent study of geographic effects in Wikipedia authorship includes data from 7 years of contributions to a million geotagged articles in 21 languages. My methodology defines a proximity metric between authors and articles, and uses IP geolocation on 2.8 million anonymous authors. I use this metric to test my hypothesis that anonymous Wikipedia authors write about nearby places more than distant ones. My results provide empirical evidence of geographic effects in an online authorship community.
distance decay, geotagging, VGI
Darren Hardy The Wikification of Geospatial Metadata Workshop on the Role of Volunteered Geographic Information in Advancing Science (GIScience) 2010 [3]
For decades, metadata has been the ever-present, cure-all solution to heterogeneous data integration and use. Yet, high-quality, ubiquitous metadata is extremely rare in practice. Current volunteered geographic information systems may provide insights on how the scientific community can produce and manage metadata for geospatial data infrastructures.
Geospatial data interoperability, scientific knowledge generation, VGI
Markus Fuchs Aufbau eines linguistischen Korpus aus den Daten der englischen Wikipedia Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Language Processing 2010 (KONVENS 10) 2010 [4] German corpus, database, wikipedia
Sérgio Nunes, Cristina Ribeiro, Gabriel David Term Frequency Dynamics in Collaborative Articles Proceedings of the 10th ACM Symposium on Document Engineering (DocEng'10) 2010 [5]
Documents on the World Wide Web are dynamic entities. Mainstream information retrieval systems and techniques are primarily focused on the latest version a document, generally ignoring its evolution over time. In this work, we study the term frequency dynamics in web documents over their lifespan. We use the Wikipedia as a document collection because it is a broad and public resource and, more important, because it provides access to the complete revision history of each document. We investigate the progression of similarity values over two projection variables, namely revision order and revision date. Based on this investigation we find that term frequency in encyclopedic documents - i.e. comprehensive and focused on a single topic - exhibits a rapid and steady progression towards the document's current version. The content in early versions quickly becomes very similar to the present version of the document.
document dynamics, term frequency, wikipedia
Roberto Navigli and Paola Velardi Learning Word-Class Lattices for Definition and Hypernym Extraction Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2010), Uppsala, Sweden 2010 [6]

Definition extraction is the task of automatically identifying definitional sentences within texts. The task has proven useful in many research areas including ontology learning, relation extraction and question answering. However, current approaches – mostly focused on lexico-syntactic patterns – suffer from both low recall and precision, as definitional sentences occur in highly variable syntactic structures. In this paper, we propose Word-Class Lattices (WCLs), a generalization of word lattices that we use to model textual definitions. Lattices are learned from a dataset of definitions from Wikipedia. Our method is applied to the task of def-

inition and hypernym extraction and compares favorably to other pattern generalization methods proposed in the literature.
wikipedia, definition identification, hypernym extraction
Roberto Navigli and Simone Ponzetto BabelNet: Building a Very Large Multilingual Semantic Network Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2010), Uppsala, Sweden 2010 [7]
BabelNet, a very large, wide-coverage multilingual semantic network, is automatically constructed by means of a methodology that integrates lexicographic and encyclopedic knowledge from WordNet and Wikipedia. In addition Machine Translation is also applied to enrich the resource with lexical information for all languages. We conduct experiments on new and existing gold-standard datasets to show the high quality and coverage of the resource.
wikipedia, knowledge acquisition, semantic networks
Simone Ponzetto and Roberto Navigli Knowledge-rich Word Sense Disambiguation Rivaling Supervised Systems Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2010), Uppsala, Sweden 2010 [8]

One of the main obstacles to high-performance Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. In this paper, we present a methodology to automatically extend WordNet with large amounts of semantic relations from an encyclopedic resource, namely Wikipedia. We show that, when provided with a vast amount of high-quality semantic relations, simple knowledge-lean disambiguation algorithms compete with state-of-the-art supervised WSD systems in a coarse-grained

all-words setting and outperform them on gold-standard domain-specific datasets.
wikipedia, word sense disambiguation, knowledge acquisition
Peter Kin-Fong Fong and Robert P. Biuk-Aghai What Did They Do? Deriving High-Level Edit Histories in Wikis Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym 2010), Gdansk, Poland 2010 [9] Derives summaries of the kinds of edits performed (e.g. spelling correction, wikify, disambiguation, etc.) and proposes the calculation of an edit significance metric.
Wikis have become a popular online collaboration platform. Their open nature can, and indeed does, lead to a large number of editors of their articles, who create a large number of revisions. These editors make various types of edits on an article, from minor ones such as spelling correction and text formatting, to major revisions such as new content introduction, whole article re-structuring, etc. Given the enormous number of revisions, it is difficult to identify the type of contributions made in these revisions through human observation alone. Moreover, different types of edits imply different edit significance. A revision that introduces new content is arguably more significant than a revision making a few spelling corrections. By taking edit types into account, better measurements of edit significance can be produced. This paper proposes a method for categorizing and presenting edits in an intuitive way and with a flexible measure of significance of each individual editor’s contributions.
wikipedia, revision history, text differencing, edit categorization, edit significance
Cheong-Iao Pang and Robert P. Biuk-Aghai A Method for Category Similarity Calculation in Wikis Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym 2010), Gdansk, Poland 2010 [10] Degree of similarity between categories is calculated based on the co-assignment of articles to categories. This has application in visualization and other areas.
Wikis, such as Wikipedia, allow their authors to assign categories to articles in order to better organize related content. This paper presents a method to calculate similarities between categories, illustrated by a calculation for the top-level categories in the Simple English version of Wikipedia.
wiki, category similarity
Robert P. Biuk-Aghai and Keng Hong Lei Chatting in the Wiki: Synchronous-Asynchronous Integration Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym 2010), Gdansk, Poland 2010 [11] Collaborative work often consists of a mix of synchronous and asynchronous activity. This work extends the currently purely asynchronous wiki systems through a deep integration of instant messaging facilities in the wiki system.
Wikis have become popular platforms for collaborative writing. The traditional production mode has been remote asynchronous and supported by wiki systems geared toward both asynchronous writing and asynchronous communication. However, many people have come to rely on synchronous communication in their daily work. This paper first discusses aspects of synchronous and asynchronous activity and communication and then proposes an integration of synchronous communication facilities in wikis. A prototype system developed by the authors is briefly presented.
instant messaging, wiki, communication, synchronous, asynchronous
Teun Lucassen and Jan Maarten Schraagen Trust in Wikipedia: How Users Trust Information from an Unknown Source 4th Workshop on Information Credibility on the Web, Raleigh, North Carolina USA 2010 [12]
The use of Wikipedia as an information source is becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have shown that its information quality is high. Normally, when considering information trust, the source of information is an important factor. However, because of the open-source nature of Wikipedia articles, their sources remain mostly unknown. This means that other features need to be used to assess the trustworthiness of the articles. We describe article features - such as images and references - which lay Wikipedia readers use to estimate trustworthiness. The quality and the topics of the articles are manipulated in an experiment to reproduce the varying quality on Wikipedia and the familiarity of the readers with the topics. We show that the three most important features are textual features, references and images.
wikipedia, trust, credibility, think aloud protocol
Daniel Hasan Dalip, Marcos André Gonçalves, Marco Cristo and Pável Calado Automatic quality assessment of content created collaboratively by web communities: a case study of Wikipedia 9th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries, Austin, Texas USA 2009 [13]
The old dream of a universal repository containing all the human knowledge and culture is becoming possible through the Internet and the Web. Moreover, this is happening with the direct collaborative, participation of people. Wikipedia is a great example. It is an enormous repository of information with free access and edition, created by the community in a collaborative manner. However, this large amount of information, made available democratically and virtually without any control, raises questions about its relative quality. In this work we explore a significant number of quality indicators, some of them proposed by us and used here for the first time, and study their capability to assess the quality of Wikipedia articles. Furthermore, we explore machine learning techniques to combine these quality indicators into one single assessment judgment. Through experiments, we show that the most important quality indicators are the easiest ones to extract, namely, textual features related to length, structure and style. We were also able to determine which indicators did not contribute significantly to the quality assessment. These were, coincidentally, the most complex features, such as those based on link analysis. Finally, we compare our combination method with state-of-the-art solution and show significant improvements in terms of effective quality prediction.
wikipedia, SVM, machine learning, quality assessment
Krishnan Ramanathan and Komal Kapoor Creating user profiles using Wikipedia The 28th international conference on conceptual modeling (ER 2009), Gramado Brazil, Springer LNCS 5829 2009 [14]
Creating user profiles is an important step in personalization. Many methods for user profile creation have been developed to date using different representations such as term vectors and concepts from an ontology like DMOZ. In this paper we propose and evaluate different methods for creating user profiles using Wikipedia as the representation. The key idea in our approach is to map documents to Wikipedia concepts at different levels of resolution: words, key phrases, sentences, paragraphs, the document summary and the entire document itself. We suggest a method for evaluating recall by pooling the relevant results from the different methods and evaluate our results for both precision and recall. We also suggest a novel method for profile evaluation by assessing the recall over a known ontological profile drawn from DMOZ.
wikipedia, User profiles, User modeling, DMOZ
Andrea Prato and Marco Ronchetti Using Wikipedia as a reference for extracting semantic information from a text. The Third International Conference on Advances in Semantic Processing SEMAPRO 2009, Malta 2009
In this paper we present an algorithm that, using Wikipedia as a reference, extracts semantic information from an arbitrary text. Our algorithm refines a procedure proposed by others, which mines all the text contained in the whole Wikipedia. Our refinement, based on a clustering approach, exploits the semantic information contained in certain types of Wikipedia hyperlinks, and also introduces an analysis based on multi-words. Our algorithm outperforms current methods in that the output contains many less false positives. We were also able to understand which (structural) part of the texts provides most of the semantic information extracted by the algorithm.
wikipedia, Semantic Relatedness, Semantic Analysis
Simone P. Ponzetto and Roberto Navigli Large-Scale Taxonomy Mapping for Restructuring and Integrating Wikipedia IJCAI 2009: 21st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pasadena, California 2009 [15]
We present a knowledge-rich methodology for disambiguating Wikipedia categories with WordNet synsets and using this semantic information to restructure a taxonomy automatically generated from the Wikipedia system of categories. We evaluate against a manual gold standard and show that both category disambiguation and taxonomy restructuring perform with high accuracy. Besides, we assess these methods on automatically generated datasets and show that we are able to effectively enrich WordNet with a large number of instances from Wikipedia. Our approach produces an integrated resource, thus bringing together the fine-grained classification of instances in Wikipedia and a well-structured top-level taxonomy from WordNet.
wikipedia, knowledge acquisition, taxonomy learning, category disambiguation, word sense disambiguation
Aaron Halfaker, Aniket Kittur, Robert Kraut and John Riedl A Jury of your Peers: Quality, Experience and Ownership in Wikipedia WikiSym2009: Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2009 [16]
Wikipedia is a highly successful example of what mass collaboration in an informal peer review system can accomplish. In this paper, we examine the role that the quality of the contributions, the experience of the contributors and the ownership of the content play in the decisions over which contributions become part of Wikipedia and which ones are rejected by the community. We introduce and justify a versatile metric for automatically measuring the quality of a contribution. We find little evidence that experience helps contributors avoid rejection. In fact, as they gain experience, contributors are even more likely to have their work rejected. We also find strong evidence of ownership behaviors in practice despite the fact that ownership of content is discouraged within Wikipedia.
wikipedia peer peer review wikiwork experience ownership quality
Myshkin Ingawale, Amitava Dutta, Rahul Roy, Priya Seetharaman The Small Worlds of Wikipedia: Implications for Growth, Quality and Sustainability of Collaborative Knowledge Networks AMCIS 2009: Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009 [17]
This work is a longitudinal network analysis of the interaction networks of Wikipedia, a free, user-led collaborativelygenerated online encyclopedia. Making a case for representing Wikipedia as a knowledge network, and using the lens of contemporary graph theory, we attempt to unravel its knowledge creation process and growth dynamics over time. Typical small-world characteristics of short path-length and high clustering have important theoretical implications for knowledge networks. We show Wikipedia’s small-world nature to be increasing over time, while also uncovering power laws and assortative mixing. Investigating the process by which an apparently un-coordinated, diversely motivated swarm of assorted contributors, create and maintain remarkably high quality content, we find an association between Quality and Structural Holes. We find that a few key high degree, cluster spanning nodes - ‘hubs’ - hold the growing network together, and discuss implications for the networks’ growth and emergent quality.
knowledge networks, interaction networks, small-worlds
Raphael Hoffmann, Saleema Amershi, Kayur Patel, Fei Wu, James Fogarty, Daniel S. Weld Amplifying Community Content Creation Using Mixed-Initiative Information Extraction CHI2009: Conference on Computer Human Interaction 2009 [18]
Although existing work has explored both information extraction and community content creation, most research has focused on them in isolation. In contrast, we see the greatest leverage in the synergistic pairing of these methods as two interlocking feedback cycles. This paper explores the potential synergy promised if these cycles can be made to accelerate each other by exploiting the same edits to advance both community content creation and learning-based information extraction. We examine our proposed synergy in the context of Wikipedia infoboxes and the Kylin information extraction system. After developing and refining a set of interfaces to present the verification of Kylin extractions as a non primary task in the context of Wikipedia articles, we develop an innovative use of Web search advertising services to study people engaged in some other primary task. We demonstrate our proposed synergy by analyzing our deployment from two complementary perspectives: (1) we show we accelerate community content creation by using Kylin's information extraction to significantly increase the likelihood that a person visiting a Wikipedia article as a part of some other primary task will spontaneously choose to help improve the article's infobox, and (2) we show we accelerate information extraction by using contributions collected from people interacting with our designs to significantly improve Kylin's extraction performance.
computer-supported collaboration, user interface, information extraction
Maria Grineva, Maxim Grinev and Dmitry Lizorkin Extracting Key Terms From Noisy and Multitheme Documents WWW2009: 18th International World Wide Web Conference 2009 [19]

We present a novel method for key term extraction from text documents. In our method, document is modeled as a graph of semantic relationships between terms of that document. We exploit the following remarkable feature of the graph: the terms related to the main topics of the document tend to bunch up into densely interconnected subgraphs or communities, while non-important terms fall into weakly interconnected communities, or even become isolated vertices. We apply graph community detection techniques to partition the graph into thematically cohesive groups of terms. We introduce a criterion function to select groups that contain key terms discarding groups with unimportant terms. To weight terms and determine semantic relatedness between them we exploit information extracted from Wikipedia. Using such an approach gives us the following two advantages. First, it allows effectively processing multi-theme documents. Second, it is good at filtering out noise information in the document, such as, for example, navigational bars or headers in web pages.

Evaluations of the method show that it outperforms existing methods producing key terms with higher precision and recall. Additional experiments on web pages prove that our method appears to be substantially more effective on noisy and multi-theme documents than existing methods.
semantic relatedness, contextual advertising, information retrieval
Andrew Krizhanovsky and Feiyu Lin Related terms search based on WordNet / Wiktionary and its application in Ontology Matching RCDL 2009 [20] Wikokit
A set of ontology matching algorithms (for finding correspondences between concepts) is based on a thesaurus that provides the source data for the semantic distance calculations. In this wiki era, new resources may spring up and improve this kind of semantic search. In the paper a solution of this task based on Russian Wiktionary is compared to WordNet based algorithms. Metrics are estimated using the test collection, containing 353 English word pairs with a relatedness score assigned by human evaluators. The experiment shows that the proposed method is capable in principle of calculating a semantic distance between pair of words in any language presented in Russian Wiktionary. The calculation of Wiktionary based metric had required the development of the open-source Wiktionary parser software.
Wiktionary, semantic relatedness, information retrieval
Shane Greenstein and Michelle Devereaux Wikipedia in the Spotlight, Kellogg Case Number: 5-306-507; HBS Case Number: KEL253. Case Collection at the Kellogg School of Management. [21] 2009 [22]
By 2009 Wikipedia had achieved the type of success that only a handful of young organizations could ever dream of reaching. It had grown from almost nothing in 2001 to become one the consistently highest ranked and most visited sites on the Internet. This success brought new problems and at a scale that no organization of this type had ever before faced. The case exposes students to Wikipedia’s brief history, the causes of its success, and the issues it faced going forward. Two topics form the focus of the case. The first concerns the rules and norms for submission and editing, which raise questions about the ambiguity of Wikipedia’s authority and the virtual cycle that keeps the site going. The second lesson concerns the need to alter its practices as it gains in popularity, raising questions about what any wiki site, profit-oriented or open source, must do to scale to large numbers of participants and entries. These issues arise as part of a discussion about the site’s priorities going forward.
Open Source Organizations, Strategy at Wikipedia, Managing Internet Media, Wiki, Jimbo Wales, Business of Encyclopedias
Shane Greenstein and Rebecca Frazzano and Evan Meagher Triumph of the Commons: Wikia and the Commercialization of Open Source Communities in 2009, Kellogg Case Number: 5-309-509; HBS Case Number. Case Collection at the Kellogg School of Management. [23] 2009 [24]
In 2009 Wikia was the Internet’s largest for-profit provider of hosted open-source wikis, with over a million daily users. After five years of existence, the organization had supported a wide range of exploratory activities, experiencing both success and failure. With approximately $3 million of cash on hand, Wikia turned cash flow positive in 2009, with revenues of approximately $4.5 million, affording it time and flexibility to try new things. Some of the company’s employees and investors suggested that Wikia should attempt to expand and market itself more aggressively, but which strategic direction should receive priority? The case presents many of the issues and tradeoffs facing CEO Gil Penchina as he formulates these priorities.
Open Source Organizations, Commercialization, Managing Internet Media, Wiki, The Business of Wikis, Learning from Wikipedia
Robert P. Biuk-Aghai, Libby Veng-Sam Tang, Simon Fong and Yain-Whar Si Wikis as Digital Ecosystems: An Analysis Based on Authorship Third IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (DEST 2009), Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May - 3 June 2009 2009 [25] Using Wikipedia as an example, shows that large volunteer-contributed wikis feature characteristics of digital ecosystems.
Wikis, best represented by the popular and highly successfulWikipedia system, have established themselves as important componentsof a collaboration infrastructure. We suggest that the complex networkof user-contributors in volunteer-contributed wikis constitutes adigital ecosystem that bears all the characteristics typical of suchsystems. This paper presents an analysis supporting this notion basedon significance of authorship within the wiki. Our findings confirm thehypothesis that large volunteer-contributed wikis are digitalecosystems, and thus that the findings from the digital ecosystemsresearch stream are applicable to this type of system.
analysis, co-authorship, collaborative writing, digital ecosystem, wiki, Wikipedia
Brent Hecht and Darren Gergle Measuring Self-Focus Bias in Community-Maintained Knowledge Repositories Communities and Technologies 2009 [26] Uses a "hyperlingual approach" to demonstrate that each language of Wikipedia contains a massive amount of self-focus in its represented world knowledge.
Self-focus is a novel way of understanding a type of bias in community-maintained Web 2.0 graph structures. It goes beyond previous measures of topical coverage bias by encapsulating both node- and edge-hosted biases in a single holistic measure of an entire community-maintained graph. We outline two methods to quantify self-focus, one of which is very computationally inexpensive, and present empirical evidence for the existence of self-focus using a “hyperlingual” approach that examines 15 different language editions of Wikipedia. We suggest applications of our methods and discuss the risks of ignoring self-focus bias in technological applications.
hyperlingual, multi-lingual, self-focus
Michael D. Lieberman and Jimmy Lin You Are Where You Edit: Locating Wikipedia Users Through Edit Histories 3rd International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM) 2009 [27]
Whether knowingly or otherwise, Wikipedia contributors reveal their interests and expertise through their contribution patterns. An analysis of Wikipedia edit histories shows that it is often possible to associate contributors with relatively small geographic regions, usually corresponding to where they were born or where they presently live. For many contributors, the geographic coordinates of pages they have edited are tightly clustered. Results suggest that a wealth of information about contributors can be gleaned from edit histories. This illustrates the efficacy of data mining on large, publicly-available datasets and raises potential privacy concerns.
Panciera, K.; Halfaker, A.; Terveen, L. Wikipedians are born, not made: a study of power editors on Wikipedia ACM 2009 International Conference on Group Work 2009 [28] show that the amount of work done by Wikipedians and non-Wikipedians differs significantly from their very first day.
we show that the amount of work done by Wikipedians and non-Wikipedians differs significantly from their very first day. Our results suggest a design opportunity: customizing the initial user experience to improve retention and channel new users’ intense energy.
Myshkin Ingawale, Rahul Roy, Priya Seetharaman Persistence of Cultural Norms in Online Communities: The Curious Case of WikiLove PACIS 2009: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2009 [29]
Tremendous progress in information and communication technologies in the last two decades has enabled the phenomenon of Internet-based groups and collectives, generally referred to as online communities. Many online communities have developed distinct cultures of their own, with accompanying norms. A particular research puzzle is the persistence and stability of such norms in online communities, even in the face of often exponential growth rates in uninitiated new users. We propose a network-theoretic approach to explain this persistence. Our approach consists of modelling the online community as a network of interactions, and representing cultural norms as transmissible ideas (or ‘memes’) propagating through this network. We argue that persistence of a norm over time depends, amongst other things, on the structure of the network through which it propagates. Using previous results from Network Science and Epidemiology, we show that certain structures are better than others to ensure persistence: namely, structures which have scale-free degree distributions and assortative mixing. We illustrate this theory using the case of the community of contributors at Wikipedia, a collaboratively generated online encyclopaedia.
online communities, persistence of norms, epidemiology, network science
Lam, S.K.; Riedl, J. Is Wikipedia Growing a Longer Tail? ACM 2009 International Conference on Group Work 2009 [30]
Wikipedia has millions of articles, many of which receive little attention. One group of Wikipedians believes these obscure entries should be removed because they are uninteresting and neglected; these are the deletionists. Other Wikipedians disagree, arguing that this long tail of articles is precisely Wikipedia’s advantage over other encyclopedias; these are the inclusionists. This paper looks at two overarching questions on the debate between deletionists and inclusionists: (1) What are the implications to the long tail of the evolving standards for article birth and death? (2) How is viewership affected by the decreasing notability of articles in the long tail? The answers to five detailed research questions that are inspired by these overarching questions should help better frame this debate and provide insight into how Wikipedia is evolving.
Aniket Kittur, Ed H. Chi, Bongwon Suh What’s in Wikipedia? Mapping Topics and Conflict Using Socially Annotated Category Structure CHI 2009 2009 [31] blog summary, Signpost summary
Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia which has undergone tremendous growth. However, this same growth has made it difficult to characterize its content and coverage. In this paper we develop measures to map Wikipedia using its socially annotated, hierarchical category structure. We introduce a mapping technique that takes advantage of socially-annotated hierarchical categories while dealing with the inconsistencies and noise inherent in the distributed way that they are generated. The technique is demonstrated through two applications: mapping the distribution of topics in Wikipedia and how they have changed over time; and mapping the degree of conflict found in each topic area. We also discuss the utility of the approach for other applications and datasets involving collaboratively annotated category hierarchies.
Wikipedia, wiki, visualization, mapping, annotation, social computing, distributed collaboration, conflict.
Medelyan, O. and Milne, D. Augmenting domain-specific thesauri with knowledge from Wikipedia Proceedings of the NZ Computer Science Research Student Conference (NZCSRSC 2008), Christchurch, New Zealand. 2008 [32]
Medelyan, O. and Legg, C Integrating Cyc and Wikipedia: Folksonomy meets rigorously defined common-sense PProceedings of the first AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WIKIAI'08), Chicago, I.L. 2008 [33]
Medelyan, O, Witten, I.H., and Milne, D Topic Indexing with Wikipedia. PProceedings of the first AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WIKIAI'08), Chicago, I.L. 2008 [34]
Milne, David and Witten, Ian .H. Learning to link with Wikipedia. Proceedings of the first AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WIKIAI'08), Chicago, I.L. 2008 [35]
Milne, David and Witten, Ian .H. An effective, low-cost measure of semantic relatedness obtained from Wikipedia links. Proceedings of the first AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WIKIAI'08), Chicago, I.L. 2008 [36]
This paper describes a new technique for obtaining measures of semantic relatedness. Like other recent approaches, it uses Wikipedia to provide structured world knowledge about the terms of interest. Our approach is unique in that it does so using the hyperlink structure of Wikipedia rather than its category hierarchy or textual content. Evaluation with manually defined measures of semantic relatedness reveals this to be an effective compromise between the ease of computation of the former approach and the accuracy of the latter.
Anuradha Jambunathan and Marco Ronchetti Exploiting the collective intelligence contained in Wikipedia to automatically describe the content of a document Proceedings of the Workshop on Collective Intelligence at the Third Asian Semantic Web Conference, in The Semantic Web: a view on data integration, reasoning, human factors, collective intelligence and technology adoption 2008 [37]
The Wikipedia phenomenon is very interesting from the point of view of the collective, social effort to produce a large, strongly interlinked body of knowledge. It also offers, for the first time in history, a general source of information coded in electronic form and freely available to anyone. As such, it can be used as a reference for tools aiming at mining semantic meaning from generic documents. In this paper, we propose a clustering-based method that exploits some of the implicit knowledge built into Wikipedia to refine and ameliorate existing approaches.
Semantic Relatedness, Semantic Analysis
Bongwon Suh, Ed H. Chi, Aniket Kittur, Bryan A. Pendleton Lifting the veil: improving accountability and social transparency in Wikipedia with wikidashboard Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems 2008 [38]
Wikis are collaborative systems in which virtually anyone can edit anything. Although wikis have become highly popular in many domains, their mutable nature often leads them to be distrusted as a reliable source of information. Here we describe a social dynamic analysis tool called WikiDashboard which aims to improve social transparency and accountability on Wikipedia articles. Early reactions from users suggest that the increased transparency afforded by the tool can improve the interpretation, communication, and trustworthiness of Wikipedia articles.
accountability, collaboration, social transparency, trust, visualization, wiki, wikidashboard, wikipedia
Marcin Miłkowski Automated Building of Error Corpora of Polish Corpus Linguistics, Computer Tools, and Applications – State of the Art. PALC 2007, Peter Lang. Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften 2008, 631-639 2008 [39]

The paper shows how to automatically develop error corpora out of revision history of documents. The idea is based on a hypothesis that minor edits in documents represent correction of typos, slips of the tongue, grammar, usage and style mistakes. This hypothesis has been confirmed by frequency analysis of revision history of articles in the Polish Wikipedia. Resources such as revision history in Wikipedia, Wikia, and other collaborative editing systems, can be turned into corpora of errors, just by extracting the minor edits. The most theoretically interesting aspect is that the corrections will represent the average speaker's intuitions about usage, and this seems to be a promising way of researching normativity in claims about proper or improper Polish.

By processing the revision history, one can gain pairs of segments in the corpus: first representing the error, and the other representing the correction. Moreover, it is relatively easy to tag parts of speech, compare subsequent versions, and prepare a text file containing the resulting corpus.
error corpora, normativity, revision history, corpora building
Christopher Thomas, Pankaj Mehra, Roger Brooks, Amit Sheth Growing Fields of Interest - Using an Expand and Reduce Strategy for Domain Model Extraction IEEE/WIC International Conference on Web Intelligence, Sydney, Australia 2008 [40] pdf
Domain hierarchies are widely used as models underlying information retrieval tasks. Formal ontologies and taxonomies enrich such hierarchies further with properties and relationships associated with concepts and categories but require manual effort; therefore they are costly to maintain, and often stale. Folksonomies and vocabularies lack rich category structure and are almost entirely devoid of properties and relationships. Classification and extraction require the coverage of vocabularies and the alterability of folksonomies and can largely benefit from category relationships and other properties. With Doozer, a program for building conceptual models of information domains, we want to bridge the gap between the vocabularies and Folksonomies on the one side and the rich, expert-designed ontologies and taxonomies on the other. Doozer mines Wikipedia to produce tight domain hierarchies, starting with simple domain descriptions. It also adds relevancy scores for use in automated classification of information. The output model is described as a hierarchy of domain terms that can be used immediately for classifiers and IR systems or as a basis for manual or semi-automatic creation of formal ontologies.
Wikipedia mining, Model creation
Benjamin K. Johnson Incentives to Contribute in Online Collaboration: Wikipedia as Collective Action International Communication Association, 58th Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec 2008 [41] pdf
Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia created by volunteers, and is an example of how developments in software platforms and the low cost of sharing and coordinating on the Internet are leading to a new paradigm of creative collaboration on a massive scale. The research presented here addresses the questions of why individuals choose to give away their time and effort and how the challenges associated with collective action are addressed by Wikipedia’s technologies, organization, and community. Interviews with editors of the encyclopedia were used to identify what personal gains and other motivations compel contributors, what challenges to collaboration exist, and what technological and social structures aid their ability to create a freely available repository of human knowledge. The paper suggests that the free encyclopedia is at once both a traditional instance of collective action requiring coordination and strong incentives and an instance of networked public goods that result through boundary crossing made possibly through extremely low barriers to sharing.
collective action, motivation, coordination, incentives
Libby Veng-Sam Tang, Robert P. Biuk-Aghai and Simon Fong A Method for Measuring Co-authorship Relationships in MediaWiki Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym 2008), Porto, Portugal, 8-10 September 2008 2008 [42] Defines a metric for measuring the strength of the co-authorship relation of a pair of wiki authors. Presents an expert finder as an application using this metric, and applies it to Wikipedia data.
Collaborative writing through wikis has become increasingly popular in recent years. When users contribute to a wiki article they implicitly establish a co-authorship relationship. Discovering these relationships can be of value, for example in finding experts on a given topic. However, it is not trivial to determine the main co-authors for a given author among the potentially thousands who have contributed to a given author’s edit history. We have developed a method and algorithm for calculating a co-authorship degree for a given pair of authors. We have implemented this method as an extension for the MediaWiki system and demonstrate its performance which is satisfactory in the majority of cases. This paper also presents a method of determining an expertise group for a chosen topic.
wiki, co-authorship, analysis, metric
Sérgio Nunes, Cristina Ribeiro, Gabriel David WikiChanges - Exposing Wikipedia Revision Activity Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym '08) 2008 [43] (pdf)
Wikis are popular tools commonly used to support distributed collaborative work. Wikis can be seen as virtual scrapbooks that anyone can edit without having any specific technical know-how. The Wikipedia is a flagship example of a real-word application of wikis. Due to the large scale of Wikipedia it's difficult to easily grasp much of the information that is stored in this wiki. We address one particular aspect of this issue by looking at the revision history of each article. Plotting the revision activity in a timeline we expose the complete article's history in a easily understandable format. We present WikiChanges, a web-based application designed to plot an article's revision timeline in real time. It also includes a web browser extension that incorporates activity sparklines in the real Wikipedia. Finally, we introduce a revisions summarization task that addresses the need to understand what occurred during a given set of revisions.
visualization, revision history
Travis Kriplean, Ivan Beschastnikh, David W. McDonald Articulations of wikiwork: uncovering valued work in wikipedia through barnstars Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '08) 2008 [44] CSCW 2008 Best paper honorable mention (pdf)
Successful online communities have complex cooperative arrangements, articulations of work, and integration practices. They require technical infrastructure to support a broad division of labor. Yet the research literature lacks empirical studies that detail which types of work are valued by participants in an online community. A content analysis of Wikipedia barnstars -- personalized tokens of appreciation given to participants -- reveals a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work. Our analysis develops a theoretical lens for understanding how wiki software supports the creation of articulations of work. We give implications of our results for communities engaged in large-scale collaborations.
articulation work, barnstars, commons-based peer production, online community
Moira Burke, Robert Kraut Mopping up: modeling wikipedia promotion decisions Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '08) 2008 [45] pdf
This paper presents a model of the behavior of candidates for promotion to administrator status in Wikipedia. It uses a policy capture framework to highlight similarities and differences in the community's stated criteria for promotion decisions to those criteria actually correlated with promotion success. As promotions are determined by the consensus of dozens of voters with conflicting opinions and unwritten expectations, the results highlight the degree to which consensus is truly reached. The model is fast and easily computable on the fly, and thus could be applied as a self-evaluation tool for editors considering becoming administrators, as a dashboard for voters to view a nominee's relevant statistics, or as a tool to automatically search for likely future administrators. Implications for distributed consensus-building in online communities are discussed.
administrators, collaboration, management, organizational behavior, policy capture, promotion
Aniket Kittur, Robert Kraut Harnessing the wisdom of crowds in wikipedia: quality through coordination Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '08) 2008 [46] CSCW 2008 Best paper honorable mention
Wikipedia's success is often attributed to the large numbers of contributors who improve the accuracy, completeness and clarity of articles while reducing bias. However, because of the coordination needed to write an article collaboratively, adding contributors is costly. We examined how the number of editors in Wikipedia and the coordination methods they use affect article quality. We distinguish between explicit coordination, in which editors plan the article through communication, and implicit coordination, in which a subset of editors structure the work by doing the majority of it. Adding more editors to an article improved article quality only when they used appropriate coordination techniques and was harmful when they did not. Implicit coordination through concentrating the work was more helpful when many editors contributed, but explicit coordination through communication was not. Both types of coordination improved quality more when an article was in a formative stage. These results demonstrate the critical importance of coordination in effectively harnessing the "wisdom of the crowd" in online production environments.
collaboration, collective intelligence, coordination, distributed cognition, social computing
Aniket Kittur, Bongwon Suh, Ed Chi Can you ever trust a wiki?: impacting perceived trustworthiness in wikipedia Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '08) 2008 [47] CSCW 2008 Best short paper award
Wikipedia has become one of the most important information resources on the Web by promoting peer collaboration and enabling virtually anyone to edit anything. However, this mutability also leads many to distrust it as a reliable source of information. Although there have been many attempts at developing metrics to help users judge the trustworthiness of content, it is unknown how much impact such measures can have on a system that is perceived as inherently unstable. Here we examine whether a visualization that exposes hidden article information can impact readers' perceptions of trustworthiness in a wiki environment. Our results suggest that surfacing information relevant to the stability of the article and the patterns of editor behavior can have a significant impact on users' trust across a variety of page types.
collaboration, social computing, stability, trust, visualization
Masahiro Ito, Kotaro Nakayama, Takahiro Hara, Shojiro Nishio Association Thesaurus Construction Methods based on Link Co-occurrence Analysis for Wikipedia Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2008) 2008 [48] Wikipedia-Lab

CIKM 2008

Wikipedia, a huge scale Web based encyclopedia, attracts great attention as an invaluable corpus for knowledge extraction because it has various impressive characteristics such as a huge number of articles, live updates, a dense link structure, brief anchor texts and URL identification for concepts. We have already proved that we can use Wikipedia to construct a huge scale accurate association thesaurus. The association thesaurus we constructed covers almost 1.3 million concepts and its accuracy is proved in detailed experiments. However, we still need scalable methods to analyze the huge number of Web pages and hyperlinks among articles in the Web based encyclopedia.

In this paper, we propose a scalable method for constructing an association thesaurus from Wikipedia based on link co-occurrences. Link co-occurrence analysis is more scalable than link structure analysis because it is a one-pass process. We also propose integration method of tfidf and link co-occurrence analysis. Experimental results show that both our proposed methods are more accurate and scalable than conventional methods. Furthermore, the integration of tfidf achieved higher accuracy than using only link co-occurrences.
Wikipedia Mining, Association Thesaurus, Link Co-occurrence, Semantic Relatedness
Amitava Dutta, Rahul Roy and Priya Seetharaman Wikipedia Usage Patterns: The Dynamics of Growth International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2008) 2008 [49]
Wikis have attracted attention as a powerful technological platform on which to harness the potential benefits of collective knowledge. Current literature identifies different behavioral factors that modulate the interaction between contributors and wikis. Some inhibit growth while others enhance it. However, while these individual factors have been identified in the literature, their collective effects have not yet been identified. In this paper, we use the system dynamics methodology, and a survey of Wikipedia users, to propose a holistic model of the interaction among different factors and their collective impact on Wikipedia growth. The model is simulated to examine its ability to replicate observed growth patterns of Wikipedia metrics. Results indicate that the model is a reasonable starting point for understanding observed Wiki growth patterns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in the literature to synthesize a holistic model of the forces underlying Wiki growth.
Wikipedia, behavioral factors, system dynamics, simulation, survey data
Wan Muhammad Salehuddin Wan Hassan and Khairulmizam Samsudin Delta-encoding for document revision control system of Wikipedia Sixth IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD 2008) 2008 [50]
A revision control system keep track of changes for multiple versions of the same unit of information. It is often used in engineering and software development to manage storing, retrieval, logging, identification and merging of source files and electronic documents. Changes to these documents are noted by incrementing an associated number or letter code and associated historically with the person making the change. Revision control system is an important component of collaborative software platform that allows several member of a development team to work concurrently on an electronic document. Wikipedia, a free content encyclopedia is an example of a successful application of collaborative technology. A poorly implemented document revision control system will affect the performance and cause difficulty in managing Wikipedia huge amount of electronic data. In this work, efficiency of the current revision control system of Wikipedia will be evaluated. Feasibility of delta-encoding to address the current limitation of Wikipedia document revision control system will be presented.
revision control, document revision, delta-encoding
Joel Nothman, James R. Curran and Tara Murphy Transforming Wikipedia into Named Entity Training Data Australian Language Technology Workshop 2008 [51]
Statistical named entity recognisers require costly hand-labelled training data and, as a result, most existing corpora are small. We exploit Wikipedia to create a massive corpus of named entity annotated text. We transform Wikipedia’s links into named entity annotations by classifying the target articles into common entity types (e.g. person, organisation and location). Comparing to MUC, CONLL and BBN corpora, Wikipedia generally performs better than other cross-corpus train/test pairs.
named-entities, training corpora
Johannes Schoning, Brent Hecht, Martin Raubal, Antonio Kruger, Meri Marsh, and Michael Rohs Improving Interaction with Virtual Globes through Spatial Thinking: Helping Users Ask "Why?" Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) 2008 [52] virtual globes, spatial thinking, multi-touch interaction, wall-size interfaces, artificial intelligence, wikipedia, semantic relatedness
Brent Hecht and Johannes Schoning Mapping the Zeitgeist Fifth International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience) 2008 [53] zeitgeist, semantic relatedness, spatialization, spatial wikipedia
Brent Hecht and Martin Raubal Geographically explore semantic relations in world knowledge 11th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2008 [54]
Methods to determine the semantic relatedness (SR) value between two lexically expressed entities abound in the field of natural language processing (NLP). The goal of such efforts is to identify a single measure that summarizes the number and strength of the relationships between the two entities. In this paper, we present GeoSR, the first adaptation of SR methods to the context of geographic data exploration. By combining the first use of a knowledge repository structure that is replete with non-classical relations, a new means of explaining those relations to users, and the novel application of SR measures to a geographic reference system, GeoSR allows users to geographically navigate and investigate the world knowledge encoded in Wikipedia. There are numerous visualization and interaction paradigms possible with GeoSR; we present one implementation as a proof-of-concept and discuss others. Although, Wikipedia is used as the knowledge repository for our implementation, GeoSR will also work with any knowledge repository having a similar set of properties.
semantic relatendess, network analysis, non-classical relations, geography, wikipedia
Darren Hardy Discovering behavioral patterns in collective authorship of place-based information Internet Research 9.0: Rethinking Community, Rethinking Place 2008 [55]

While current GIS research has focused on technological issues of visualization and data organization, the emergence of new forms of collective authorship suggest we need new information frameworks and behaviors. How do individuals contribute place-based information to a digital commons? What are the authorship dynamics of such collective effort? For my research, I will use spatial data mining methods to characterize authorship behavior on a corpus

of 1 million geotagged articles across 20 languages from Wikipedia.
geotagging, peer production, Wikipedia, bots
Andrew Krizhanovsky Index wiki database: design and experiments FLINS'08, Corpus Linguistics'08, AIS/CAD'08 2008 [56] Synarcher
With the fantastic growth of Internet usage, information search in documents of a special type called a "wiki page" that is written using a simple markup language, has become an important problem. This paper describes the software architectural model for indexing wiki texts in three languages (Russian, English, and German) and the interaction between the software components (GATE, Lemmatizer, and Synarcher). The inverted file index database was designed using visual tool DBDesigner. The rules for parsing Wikipedia texts are illustrated by examples. Two index databases of Russian Wikipedia (RW) and Simple English Wikipedia (SEW) are built and compared. The size of RW is by order of magnitude higher than SEW (number of words, lexemes), though the growth rate of number of pages in SEW was found to be 12% higher than in Russian, and the rate of acquisition of new words in SEW lexicon was 6% higher during a period of five months (from September 2007 to February 2008). The Zipf's law was tested with both Russian and Simple Wikipedias. The entire source code of the indexing software and the generated index databases are freely available under GPL.
corpus linguistics, inverted index, Zipf's law, information retrieval
Torsten Zesch, Christof Muller and Iryna Gurevych Extracting Lexical Semantic Knowledge from Wikipedia and Wiktionary LREC'08 2008 [57]
Recently, collaboratively constructed resources such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have been discovered as valuable lexical semantic knowledge bases with a high potential in diverse Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Collaborative knowledge bases however significantly differ from traditional linguistic knowledge bases in various respects, and this constitutes both an asset and an impediment for research in NLP. This paper addresses one such major impediment, namely the lack of suitable programmatic access mechanisms to the knowledge stored in these large semantic knowledge bases. We present two application programming interfaces for Wikipedia and Wiktionary which are especially designed for mining the rich lexical semantic information dispersed in the knowledge bases, and provide efficient and structured access to the available knowledge. As we believe them to be of general interest to the NLP community, we have made them freely available for research purposes.
Lexical semantics, Wikipedia API, Wiktionary API
Michael Roth and Sabine Schulte im Walde Corpus Co-Occurrence, Dictionary and Wikipedia Entries as Resources for Semantic Relatedness Information LREC'08 2008 [58]
Distributional, corpus-based descriptions have frequently been applied to model aspects of word meaning. However, distributional models that use corpus data as their basis have one well-known disadvantage: even though the distributional features based on corpus co-occurrence were often successful in capturing meaning aspects of the words to be described, they generally fail to capture those meaning aspects that refer to world knowledge, because coherent texts tend not to provide redundant information that is presumably available knowledge. The question we ask in this paper is whether dictionary and encyclopaedic resources might complement the distributional information in corpus data, and provide world knowledge that is missing in corpora. As test case for meaning aspects, we rely on a collection of semantic associates to German verbs and nouns. Our results indicate that a combination of the knowledge resources should be helpful in work on distributional descriptions.
Laura Kassner, Vivi Nastase and Michael Strube Acquiring a Taxonomy from the German Wikipedia LREC'08 2008 [59]
This paper presents the process of acquiring a large, domain independent, taxonomy from the German Wikipedia. We build upon a previously implemented platform that extracts a semantic network and taxonomy from the English version of the Wikipedia. We describe two accomplishments of our work: the semantic network for the German language in which isa links are identified and annotated, and an expansion of the platform for easy adaptation for a new language. We identify the platform’s strengths and shortcomings, which stem from the scarcity of free processing resources for languages other than English. We show that the taxonomy induction process is highly reliable - evaluated against the German version of WordNet, GermaNet, the resource obtained shows an accuracy of 83.34%.
Jordi Atserias, Hugo Zaragoza, Massimiliano Ciaramita and Giuseppe Attardi Semantically Annotated Snapshot of the English Wikipedia LREC'08 2008 [60]
This paper describes SW1, the first version of a semantically annotated snapshot of the English Wikipedia. In recent years Wikipedia has become a valuable resource for both the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community and the Information Retrieval (IR) community. Although NLP technology for processing Wikipedia already exists, not all researchers and developers have the computational resources to process such a volume of information. Moreover, the use of different versions of Wikipedia processed differently might make it difficult to compare results. The aim of this work is to provide easy access to syntactic and semantic annotations for researchers of both NLP and IR communities by building a reference corpus to homogenize experiments and make results comparable. These resources, a semantically annotated corpus and a “entity containment” derived graph, are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License and available from
Adrian Iftene and Alexandra Balahur-Dobrescu Named Entity Relation Mining using Wikipedia LREC'08 2008 [61]
Discovering relations among Named Entities (NEs) from large corpora is both a challenging, as well as useful task in the domain of Natural Language Processing, with applications in Information Retrieval (IR), Summarization (SUM), Question Answering (QA) and Textual Entailment (TE). The work we present resulted from the attempt to solve practical issues we were confronted with while building systems for the tasks of Textual Entailment Recognition and Question Answering, respectively. The approach consists in applying grammar induced extraction patterns on a large corpus - Wikipedia - for the extraction of relations between a given Named Entity and other Named Entities. The results obtained are high in precision, determining a reliable and useful application of the built resource.
Gaoying Cui, Qin Lu, Wenjie Li and Yirong Chen Corpus Exploitation from Wikipedia for Ontology Construction LREC'08 2008 [62]
Ontology construction usually requires a domain-specific corpus for building corresponding concept hierarchy. The domain corpus must have a good coverage of domain knowledge. Wikipedia(Wiki), the world’s largest online encyclopaedic knowledge source, is open-content, collaboratively edited, and free of charge. It covers millions of articles and still keeps on expanding continuously. These characteristics make Wiki a good candidate as domain corpus resource in ontology construction. However, the selected article collection must have considerable quality and quantity. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to identify articles in Wiki as domain-specific corpus by using available classification information in Wiki pages. The main idea is to generate a domain hierarchy from the hyperlinked pages of Wiki. Only articles strongly linked to this hierarchy are selected as the domain corpus. The proposed approach makes use of linked category information in Wiki pages to produce the hierarchy as a directed graph for obtaining a set of pages in the same connected branch. Ranking and filtering are then done on these pages based on the classification tree generated by the traversal algorithm. The experiment and evaluation results show that Wiki is a good resource for acquiring a relative high quality domain-specific corpus for ontology construction.
Alexander E. Richman, Patrick Schone Mining Wiki Resources for Multilingual Named Entity Recognition ACL-08: HLT, pp. 1-9 2008 [63]

In this paper, we describe a system by which the multilingual characteristics of Wikipedia can be utilized to annotate a large corpus of text with Named Entity Recognition (NER) tags requiring minimal human intervention and no linguistic expertise. This process, though of value in languages for which resources exist, is particularly useful for less commonly taught languages. We show how the Wikipedia format can be used to identify possible named entities and discuss in detail the process by which we use the Category structure inherent to Wikipedia to determine the named entity type of a proposed entity.

We further describe the methods by which English language data can be used to bootstrap the NER process in other languages. We demonstrate the system by using the generated corpus as training sets for a variant of BBN's Identifinder in French, Ukrainian,

Spanish, Polish, Russian, and Portuguese, achieving overall F-scores as high as 84.7% on independent, human-annotated corpora, comparable to a system trained on up to 40,000 words of human-annotated newswire.
Michael Kaisser The QuALiM Question Answering Demo: Supplementing Answers with Paragraphs drawn from Wikipedia ACL-08: HLT Demo Session, pp. 32-35 2008 [64]
This paper describes the online demo of the QuALiM Question Answering system. While the system actually gets answers from the web by querying major search engines, during presentation answers are supplemented with relevant passages from Wikipedia. We believe that this additional information improves a user’s search experience.
Elif Yamangil, Rani Nelken Mining Wikipedia Revision Histories for Improving Sentence Compression ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers, pp. 137-140 2008 [65]
A well-recognized limitation of research on supervised sentence compression is the dearth of available training data. We propose a new and bountiful resource for such training data, which we obtain by mining the revision history of Wikipedia for sentence compressions and expansions. Using only a fraction of the available Wikipedia data, we have collected a training corpus of over 380,000 sentence pairs, two orders of magnitude larger than the standardly used Ziff-Davis corpus. Using this newfound data, we propose a novel lexicalized noisy channel model for sentence compression, achieving improved results in grammaticality and compression rate criteria with a slight decrease in importance.
Fadi Biadsy, Julia Hirschberg, Elena Filatova An Unsupervised Approach to Biography Production using Wikipedia ACL-08: HLT, pp. 807-815 2008 [66]
We describe an unsupervised approach to multi-document sentence-extraction based summarization for the task of producing biographies. We utilize Wikipedia to automatically construct a corpus of biographical sentences and TDT4 to construct a corpus of non-biographical sentences. We build a biographical-sentence classifier from these corpora and an SVM regression model for sentence ordering from the Wikipedia corpus. We evaluate our work on the DUC2004 evaluation data and with human judges. Overall, our system significantly outperforms all systems that participated in DUC2004, according to the ROUGE-L metric, and is preferred by human subjects.
Kai Wang, Chien-Liang Lin, Chun-Der Chen, and Shu-Chen Yang The adoption of Wikipedia: a community- and information quality-based view 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2008 [67] TAM, Wikipedia, Critical Mass, Community identification, Information quality
Carlo A. Curino, Hyun J. Moon, Letizia Tanca, Carlo Zaniolo Schema Evolution in Wikipedia: toward a Web Information System Benchmark International Conference on Enterprise Information System (ICEIS), 2008 [68] Panta Rhei Project

Evolving the database that is at the core of an Information System represents a difficult maintenance problem that has only been studied in the framework of traditional information systems. However, the problem is likely to be even more severe in web information systems, where open-source software is often developed through the contributions and collaboration of many groups and individuals. Therefore, in this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of the evolution history of the Wikipedia database and its schema; Wikipedia is the best-known example of a large family of web information systems built using the open-source software MediaWiki.

Our study is based on: (i) a set of Schema Modification Operators that provide a simple conceptual representation for complex schema changes, and (ii) simple software tools to automate the analysis. This framework allowed us to dissect and analyze the 4.5 years of Wikipedia history, which was short in time, but intense in terms of growth and evolution. Beyond confirming the initial hunch about the severity of the problem, our analysis suggests the need for developing better methods and tools to support graceful schema evolution. Therefore, we briefly discuss documentation and automation support systems for database evolution, and suggest that the Wikipedia case study can provide the kernel of a benchmark for testing and improving such systems.
Schema Evolution, Benchmark, Schema Versioning, Query Rewriting
Carlo A. Curino, Hyun J. Moon, Carlo Zaniolo Graceful Database Schema Evolution: the PRISM Workbench Very Large DataBases (VLDB), 2008 Panta Rhei Project

Supporting graceful schema evolution represents an unsolved problem for traditional information systems that is further exacerbated in web information systems, such as Wikipedia and public scientific databases: in these projects based on multiparty cooperation the frequency of database schema changes has increased while tolerance for downtimes has nearly disappeared. As of today, schema evolution remains an error-prone and time-consuming undertaking, because the DB Administrator (DBA) lacks the methods and tools needed to manage and automate this endeavor by (i) predicting and evaluating the effects of the proposed schema changes, (ii) rewriting queries and applications to operate on the new schema, and (iii) migrating the database.

Our PRISM system takes a big ?rst step toward addressing this pressing need by providing: (i) a language of Schema Modification Operators to express concisely complex schema changes, (ii) tools that allow the DBA to evaluate the effects of such changes, (iii) optimized translation of old queries to work on the new schema version, (iv) automatic data migration, and (v) full documentation of intervened changes as needed to support data provenance, database flash back, and historical queries.

PRISM solves these problems by integrating recent theoretical advances on mapping composition and invertibility, into a design that also achieves usability and scalability. Wikipedia and its 170+ schema versions provided an invaluable testbed for validating tools and their ability to support legacy queries.
Schema Evolution, Graceful Evolution, Schema Versioning, Query Rewriting
Hyun J. Moon, Carlo A. Curino, Alin Deutsch, Chien-Yi Hou, Carlo Zaniolo Managing and Querying Transaction-time Databases under Schema Evolution Very Large DataBases (VLDB), 2008 Panta Rhei Project
The old problem of managing the history of database information is now made more urgent and complex by fast-spreading web information systems. Indeed, systems such as Wikipedia are faced with the challenge of managing the history of their databases in the face of intense database schema evolution. Our PRIMA system addresses this difficult problem by introducing two key pieces of new technology. The ?rst is a method for publishing the history of a relational database in XML, whereby the evolution of the schema and its underlying database are given a unified representation. This temporally grouped representation makes it easy to formulate sophisticated historical queries on any given schema version using standard XQuery. The second key piece of technology provided by PRIMA is that schema evolution is transparent to the user: she writes queries against the current schema while retrieving the data from one or more schema versions. The system then performs the labor-intensive and error-prone task of rewriting such queries into equivalent ones for the appropriate versions of the schema. This feature is particularly relevant for historical queries spanning over potentially hundreds of different schema versions. The latter one is realized by (i) introducing Schema Modification Operators (SMOs) to represent the mappings between successive schema versions and (ii) an XML integrity constraint language (XIC) to efficiently rewrite the queries using the constraints established by the SMOs. The scalability of the approach has been tested against both synthetic data and real-world data from the Wikipedia DB schema evolution history.
Schema Evolution, Transaction Time DB, Query Rewriting
Fogarolli Angela and Ronchetti Marco Intelligent Mining and Indexing of Multi-Language e-Learning Material Proc. of 1st International Symposium on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services, KES IIMS 2008, 9-11 July 2008 Piraeus, Greece Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer-Verlag (2008). 2008
In this paper we describe a method to automatically discover important concepts and their relationships in e-Lecture material. The discovered knowledge is used to display semantic aware categorizations and query suggestions for facilitating navigation inside an unstructured multimedia repository of e-Lectures. We report about an implemented approach for dealing with learning materials referring to the same event in different languages. The information acquired from the speech is combined with the documents such as presentation slides which are temporally synchronized with the video for creating new knowledge through a mapping with a taxonomy representation such as Wikipedia.
Content Retrieval, Content Filtering, Search over semi-structural Web sources, Multimedia, e-Learning
Fogarolli Angela and Ronchetti Marco Towards Bridging the Semantic-annotation-retrieval Gap in e-Learning Proc. of International Conference on e-Society, 9-12 April 2008 Algarve, Portugal. IADIS 2008
Semantic-based information retrieval is an area of ongoing work. In this paper we present a solution for giving semantic support to multimedia content information retrieval in an e-Learning environment where very often a large number of multimedia objects and information sources are used in combination. Semantic support is given through intelligent use of Wikipedia in combination with statistical Information Extraction techniques.
Content Retrieval, Content Filtering, Search over semi-structural Web sources, Multimedia, e-Learning
Tyers, F. and Pienaar, J. Extracting bilingual word pairs from Wikipedia SALTMIL workshop at Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC) 2008 2008

A bilingual dictionary or word list is an important resource for many purposes, among them, machine translation. For many language pairs these are either non-existent, or very often unavailable owing to licensing restrictions. We describe a simple, fast and computationally inexpensive method for extracting bilingual dictionary entries from Wikipedia (using the interwiki link system) and assess the performance of this method with respect to four language pairs. Precision was found to be in the 69-92% region, but open to

Under-resourced languages, Machine translation, Language resources, Bilingual terminology, Interwiki links
Fei Wu, Daniel S. Weld Automatically Refining the Wikipedia Infobox Ontology 17th International World Wide Web Conference (www-08) 2008 [69] WWW '08: Best student paper honorable mention, The Intelligence in Wikipedia Project at University of Washington

Google tech talk
The combined efforts of human volunteers have recently extracted numerous facts fromWikipedia, storing them asmachine-harvestable object-attribute-value triples inWikipedia infoboxes. Machine learning systems, such as Kylin, use these infoboxes as training data, accurately extracting even more semantic knowledge from natural language text. But in order to realize the full power of this information, it must be situated in a cleanly-structured ontology. This paper introduces KOG, an autonomous system for refining Wikipedia’s infobox-class ontology towards this end. We cast the problem of ontology refinement as a machine learning problem and solve it using both SVMs and a more powerful joint-inference approach expressed in Markov Logic Networks. We present experiments demonstrating the superiority of the joint-inference approach and evaluating other aspects of our system. Using these techniques, we build a rich ontology, integratingWikipedia’s infobox-class schemata with WordNet. We demonstrate how the resulting ontology may be used to enhance Wikipedia with improved query processing and other features.
Semantic Web, Ontology, Wikipedia, Markov Logic Networks
Maike Erdmann, Kotaro Nakayama, Takahiro Hara, Sojiro Nishio An Approach for Extracting Bilingual Terminology from Wikipedia 13th International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications (DASFAA) 2008 [70] Wikipedia-Lab work
With the demand of bilingual dictionaries covering domain-specific terminology, research in the field of automatic dictionary extraction has become popular. However, accuracy and coverage of dictionaries created based on bilingual text corpora are often not sufficient for domain-specific terms. Therefore, we present an approach to extracting bilingual dictionaries from the link structure of Wikipedia, a huge scale encyclopedia that contains a vast amount of links between articles in different languages. Our methods analyze not only these interlanguage links but extract even more translation candidates from redirect page and link text information. In an experiment, we proved the advantages of our methods compared to a traditional approach of extracting bilingual terminology from parallel corpora.
Wikipedia Mining, Bilingual Terminology, Link Structure Analysis
Kotaro Nakayama, Takahiro Hara, Sojiro Nishio A Search Engine for Browsing the Wikipedia Thesaurus 13th International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications, Demo session (DASFAA) 2008 [71] Wikipedia-Lab work
Wikipedia has become a huge phenomenon on the WWW. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, it has various impressive characteristics such as a huge amount of articles, live updates, a dense link structure, brief link texts and URL identification for concepts. In our previous work, we proposed link structure mining algorithms to extract a huge scale and accurate association thesaurus from Wikipedia. The association thesaurus covers almost 1.3 million concepts and the significant accuracy is proved in detailed experiments. To prove its practicality, we implemented three features on the association thesaurus; a search engine for browsing Wikipedia Thesaurus, an XML Web service for the thesaurus and a Semantic Web support feature. We show these features in this demonstration.
Wikipedia Mining, Association Thesaurus, Link Structure Analysis, XML Web Services
Kotaro Nakayama, Masahiro Ito, Takahiro Hara, Sojiro Nishio Wikipedia Mining for Huge Scale Japanese Association Thesaurus Construction International Symposium on Mining And Web (IEEE MAW) conjunction with IEEE AINA 2008 [72] Wikipedia-Lab work Wikipedia Mining, Association Thesaurus, Link Structure Analysis
Minghua Pei, Kotaro Nakayama, Takahiro Hara, Sojiro Nishio Constructing a Global Ontology by Concept Mapping using Wikipedia Thesaurus International Symposium on Mining And Web (IEEE MAW) conjunction with IEEE AINA 2008 [73] Wikipedia-Lab work Wikipedia Mining, Association Thesaurus, Ontology Mapping, Global Ontology
Joachim Schroer, Guido Hertel Voluntary engagement in an open web-based encyclopedia: From reading to contributing 10th International General Online Research Conference, Hamburg, Germany 2008 [74]
wikipedia, contributors, motivation, instrumentality, intrinsic motivation
Martin Potthast, Benno Stein, Maik Anderka A Wikipedia-Based Multilingual Retrieval Model 30th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2008, Glasgow 2008 [75]

This paper introduces CL-ESA, a new multilingual retrieval model for the analysis of cross-language similarity. The retrieval model exploits the multilingual alignment of Wikipedia: given a document d written in language L we construct a concept vector d for d, where each dimension i in d quantifies the similarity of d with respect to a document d*i chosen from the "L-subset" of Wikipedia. Likewise, for a second document d‘ written in language L‘, LL‘, we construct a concept vector d‘, using from the L‘-subset of the Wikipedia the topic-aligned counterparts d*i of our previously chosen documents.

Since the two concept vectors d and d‘ are collection-relative representations of d and d‘ they are language-independent. I.e., their similarity can directly be computed with the cosine similarity measure, for instance.

We present results of an extensive analysis that demonstrates the power of this new retrieval model: for a query document d the topically most similar documents from a corpus in another language are properly ranked. Salient property of the new retrieval model is its robustness with respect to both the size and the quality of the index document collection.
multilingual retrieval model, explicit semantic analysis, wikipedia
Martin Potthast, Benno Stein, Robert Gerling Automatic Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia 30th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2008, Glasgow 2008 [76] ECIR 2008: Best poster award
We present results of a new approach to detect destructive article revisions, so-called vandalism, in Wikipedia. Vandalism detection is a one-class classification problem, where vandalism edits are the target to be identified among all revisions. Interestingly, vandalism detection has not been addressed in the Information Retrieval literature by now. In this paper we discuss the characteristics of vandalism as humans recognize it and develop features to render vandalism detection as a machine learning task. We compiled a large number of vandalism edits in a corpus, which allows for the comparison of existing and new detection approaches. Using logistic regression we achieve 83% precision at 77% recall with our model. Compared to the rule-based methods that are urrently applied in Wikipedia, our approach increases the F-Measure performance by 49% while being faster at the same time.
vandalism, machine learning, wikipedia
Ivan Beschastnikh, Travis Kriplean, David W. McDonald Wikipedian Self-Governance in Action: Motivating the Policy Lens Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, AAAI, March 31, 2008 (ICWSM '08) 2008 [77] ICWSM '08: Best paper award
While previous studies have used the Wikipedia dataset to provide an understanding of its growth, there have been few attempts to quantitatively analyze the establishment and evolution of the rich social practices that support this editing community. One such social practice is the enactment and creation of Wikipedian policies. We focus on the enactment of policies in discussions on the talk pages that accompany each article. These policy citations are a valuable micro-to-macro connection between everyday action, communal norms and the governance structure of Wikipedia. We find that policies are widely used by registered users and administrators, that their use is converging and stabilizing in and across these groups, and that their use illustrates the growing importance of certain classes of work, in particular source attribution. We also find that participation in Wikipedias governance structure is inclusionary in practice.
policy use, governance, wikipedia
Andrea Forte, Amy Bruckman Scaling Consensus: Increasing Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance HICSS 2008, pp. 157-157. 2008 [78]
How does "self-governance" happen in Wikipedia? Through in-depth interviews with eleven individuals who have held a variety of responsibilities in the English Wikipedia, we obtained rich descriptions of how various forces produce and regulate social structures on the site. Our analysis describes Wikipedia as an organization with highly refined policies, norms, and a technological architecture that supports organizational ideals of consensus building and discussion. We describe how governance in the site is becoming increasingly decentralized as the community grows and how this is predicted by theories of commons-based governance developed in offline contexts. The trend of decentralization is noticeable with respect to both content-related decision making processes and social structures that regulate user behavior.
governance, wikipedia
Zareen Syed, Tim Finin, and Anupam Joshi Wikipedia as an Ontology for Describing Documents Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, AAAI, March 31, 2008 2008 [79]
Identifying topics and concepts associated with a set of documents is a task common to many applications. It can help in the annotation and categorization of documents and be used to model a person's current interests for improving search results, business intelligence or selecting appropriate advertisements. One approach is to associate a document with a set of topics selected from a fixed ontology or vocabulary of terms. We have investigated using Wikipedia's articles and associated pages as a topic ontology for this purpose. The benefits are that the ontology terms are developed through a social process, maintained and kept current by the Wikipedia community, represent a consensus view, and have meaning that can be understood simply by reading the associated Wikipedia page. We use Wikipedia articles and the category and article link graphs to predict concepts common to a set of documents. We describe several algorithms to aggregate and refine results, including the use of spreading activation to select the most appropriate terms. While the Wikipedia category graph can be used to predict generalized concepts, the article links graph helps by predicting more specific concepts and concepts not in the category hierarchy. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of extending the category system with new concepts identified as a union of pages from the page link graph.
ontology, wikipedia, information retrieval, text classification
Felipe Ortega, Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona and Gregorio Robles On the Inequality of Contributions to Wikipedia HICSS 2008 2008 [80] Application of the Gini coefficient to measure the level of inequality of the contributions to the top ten language editions of Wikipedia.
Wikipedia is one of the most successful examples of massive collaborative content development. However, many of the mechanisms and procedures that it uses are still unknown in detail. For instance, how equal (or unequal) are the contributions to it has been discussed in the last years, with no conclusive results. In this paper, we study exactly that aspect by using Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients, very well known instruments to economists. We analyze the trends in the inequality of distributions for the ten biggest language editions of Wikipedia, and their evolution over time. As a result, we have found large differences in the number of contributions by different authors (something also observed in free, open source software development), and a trend to stable patterns of inequality in the long run.
Anne-Marie Vercoustre, James A. Thom and Jovan Pehcevski Entity Ranking in Wikipedia SAC’08 March 16-20, 2008, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil 2008 [81] Application of the Gini coefficient to measure the level of inequality of the contributions to the top ten language editions of Wikipedia.
The traditional entity extraction problem lies in the ability of extracting named entities from plain text using natural language processing techniques and intensive training from large document collections. Examples of named entities include organisations, people, locations, or dates. There are many research activities involving named entities; we are interested in entity ranking in the field of information retrieval. In this paper, we describe our approach to identifying and ranking entities from the INEX Wikipedia document collection. Wikipedia offers a number of interesting features for entity identification and ranking that we first introduce. We then describe the principles and the architecture of our entity ranking system, and introduce our methodology for evaluation. Our preliminary results show that the use of categories and the link structure of Wikipedia, together with entity examples, can significantly improve retrieval effectiveness.
Entity Ranking, XML Retrieval, Test collection
Robert P. Biuk-Aghai, Christopher Kelen and Hari Venkatesan Visualization of Interactions in Collaborative Writing Proceedings of the 2008 Second IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (IEEE DEST 2008), Phitsanulok, Thailand, 26-29 February 2008 2008 [82] Presents an analysis and visualization tool to help assess process and outcome of collaborative writing.
Wikis have become an important component of a collaboration infrastructure, particularly in loosely-coupled and self-organizing settings such as those of digital ecosystems. We report on our use of wikis in the education doman to support collaborative creative writing, as well as collaborative translation. This paper presents an analysis and visualization tool that we have developed as an aid for assessing both the process and the outcome of these collaborative writing tasks.
information visualization, collaborative writing, assessment, digital ecosystems
Krishnan Ramanathan, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, Nidhi Mathur, Ajay Gupta Document Summarization using Wikipedia First IEEE international conference on Human computer interaction (IHCI) 2008 [83]
Although most of the developing world is likely to first access the Internet through mobile phones, mobile devices are constrained by screen space, bandwidth and limited attention span. Single document summarization techniques have the potential to simplify information consumption on mobile phones by presenting only the most relevant information contained in the document. In this paper we present a language independent single-document summarization method. We map document sentences to semantic concepts in Wikipedia and select sentences for the summary based on the frequency of the mapped-to concepts. Our evaluation on English documents using the ROUGE package indicates our summarization method is competitive with the state of the art in single document summarization.
Document summarization, Wikipedia, ROUGE
Brent Hecht, Michael Rohs, Johannes Schoning and Antonio Kruger WikEye - Using Magic Lenses to Explore Georeferenced Wikipedia Content. 3rd International Workshop on Pervasive Mobile Interaction Devices (PERMID) in Conjuncation with Pervasive Computing 2007 [84] wikipedia data-mining, magic lens, augmented reality, markerless tracking
Marek Meyer, Christoph Rensing, Ralf Steinmetz Categorizing Learning Objects Based On Wikipedia as Substitute Corpus First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07), September 18, 2007, Crete, Greece 2007 [85] Usage of Wikipedia as corpus for machine learning methods.
As metadata is often not sufficiently provided by authors of Learning Resources, automatic metadata generation methods are used to create metadata afterwards. One kind of metadata is categorization, particularly the partition of Learning Resources into distinct subject cat- egories. A disadvantage of state-of-the-art categorization methods is that they require corpora of sample Learning Resources. Unfortunately, large corpora of well-labeled Learning Resources are rare. This paper presents a new approach for the task of subject categorization of Learning Re- sources. Instead of using typical Learning Resources, the free encyclope- dia Wikipedia is applied as training corpus. The approach presented in this paper is to apply the k-Nearest-Neighbors method for comparing a Learning Resource to Wikipedia articles. Different parameters have been evaluated regarding their impact on the categorization performance.
Wikipedia, Categorization, Metadata, kNN, Classification, Substitute Corpus, Automatic Metadata Generation
Overell, Simon E., and Stefan Ruger Geographic co-occurrence as a tool for GIR. 4th ACM workshop on Geographical Information Retrieval. Lisbon, Portugal. 2007 [86]
In this paper we describe the development of a geographic co-occurrence model and how it can be applied to geographic information retrieval. The model consists of mining co-occurrences of placenames from Wikipedia, and then mapping these placenames to locations in the Getty Thesaurus of Geographical Names. We begin by quantifying the accuracy of our model and compute theoretical bounds for the accuracy achievable when applied to placename disambiguation in free text. We conclude with a discussion of the improvement such a model could provide for placename disambiguation and geographic relevance ranking over traditional methods.
Wikipedia, disambiguation, geographic information retrieval
Torsten Zesch, Iryna Gurevych Analysis of the Wikipedia Category Graph for NLP Applications. Proceedings of the TextGraphs-2 Workshop (NAACL-HLT) 2007 [87]
In this paper, we discuss two graphs in Wikipedia (i) the article graph, and (ii) the category graph. We perform a graphtheoretic analysis of the category graph, and show that it is a scale-free, small world graph like other well-known lexical semantic networks. We substantiate our findings by transferring semantic relatedness algorithms defined on WordNet to the Wikipedia category graph. To assess the usefulness of the category graph as an NLP resource, we analyze its coverage and the performance of the transferred semantic relatedness algorithms.
nlp, relatedness, semantic, wikipedia
Antonio Toral and Rafael Munozh Towards a Named Entity Wordnet (NEWN) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP). Borovets (Bulgaria). pp. 604-608 . September 2007 2007 [88] poster?
Ulrik Brandes and Jurgen Lerner Visual Analysis of Controversy in User-generated Encyclopedias Proc. IEEE Symp. Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST ' 07) 2007 [89]
Wikipedia is a large and rapidly growing Web-based collaborative authoring environment, where anyone on the Internet can create, modify, and delete pages about encyclopedic topics. A remarkable property of some Wikipedia pages is that they are written by up to thousands of authors who may have contradicting opinions. In this paper we show that a visual analysis of the “who revises whom”- network gives deep insight into controversies. We propose a set of analysis and visualization techniques that reveal the dominant authors of a page, the roles they play, and the alters they confront. Thereby we provide tools to understand howWikipedia authors collaborate in the presence of controversy.
social network controversy editing visualisation wikipedia
V Jijkoun, M de Rijke WiQA: Evaluating Multi-lingual Focused Access to Wikipedia Proceedings EVIA, 2007 2007 [90]
We describe our experience with WiQA 2006, a pilot task aimed at studying question answering using Wikipedia. Going beyond traditional factoid questions, the task considered at WiQA 2006 was to identify --given an source article from Wikipedia-- snippets from other Wikipedia articles, possibly in languages different from the language of the source article, that add new and important information to the source article, and that do so without repetition. A total of 7 teams took part, submitting 20 runs. Our main findings are two-fold: (i) while challenging, the tasks considered at WiQA are do-able as participants achieved precision@10 scores in the .5 range and MRR scores upwards of .5; (ii) on the bilingual task, substantially higher scores were achieved than on the monolingual tasks.
Sorin Adam Matei and Caius Dobrescu Ambiguity and conflict in the Wikipedian knowledge production system International Communication Association Annual Conference, Dresden, Germany 2006 [91]
The paper analyzes the manner in which the most important implicit explanatory framework, emergence theory, and the central Wikipedia policy, the "Neutral point of view," are appropriated and reinterpreted by Wikipedia actors. Analyzing mailing list messages posted on Wikipedia-l and on Wikipedia's "Neutral Point of View Policy" discussion page (a footnoting space used for coordinating the editorial process on Wikipedia) the paper comes to the conclusion that the debates are often conflictual and their solution is found in ambiguity. The overarching conclusion is that conflict and ambiguity on Wikipedia are not extraneous, but central ingredients of this wiki project. They naturally develop from the pluralist and non-hierarchic nature of the medium and of the culture that brought it to life.
wikipedia, conflict, policy, ambiguity, process, neutral point of view, rules, editors, revert wars
Martin Potthast Wikipedia in the pocket: indexing technology for near-duplicate detection and high similarity search SIGIR '07: Proceedings of the 30th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval 2007 [92]
We develop and implement a new indexing technology which allows us to use complete (and possibly very large) documents as queries, while having a retrieval performance comparable to a standard term query. Our approach aims at retrieval tasks such as near duplicate detection and high similarity search. To demonstrate the performance of our technology we have compiled the search index "Wikipedia in the Pocket", which contains about 2 million English and German Wikipedia articles.1 This index--along with a search interface--fits on a conventional CD (0.7 gigabyte). The ingredients of our indexing technology are similarity hashing and minimal perfect hashing.
Minier, Zsolt; Bodo, Zalan; Csato, Lehel Wikipedia-Based Kernels for Text Categorization Symbolic and Numeric Algorithms for Scientific Computing, 2007. SYNASC. International Symposium on 2007 [93]
In recent years several models have been proposed for text categorization. Within this, one of the widely applied models is the vector space model (VSM), where independence between indexing terms, usually words, is assumed. Since training corpora sizes are relatively small - compared to what would be required for a realistic number of words - the generalization power of the learning algorithms is low. It is assumed that a bigger text corpus can boost the representation and hence the learning process. Based on the work of Gabrilovich and Markovitch [6], we incorporate Wikipedia articles into the system to give word distributional representation for documents. The extension with this new corpus causes dimensionality increase, therefore clustering of features is needed. We use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis (KCCA) and present results for these experiments on the Reuters corpus.
Thomas, Christopher; Sheth, Amit P. Semantic Convergence of Wikipedia Articles Web Intelligence, IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on 2007 [94]
Social networking, distributed problem solving and human computation have gained high visibility. Wikipedia is a well established service that incorporates aspects of these three fields of research. For this reason it is a good object of study for determining quality of solutions in a social setting that is open, completely distributed, bottom up and not peer reviewed by certified experts. In particular, this paper aims at identifying semantic convergence of Wikipedia articles; the notion that the content of an article stays stable regardless of continuing edits. This could lead to an automatic recommendation of good article tags but also add to the usability of Wikipedia as a Web Service and to its reliability for information extraction. The methods used and the results obtained in this research can be generalized to other communities that iteratively produce textual content.
Rada Mihalcea Using Wikipedia for Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation Proceedings of NAACL HLT, 2007 2007 [95]
This paper describes a method for generating sense-tagged data using Wikipedia as a source of sense annotations. Through word sense disambiguation experiments, we show that the Wikipedia-based sense annotations are reliable and can be used to construct accurate sense classifiers.
J Yu, JA Thom, A Tam Ontology evaluation using wikipedia categories for browsing Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management 2007 [96]
Ontology evaluation is a maturing discipline with methodologies and measures being developed and proposed. However, evaluation methods that have been proposed have not been applied to specific examples. In this paper, we present the state-of-the-art in ontology evaluation - current methodologies, criteria and measures, analyse appropriate evaluations that are important to our application - browsing in Wikipedia, and apply these evaluations in the context of ontologies with varied properties. Specifically, we seek to evaluate ontologies based on categories found in Wikipedia.
browsing, ontology evaluation, user studies, wikipedia
Reagle, Joseph M. Do as I do: authorial leadership in wikipedia WikiSym '07: Proceedings of the 2007 international symposium on Wikis 2007 [97] / [98]
In seemingly egalitarian collaborative on-line communities, like Wikipedia, there is often a paradoxical, or perhaps merely playful, use of the title "Benevolent Dictator" for leaders. I explore discourse around the use of this title so as to address how leadership works in open content communities. I first review existing literature on "emergent leadership" and then relate excerpts from community discourse on how leadership is understood, performed, and discussed by Wikipedians. I conclude by integrating concepts from existing literature and my own findings into a theory of "authorial" leadership.
Wikipedia, authorial, benevolent dictator, leadership
Martin Wattenberg, Fernanda B. Viegas and Katherine Hollenbach Visualizing Activity on Wikipedia with Chromograms Human-Computer Interaction ? INTERACT 2007 2007 [99]
To investigate how participants in peer production systems allocate their time, we examine editing activity on Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia. To analyze the huge edit histories of the site’s administrators we introduce a visualization technique, the chromogram, that can display very long textual sequences through a simple color coding scheme. Using chromograms we describe a set of characteristic editing patterns. In addition to confirming known patterns, such reacting to vandalism events, we identify a distinct class of organized systematic activities. We discuss how both reactive and systematic strategies shed light on self-allocation of effort in Wikipedia, and how they may pertain to other peer-production systems.
Wikipedia - Visualization - Peer Production - Visualization
A Kittur, E Chi, BA Pendleton, B Suh, T Mytkowicz Power of the Few vs. Wisdom of the Crowd: Wikipedia and the Rise of the Bourgeoisie 25th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2007); 2007 April 28 - May 3; San Jose; CA. 2007 [100]
Wikipedia has been a resounding success story as a collaborative system with a low cost of online participation. However, it is an open question whether the success of Wikipedia results from a “wisdom of crowds” type of effect in which a large number of people each make a small number of edits, or whether it is driven by a core group of “elite” users who do the lion’s share of the work. In this study we examined how the influence of “elite” vs. “common” users changed over time in Wikipedia. The results suggest that although Wikipedia was driven by the influence of “elite” users early on, more recently there has been a dramatic shift in workload to the “common” user. We also show the same shift in, a very different type of social collaborative knowledge system. We discuss how these results mirror the dynamics found in more traditional social collectives, and how they can influence the design of new collaborative knowledge systems.
Wikipedia, Wiki, collaboration, collaborative knowledge systems, social tagging, delicious.
Meiqun Hu, Ee-Peng Lim, Aixin Sun, Hady W Lauw, Ba-Quy Vuong On improving wikipedia search using article quality WIDM '07: Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM international workshop on Web information and data management 2007 [101]
Wikipedia is presently the largest free-and-open online encyclopedia collaboratively edited and maintained by volunteers. While Wikipedia offers full-text search to its users, the accuracy of its relevance-based search can be compromised by poor quality articles edited by non-experts and inexperienced contributors. In this paper, we propose a framework that re-ranks Wikipedia search results considering article quality. We develop two quality measurement models, namely Basic and Peer Review, to derive article quality based on co-authoring data gathered from articles' edit history. Compared withWikipedia's full-text search engine, Google and Wikiseek, our experimental results showed that (i) quality-only ranking produced by Peer Review gives comparable performance to that of Wikipedia and Wikiseek; (ii) Peer Review combined with relevance ranking outperforms Wikipedia's full-text search significantly, delivering search accuracy comparable to Google.
quality, wikipedia
Wilkinson, Dennis M. and Huberman, Bernardo A. Cooperation and quality in wikipedia WikiSym '07: Proceedings of the 2007 international symposium on Wikis. 2007 [102]
The rise of the Internet has enabled collaboration and cooperation on anunprecedentedly large scale. The online encyclopedia Wikipedia, which presently comprises 7.2 million articles created by 7.04 million distinct editors, provides a consummate example. We examined all 50 million edits made tothe 1.5 million English-language Wikipedia articles and found that the high-quality articles are distinguished by a marked increase in number of edits, number of editors, and intensity of cooperative behavior, as compared to other articles of similar visibility and age. This is significant because in other domains, fruitful cooperation has proven to be difficult to sustain as the size of the collaboration increases. Furthermore, in spite of the vagaries of human behavior, we show that Wikipedia articles accrete edits according to a simple stochastic mechanism in which edits beget edits. Topics of high interest or relevance are thus naturally brought to the forefront of quality.
Wikipedia, collaborative authoring, cooperation, groupware
DPT Nguyen, Y Matsuo, M Ishizuka Subtree Mining for Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Proc. of NAACL/HLT 2007 2007 [103]
In this study, we address the problem of extracting relations between entities fromWikipedia’s English articles. Our proposed method first anchors the appearance of entities in Wikipedia’s articles using neither Named Entity Recognizer (NER) nor coreference resolution tool. It then classifies the relationships between entity pairs using SVM with features extracted from the web structure and subtrees mined from the syntactic structure of text. We evaluate our method on manually annotated data from actual Wikipedia articles.
Bongwon Suh, Ed H Chi, Bryan A Pendleton, Aniket Kittur Us vs. Them: Understanding Social Dynamics in Wikipedia with Revert Graph Visualizations Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 2007. VAST 2007. IEEE Symposium on (2007), pp. 163-170. 2007 [104]
Wikipedia is a wiki-based encyclopedia that has become one of the most popular collaborative on-line knowledge systems. As in any large collaborative system, as Wikipedia has grown, conflicts and coordination costs have increased dramatically. Visual analytic tools provide a mechanism for addressing these issues by enabling users to more quickly and effectively make sense of the status of a collaborative environment. In this paper we describe a model for identifying patterns of conflicts in Wikipedia articles. The model relies on users' editing history and the relationships between user edits, especially revisions that void previous edits, known as "reverts". Based on this model, we constructed Revert Graph, a tool that visualizes the overall conflict patterns between groups of users. It enables visual analysis of opinion groups and rapid interactive exploration of those relationships via detail drill-downs. We present user patterns and case studies that show the effectiveness of these techniques, and discuss how they could generalize to other systems.
motivation, social-network, wikipedia
Kittur, Aniket and Suh, Bongwon and Pendleton, Bryan A. and Chi, Ed H. He says, she says: conflict and coordination in Wikipedia CHI '07: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems 2007 [105]
Wikipedia, a wiki-based encyclopedia, has become one of the most successful experiments in collaborative knowledge building on the Internet. As Wikipedia continues to grow, the potential for conflict and the need for coordination increase as well. This article examines the growth of such non-direct work and describes the development of tools to characterize conflict and coordination costs in Wikipedia. The results may inform the design of new collaborative knowledge systems.
Wiki, Wikipedia, collaboration, conflict, user model, visualization, web-based interaction
Davide Buscaldi and Paolo Rosso A Comparison of Methods for the Automatic Identification of Locations in Wikipedia Proceedings of GIR’07 2007 [106]
In this paper we compare two methods for the automatic identification of geographical articles in encyclopedic resources such asWikipedia. The methods are aWordNet-basedmethod that uses a set of keywords related to geographical places, and a multinomial Naïve Bayes classificator, trained over a randomly selected subset of the English Wikipedia. This task may be included into the broader task of Named Entity classification, a well-known problem in the field of Natural Language Processing. The experiments were carried out considering both the full text of the articles and only the definition of the entity being described in the article. The obtained results show that the information contained in the page templates and the category labels is more useful than the text of the articles.
Algorithms, Measurement, Performance, text analysis, language models
Li, Yinghao and Wing and Kei and Fu Improving weak ad-hoc queries using wikipedia asexternal corpus SIGIR '07: Proceedings of the 30th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval 2007 [107]
In an ad-hoc retrieval task, the query is usually short and the user expects to find the relevant documents in the first several result pages. We explored the possibilities of using Wikipedia's articles as an external corpus to expand ad-hoc queries. Results show promising improvements over measures that emphasize on weak queries.
Wikipedia, external corpus, pseudo-relevance feedback
Y Watanabe, M Asahara, Y Matsumoto A Graph-based Approach to Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia Using Conditional Random Fields Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL) 2007 [108]
This paper presents a method for categorizing named entities in Wikipedia. In Wikipedia, an anchor text is glossed in a linked HTML text. We formalize named entity categorization as a task of categorizing anchor texts with linked HTML texts which glosses a named entity. Using this representation, we introduce a graph structure in which anchor texts are regarded as nodes. In order to incorporate HTML structure on the graph, three types of cliques are defined based on the HTML tree structure. We propose a method with Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to categorize the nodes on the graph. Since the defined graph may include cycles, the exact inference of CRFs is computationally expensive. We introduce an approximate inference method using Treebased Reparameterization (TRP) to reduce computational cost. In experiments, our proposed model obtained significant improvements compare to baseline models that use Support Vector Machines.
Simone Braun and Andreas Schmidt Wikis as a Technology Fostering Knowledge Maturing: What we can learn from Wikipedia 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management (IKNOW '07),Special Track on Integrating Working and Learning in Business (IWL), 2007. 2007 [109]
The knowledge maturing theory opens an important macro perspective within the new paradigm of work-integrated learning. Especially wikis are interesting socio-technical systems to foster maturing activities by overcoming typical barriers. But so far, the theory has been mainly based on anecdotal evidence collected from various projects and observations. In this paper, we want to present the results of a qualitative and quantitative study of Wikipedia with respect to maturing phenomena, identifying instruments and measures indicating maturity. The findings, generalized to enterprise wikis, open the perspective on what promotes maturing on a method level and what can be used to spot maturing processes on a technology level.
knowledge management wiki wikipedia
Linyun Fu and Haofen Wang and Haiping Zhu and Huajie Zhang and Yang Wang and Yong Yu Making More Wikipedians: Facilitating Semantics Reuse for Wikipedia Authoring Proceedings of the 6th International Semantic Web Conference and 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference (ISWC/ASWC2007), Busan, South Korea, 4825: 127--140, 2007. 2007 [110]
Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It can also serve as an ideal Semantic Web data source due to its abundance, influence, high quality and well-structuring. However, the heavy burden of up-building and maintaining such an enormous and ever-growing online encyclopedic knowledge base still rests on a very small group of people. Many casual users may still feel difficulties in writing high quality Wikipedia articles. In this paper, we use RDF graphs to model the key elements in Wikipedia authoring, and propose an integrated solution to make Wikipedia authoring easier based on RDF graph matching, expecting making more Wikipedians. Our solution facilitates semantics reuse and provides users with: 1) a link suggestion module that suggests and auto-completes internal links between Wikipedia articles for the user; 2) a category suggestion module that helps the user place her articles in correct categories. A prototype system is implemented and experimental results show significant improvements over existing solutions to link and category suggestion tasks. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and relieve the burden of professional editors, thus enhancing the current Wikipedia to make it an even better Semantic Web data source.
semanticWeb web2.0 wikipedia
Soren Auer and Chris Bizer and Jens Lehmann and Georgi Kobilarov and Richard Cyganiak and Zachary Ives DBpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data Proceedings of the 6th International Semantic Web Conference and 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference (ISWC/ASWC2007), Busan, South Korea, 4825: 715--728, 2007. 2007 [111]
DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and to make this information available on the Web. DBpedia allows you to ask sophisticated queries against datasets derived from Wikipedia and to link other datasets on the Web to Wikipedia data. We describe the extraction of the DBpedia datasets, and how the resulting information can be made available on the Web for humans and machines. We describe some emerging applications from the DBpedia community and show how website operators can reduce costs by facilitating royalty-free DBpedia content within their sites. Finally, we present the current status of interlinking DBpedia with other open datasets on the Web and outline how DBpedia could serve as a nucleus for an emerging Web of open data sources.
information retrieval mashup semantic Web wikipedia
Simone P. Ponzetto and Michael Strube An API for Measuring the Relatedness of Words in Wikipedia Companion Volume to the Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, : 23--30, 2007. 2007 [112]
We present an API for computing the semantic relatedness of words in Wikipedia.
api, relatedness semantic\_web, sematic, wikipedia
Ponzetto, Simone P. and Strube, Michael Deriving a Large Scale Taxonomy from Wikipedia Proceedings of the 22nd National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Vancouver, B.C., 22-26 July 2007 [113]
We take the category system in Wikipedia as a conceptual network. We label the semantic relations between categories us- ing methods based on connectivity in the network and lexico- syntactic matching. As a result we are able to derive a large scale taxonomy containing a large amount of subsumption, i.e. isa, relations. We evaluate the quality of the created resource by comparing it with ResearchCyc, one of the largest manually annotated ontologies, as well as computing seman- tic similarity between words in benchmarking datasets. able to derive a large scale taxonomy.
api, relatedness semantic web, sematic, wikipedia
Simone Paolo Ponzetto Creating a Knowledge Base from a Collaboratively Generated Encyclopedia Proceedings of the NAACL-HLT 2007 Doctoral Consortium, pp 9-12, Rochester, NY, April 2007 2007 [114]
We present our work on using Wikipedia as a knowledge source for Natural Language Processing. We first describe our previous work on computing semantic relatedness from Wikipedia, and its application to a machine learning based coreference resolution system. Our results suggest that Wikipedia represents a semantic resource to be treasured for NLP applications, and accordingly present the work directions to be explored in the future.
Ralf Schenkel, Fabian Suchanek and Gjergji Kasneci YAWN: A Semantically Annotated Wikipedia XML Corpus BTW2007 2007 [115]
The paper presents YAWN, a system to convert the well-known and widely used Wikipedia collection into an XML corpus with semantically rich, self-explaining tags. We introduce algorithms to annotate pages and links with concepts from the WordNet thesaurus. This annotation process exploits categorical information in Wikipedia, which is a high-quality, manually assigned source of information, extracts additional information from lists, and utilizes the invocations of templates with named parameters. We give examples how such annotations can be exploited for high-precision queries.
Hugo Zaragoza, Henning Rode, Peter Mika, Jordi Atserias, Massimiliano Ciaramita & Giuseppe Attardi Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia CIKM '07: Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management 2007 [116]
We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very speci??c. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine to compute entity relevance. We evaluate these approaches on the real task of ranking Wikipedia entities typed with a state-of-the-art named-entity tagger. Results show that both approaches can greatly increase the performance of methods based only on passage retrieval.
Soren Auer and Jens Lehmann What Have Innsbruck and Leipzig in Common? Extracting Semantics from Wiki Content Proceedings of 4th European Semantic Web Conference; published in The Semantic Web: Research and Applications, pages 503-517 2007 [117]
WWikis are established means for the collaborative authoring, versioning and publishing of textual articles. The Wikipedia project, for example, succeeded in creating the by far largest encyclopedia just on the basis of a wiki. Recently, several approaches have been proposed on how to extend wikis to allow the creation of structured and semantically enriched content. However, the means for creating semantically enriched structured content are already available and are, although unconsciously, even used by Wikipedia authors. In this article, we present a method for revealing this structured content by extracting information from template instances. We suggest ways to efficiently query the vast amount of extracted information (e.g. more than 8 million RDF statements for the English Wikipedia version alone), leading to astonishing query answering possibilities (such as for the title question). We analyze the quality of the extracted content, and propose strategies for quality improvements with just minor modifications of the wiki systems being currently used.
George Bragues Wiki-Philosophizing in a Marketplace of Ideas: Evaluating Wikipedia's Entries on Seven Great Minds Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (April 2007) 2007 [118]
A very conspicuous part of the new participatory media, Wikipedia has emerged as the Internet's leading source of all-purpose information, the volume and range of its articles far surpassing that of its traditional rival, the Encyclopedia Britannica. This has been accomplished by permitting virtually anyone to contribute, either by writing an original article or editing an existing one. With almost no entry barriers to the production of information, the result is that Wikipedia exhibits a perfectly competitive marketplace of ideas. It has often been argued that such a marketplace is the best guarantee that quality information will be generated and disseminated. We test this contention by examining Wikipedia's entries on seven top Western philosophers. These entries are evaluated against the consensus view elicited from four academic reference works in philosophy. Wikipedia's performance turns out to be decidedly mixed. Its average coverage rate of consensus topics is 52%, while the median rate is 56%. A qualitative analysis uncovered no outright errors, though there were significant omissions. The online encyclopedia's harnessing of the marketplace of ideas, though not unimpressive, fails to emerge as clearly superior to the traditional alternative of relying on individual expertise for information.
quality, wikipedia
Gang Wang and Yong Yu and Haiping Zhu PORE: Positive-Only Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text Proceedings of the 6th International Semantic Web Conference and 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference (ISWC/ASWC2007), Busan, South Korea 2007 [119]
Extracting semantic relations is of great importance for the creation of the Semantic Web content. It is of great benefit to semi-automatically extract relations from the free text of Wikipedia using the structured content readily available in it. Pattern matching methods that employ information redundancy cannot work well since there is not much redundancy information in Wikipedia, compared to the Web. Multi-class classification methods are not reasonable since no classification of relation types is available in Wikipedia. In this paper, we propose PORE (Positive-Only Relation Extraction), for relation extraction from Wikipedia text. The core algorithm B-POL extends a state-of-the-art positive-only learning algorithm using bootstrapping, strong negative identification, and transductive inference to work with fewer positive training examples. We conducted experiments on several relations with different amount of training data. The experimental results show that B-POL can work effectively given only a small amount of positive training examples and it significantly outperforms the original positive learning approaches and a multi-class SVM. Furthermore, although PORE is applied in the context of Wikipedia, the core algorithm B-POL is a general approach for Ontology Population and can be adapted to other domains.
annotation iswc, knowledge-extraction nlp semantic-web text-mining wikipedia
Fei Wu, Daniel S. Weld Autonomously semantifying wikipedia Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management 2007 [120] CIKM-07: Best paper award, The Intelligence in Wikipedia Project at University of Washington
Berners-Lee's compelling vision of a Semantic Web is hindered by a chicken-and-egg problem, which can be best solved by a bootstrapping method - creating enough structured data to motivate the development of applications. This paper argues that autonomously "Semantifying Wikipedia" is the best way to solve the problem. We choose Wikipedia as an initial data source, because it is comprehensive, not too large, high-quality, and contains enough manually-derived structure to bootstrap an autonomous, self-supervised process. We identify several types of structures which can be automatically enhanced in Wikipedia (e.g., link structure, taxonomic data, infoboxes, etc.), and we describea prototype implementation of a self-supervised, machine learning system which realizes our vision. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the high precision of our system's extracted data - in one case equaling that of humans.
Information Extraction, Wikipedia, Semantic Web
Viegas, Fernanda The Visual Side of Wikipedia System Sciences, 2007. HICSS 2007. 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on 2007 [121] HICSS '07: Best paper honorable mention
Critical social theorists often emphasize the control and surveillance aspects of information systems, building upon a characterization of information technology as a tool for increased rationalization. The emancipatory potential of information systems is often overlooked. In this paper, we apply the Habermasian ideal of rational discourse to Wikipedia as an illustration of the emancipatory potential of information systems. We conclude that Wikipedia does embody an approximation of rational discourse, while several challenges remain
Sean Hansen, Nicholas Berente, Kalle Lyytinen Wikipedia as Rational Discourse: An Illustration of the Emancipatory Potential of Information Systems Proceedings of Hawaiian International Conference of Systems Sciences Big Island, Hawaii.) 2007 [122] HICSS '07: Best paper award
The name “Wikipedia” has been associated with terms such as collaboration, volunteers, reliability, vandalism, and edit-war. Fewer people might think of “images,” “maps,” “diagrams,” “illustrations” in this context. This paper presents the burgeoning but underexplored visual side of the online encyclopedia. A survey conducted with image contributors to Wikipedia reveals key differences in collaborating around images as opposed to text. The results suggest that, even though image editing is a more isolated activity, somewhat shielded from vandalism, the sense of community is an important motivation for image contributors. By examining how contributors are appropriating text-oriented wiki technology to support collective editing around visual materials, this paper reveals the potential and some of the limitations of wikis in the realm of visual collaboration.
Fissaha Adafre, Sisay, Jijkoun, Valentin, de Rijke, Maarten Fact Discovery in Wikipedia Web Intelligence, IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on 2007 [123]
We address the task of extracting focused salient information items, relevant and important for a given topic, from a large encyclopedic resource. Specifically, for a given topic (a Wikipedia article) we identify snippets from other articles in Wikipedia that contain important information for the topic of the original article, without duplicates. We compare several methods for addressing the task, and find that a mixture of content-based, link-based, and layout-based features outperforms other methods, especially in combination with the use of so-called reference corpora that capture the key properties of entities of a common type.
nlp, relatedness, semantic, wikipedia
Li, Bing; Chen, Qing-Cai; Yeung, Daniel S.; Ng, Wing W.Y.; Wang, Xiao-Long Exploring Wikipedia and Query Log's Ability for Text Feature Representation Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2007 International Conference on 2007 [124]
The rapid increase of internet technology requires a better management of web page contents. Many text mining researches has been conducted, like text categorization, information retrieval, text clustering. When machine learning methods or statistical models are applied to such a large scale of data, the first step we have to solve is to represent a text document into the way that computers could handle. Traditionally, single words are always employed as features in Vector Space Model, which make up the feature space for all text documents. The single-word based representation is based on the word independence and doesn't consider their relations, which may cause information missing. This paper proposes Wiki-Query segmented features to text classification, in hopes of better using the text information. The experiment results show that a much better F1 value has been achieved than that of classical single-word based text representation. This means that Wikipedia and query segmented feature could better represent a text document.
Wei Che Huang, Andrew Trotman, and Shlomo Geva Collaborative Knowledge Management: Evaluation of Automated Link Discovery in the Wikipedia SIGIR 2007 Workshop on Focused Retrieval, July 27, 2007, Amsterdam 2007 [125]
Using the Wikipedia as a corpus, the Link-the-Wiki track, launched by INEX in 2007, aims at producing a standard procedure and metrics for the evaluation of (automated) link discovery at different element levels. In this paper, we describe the preliminary procedure for the assessment, including the topic selection, submission, pooling and evaluation. Related techniques are also presented such as the proposed DTD, submission format, XML element retrieval and the concept of Best Entry Points (BEPs). Due to the task required by LTW, it represents a considerable evaluation challenge. We propose a preliminary procedure of assessment for this stage of the LTW and also discuss the further issues for improvement. Finally, an efficiency measurement is introduced for investigation since the LTW task involves two studies: the selection of document elements that represent the topic of request and the nomination of associated links that can access different levels of the XML document.
Wikipedia, Link-the-Wiki, INEX, Evaluation, DTD, Best Entry Point
Morten Rask The Richness and Reach of Wikinomics: Is the Free Web-Based Encyclopedia Wikipedia Only for the Rich Countries? Proceedings of the Joint Conference of The International Society of Marketing Development and the Macromarketing Society, June 2-5, 2007 2007 [126]
In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Wikipedia is used in this paper, as an illustrative case study for the enormous rise of the so-called Web 2.0 applications, a subject which has become associated with many golden promises: Instead of being at the outskirts of the global economy, the development of free or low-cost internet-based content and applications, makes it possible for poor, emerging, and transition countries to compete and collaborate on the same level as developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general, more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard of living in their country. The main managerial implication for businesses, that will expand their social network applications to other countries, is to use the model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, as a market screening and monitoring model.
Digital divide, Developing countries, Internet, Web 2.0, Social networks, Reach and richness, Wikipedia, Wikinomics, culture, language
Kotaro Nakayama, Takahiro Hara, Sojiro Nishio A Thesaurus Construction Method from Large Scale Web Dictionaries 21st IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA) 2007 [127] Wikipedia-Lab work
Web-based dictionaries, such as Wikipedia, have become dramatically popular among the internet users in past several years. The important characteristic of Web-based dictionary is not only the huge amount of articles, but also hyperlinks. Hyperlinks have various information more than just providing transfer function between pages. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to analyze the link structure of Web-based dictionaries to construct an association thesaurus. We have already applied it to Wikipedia, a huge scale Web-based dictionary which has a dense link structure, as a corpus. We developed a search engine for evaluation, then conducted a number of experiments to compare our method with other traditional methods such as co-occurrence analysis.
Wikipedia Mining, Association Thesaurus, Link Structure Analysis, Link Text, Synonyms
Sergio Ferrandez, Antonio Toral, Oscar Ferrandez, Antonio Ferrandez and Rafael Munoz Applying Wikipedia’s Multilingual Knowledge to Cross-Lingual Question Answering Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2007 [128]
The application of the multilingual knowledge encoded in Wikipedia to an open-domain Cross-Lingual Question Answering system based on the Inter Lingual Index (ILI) module of EuroWordNet is proposed and evaluated. This strategy overcomes the problems due to ILI’s low coverage on proper nouns (Named Entities). Moreover, as these are open class words (highly changing), using a community-based up-to-date resource avoids the tedious maintenance of hand-coded bilingual dictionaries. A study reveals the importance to translate Named Entities in CL?QA and the advantages of relying on Wikipedia over ILI for doing this. Tests on questions from the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) justify our approach (20% of these are correctly answered thanks to Wikipedia’s Multilingual Knowledge).
G Urdaneta, G Pierre, M van Steen A Decentralized Wiki Engine for Collaborative Wikipedia Hosting 3rd International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technology (WEBIST), March 2007 2007 [129]
This paper presents the design of a decentralized system for hosting large-scale wiki web sites like Wikipedia, using a collaborative approach. Our design focuses on distributing the pages that compose the wiki across a network of nodes provided by individuals and organizations willing to collaborate in hosting the wiki. We present algorithms for placing the pages so that the capacity of the nodes is not exceeded and the load is balanced, and algorithms for routing client requests to the appropriate nodes. We also address fault tolerance and security issues.
M Hu, EP Lim, A Sun, HW Lauw, BQ Vuong Measuring article quality in wikipedia: models and evaluation Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management 2007 [130]
Wikipedia has grown to be the world largest and busiest free encyclopedia, in which articles are collaboratively written and maintained by volunteers online. Despite its success as a means of knowledge sharing and collaboration, the public has never stopped criticizing the quality of Wikipedia articles edited by non-experts and inexperienced contributors. In this paper, we investigate the problem of assessing the quality of articles in collaborative authoring of Wikipedia. We propose three article quality measurement models that make use of the interaction data between articles and their contributors derived from the article edit history. Our Basic model is designed based on the mutual dependency between article quality and their author authority. The Peer Review model introduces the review behavior into measuring article quality. Finally, our Prob Review models extend Peer Review with partial reviewership of contributors as they edit various portions of the articles. We conduct experiments on a set of well-labeled Wikipedia articles to evaluate the effectiveness of our quality measurement models in resembling human judgement
article quality, authority, collaborative authoring, peer review, wikipedia
Rodrigo B. Almeida, Barzan Mozafari, Junghoo Cho On the Evolution of Wikipedia Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Weblogs and Social Media, 2007 2007 [131]
A recent phenomenon on the Web is the emergence and pro- liferation of new social media systems allowing social inter- action between people. One of the most popular of these systems is Wikipedia that allows users to create content in a collaborative way. Despite its current popularity, not much is known about how users interact with Wikipedia and how it has evolved over time. In this paper we aim to provide a first, extensive study of the user behavior on Wikipedia and its evolution. Compared to prior studies, our work differs in several ways. First, previ- ous studies on the analysis of the user workloads (for systems such as peer-to-peer systems [10] and Web servers [2]) have mainly focused on understanding the users who are accessing information. In contrast, Wikipedia’s provides us with the opportunity to understand how users create and maintain in- formation since it provides the complete evolution history of its content. Second, the main focus of prior studies is eval- uating the implication of the user workloads on the system performance, while our study is trying to understand the evo- lution of the data corpus and the user behavior themselves. Our main findings include that (1) the evolution and up- dates of Wikipedia is governed by a self-similar process, not by the Poisson process that has been observed for the general Web [4, 6] and (2) the exponential growth of Wikipedia is mainly driven by its rapidly increasing user base, indicating the importance of its open editorial policy for its current suc- cess. We also find that (3) the number of updates made to the Wikipedia articles exhibit a power-law distribution, but the distribution is less skewed than those obtained from other studies.
Wikipedia, user behavior, social systems
David Milne Computing Semantic Relatedness using Wikipedia Link Structure Proc. of NZCSRSC, 2007 2007 [132]
This paper describes a new technique for obtaining measures of semantic relatedness. Like other recent approaches, it uses Wikipedia to provide a vast amount of structured world knowledge about the terms of interest. Our system, the Wikipedia Link Vector Model or WLVM, is unique in that it does so using only the hyperlink structure of Wikipedia rather than its full textual content. To evaluate the algorithm we use a large, widely used test set of manually defined measures of semantic relatedness as our bench-mark. This allows direct comparison of our system with other similar techniques.
Wikipedia, Data Mining, Semantic Relatedness
Dat P.T. Nguyen, Yutaka Matsuo and Mitsuru Ishizuka Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Using Subtree Mining AAAI ‘07 2007 [133]
The exponential growth and reliability of Wikipedia have made it a promising data source for intelligent systems. The first challenge of Wikipedia is to make the encyclopedia machine-processable. In this study, we address the problem of extracting relations among entities from Wikipedia’s English articles, which in turn can serve for intelligent systems to satisfy users’ information needs. Our proposed method first anchors the appearance of entities in Wikipedia articles using some heuristic rules that are supported by their encyclopedic style. Therefore, it uses neither the Named Entity Recognizer (NER) nor the Coreference Resolution tool, which are sources of errors for relation extraction. It then classifies the relationships among entity pairs using SVM with features extracted from the web structure and subtrees mined from the syntactic structure of text. The innovations behind our work are the following: a) our method makes use of Wikipedia characteristics for entity allocation and entity classification, which are essential for relation extraction; b) our algorithm extracts a core tree, which accurately reflects a relationship between a given entity pair, and subsequently identifies key features with respect to the relationship from the core tree. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through evaluation of manually annotated data from actual Wikipedia articles.
David Milne, Ian H. Witten and David M. Nichols A Knowledge-Based Search Engine Powered by Wikipedia CIKM ‘07 2007 [134]
This paper describes a new technique for obtaining measures of semantic relatedness. Like other recent approaches, it uses Wikipedia to provide a vast amount of structured world knowledge about the terms of interest. Our system, the Wikipedia Link Vector Model or WLVM, is unique in that it does so using only the hyperlink structure of Wikipedia rather than its full textual content. To evaluate the algorithm we use a large, widely used test set of manually defined measures of semantic relatedness as our bench-mark. This allows direct comparison of our system with other similar techniques.
Information Retrieval, Query Expansion, Wikipedia, Data Mining, Thesauri.
Torsten Zesch, Iryna Gurevych, Max Muhlhauser Comparing Wikipedia and German Wordnet by Evaluating Semantic Relatedness on Multiple Datasets. Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL-HLT) 2007 [135]
We evaluate semantic relatedness measures on different German datasets showing that their performance depends on: (i) the definition of relatedness that was underlying the construction of the evaluation dataset, and (ii) the knowledge source used for computing semantic relatedness. We analyze how the underlying knowledge source influences the performance of a measure. Finally, we investigate the combination of wordnets and Wikipedia to improve the performance of semantic relatedness measures.
relatedness, WordNet
Jun'ichi Kazama and Kentaro Torisawa Exploiting Wikipedia as External Knowledge for Named Entity Recognition Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, : 698--707, 2007. 2007 [136]
We explore the use of Wikipedia as external knowledge to improve named entity recognition (NER). Our method retrieves the corresponding Wikipedia entry for each candidate word sequence and extracts a category label from the first sentence of the entry, which can be thought of as a definition part. These category labels are used as features in a CRF-based NE tagger. We demonstrate using the CoNLL 2003 dataset that the Wikipedia category labels extracted by such a simple method actually improve the accuracy of NER.
named-entities wikipedia
D. P. T. Nguyen and Y. Matsuo and M. Ishizuka Exploiting Syntactic and Semantic Information for Relation Extraction from Wikipedia IJCAI Workshop on Text-Mining \\& Link-Analysis (TextLink 2007), 2007. 2007 [137]
The exponential growth of Wikipedia recently attracts the attention of a large number of researchers and practitioners. However, one of the current challenges on Wikipedia is to make the encyclopedia processable for machines. In this paper, we deal with the problem of extracting relations between entities from Wikipedia’s English articles, which can straightforwardly be transformed into Semantic Web meta data. We propose a novel method to exploit syntactic and semantic information for relation extraction. We mine frequent subsequences from the path between an entity pair in the syntactic and semantic structure in order to explore key patterns reflecting the relationship between the pair. In addition, our method can utilize the nature of Wikipedia to automatically obtain training data. The preliminary results of our experiments strongly support our hyperthesis that analyzing language in higher level is better for relation extraction on Wikipedia and show that our method is promising for text understanding.
knowledge-extraction wikipedia
J. A. Thom and J. Pehcevski and A.-M. Vercoustre Use of Wikipedia Categories in Entity Ranking Proceedings of the 12th Australasian Document Computing Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 2007. 2007 [138]
Wikipedia is a useful source of knowledge that has many applications in language processing and knowledge representation. The Wikipedia category graph can be compared with the class hierarchy in an ontology; it has some characteristics in common as well as some differences. In this paper, we present our approach for answering entity ranking queries from the Wikipedia. In particular, we explore how to make use of Wikipedia categories to improve entity ranking effectiveness. Our experiments show that using categories of example entities works significantly better than using loosely defined target categories.
named-entities wikipedia
S. Cucerzan Large-Scale Named Entity Disambiguation Based on Wikipedia Data EMNLP 2007: Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, June 28-30, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic, 2007. 2007 [139]
This paper presents a large-scale system for the recognition and semantic disambiguation of named entities based on information extracted from a large encyclopedic collection and Web search results. It describes in detail the disambiguation paradigm employed and the information extraction process from Wikipedia. Through a process of maximizing the agreement between the contextual information extracted from Wikipedia and the context of a document, as well as the agreement among the category tags associated with the candidate entities, the implemented system shows high disambiguation accuracy on both news stories and Wikipedia articles.
named-entities wikipedia
Anne-Marie Vercoustre and Jovan Pehcevski and James A. Thom Using Wikipedia Categories and Links in Entity Ranking Pre-proceedings of the sixth International Workshop of the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX 2007), 2007. 2007 [140]
This paper describes the participation of the INRIA group in the INEX 2007 XML entity ranking and ad hoc tracks. We developed a system for ranking Wikipedia entities in answer to a query. Our approach utilises the known categories, the link structure of Wikipedia, as well as the link co-occurrences with the examples (when provided) to improve the effectiveness of entity ranking. Our experiments on the training data set demonstrate that the use of categories and the link structure of Wikipedia, together with entity examples, can significantly improve entity retrieval effectiveness. We also use our system for the ad hoc tasks by inferring target categories from the title of the query. The results were worse than when using a full-text search engine, which confirms our hypothesis that ad hoc retrieval and entity retrieval are two different tasks.
information-retrieval link-mining wikipedia
Kotaro Nakayama and Takahiro Hara and Shojiro Nishio Wikipedia Mining for an Association Web Thesaurus Construction Web Information Systems Engineering (WISE) 2007 France 2007 [141] Wikipedia-Lab work
Wikipedia has become a huge phenomenon on the WWW. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, it has various impressive characteristics such as a huge amount of articles, live updates, a dense link structure, brief link texts and URL identification for concepts. In this paper, we propose an efficient link mining method pfibf (Path Frequency - Inversed Backward link Frequency) and the extension method “forward / backward link weighting (FB weighting)” in order to construct a huge scale association thesaurus. We proved the effectiveness of our proposed methods compared with other conventional methods such as cooccurrence analysis and TF-IDF.
dblp, thesaurus wikipedia
Klaus Stein, Claudia Hess Does it matter who contributes: a study on featured articles in the German wikipedia Proceedings of the 18th conference on Hypertext and hypermedia 2007 [142]
The considerable high quality of Wikipedia articles is often accredited to the large number of users who contribute to Wikipedia's encyclopedia articles, who watch articles and correct errors immediately. In this paper, we are in particular interested in a certain type of Wikipedia articles, namely, the featured articles - articles marked by a community's vote as being of outstanding quality. The German Wikipedia has the nice property that it has two types of featured articles: excellent and worth reading. We explore on the German Wikipedia whether only the mere number of contributors makes the difference or whether the high quality of featured articles results from having experienced authors contributing with a reputation for high quality contributions. Our results indicate that it does matter who contributes.
Wikipedia, collaborative working, measures of quality and reputation, statistical analysis of Wikipedia, wiki
Patrick AS Sinclair, Kirk Martinez, Paul H Lewis Dynamic link service 2.0: using wikipedia as a linkbase Proceedings of the 18th conference on Hypertext and hypermedia 2007 [143]
This paper describes how a Web 2.0 mashup approach, reusing technologies and services freely available on the web, have enabled the development of a dynamic link service system that uses Wikipedia as its linkbase.
dynamic link service, wikipedia
Tunsch, Thomas Museen und Wikipedia Gesellschaft zur Forderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International (eds). EVA 2007 Berlin, die 14. Berliner Veranstaltung der Internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts. Berlin: Gesellschaft zur Forderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International. (7th-9th Nov 2007). 87. 15-21 2007 [144] German
Suchanek Fabian M., Gjergji Kasneci, Gerhard Weikum YAGO: A Core of Semantic Knowledge Unifying WordNet and Wikipedia Proceedings of the 16th international conference on World Wide Web 2007 [145]
We present YAGO, a light-weight and extensible ontology with high coverage and quality. YAGO builds on entities and relations and currently contains more than 1 million entities and 5 million facts. This includes the Is-A hierarchy as well as non-taxonomic relations between entities (such as HASONEPRIZE). The facts have been automatically extracted from Wikipedia and unified with WordNet, using a carefully designed combination of rule-based and heuristic methods described in this paper. The resulting knowledge base is a major step beyond WordNet: in quality by adding knowledge about individuals like persons, organizations, products, etc. with their semantic relationships - and in quantity by increasing the number of facts by more than an order of magnitude. Our empirical evaluation of fact correctness shows an accuracy of about 95%. YAGO is based on a logically clean model, which is decidable, extensible, and compatible with RDFS. Finally, we show how YAGO can be further extended by state-of-the-art information extraction techniques.
Andras Csomai and Rada Mihalcea Wikify! Linking Educational Materials to Encyclopedic Knowledge Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2007), 2007. 2007 [146]
This paper describes a system that automatically links study materials to encyclopedic knowledge, and shows how the availability of such knowledge within easy reach of the learner can improve both the quality of the knowledge acquired and the time needed to obtain such knowledge.
E-NLP WSD keywords significance_testing terminology wikipedia
Rainer Hammwohner Semantic Wikipedia - Checking the Premises The Social Semantic Web 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Social Semantic Web, 2007. 2007 [147]
Enhancing Wikipedia by means of semantic representations seems to be a promising issue. From a formal or technical point of view there are no major obstacles in the way. Nevertheless, a close look at Wikipedia, its structure and contents reveals that some questions have to be answered in advance. This paper will deal with these questions and present some first results based on empirical findings.
semantic, statistics, tagging, wikipedia
Torsten Zesch, Iryna Gurevych, Max Muhlhauser Analyzing and Accessing Wikipedia as a Lexical Semantic Resource. Biannual Conference of the Society for Computational Linguistics and Language Technology pp. 213-221 2007 [148]
We analyze Wikipedia as a lexical semantic resource and compare it with conventional resources, such as dictionaries, thesauri, semantic wordnets, etc. Different parts of Wikipedia record different aspects of these resources. We show that Wikipedia contains a vast amount of knowledge about, e.g., named entities, domain specific terms, and rare word senses. If Wikipedia is to be used as a lexical semantic resource in large-scale NLP tasks, efficient programmatic access to the knowledge therein is required. We review existing access mechanisms and show that they are limited with respect to performance and the provided access functions. Therefore, we introduce a general purpose, high performance Java-based Wikipedia API that overcomes these limitations.
Somnath Banerjee Boosting Inductive Transfer for Text Classification Using Wikipedia Sixth International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA) 2007 [149]
Inductive transfer is applying knowledge learned on one set of tasks to improve the performance of learning a new task. Inductive transfer is being applied in improving the generalization performance on a classification task using the models learned on some related tasks. In this paper, we show a method of making inductive transfer for text classification more effective using Wikipedia. We map the text documents of the different tasks to a feature space created using Wikipedia, thereby providing some background knowledge of the contents of the documents. It has been observed here that when the classifiers are built using the features generated from Wikipedia they become more effective in transferring knowledge. An evaluation on the daily classification task on the Reuters RCV1 corpus shows that our method can significantly improve the performance of inductive transfer. Our method was also able to successfully overcome a major obstacle observed in a recent work on a similar setting.
classification, knowledge-extraction, wikipedia
Brent Hecht, Nicole Starosielski, and Drew Dara-Abrams Generating Educational Tourism Narratives from Wikipedia Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium on Intelligent Narrative Technologies (AAAI-INT) 2007 [150] notes
We present a narrative theory-based approach to data mining that generates cohesive stories from a Wikipedia corpus. This approach is based on a data mining-friendly view of narrative derived from narratology, and uses a prototype mining algorithm that implements this view. Our initial test case and focus is that of field-based educational tour narrative generation, for which we have successfully implemented a proof-of-concept system called Minotour. This system operates on a client-server model, in which the server mines a Wikipedia database dump to generate narratives between any two spatial features that have associated Wikipedia articles. The server then delivers those narratives to mobile device clients.
narrative theory, data mining, educational tourism
Travis Kriplean, Ivan Beschastnikh, David W. McDonald, and Scott A. Golder Community, Consensus, Coercion, Control: CS*W or How Policy Mediates Mass Participation GROUP 2007 -- ACM Conference on Supporting Group Work. 2007 [151] How Wikipedia participants apply and interpret policies on the talk pages that accompany each encyclopedia article.
When large groups cooperate, issues of conflict and control surface because of differences in perspective. Managing such diverse views is a persistent problem in cooperative group work. The Wikipedian community has responded with an evolving body of policies that provide shared principles, processes, and strategies for collaboration. We employ a grounded approach to study a sample of active talk pages and examine how policies are employed as contributors work towards consensus. Although policies help build a stronger community, we find that ambiguities in policies give rise to power plays. This lens demonstrates that support for mass collaboration must take into account policy and power.
Wikipedia, collaborative authoring, community, policy, power
Felipe Ortega and Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona Quantitative Analysis of the Wikipedia Community of Users WikiSym 2007, 21-23 October. Montreal, Canada. 2007 [152] Identification of the core group of very active users who leads most of the contribution process to the English Wikipedia. It extends the proposed research methodology to other language editions as well.
Many activities of editors in Wikipedia can be traced using its database dumps, which register detailed information about every single change to every article. Several researchers have used this information to gain knowledge about the production process of articles, and about activity patterns of authors. In this analysis, we have focused on one of those previous works, by Kittur et al. First, we have followed the same methodology with more recent and comprehensive data. Then, we have extended this methodology to precisely identify which fraction of authors are producing most of the changes in Wikipedia's articles, and how the behaviour of these authors evolves over time. This enabled us not only to validate some of the previous results, but also to find new interesting evidences. We have found that the analysis of sysops is not a good method for estimating different levels of contributions, since it is dependent on the policy for electing them (which changes over time and for each language). Moreover, we have found new activity patterns classifying authors by their contributions during specific periods of time, instead of using their total number of contributions over the whole life of Wikipedia. Finally, we present a tool that automates this extended methodology, implementing a quick and complete quantitative analysis of every language edition in Wikipedia.
Felipe Ortega, Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona and Gregorio Robles The Top Ten Wikipedias: A quantitative analysis using WikiXRay ICSOFT 2007, July 2007. Barcelona, Spain 2007 [153] Presents initial quantitative results and conclusions about the content creation process in the top ten language editions of Wikipedia.
In a few years, Wikipedia has become one of the information systems with more public (both producers and consumers) of the Internet. Its system and information architecture is relatively simple, but has proven to be capable of supporting the largest and more diverse community of collaborative authorship worldwide. In this paper, we analyze in detail this community, and the contents it is producing. Using a quantitative methodology based on the analysis of the public Wikipedia databases, we describe the main characteristics of the 10 largest language editions, and the authors that work in them. The methodology (which is almost completely automated) is generic enough to be used on the rest of the editions, providing a convenient framework to develop a complete quantitative analysis of the Wikipedia. Among other parameters, we study the evolution of the number of contributions and articles, their size, and the differences in contributions by different authors, inferring some relationships between contribution patterns and content. These relationships reflect (and in part, explain) the evolution of the different language editions so far, as well as their future trends.
Reid Priedhorsky, Jilin Chen, Shyong (Tony) K. Lam, Katherine Panciera, Loren Terveen, John Riedl Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Minnesota 2007 [154] Introduces the notion that the impact of an edit is best measured by the number of times the edited version is viewed.
Wikipedia's brilliance and curse is that any user can edit any of the encyclopedia entries. We introduce the notion of the impact of an edit, measured by the number of times the edited version is viewed. Using several datasets, including recent logs of all article views, we show that an overwhelming majority of the viewed words were written by frequent editors and that this majority is increasing. Similarly, using the same impact measure, we show that the probability of a typical article view being damaged is small but increasing, and we present empirically grounded classes of damage. Finally, we make policy recommendations for Wikipedia and other wikis in light of these findings.
Somnath Banerjee, Krishnan Ramanathan, Ajay Gupta Clustering Short Texts using Wikipedia The 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference 2007 [155]
Subscribers to the popular news or blog feeds (RSS/Atom) often face the problem of information overload as these feed sources usually deliver large number of items periodically. One solution to this problem could be clustering similar items in the feed reader to make the information more manageable for a user. Clustering items at the feed reader end is a challenging task as usually only a small part of the actual article is received through the feed. In this paper, we propose a method of improving the accuracy of clustering short texts by enriching their representation with additional features from Wikipedia. Empirical results indicate that this enriched representation of text items can substantially improve the clustering accuracy when compared to the conventional bag of words representation.
cultering, rss
R. Almeida, B. Mozafari, and J. Junghoo On the Evolution of Wikipedia Proceedings of ICWSM 2007, International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 2007 2007 [156]
A recent phenomenon on the Web is the emergence and proliferation of new social media systems allowing social interaction between people. One of the most popular of these systems is Wikipedia that allows users to create content in a collaborative way. Despite its current popularity, not much is known about how users interact with Wikipedia and how it has evolved over time.
In this paper we aim to provide a first, extensive study of the user behavior on Wikipedia and its evolution. Compared to prior studies, our work differs in several ways. First, previous studies on the analysis of the user workloads (for systems such as peer-to-peer systems [10] and Web servers [2]) have mainly focused on understanding the users who are accessing information. In contrast, Wikipedia’s provides us with the opportunity to understand how users create and maintain information since it provides the complete evolution history of its content. Second, the main focus of prior studies is evaluating the implication of the user workloads on the system performance, while our study is trying to understand the evolution of the data corpus and the user behavior themselves.
Our main findings include that (1) the evolution and updates of Wikipedia is governed by a self-similar process, not by the Poisson process that has been observed for the general Web [4, 6] and (2) the exponential growth of Wikipedia is mainly driven by its rapidly increasing user base, indicating the importance of its open editorial policy for its current success. We also find that (3) the number of updates made to the Wikipedia articles exhibit a power-law distribution, but the distribution is less skewed than those obtained from other studies.
Wikipedia, user behavior, social systems
Enric Senabre Hidalgo Stigmergy, meritocracy and vandalism in peer-production: how can wikis grow Towards a Social Science of Web 2.0 2007 [157] All links have rotten? Abstract?
Adler, B. Thomas, and de Alfaro, Luca A Content-Driven Reputation System for the Wikipedia Proceedings of WWW 2007, the 16th International World Wide Web Conference, ACM Press, 2007 2007 [158]
We present a content-driven reputation system for Wikipedia authors. In our system, authors gain reputation when the edits they perform to Wikipedia articles are preserved by subsequent authors, and they lose reputation when their edits are rolled back or undone in short order. Thus, author reputation is computed solely on the basis of content evolution; user-to-user comments or ratings are not used. The author reputation we compute could be used to flag new contributions from low-reputation authors, or it could be used to allow only authors with high reputation to contribute to controversial or critical pages. A reputation system for the Wikipedia could also provide an incentive for high-quality contributions.
We have implemented the proposed system, and we have used it to analyze the entire Italian and French Wikipedias, consisting of a total of 691,551 pages and 5,587,523 revisions. Our results show that our notion of reputation has good predictive value: changes performed by low-reputation authors have a significantly larger than average probability of having poor quality, as judged by human observers, and of being later undone, as measured by our algorithms.
Gabrilovich, Evgeniy and Shaul Markovitch Computing Semantic Relatedness using Wikipedia-based Explicit Semantic Analysis. Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Hyderabad, India, January 2007. 2007 [159]
semantic, text-mining, wikipedia
Tunsch, Thomas: Museum Documentation and Possibilities, opportunities and advantages for scholars and museums J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and the Web 2007: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 31, 2007 at 2007 [160] post-conference communication:
The importance of Wikipedia for the documentation and promotion of museum holdings is gaining acceptance, and the number of references to articles is growing. However, the museum world still pays little attention to the Wikipedia project as a collaborative community with intentions, structures, and special features. Although these observations are based on museums in Germany and focus on the German Wikipedia, they are just as important and applicable to other museums and other editions of Wikipedia. Universities and libraries have already taken advantage of the Wikipedia and have established functional links.

In that the mission of museums is closely related to that of universities and libraries, the value of Wikipedia for museum professionals is worthy of consideration. This paper provides the complete study to serve as reference for the selected topics to be discussed in the professional forum.

Keywords: Wikipedia, documentation, collaborative, community, scholars, interconnections
Wikipedia; documentation; collaborative; community; scholars; interconnections
Viegas, Fernanda, Martin Wattenberg, Jesse Kriss, Frank van Ham Talk Before You Type: Coordination in Wikipedia Proceedings of Hawaiian International Conference of Systems Sciences Big Island, Hawaii. 2007 [161]
Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, has attracted attention both because of its popularity and its unconventional policy of letting anyone on the internet edit its articles. This paper describes the results of an empirical analysis of Wikipedia and discusses ways in which the Wikipedia community has evolved as it hasgrown. We contrast our findings with an earlier study [11] and present three main results. First, the community maintains a strong resilience to malicious editing, despite tremendous growth and high traffic. Second, the fastest growing areas of Wikipedia are devoted to coordination and organization. Finally, we focus on a particular set of pages used to coordinate work, the “Talk” pages. By manually coding the content of a subset of these pages, we find that these pages serve many purposes, notably supporting strategic planning of edits and enforcement of standard guidelines and conventions. Our results suggest that despite the potential for anarchy, the Wikipedia community places a strong emphasis on group coordination, policy, and process.
empirical study, visualization, wiki, wikipedia
Ollivier, Yann, and Senellart, Pierre Finding Related Pages Using Green Measures: An Illustration with Wikipedia. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2007) 2007 [162]
We introduce a new method for finding nodes semantically related to a given node in a hyperlinked graph: the Green method, based on a classical Markov chain tool. It is generic, adjustment-free and easy to implement. We test it in the case of the hyperlink structure of the English version of Wikipedia, the on-line encyclopedia. We present an extensive comparative study of the performance of our method versus several other classical methods in the case of Wikipedia. The Green method is found to have both the best average results and the best robustness.
PageRank, Markov chain, Green measure, Wikipedia
Robert P. Biuk-Aghai Visualizing Co-Authorship Networks in Online Wikipedia Proceedings of the International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies 2006, Bangkok, Thailand, October 2006 2006 [163] Introduces using the concept of co-authorship of pages to infer relationships between those pages. These are then visualized in graph form. Also presents a novel visualization of results of Wikipedia searches.
The Wikipedia online user-contributed encyclopedia has rapidly become a highly popular and widely used online reference source. However, perceiving the complex relationships in the network of articles and other entities in Wikipedia is far from easy. We introduce the notion of using co-authorship of articles to determine relationship between articles, and present the WikiVis information visualization system which visualizes this and other types of relationships in the Wikipedia database in 3D graph form. A 3D star layout and a 3D nested cone tree layout are presented for displaying relationships between entities and between categories, respectively. A novel 3D pinboard layout is presented for displaying search results.
information visualization, co-authoring, Wikipedia, pinboard layout
Pedersen, Niels M. L. & Anders Due Wikipedia - viden som social handlen. Paper presented at The 3. Nordic Conference on Rhetoric, May 19-20, Oslo, Norway 2006 [164] Danish
Rafaeli, Sheizaf, Ariel, Yaron and Hayat, Tsahi Wikipedians Sense of (Virtual) Community. Presented at The eighth International Conference General Online Research (GOR06): Bielefeld, Germany 2006 [165] English
Sigurbjornsson, Borkur, Kamps, Jaap, and de Rijke, Maarten Focused Access to Wikipedia Proceedings DIR-2006 2006 [166]
Wikipedia is a "free" online encyclopedia. It contains millions of entries in many languages and is growing at a fast pace. Due to its volume, search engines play an important role in giving access to the information in Wikipedia. The "free" availability of the collection makes it an attractive corpus for in formation retrieval experiments. In this paper we describe the evaluation of a searchengine that provides focused search access to Wikipedia, i.e., a search engine which gives direct access to individual sections of Wikipedia pages. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we introduce Wikipedia as a test corpus for information retrieval experiments in general and for semi-structured retrieval in particular. Second, we demonstrate that focused XML retrieval methods can be applied to a wider range of problems than searching scientific journals in XML format, including accessing reference works.
document structure, visualization, information searching
Rudiger Gleim, Alexander Mehler and Matthias Dehmer Web Corpus Mining by Instance of Wikipedia Proc. 2nd Web as Corpus Workshop at EACL 2006 2006 [167]
In this paper we present an approach to structure learning in the area of web documents. This is done in order to approach the goal of webgenre tagging in the area of web corpus linguistics. A central outcome of the paper is that purely structure oriented approaches to web document classification provide an information gain which may be utilized in combined approaches of web content and structure analysis.
Martin Hepp and Daniel Bachlechner and Katharina Siorpaes Harvesting Wiki Consensus - Using Wikipedia Entries as Ontology Elements Proceedings of the First Workshop on Semantic Wikis -- From Wiki to Semantics, co-located with the 3rd Annual European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2006), 2006. 2006 [168]
One major obstacle towards adding machine-readable annotation to existing Web content is the lack of domain ontologies. While FOAF and Dublin Core are popular means for expressing relationships between Web resources and between Web resources and literal values, we widely lack unique identifiers for common concepts and instances. Also, most available ontologies have a very weak community grounding in the sense that they are designed by single individuals or small groups of individuals, while the majority of potential users is not involved in the process of proposing new ontology elements or achieving consensus. This is in sharp contrast to natural language where the evolution of the vocabulary is under the control of the user community. At the same time, we can observe that, within Wiki communities, especially Wikipedia, a large number of users is able to create comprehensive domain representations in the sense of unique, machine-feasible, identifiers and concept definitions which are sufficient for humans to grasp the intension of the concepts. The English version of Wikipedia contains now more than one million entries and thus the same amount of URIs plus a human-readable description. While this collection is on the lower end of ontology expressiveness, it is likely the largest living ontology that is available today. In this paper, we (1) show that standard Wiki technology can be easily used as an ontology development environment for named classes, reducing entry barriers for the participation of users in the creation and maintenance of lightweight ontologies, (2) prove that the URIs of Wikipedia entries are surprisingly reliable identifiers for ontology concepts, and (3) demonstrate the applicability of our approach in a use case.
2006 ezweb folksonomy ontology wikipedia
Razvan Bunescu and Marius Pasca Using Encyclopedic Knowledge for Named Entity Disambiguation 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, : 9--16, 2006. 2006 [169] Despite not mentioning Wikipedia in title or abstract, the paper discusses it as one of the main examples.
We present a new method for detecting and disambiguating named entities in open domain text. A disambiguation SVM kernel is trained to exploit the high coverage and rich structure of the knowledge encoded in an online encyclopedia. The resulting model significantly outperforms a less informed baseline.
disambiguation named-entities wikipedia
Angela Beesley How and why Wikipedia works WikiSym '06: Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Wikis 2006 [170]
This talk discusses the inner workings of Wikipedia. Angela will address the roles, processes, and sociology that make up the project, with information on what happens behind the scenes and how the community builds and defends its encyclopedia on a daily basis. The talk will give some insight into why Wikipedia has worked so far and why we believe it will keep working in the the future despite the many criticisms that can be made of it. It is hoped that this review inspires further Wikipedia research. For this, please also see our Wikipedia Research workshop on Wednesday, which is open to walk-ins.
Design, Theory
Simon Overell and Stefan Ruger Identifying and Grounding Descriptions of Places SIGIR Workshop on Geographic Information Retrieval, 2006 [171]
In this paper we test the hypothesis Given a piece of text describing an object or concept our combined disambiguation method can disambiguate whether it is a place and ground it to a Getty Thesaurus of Geographical Names unique identifier with significantly more accuracy than naïve methods. We demonstrate a carefully engineered rule-based place name disambiguation system and give Wikipedia as a worked example with hand-generated ground truth and bench mark tests. This paper outlines our plans to apply the co-occurrence models generated with Wikipedia to solve the problem of disambiguating place names in text using supervised learning techniques.
Geographic Information Retrieval, Disambiguation, Wikipedia
A. Toral and R. Munoz A proposal to automatically build and maintain gazetteers for Named Entity Recognition by using Wikipedia EACL 2006, 2006. 2006 [172]
This paper describes a method to automatically create and maintain gazetteers for Named Entity Recognition (NER). This method extracts the necessary information from linguistic resources. Our approach is based on the analysis of an on-line encyclopedia entries by using a noun hierarchy and optionally a PoS tagger. An important motivation is to reach a high level of language independence. This restricts the techniques that can be used but makes the method useful for languages with few resources. The evaluation carried out proves that this approach can be successfully used to build NER gazetteers for location (F 78%) and person (F 68%) categories.
gazetteers, named-entities wikipedia
Ofer Arazy, Wayne Morgan and Raymond Patterson Wisdom of the Crowds: Decentralized Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia 16th Annual Workshop on Information Technologies & Systems (WITS) 2006 [173]
Recently, Nature published an article comparing the quality of Wikipedia articles to those of Encyclopedia Britannica (Giles 2005). The article, which gained much public attention, provides evidence for Wikipedia quality, but does not provide an explanation of the underlying source of that quality. Wikipedia, and wikis in general, aggregate information from a large and diverse author-base, where authors are free to modify any article. Building upon Surowiecki's (2005) Wisdom of Crowds, we develop a model of the factors that determine wiki content quality. In an empirical study of Wikipedia, we find strong support for our model. Our results indicate that increasing size and diversity of the author-base improves content quality. We conclude by highlighting implications for system design and suggesting avenues for future research.
Wikipedia, Wisdom of the Crowds, Collective Intelligence, information quality
Aurelie Herbelot and Ann Copestake Acquiring Ontological Relationships from Wikipedia Using RMRS Proc.of the ISWC 2006 Workshop on Web Content Mining with Human Language Technologies, 2006. 2006 [174]
We investigate the extraction of ontologies from biological text using a semantic representation derived from a robust parser. The use of a semantic representation avoids the problems that traditional pattern-based approaches have with complex syntactic constructions and long-distance dependencies. The discovery of taxonomic relationships is explored in a corpus consisting of 12,200 animal-related articles from the online encyclopaedia Wikipedia. The semantic representation used is Robust Minimal Recursion Semantics (RMRS). Initial experiments show good results in systematising extraction across a variety of hyponymic constructions.
linguistics ontology semantic text-mining wikipedia
Zhang, Yuejiao Wiki means more: hyperreading in Wikipedia HYPERTEXT '06: Proceedings of the seventeenth conference on Hypertext and hypermedia 2006 [175]
Based on the open-sourcing technology of wiki, Wikipedia has initiated a new fashion of hyperreading. Reading Wikipedia creates an experience distinct from reading a traditional encyclopedia. In an attempt to disclose one of the site's major appeals to the Web users, this paper approaches the characteristics of hyperreading activities in Wikipedia from three perspectives. Discussions are made regarding reading path, user participation, and navigational apparatus in Wikipedia.
Hypertext, Hypermedia, Human Factors, Theory
Schonhofen, Peter Identifying Document Topics Using the Wikipedia Category Network WI '06: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence 2006 [176]
In the last few years the size and coverage of Wikipe- dia, a freely available on-line encyclopedia has reached the point where it can be utilized similar to an ontology or tax- onomy to identify the topics discussed in a document. In this paper we will show that even a simple algorithm that exploits only the titles and categories of Wikipedia articles can characterize documents by Wikipedia categories sur- prisingly well. We test the reliability of our method by pre- dicting categories ofWikipedia articles themselves based on their bodies, and by performing classification and cluster- ing on 20 Newsgroups and RCV1, representing documents by their Wikipedia categories instead of their texts.
Retrieval models, Algorithms
Sangweon Suh and Harry Halpin and Ewan Klein Extracting Common Sense Knowledge from Wikipedia Proc. of the ISWC2006 Workshop on Web Content Mining with Human Language technology, 2006. 2006 [177]
Much of the natural language text found on the web contains various kinds of generic or “common sense” knowledge, and this information has long been recognized by artificial intelligence as an important supplement to more formal approaches to building Semantic Web knowledge bases. Consequently, we are exploring the possibility of automatically identifying “common sense” statements from unrestricted natural language text and mapping them to RDF. Our hypothesis is that common sense knowledge is often expressed in the form of generic statements such as Coffee is a popular beverage, and thus our work has focussed on the challenge of automatically identifying generic statements. We have been using the Wikipedia xml corpus as a rich source of common sense knowledge. For evaluation, we have been using the existing annotation of generic entities and relations in the ace 2005 corpus.
linguistics semantic text-mining wcmhlt2006, wikipedia
Gabriel Weaver, Barbara Strickland, Gregory Crane Quantifying the accuracy of relational statements in Wikipedia: a methodology JCDL '06: Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries 2006 [178]
An initial evaluation of the English Wikipedia indicates that it may provide accurate data for disambiguating and finding relations among named entities.
Wikipedia, link analysis, named-entity recognition
David Milne and Olena Medelyan and Ian H. Witten Mining Domain-Specific Thesauri from Wikipedia: A case study ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI 2006 Main Conference Proceedings)(WI'06) 2006 [179]
Domain-specific thesauri are high-cost, high-maintenance, high-value knowledge structures. We show how the classic thesaurus structure of terms and links can be mined automatically from Wikipedia, a vast, open encyclopedia. In a comparison with a professional thesaurus for agriculture (Agrovoc) we find that Wikipedia contains a substantial proportion of its domain-specific concepts and semantic relations; furthermore it has impressive coverage of a collection of contemporary documents in the domain. Thesauri derived using these techniques are attractive because they capitalize on existing public efforts and tend to reflect contemporary language usage better than their costly, painstakingly-constructed manual counterparts.
datamining information-retrieval semantic text-mining wikipedia
Wissner-Gross, A. D. Preparation of Topical Reading Lists from the Link Structure of Wikipedia Advanced Learning Technologies, 2006. Sixth International Conference on (2006), pp. 825-829. 2006 [180]
Personalized reading preparation poses an important challenge for education and continuing education. Using a PageRank derivative and graph distance ordering, we show that personalized background reading lists can be generated automatically from the link structure of Wikipedia. We examine the operation of our new tool in professional, student, and interdisciplinary researcher learning models. Additionally, we present desktop and mobile interfaces for the generated reading lists.
information-retrieval, link-mining, wikipedia
Spek, Sander and Postma, Eric and Herik, Jaap van den Wikipedia: organisation from a bottom-up approach Paper presented at the Research in Wikipedia-workshop of WikiSym 2006, Odense, Denmark. 2006 [181]
Wikipedia can be considered as an extreme form of a self-managing team, as a means of labour division. One could expect that this bottom-up approach, with the absence of top-down organisational control, would lead to a chaos, but our analysis shows that this is not the case. In the Dutch Wikipedia, an integrated and coherent data structure is created, while at the same time users succeed in distributing roles by self-selection. Some users focus on an area of expertise, while others edit over the whole encyclopedic range. This constitutes our conclusion that Wikipedia, in general, is a successful example of a self-managing team.
S. P. Ponzetto and M. Strube Exploiting semantic role labeling, WordNet and Wikipedia for coreference resolution Proceedings of the main conference on Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association of Computational Linguistics, : 192--199, 2006. 2006 [182]
In this paper we present an extension of a machine learning based coreference resolution system which uses features induced from different semantic knowledge sources. These features represent knowledge mined from WordNet and Wikipedia, as well as information about semantic role labels. We show that semantic features indeed improve the performance on different referring expression types such as pronouns and common nouns.
coreference, semantic wikipedia
Krotzsch, Markus, Denny Vrandecic, Max Volkel Semantic Wikipedia International World Wide Web Conference. Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web 2006 [183] no open content found
Wikipedia is the world's largest collaboratively edited source of encyclopaedic knowledge. But in spite of its utility, its contents are barely machine-interpretable. Structural knowledge, e.,g. about how concepts are interrelated, can neither be formally stated nor automatically processed. Also the wealth of numerical data is only available as plain text and thus can not be processed by its actual meaning. We provide an extension to be integrated in Wikipedia, that allows the typing of links between articles and the specification of typed data inside the articles in an easy-to-use manner. Enabling even casual users to participate in the creation of an open semantic knowledge base, Wikipedia has the chance to become a resource of semantic statements, hitherto unknown regarding size, scope, openness, and internationalisation. These semantic enhancements bring to Wikipedia benefits of today's semantic technologies: more specific ways of searching and browsing. Also, the RDF export, that gives direct access to the formalised knowledge, opens Wikipedia up to a wide range of external applications, that will be able to use it as a background knowledge base. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and possible uses of this extension.
Denoyer, Ludovic, Patrick Gallinari The Wikipedia XML corpus SIGIR Conference Proceedings. Volume 40 , Issue 1 (June 2006). WORKSHOP SESSION: INEX. Pages: 64 - 69 Year of Publication: 2006 ISSN:0163-5840 2006 [184] no open content found
Wikipedia is a well known free content, multilingual encyclopedia written collaboratively by contributors around the world. Anybody can edit an article using a wiki markup language that offers a simplified alternative to HTML. This encyclopedia is composed of millions of articles in different languages.
Hypertext, Hypermedia, XML
Michael Strube and Simone Paolo Ponzetto WikiRelate! Computing Semantic Relatedness Using Wikipedia. 21. AAAI / 18. IAAI 2006, 2006. 2006 [185]
Wikipedia provides a knowledge base for computing word relatedness in a more structured fashion than a search engine and with more coverage than WordNet. In this work we present experiments on using Wikipedia for computing semantic relatedness and compare it to WordNet on various benchmarking datasets. Existing relatedness measures perform better using Wikipedia than a baseline given by Google counts, and we show that Wikipedia outperforms WordNet when applied to the largest available dataset designed for that purpose. The best results on this dataset are obtained by integrating Google, WordNet and Wikipedia based measures. We also show that including Wikipedia improves the performance of an NLP application processing naturally occurring texts.
Wikipedia ontology relatedness semantic_web
Sergey Chernov and Tereza Iofciu and Wolfgang Nejdl and Xuan Zhou Extracting Semantic Relationships between Wikipedia Categories 1st Workshop on Semantic Wikis:, 2006. 2006 [186]
The Wikipedia is the largest online collaborative knowledge sharing system, a free encyclopedia. Built upon traditional wiki architectures, its search capabilities are limited to title and full-text search. We suggest that semantic information can be extracted from Wikipedia by analyzing the links between categories. The results can be used for building a semantic schema for Wikipedia which could improve its search capabilities and provide contributors with meaningful suggestions for editing theWikipedia pages.We analyze relevant measures for inferring the semantic relationships between page categories of Wikipedia. Experimental results show that Connectivity Ratio positively correlates with the semantic connection strength.
semantic wikipedia
McGuinness, Deborah L., Honglei Zeng, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, Li Ding, Dhyanesh Narayanan, Mayukh Bhaowal Investigations into Trust for Collaborative Information Repositories: A Wikipedia Case Study Proceedings of the Workshop on Models of Trust for the Web 2006 [187]
As collaborative repositories grow in popularity and use, issues concerning the quality and trustworthiness of information grow. Some current popular repositories contain contributions from a wide variety of users, many of which will be unknown to a potential end user. Additionally the content may change rapidly and information that was previously contributed by a known user may be updated by an unknown user. End users are now faced with more challenges as they evaluate how much they may want to rely on information that was generated and updated in this manner. A trust management layer has become an important requirement for the continued growth and acceptance of collaboratively developed and maintained information resources. In this paper, we will describe our initial investigations into designing and implementing an extensible trust management layer for collaborative and/or aggregated repositories of information. We leverage our work on the Inference Web explanation infrastructure and exploit and expand the Proof Markup Language to handle a simple notion of trust. Our work is designed to support representation, computation, and visualization of trust information. We have grounded our work in the setting of Wikipedia. In this paper, we present our vision, expose motivations, relate work to date on trust representation, and present a trust computation algorithm with experimental results. We also discuss some issues encountered in our work that we found interesting.
Trust, Wikipedia, Inference Web, Proof Markup Language, Open Editing.
Gabrilovich, Evgeniy and Shaul Markovitch Overcoming the Brittleness Bottleneck using Wikipedia: Enhancing Text Categorization with Encyclopedic Knowledge. Proceedings of the 21st National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-06), pp. 1301-1306. 2006 [188]
When humans approach the task of text categorization, they interpret the specific wording of the document in the much larger context of their background knowledge and experience. On the other hand, state-of-the-art information retrieval systems are quite brittle -- they traditionally represent documents as bags of words, and are restricted to learning from individual word occurrences in the (necessarily limited) training set. For instance, given the sentence “Wal-Mart supply chain goes real time”, how can a text categorization system know that Wal-Mart manages its stock with RFID technology? And having read that “Ciprofloxacin belongs to the quinolones group”, how on earth can a machine know that the drug mentioned is an antibiotic produced by Bayer? In this paper we present algorithms that can do just that. We propose to enrich document representation through automatic use of a vast compendium of human knowledge -- an encyclopedia. We apply machine learning techniques to Wikipedia, the largest encyclopedia to date, which surpasses in scope many conventional encyclopedias and provides a cornucopia of world knowledge. EachWikipedia article represents a concept, and documents to be categorized are represented in the rich feature space of words and relevant Wikipedia concepts. Empirical results confirm that this knowledge-intensive representation brings text categorization to a qualitatively new level of performance across a diverse collection of datasets.
information-retrieval, text-mining, wikipedia
Grassineau, Benjamin Wikipedia et le relativisme democratique OMNSH 2006 [189] French
Krizhanovsky, Andrew Synonym search in Wikipedia: Synarcher. 11-th International Conference "Speech and Computer" SPECOM'2006. Russia, St. Petersburg, June 25-29, pp. 474-477 2006 [190]
The program Synarcher for synonym (and related terms) search in the text corpus of special structure (Wikipedia) was developed. The results of the search are presented in the form of graph. It is possible to explore the graph and search for graph elements interactively. Adapted HITS algorithm for synonym search, program architecture, and program work evaluation with test examples are presented in the paper. The proposed algorithm can be applied to a query expansion by synonyms (in a search engine) and a synonym dictionary forming.
HITS, Semantic relatedness
Fissaha Adafre, Sisay and de Rijke, Maarten Finding Similar Sentences across Multiple Languages in Wikipedia EACL 2006 Workshop on New Text?Wikis and Blogs and Other Dynamic Text Sources 2006 [191]
We investigate whether theWikipedia corpus is amenable to multilingual analysis that aims at generating parallel corpora. We present the results of the application of two simple heuristics for the identification of similar text across multiple languages inWikipedia. Despite the simplicity of the methods, evaluation carried out on a sample ofWikipedia pages shows encouraging results.
nlp, wikipedia
Fissaha Adafre, Sisay and de Rijke, Maarten Exploratory Search in Wikipedia Proceedings SIGIR 2006 workshop on Evaluating Exploratory Search Systems (EESS) 2006 [192]
We motivate the need for studying the search, discovery and retrieval requirements of Wikipedia users. Based on a sample from an experimental Wikipedia search engine, we hypothesize that the fraction of Wikipedia searches that are exploratory in nature is at least the same as that of general web searches. We also describe a questionnaire for eliciting search, discovery and retrieval requirements from Wikipedia users.
Wikipedia, interfaces, exploratory search
Forte, Andrea, Amy Bruckman From Wikipedia to the classroom: exploring online publication and learning International Conference on Learning Sciences. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Learning sciences 2006 [193]
Wikipedia represents an intriguing new publishing paradigm. Can it be used to engage students in authentic collaborative writing activities? How can we design wiki publishing tools and curricula to support learning among student authors? We suggest that wiki publishing environments can create learning opportunities that address four dimensions of authenticity: personal, real world, disciplinary, and assessment. We have begun a series of design studies to investigate links between wiki publishing experiences and writing-to-learn. The results of an initial study in an undergraduate government course indicate that perceived audience plays an important role in helping students monitor the quality of writing; however, students’ perception of audience on the Internet is not straightforward. This preliminary iteration resulted in several guidelines that are shaping efforts to design and implement new wiki publishing tools and curricula for students and teachers.
wikipedia, teaching
Maria R. Casado and Enrique Alfonseca and Pablo Castells From Wikipedia to Semantic Annotations: automatic relationship extraction 1st Workshop on Semantic Wikis:, 2006. 2006 [194] all links have rotted? annotation semantic text-mining wikipedia
Buriol L.S., Castillo C., Donato D., Leonardi S., Millozzi S. Temporal Analysis of the Wikigraph. Proceedings of the Web Intelligence Conference (WI), Hong Kong 2006. Published by IEEE CS Press. 2006 [195]
Wikipedia ( is an online encyclopedia, available in more than 100 languages and comprising over 1 million articles in its English version. If we consider each Wikipedia article as a node and each hyperlink between articles as an arc we have a “Wikigraph”, a graph that represents the link structure of Wikipedia. The Wikigraph differs from other Web graphs studied in the literature by the fact that there are timestamps associated with each node. The timestamps indicate the creation and update dates of each page, and this allows us to do a detailed analysis of the Wikipedia evolution over time. In the first part of this study we characterize this evolution in terms of users, editions and articles; in the second part, we depict the temporal evolution of several topological properties of the Wikigraph. The insights obtained from the Wikigraphs can be applied to large Web graphs from which the temporal data is usually not available.
analysis, wiki
Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Servedio, Vito; Buriol, Luciana; Donato, Debora; Leonardi, Stefano Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: the case of Wikipedia American Physical Society. APS March Meeting, March 13-17, 2006 2006 [196]
Here we present experimental data and a model in order to describe the evolution of a socio-technological system. The case of study presented is that of the online free encyclopedia Wikipedia, for which we have the complete series of pages addition during time. The varioius entries and the hyperlinks between them can be described as a graph. We find scale-invariant behaviour in the distribution of the degree and a topology similar to that of the World Wide Web. By using the information on dynamics we are able to model and reproduce the features of this system. We also find that regardless the fact that any user has the possibility of global reshape, still Wikipedia has a growth described by local rules as that of the preferential attachment.
link mining, small world, web, wikipedia
Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Servedio, Vito; Buriol, Luciana; Donato, Debora; Leonardi, Stefano Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: the case of Wikipedia American Physical Society. APS March Meeting, March 13-17, 2006 2006 [197]
Here we present experimental data and a model in order to describe the evolution of a socio-technological system. The case of study presented is that of the online free encyclopedia Wikipedia, for which we have the complete series of pages addition during time. The varioius entries and the hyperlinks between them can be described as a graph. We find scale-invariant behaviour in the distribution of the degree and a topology similar to that of the World Wide Web. By using the information on dynamics we are able to model and reproduce the features of this system. We also find that regardless the fact that any user has the possibility of global reshape, still Wikipedia has a growth described by local rules as that of the preferential attachment.
Mehler, Alexander Text Linkage in the Wiki Medium - A Comparative Study Proceedings of the EACL 2006 Workshop on New Text - Wikis and blogs and other dynamic text sources, Trento, Italy, April 3-7, pp. 1-8 2006 [198] Despite not mentioning Wikipedia in title or abstract, the paper discusses it as one of the main examples.
We analyze four different types of document networks with respect to their small world characteristics. These characteristics allow distinguishing wiki-based systems from citation and more traditional text-based networks augmented by hyperlinks. The study provides evidence that a more appropriate network model is needed which better reflects the specifics of wiki systems. It puts emphasize on their topological differences as a result of wikirelated linking compared to other textbased networks.
Mainguy Gaell Wikipedia and science publishing. Has the time come to end the liaisons dangereuses? paper presented at the 3rd NATO-UNESCO Advanced Research Workshop Science Education: Talent Recruitment and Public Understanding. Balatonfured, Hungary, 20-22 October 2006 2006 [199]
Structuring information into knowledge is an important challenge for the 21st century. The emergence of internet and the diffusion of collaborative practices provide new tools with which to build and share knowledge. Scientists are seeking efficient ways to get recognition and to diffuse their work while Wikipedia is seeking well grounded contributors to shape in-depth articles. Science publishing and Wikipedia are thus profoundly modifying access to knowledge and may provide suitable conditions for a reorganization of the academic landscape.
Science publishing, Wikipedia, open access, knowledge management
Ma, Cathy The Social, Cultural, Economical Implications of the Wikipedia Paper submitted to Computers and Writing Online 2005 2005 [200]
Wikipedia is a non-profit online project that aims at building an encyclopedia for everyone. It has attracted thousands of users to contribute and collaborate on a voluntary base. In this paper I argue that Wikipedia poses a new model of collaboration founded on three assumptions trust, openness and reduced barrier of participation as opposed to more conventional models of collaboration based on authority and hierarchy. With this new-found social structure in mind, the cultural implications of the Wikipedia will be discussed in relation to the notion of Commons-Based Peer Production (CBPP) as proposed by Benkler in 2002, concluded with an analysis of the challenges that are facing the Wikipedia project, the problem of credibility building and vandalism control.
Denise Anthony, Sean Smith, & Tim Williamson Explaining Quality in Internet Collective Goods: Zealots and Good Samaritans in the Case of Wikipedia Fall 2005 Innovation & Enterpreneurship Seminar at MIT 2005 [201]
One important innovation in information and communication technology developed over the past decade was organizational rather than merely technological. Open source production is remarkable because it converts a private commodity (typically software) into a public good. A number of studies examine the factors motivating contributions to open source production goods, but we argue it is important to understand the causes of high quality contributions to such goods. In this paper, we analyze quality in the open source online encyclopedia Wikipedia. We find that, for users who create an online persona through a registered user name, the quality of contributions increases as the number of contributions increase, consistent with the idea of experts motivated by reputation and committed to the Wikipedia community. Unexpectedly, however, we find the highest quality contributions come from the vast numbers of anonymous “Good Samaritans” who contribute infrequently. Our findings that Good Samaritans as well as committed “Zealots” contribute high quality content to Wikipedia suggest that open source production is remarkable as much for its organizational as its technological innovation that enables vast numbers of anonymous one-time contributors to create high quality, essentially public goods.
Stvilia, B., Twidale, M. B., Gasser, L., Smith, L. C. Information quality in a community-based encyclopedia Knowledge Management: Nurturing Culture, Innovation, and Technology - Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Knowledge Management (pp. 101-113) 2005 [202]
We examine the Information Quality aspects of Wikipedia. By a study of the discussion pages and other process-oriented pages within the Wikipedia project, it is possible to determine the information quality dimensions that participants in the editing process care about, how they talk about them, what tradeoffs they make between these dimensions and how the quality assessment and improvement process operates. This analysis helps in understanding how high quality is maintained in a project where anyone may participate with no prior vetting. It also carries implications for improving the quality of more conventional datasets.
information quality, negotiations
Stvilia, B., Twidale, M. B., Gasser, L., Smith, L. C. Assessing information quality of a community-based encyclopedia Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Quality - ICIQ 2005. Cambridge, MA. 442-454 2005 [203]
Effective information quality analysis needs powerful yet easy ways to obtain metrics. The English version of Wikipedia provides an extremely interesting yet challenging case for the study of Information Quality dynamics at both macro and micro levels. We propose seven IQ metrics which can be evaluated automatically and test the set on a representative sample of Wikipedia content. The methodology of the metrics construction and the results of tests, along with a number of statistical characterizations of Wikipedia articles, their content construction, process metadata and social context are reported.
information quality
Ruiz M. Casado and Enrique Alfonseca and Pablo Castells Automatic Extraction of Semantic Relationships for WordNet by Means of Pattern Learning from Wikipedia Natural Language Processing and Information Systems: 10th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems, NLDB 2005, Alicante, Spain, June 15-17, 2005: Proceedings, 2005 2005 [204]
This paper describes an automatic approach to identify lexical patterns which represent semantic relationships between concepts, from an on-line encyclopedia. Next, these patterns can be applied to extend existing ontologies or semantic networks with new relations. The experiments have been performed with the Simple English Wikipedia and WordNet 1.7. A new algorithm has been devised for automatically generalising the lexical patterns found in the encyclopedia entries. We have found general patterns for the hyperonymy, hyponymy, holonymy and meronymy relations and, using them, we have extracted more than 1200 new relationships that did not appear in WordNet originally. The precision of these relationships ranges between 0.61 and 0.69, depending on the relation.
learning, semantic wikipedia
Emigh, William and Herring, Susan C. Collaborative Authoring on the Web: A Genre Analysis of Online Encyclopedias Paper presented at the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. ≪ Collaboration Systems and Technology Track ≫, Hawai. 2005 [205]
This paper presents the results of a genre analysis of two web-based collaborative authoring environments, Wikipedia and Everything2, both of which are intended as repositories of encyclopedic knowledge and are open to contributions from the public. Using corpus linguistic methods and factor analysis of word counts for features of formality and informality, we show that the greater the degree of post-production editorial control afforded by the system, the more formal and standardized the language of the collaboratively-authored documents becomes, analogous to that found in traditional print encyclopedias. Paradoxically, users who faithfully appropriate such systems create homogeneous entries, at odds with the goal of open-access authoring environments to create diverse content. The findings shed light on how users, acting through mechanisms provided by the system, can shape (or not) features of content in particular ways. We conclude by identifying sub-genres of webbased collaborative authoring environments based on their technical affordances.
Rafaeli, Sheizaf, Hayat, Tsahi and Ariel, Yaron Wikipedia Participants and "Ba": Knowledge Building and Motivations. Paper Presented at Cyberculture 3rd Global Conference. Prague, Czech Republic 2005 [206] English
Rafaeli, Sheizaf, Hayat, Tsahi and Ariel, Yaron Wikipedians' sense of community, motivations, and knowledge building. Proceedings of Wikimania 2005 - The First International Wikimedia Conference, Frankfurt, Germany 2005 [207] English
In this paper, we examine the discursive situation of Wikipedia. The primary goal is to explore principle ways of analyzing and characterizing the various forms of communicative user interaction using Foucault"s discourse theory. First, the communicative situation of Wikipedia is addressed and a list of possible forms of communication is compiled. Second, the current research on the linguistic features of Wikis, especially Wikipedia, is reviewed. Third, some key issues of Foucault"s theory are explored: the notion of "discourse", the discursive formation, and the methods of archaeology and genealogy, respectively. Finally, first steps towards a qualitative discourse analysis of the English Wikipedia are elaborated. The paper argues, that Wikipedia can be understood as a discursive formation that regulates and structures the production of statements. Most of the discursive regularities named by Foucault are established in the collaborative writing processes of Wikipedia, too. Moreover, the editing processes can be described in Foucault"s terms as discursive knowledge production.
Krotzsch, Markus, Denny Vrandecic, Max Volkel Wikipedia and the Semantic Web The Missing Links Wikimania'05 2005 [208] Follow-up? [209]
Wikipedia is the biggest collaboratively created source of encyclopaedic knowledge. Growing beyond the borders of any traditional encyclopaedia, it is facing new problems of knowledge management: The current excessive usage of article lists and categories witnesses the fact that 19th century content organization technologies like inter-article references and indices are no longer su#cient for today's needs. Rather, it is necessary to allow knowledge processing in a computer assisted way, for example to intelligently query the knowledge base. To this end, we propose the introduction of typed links as an extremely simple and unintrusive way for rendering large parts of Wikipedia machine readable. We provide a detailed plan on how to achieve this goal in a way that hardly impacts usability and performance, propose an implementation plan, and discuss possible difficulties on Wikipedia's way to the semantic future of the World Wide Web. The possible gains of thisendeavor are huge; we sketch them by considering some immediate applications that semantic technologies can provide to enhance browsing, searching, and editing Wikipedia.
Semantic web, Wikipedia
Buntine, Wray Static Ranking of Web Pages, and Related Ideas Open Source Web Information Retrieval 2005 [210] Link-based analysis
Voss, Jakob Measuring Wikipedia. Proceedings International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics : 10th, Stockholm (Sweden) 2005 [211]
Wikipedia, an international project that uses Wiki software to collaboratively create an encyclopaedia, is becoming more and more popular. Everyone can directly edit articles and every edit is recorded. The version history of all articles is freely available and allows a multitude of examinations. This paper gives an overview on Wikipedia research. Wikipedia’s fundamental components, i.e. articles, authors, edits, and links, as well as content and quality are analysed. Possibilities of research are explored including examples and first results. Several characteristics that are found in Wikipedia, such as exponential growth and scale-free networks are already known in other context. However the Wiki architecture also possesses some intrinsic specialities. General trends are measured that are typical for all Wikipedias but vary between languages in detail.
social web, wikipedia
Bellomi, Francesco and Roberto Bonato Network Analysis for Wikipedia Proceedings of Wikimania 2005, Frankfurt, Germany. 2005 [212]
Network analysis is concerned with properties related to connectivity and distances in graphs, with diverse applications like citation indexing and information retrieval on the Web. HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search) is a network analysis algorithm that has been successfully used for ranking web pages related to a common topic according to their potential relevance. HITS is based on the notions of hub and authority: a good hub is a page that points to several good authorities; a good authority is a page that is pointed at by several good hubs. HITS exclusively relies on the hyperlink relations existing among the pages, to define the two mutually reinforcing measures of hub and authority. It can be proved that for each page these two weights converge to fixed points, the actual hub and authority values for the page. Authority is used to rank pages resulting from a given query (and thus potentially related to a given topic) in order of relevance. The hyperlinked structure of Wikipedia and the ongoing, incremental editing process behind it make it an interesting and unexplored target domain for network analysis techniques. In particular, we explored the relevance of the notion of HITS's authority on this encyclopedic corpus. We've developed a crawler that extensively scans through the structure of English language Wikipedia articles, and that keeps track for each entry of all other Wikipedia articles pointed at in its de ̄nition. The result is a directed graph (roughly 500000 nodes, and more than 8 millions links), which consists for the most part of a big loosely connected component. Then we applied the HITS algorithm to the latter, thus getting a hub and authority weight associated to every entry. First results seem to be meaningful in characterizing the notion of authority in this peculiar domain. Highest-rank authorities seem to be for the most part lexical elements that denote particular and concrete rather than universal and abstract entities. More precisely, at the very top of the authority scale there are concepts used to structure space and time like country names, city names and other geopolitical entities (such as United States and many European countries), historical periods and landmark events (World War II, 1960s). "Television", "scientifc classification" and "animal" are the first three most authoritative common nouns. We will also present the first results issued from the application of well-known PageRank algorithm (Google's popular ranking metrics detailed in [2]) to the Wikipedia entries collected by our crawler.
link-mining, wikipedia
Reagle, Joseph M. A Case of Mutual Aid: Wikipedia, Politeness, and Perspective Taking Proceedings of Wikimania 2005 -- The First International Wikimedia Conference, Frankfurt, Germany. 2005 [213]
The anarchist Peter Kropotkin once wrote that “Mutual aid is as much a law of animal life as mutual struggle” (1902). At the time, he was responding to arguments arising from Darwin's The Origin of Species: that in nature and society individual creatures ceaselessly struggle against each other for dominance. Kropotkin took pains to explain and provide examples of how animals and humans survive by cooperating with each other. Interestingly, Kropotkin also contributed the article on anarchism to the 1911 Encyclopadia Britannica, a collaborative product of the Scottish Enlightenment and a precursor to the Wikipedia, a collaborative, on-line, and free encyclopedia. This paper explores the character of “mutual aid” and interdependent decision making within the Wikipedia. I provide a brief introduction to Wikipedia, the key terms associated with group decision making, and the Wikipedia dispute resolution process. I then focus on the cultural norms (e.g., “good faith”) within Wikipedia that frame participation as a cooperative endeavor. In particular, I argue that the “neutral point of view policy” policy is not a source of conflict, as it is often perceived to be, but a resolution shaping norm. However, the naive understanding that this policy is about an unbiased neutrality is also problematic. I conclude by identifying some notions from negotiation literature that may be inappropriate or require adaptation to the Wikipedia case.
collaboration, collective action, mutual aid, wiki, wikipedia
Fissaha Adafre, Sisay and de Rijke, Maarten Discovering Missing Links in Wikipedia Proceedings of the Workshop on Link Discovery: Issues, Approaches and Applications (LinkKDD-2005) 2005 [214]
In this paper we address the problem of discovering missing hypertext links in Wikipedia. The method we propose consists of two steps: first, we compute a cluster of highly similar pages around a given page, and then we identify candidate links from those similar pages that might be missing on the given page. The main innovation is in the algorithm that we use for identifying similar pages, LTRank, which ranks pages using co-citation and page title information. Both LTRank and the link discovery method are manually evaluated and show acceptable results, especially given the simplicity of the methods and conservativeness of the evaluation criteria.
missing links, wikipedia, clustering, system issues
Bryant, Susan, Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of participation in a collaborative online encyclopedia Proceedings of GROUP International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2005. pp 1.-10. 2005 [215]
Traditional activities change in surprising ways when computermediated communication becomes a component of the activity system. In this descriptive study, we leverage two perspectives on social activity to understand the experiences of individuals who became active collaborators in Wikipedia, a prolific, cooperatively-authored online encyclopedia. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a lens for understanding participation in a community as an adaptable process that evolves over time. We use ideas from activity theory as a framework to describe our results. Finally, we describe how activity on the Wikipedia stands in striking contrast to traditional publishing and suggests a new paradigm for collaborative systems.
community, incentives, wikipedia
Ahn, David, Jijkoun, Valentin, Mishne, Gilad, Muller, Karin, de Rijke, Maarten, and Schlobach, Stefan Using Wikipedia at the TREC QA Track The Thirteenth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC 2004) 2005 [216]
We describe our participation in the TREC 2004 Question Answering track. We provide a detailed account of the ideas underlying our approach to the QA task, especially to the so-called "other" questions. This year we made essential use of Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, both as a source of answers to factoid questions and as an importance model to help us identify material to be returned in response to "other" questions.
question-answering, semantic text-mining, wikipedia
Augur, Naomi, Ruth Raitman and Wanlei Zhou Teaching and learning online with wikis 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. Perth, Australia: Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE). (5th-8th Dec 2004). 95-104. 2004 [217] Despite Wikipedia not being mentioned in title or abstract, it is a common example and heavily discussed in article itself.
Wikis are fully editable websites; any user can read or add content to a wiki site. This functionality means that wikis are an excellent tool for collaboration in an online environment. This paper presents wikis as a useful tool for facilitating online education. Basic wiki functionality is outlined and different wikis are reviewed to highlight the features that make them a valuable technology for teaching and learning online. Finally, the paper discuses a wiki project underway at Deakin University. This project uses a wiki to host an icebreaker exercise which aims to facilitate ongoing interaction between members of online learning groups. Wiki projects undertaken in America are outlined and future wiki research plans are also discussed. These wiki projects illustrate how e-learning practitioners can and are moving beyond their comfort zone by using wikis to enhance the process of teaching and learning online.
wiki, teaching
Bellomi F., Bonato R. Lexical Authorities in an Encyclopedic Corpus: a Case Study with Wikipedia. Paper presented at the International Colloquium on ‘Word structure and lexical systems: models and applications’, December 16 - 18, 2004, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. 2004 [218] Blog description only? link-mining, wikipedia
Lih, Andrew Wikipedia as Participatory Journalism: Reliable Sources? Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Online Journalism, April 16 - 17, 2004, Austin, Texas, United States. 2004 [219]
Wikipedia is an Internet-based, user contributed encyclopedia that is collaboratively edited, and utilizes the wiki concept -- the idea that any user on the Internet can change any page within the Web site, even anonymously. Paradoxically, this seemingly chaotic process has created a highly regarded reference on the Internet. Wikipedia has emerged as the largest example of participatory journalism to date -- facilitating many-to-many communication among users editing articles, all working towards maintaining a neutral point of view -- Wikipedia’s mantra. This study examines the growth of Wikipedia and analyzes the crucial technologies and community policies that have enabled the project to prosper. It also analyzes Wikipedia’s articles that have been cited in the news media, and establishes a set of metrics based on established encyclopedia taxonomies and analyzes the trends in Wikipedia being used as a source.
wikipedia, journalism
Viegas, F. B., Wattenberg, M. and Dave, K. Studying cooperation and conflict between authors with history flow visualizations CHI 2004, 575-582. 2004 [220]
The Internet has fostered an unconventional and powerful style of collaboration: “wiki” web sites, where every visitor has the power to become an editor. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of Wikipedia, a prominent, thriving wiki. We make three contributions. First, we introduce a new exploratory data analysis tool, the history flow visualization, which is effective in revealing patterns within the wiki context and which we believe will be useful in other collaborative situations as well. Second, we discuss several collaboration patterns highlighted by this visualization tool and corroborate them with statistical analysis. Third, we discuss the implications of these patterns for the design and governance of online collaborative social spaces. We focus on the relevance of authorship, the value of community surveillance in ameliorating antisocial behavior, and how authors with competing perspectives negotiate their differences.
collaborative writing, social informatics, visualization, wikis
Smolenski, Nikola Wikipedia in Serbian language and Cyrillic script. Presentation at scientific-technical conference "Contemporary informatic technologies - Internet and Cyrillic script", November 25, Bijeljina. 2003 [221] Serbian?
Moller, Erik Loud and clear: How Internet media can work. Presentation at Open Cultures conference, June 5 - 6, Vienna. 2003 [222] Video and no abstract?
Winkler, Stefan Selbstorganisation der Kommunikation Wissenschaft - Offentlichkeit im virtuellen Raum, Koblenz, Forschungsstelle Wissenstransfer. Unknown 2003 German
Primo, Alex Fernando Teixeira and Recuero, Raquel da Cunha Hipertexto cooperativo: Uma analise da escrita coletiva a partir dos blogs e da Wikipedia. Paper presented at Seminario Internacional da Comunicacao. "Da aldeia global ao ciberespaco: Tecnologias do imaginario como extensao do homem", Porto Alegre 2003 [223] Portuguese
O artigo tem o objetivo de analisar e discutir as caracteristicas da escrita coletiva, segundo o conceito de hipertexto cooperativo. A partir disso, discute-se como os blogs e a wikipedia (uma enciclopedia digital construida online) viabilizam a concretizacao de uma uma "web viva", ou seja, redigida e interligada pelos proprios internautas.

Journal articles[edit]

This table is sortable.
Authors Title Publisher Year Online Notes Abstract Keywords
wales, Jimmy Future Web Setting knowledge free. Index on Censorship Volume 36 Pages 2007 []
The author discusses the challenges facing the Internet industry concerning the implementation of censorship by governments worldwide. He stresses that the Internet offers various advantages to end users which include easy access to information and provision of informal education. He states that Wikipedia is one of the numerous services found in the Internet which gives an opportunity for people to search for information for free. The author argues that the action carried out by governments to limit Internet access will prohibit individuals to utilize its benefits.
yi, Shi Tian & lu, Li Ming Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation Method Based on Wikipedia Computer Engineering Volume 35 Pages 62--4 2009 []
Most traditional Word Sense {Disambiguation(WSD)} method is just based on contextual information, often results in inaccurate output. A multi-level unsupervised automatic {WSD} method which works efficiently is promoted. This method utilizes the rich semantic information extracted from online Wikipedia, makes a linear fusion of contextual information, background knowledge and semantic information, uses logistic regression algorithm to learn the weight of each feature, and selects the one with the maximum combined value as correct meaning. Experimental result on {SENSEVAL} dataset shows an average precision of 85.50\%, therefore validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.
{[Anon]} Wikipedia: the book; from the free encylopedia Wikipedia; {ZEITSCHRIFT} {FUR} {BIBLIOTHEKSWESEN} {UND} {BIBLIOGRAPHIE} Volume 53 Pages 319--319 2006 [225]
Abilock, Debbie INQUIRY EVALUATION. Knowledge Quest Volume 38 Pages 34--45 2010 []
The article focuses on series of judgment calls that end in a summative assessment of credibility for librarians for teaching evaluation on students as inquiry. It presents a model for credibility assessment which is an iterative process and is based on several factors. It refers to Wikipedia's list of projects, Wikimedia 2009c, for ideas on teaching evaluation from educators.
Achterman, D. Beyond “Wikipedia� Teacher Librarian Volume 34 Pages 19--22 2006 [226]
{WHILE} {POLARIZED} {VIEWS} {OF} {READING} {METHODOLOGIES,} {FILTERING,} {DIGITAL} {RIGHTS} {MANAGEMENT} {(DRM),} {OPEN} {SOURCE,} {COPYRIGHT/COPYLEFT,} {CONSTRUCTIVISM,} {E-BOOKS,} {COMPUTER} {LABS,} {FIXED} {SCHEDULES,} {MAC/PC/LINUX,} {AND} {THE} {ONE} {LAPTOP} {PER} {CHILD} {PROJECT} {ALL} {MAKE} {FOR} {ENTERTAINING} {READING} {AND} A {RAISED} {BLOOD} {PRESSURE,} I {OFTEN} {WONDER} {IF} {RADICAL} {STANCES} {ACTUALLY} {CREATE} {EDUCATIONAL} {CHANGE} {OR} {AFFECT} {EDUCATIONAL} {INS-UTIONS} {ENOUGH} {TO} {CHANGE} {KIDS'} {CHANCES} {FOR} {SUCCESS.} Separate or integrate tech/info lit curriculum Encyclopedia Britannica or Wikipedia Evolutionary or revolutionary change Content knowledge or process skills Testing or assessment Mandated skills or teacher choice Print or online Libraries or technology Fixed or flex scheduling It is this sort of black and white thinking that makes stimulating reading and engenders reader outpourings of love or hate.
Achterman, Doug Surviving Wikipedia. Knowledge Quest Volume 33 Pages 38--40 2005 []
Discusses the issue of information literary in school library media programs in the United States. Impact of information literacy and teacher collaboration on student search habits; Criticism of information literacy; Reason why information literacy is actually harmful.
Adamic, {L.A.}; Wei, Xiao; Yang, Jiang; Gerrish, S.; Nam, {K.K.} & Clarkson, {G.S.} Individual focus and knowledge contribution First Monday Volume 15 Pages 14 pp. 2010 []
Before contributing new knowledge, individuals must attain requisite background knowledge or skills through schooling, training, practice, and experience. Given limited time, individuals often choose either to focus on few areas, where they build deep expertise, or to delve less deeply and distribute their attention and efforts across several areas. In this paper we measure the relationship between the narrowness of focus and the quality of contribution across a range of both traditional and recent knowledge sharing media, including scholarly articles, patents, Wikipedia, and online question and answer forums. Across all systems, we observe a small but significant positive correlation between focus and quality.
{Ah-Pine}, Julien; Bressan, Marco; Clinchant, Stephane; Csurka, Gabriela; Hoppenot, Yves & Renders, {Jean-Michel} Crossing textual and visual content in different application scenarios Multimedia Tools and Applications Volume 42 Pages 31--56 2009 [227]
This paper deals with multimedia information access. We propose two new approaches for hybrid text-image information processing that can be straightforwardly generalized to the more general multimodal scenario. Both approaches fall in the trans-media pseudo-relevance feedback category. Our first method proposes using a mixture model of the aggregate components, considering them as a single relevance concept. In our second approach, we define trans-media similarities as an aggregation of monomodal similarities between the elements of the aggregate and the new multimodal object. We also introduce the monomodal similarity measures for text and images that serve as basic components for both proposed trans-media similarities. We show how one can frame a large variety of problem in order to address them with the proposed techniques: image annotation or captioning, text illustration and multimedia retrieval and clustering. Finally, we present how these methods can be integrated in two applications: a travel blog assistant system and a tool for browsing the Wikipedia taking into account the multimedia nature of its content. 2008 Springer {Science+Business} Media, {LLC.
Alemu, G. A Development and maintenance of the Ethiopian legal information website Afrika Focus Volume 20 Pages NaN []
Altmann, Udo Representation of medical informatics in the wikipedia and its perspectives Studies in Health Technology and Informatics Volume 116 Pages 755--760 2005 [228]
A wiki is a technique for collaborative development of documents on the web. The Wikipedia is a comprehensive free online encyclopaedia based on this technique which has gained increasing popularity and quality. This paper's work explored the representation of Medical Informatics in the Wikipedia by a search of specific and less specific terms used in Medical Informatics and shows the potential uses of wikis and the Wikipedia for the specialty. Test entries into the Wikipedia showed that the practical use of the so-called {WikiMedia} software is convenient. Yet Medical Informatics is not represented sufficiently since a number of important topics is missing. The Medical Informatics communities should consider a more systematic use of these techniques for disseminating knowledge about the specialty for the public as well as for internal and educational purposes.
{Amichai-Hamburger}, Y; Lamdan, N; Madiel, R & Hayat, T Personality Characteristics of Wikipedia Members {CYBERPSYCHOLOGY} \& {BEHAVIOR} Volume 11 Pages 679--681 2008 [229]
Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' {(Wikipedia} users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of {Real-Me} and {BFI} dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to {non-Wikipedia} users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to {non-Wikipedia} members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and {non-Wikipedia} members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members.
Andrews, S. Wikipedia uncovered: the best source of knowledge or broken beyond repair"?" {PC} Pro Pages 132--6 2007 []
Some call it a miracle of the information age. Lauded by science journals, wealthy tycoons, national newspapers and government ministers, in the space of six years Wikipedia has become one of the most widely consulted knowledge resources in the world. Leapfrogging rivals such as Britannica, it has become the online encyclopedia. This paper uncovers how the net's highly controversial encyclopedia really works.
Aneesh, T. Exploit A Major Breakthrough of Your Lifetime: Learn The Secrets of Anti-Aging Science Pages 2009 []
Anonymous Unplugging Leaks {BioTechniques} Pages NaN []
Anonymous WikiTweaking {BioTechniques} Pages NaN []
Anonymous REVOLUTIONIZING KNOWLEDGE WORK Leader to Leader Volume 2008 Pages 2008 []
Social media such as {MySpace,} Wikipedia, and {LinkedIn} have revolutionized the Internet experience for millions of people around the world. New technologies such as wikis, tagging, blogs, and social networks are democratizing content creation and distribution. By putting the power of the Web into the hands of individuals, social media have helped transform the Internet from a mechanism for one-way dissemination of information to a platform for many-to-many interaction. But businesses -- and the men and women who lead them -- have been slow to adopt social media technologies. By bringing social media into the enterprise, forward-thinking leaders are reshaping their business strategies. As knowledge workers gain more control over online information, they create a more collaborative and efficient work environment, improving employee productivity and driving competitive advantage.
Anonymous Web Watch Quality Progress Volume 38 Pages 2005 []
Wikis are new forms of social software, designed to promote information sharing. They are Web pages that can be edited by the user. Everyone can share information in real time and with little trouble. Wikis remove the bureaucracy and promote the community of people with like interests. Information on a wiki site does not start out as authoritative. The software makes no attempt to check the accuracy and stature of the person who shares information. Information presented is corrected and refined by peers. This is peer review on a grand scale in that the community can be worldwide. The most successful wiki today is the Wikipedia Project, a huge encyclopedia generated by the citizens of the world at Wikis can be used to promote the understanding of quality and how it's practiced.
Anthony, Denise; Smith, Sean W. & Williamson, Timothy THE CASE OF THE ONLINE ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA. Rationality \& Society Volume 21 Pages 283--306 2009 []
An important organizational innovation enabled by the revolution in information technologies is 'open source' production which converts private commodities into essentially public goods. Similar to other public goods, incentives for reputation and group identity appear to motivate contributions to open source projects, overcoming the social dilemma inherent in producing such goods. In this paper we examine how contributor motivations affect the type of contributions made to the open source online encyclopedia Wikipedia. As expected, we find that registered participants, motivated by reputation and commitment to the Wikipedia community, make many contributions with high reliability. Surprisingly, however, we find the highest reliability from the vast numbers of anonymous {'Good} Samaritans' who contribute only once. Our findings of high reliability in the contributions of both Good Samaritans and committed 'zealots' suggest that open source production succeeds by altering the scope of production such that a critical mass of contributors can participate. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Anthony, Denise; Smith, Sean W & Williamson, Timothy Reputation and Reliability in Collective Goods Rationality and Society Volume 21 Pages 283--306 2009 []
An important organizational innovation enabled by the revolution in information technologies is 'open source' production which converts private commodities into essentially public goods. Similar to other public goods, incentives for reputation and group identity appear to motivate contributions to open source projects, overcoming the social dilemma inherent in producing such goods. In this paper we examine how contributor motivations affect the type of contributions made to the open source online encyclopedia Wikipedia. As expected, we find that registered participants, motivated by reputation and commitment to the Wikipedia community, make many contributions with high reliability. Surprisingly, however, we find the highest reliability from the vast numbers of anonymous {'Good} Samaritans' who contribute only once. Our findings of high reliability in the contributions of both Good Samaritans and committed 'zealots' suggest that open source production succeeds by altering the scope of production such that a critical mass of contributors can participate. {[Reprinted} by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright holder.]
Antin, J. Social operational information, competence, and participation in online collective action Pages 2010 [230]
so to speak. In this dissertation I examine how social operational information --information and beliefs about the other people who act in online collective action systems--can influence individuals' attitudes, assumptions, behaviors, and motivations with respect to those systems. I examine the role of social operational information from two distinct but related perspectives. First, I employed a social psychological laboratory study to examine the influence of a specific type of social operational information: relative competence feedback. Experimental findings demonstrate that individuals who received information that they were of low relative competence compared to others contributed less to a collective good compared to those who received either average or high relative competence feedback. Two key attitudes about abilities and responsibilities in inter-dependent situations-- self-efficacy and social responsibility --mediated the competence-contribution relationship. Furthermore, individual participants' stable preferences about the distribution of rewards for themselves and other people (social value orientation) moderated the observed changes in contribution rates across experimental conditions. Secondly, I conducted a qualitative interview study of Wikipedia's infrequent editors and readers. The study focused on documenting and understanding participants' attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions about Wikipedia's social system and the other individuals who contribute to it. Interviews focused on questions about the nature of Wikipedia and its' user-generated system, the characteristics of the people who write Wikipedia, and the motivations that encourage their participation. Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of tensions around the nature of Wikipedia as an open, user-generated system, as well as between widespread negative stereotypes of contributors as geeks, nerds, and hackers and equally prevalent positive assumptions about their pro-social motivations for contributing to Wikipedia. I argue that these tensions reveal a transition towards a view of online collaborative work as open, creative, and focused on collaboration, dominated by intrinsic motivations such as passion, interest, and a desire to contribute something to the world. This emerging view of work on Wikipedia is captured by Himanen's notion of The Hacker Ethic. Finally, I explore how qualitative and experimental findings can speak to each other, and discuss some methodological challenges and best practices for combining experimental and qualitative methods. I argue that triangulating qualitative and experimental results in the context of this study facilitates: (1) lending detail and nuance to our understanding of complex attitudes such as social responsibility, and (2) improving the ecological validity of experimental findings by vetting assumptions about competence and social roles/responsibilities in a real-world context.{\textless}/p{\textgreater
Antoch, Jarom�r Environment for statistical computing Computer Science Review Volume 2 Pages 113--122 2008 [231]
Aragon, Janni TECHNOLOGIES AND PEDAGOGY: HOW YOUTUBING, SOCIAL NETWORKING, AND OTHER WEB SOURCES COMPLEMENT THE CLASSROOM. Feminist Collections: A Quarterly of Women's Studies Resources Volume 28 Pages 2007 []
The author shares her increasing use of online sources as teaching tools in her women's studies and political science courses. She discloses that she has been using {YouTube,} {MySpace} and {FaceBook} for her classroom discussions. She explains that these online sources attract the attention of students because of the ease in access to such sites. Her students send her video clips from {YouTube,} which relate to the course content. Meanwhile, she warns her students not to cite Wikipedia in their research papers.
Arazy, A; Nov, O; Patterson, R & Yeo, L Information Quality in Wikipedia: The Effects of Group Composition and Task Conflict Journal of Management Information Systems Pages 2011 []
Arazy, Ofer; Gellatly, Ian; Jang, Soobaek & Patterson, Raymond Wiki Deployment in Corporate Settings. {IEEE} Technology \& Society Magazine Volume 28 Pages 57--64 2009 []
The article explores the deployment of Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia in corporate set up. The authors found that the medium emerged as powerful collaborative technology. They determined in corporate setting it was used for variety of purposes, such as from portals, to project management and knowledge-base creation. They also examined that regularly attract users who are primarily persuaded by making work easier and helping the organization achieve its goals, while social reputation did not seem to a significant motivational aspect.
Arazy, O; Stroulia, E; Ruecker, S; Arias, C; Fiorentino, C; Ganev, V & Yau, T Recognizing Contributions in Wikis: Authorship Categories, Algorithms, and Visualizations {JOURNAL} {OF} {THE} {AMERICAN} {SOCIETY} {FOR} {INFORMATION} {SCIENCE} {AND} {TECHNOLOGY} Volume 61 Pages 1166--1179 2010 [232]
Wikis are designed to support collaborative editing, without focusing on individual contribution, such that it is not straightforward to determine who contributed to a specific page. However, as wikis are increasingly adopted in settings such as business, government, and education, where editors are largely driven by career goals, there is a perceived need to modify wikis so that each editor's contributions are clearly presented. In this paper we introduce an approach for assessing the contributions of wiki editors along several authorship categories, as well as a variety of information glyphs for visualizing this information. We report on three types of analysis: (a) assessing the accuracy of the algorithms, (b) estimating the understandability of the visualizations, and (c) exploring wiki editors' perceptions regarding the extent to which such an approach is likely to change their behavior. Our findings demonstrate that our proposed automated techniques can estimate fairly accurately the quantity of editors' contributions across various authorship categories, and that the visualizations we introduced can clearly convey this information to users. Moreover, our user study suggests that such tools are likely to change wiki editors' behavior. We discuss both the potential benefits and risks associated with solutions for estimating and visualizing wiki contributions.
Ardia, David S. Reputation in a Networked World: Revisiting the Social Foundations of Defamation Law. Harvard Civil {Rights-Civil} Liberties Law Review Volume 45 Pages 261--328 2010 []
The article explores the social foundations of defamation law as of 2010 and the concept of reputation amid the emergence of online platforms such as blogs, social networks and discussion forums. It recounts the definition of reputation and its importance in humans and other social species as part of a set of feedback mechanisms within human social systems and a major factor in evolution. Described is how reputational information is used, created, and disseminated by a networked society. The court case about the editing of celebrity Ron Livingston's Wikipedia entry to suggests that he is gay is also discussed. It is inferred that private online intermediaries like content hosts and search providers would be helpful in mitigating reputational harms.
Arney, C. [The Wikipedia Revolution] Volume 44 Pages 69--70 2010 [233]
Aron, D. Dynamic collaboration: a personal reflection Journal of Information Technology Volume 24 Pages 214--18 2009 [234]
This paper explores the nature of, and possibilities arising from, dynamic collaboration, where large numbers of people can collaborate on an evolving set of initiatives, without prior knowledge of each other. It references early examples of dynamic collaboration including Topcoder, Innocentive, Zopa, and Wikipedia. It then speculates about the future of dynamic collaboration.
Arshinoff, Bradley I.; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M.; Merchant, Sohel M.; Kibbe, Warren A.; Chisholm, Rex L. & Welch, Roy D. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database Nucleic Acids Res. Volume 35 Pages D422--426 2007 [235]
{xanthusBase} ( is the official model organism database {(MOD)} for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism {(MO)} for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of {xanthusBase} incorporates open-source software, leveraging the cumulative experience made available through the Generic Model Organism Database {(GMOD)} project, {MediaWiki} (, and {dictyBase} (, to create a {MOD} that is both highly useful and easily navigable. In addition, we have incorporated a unique Wikipedia-style curation model which exploits the internet's inherent interactivity, thus enabling M.xanthus and other myxobacterial researchers to contribute directly toward the ongoing genome annotation.
Atanassova, V. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia International Journal Volume 13 Pages NaN []
Auray, Nicolas; Poudat, Céline & Pons, Pascal Democratizing scientific vulgarization. The balance between cooperation and conflict in french Wikipedia Observatorio {(OBS*)} Volume 1 Pages 2007 [236]
The free online encyclopedia project Wikipedia has become in less than six years one of the most prominent commons-based peer production example. The present study investigates the patterns of involvement and the patterns of cooperation within the French version of the encyclopaedia. In that respect, we consider different groups of users, highlighting the opposition between passerby contributors and core members, and we attempt to evaluate for each class of contributors the main motivations for their participation to the project. Then, we study the qualitative and quantitative patterns of cowriting and the correlation between size and quality of the production process.
Austin, M. The wikipedia phenomenon Information World Review Pages 38--9 2005 []
Wikipedia is a rapidly expanding encyclopaedia of communally assembled information, but can information professionals really trust the knowledge that is being put together here? Or is the world now embracing a new form of knowledge repository that undermines many of our sacred principles? The author gets deep inside the wiki concept of collective wisdom. Wikipedia is an online collaborative encyclopaedia created by nerds and geeks and often - if not always - inaccurate in some way. It uses as its base a wiki to control the version management and handle the database and user information
Aycock, John & Aycock, Alan Why I Love/Hate Wikipedia: Reflections upon (Not Quite) Subjugated Knowledges Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Volume 8 Pages 2008 []
Wikipedia is a well-known online encyclopedia, whose content is contributed and edited by volunteers. Its use by students for their research is, to be polite, controversial. Is Wikipedia really evil, or is it a teaching opportunity in disguise, a representation of some deeper cultural change? We present first-hand accounts from two different disciplines, computer science and anthropology, to illustrate how experiences with Wikipedia may be crossdisciplinary. We use these to reflect upon the nature of Wikipedia and its role in teaching.
Badke, W Stepping Beyond WIKIPEDIA {EDUCATIONAL} {LEADERSHIP} Volume 66 Pages 54--58 2009 [237]
Badke, W What to do with Wikipedia {ONLINE} Volume 32 Pages 48--50 2008 [238]
Bai, Bing; Weston, Jason; Grangier, David; Collobert, Ronan; Sadamasa, Kunihiko; Qi, Yanjun; Chapelle, Olivier & Weinberger, Kilian Learning to rank with (a lot of) word features Information Retrieval Volume 13 Pages 291 -- 314 2010 [239]
In this article we present Supervised Semantic Indexing which defines a class of nonlinear (quadratic) models that are discriminatively trained to directly map from the word content in a query-document or document-document pair to a ranking score. Like Latent Semantic Indexing {(LSI),} our models take account of correlations between words (synonymy, polysemy). However, unlike {LSI} our models are trained from a supervised signal directly on the ranking task of interest, which we argue is the reason for our superior results. As the query and target texts are modeled separately, our approach is easily generalized to different retrieval tasks, such as cross-language retrieval or online advertising placement. Dealing with models on all pairs of words features is computationally challenging. We propose several improvements to our basic model for addressing this issue, including low rank (but diagonal preserving) representations, correlated feature hashing and sparsification. We provide an empirical study of all these methods on retrieval tasks based on Wikipedia documents as well as an Internet advertisement task. We obtain state-of-the-art performance while providing realistically scalable methods.
Baltzersen, {R.K.} Radical transparency: Open access as a key concept in wiki pedagogy Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Volume 26 Pages 791--809 2010 []
Educators have just started to use wikis and most of the educational research to date has focused primarily on the use of local wikis with access limitations. There seems to be little research related to how students can contribute in global, transparent wiki communities such as Wikipedia and Wikibooks. The purpose of this article is to argue that we need to extend our understanding of transparency as a pedagogical concept if we want to use these open, global wiki communities in an educational setting. By describing one wiki based course in detail, I argue that these kinds of radically transparent learning environments in tertiary education challenge traditional pedagogy and our ordinary perceptions of what a class and working assignment is. The course data in this article include a course description and teacher and student reflections on assessed group projects which produced student written
Banchuen, T. The geographical analog engine: Hybrid numeric and semantic similarity measures for U.S. cities Pages 2008 [240]
{Bar-Ilan}, J Wikipedia - A New Community of Practice? {ONLINE} {INFORMATION} {REVIEW} Volume 34 Pages 354--355 2010 [241]
{Bar-Ilan}, Judit Web links and search engine ranking: The case of Google and the query Jew"" Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 57 Pages 1581--1589 2006 [242]
The World Wide Web has become one of our more important information sources, and commercial search engines are the major tools for locating information; however, it is not enough for a Web page to be indexed by the search engines-it also must rank high on relevant queries. One of the parameters involved in ranking is the number and quality of links pointing to the page, based on the assumption that links convey appreciation for a page. This article presents the results of a content analysis of the links to two top pages retrieved by Google for the query jew" as of July 2004: the "jew" entry on the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia
Bates, Mary Ellen Truth and fiction on the Web Online {(Wilton,} Connecticut) Volume 30 Pages 2006 []
The views of Mary Ellen Bates on the research tool, Wikipedia, which prevents false information from being added to it and needs to be added to a new article in the registered English-language version of the project, are presented. He suggests that efforts must be made to the accuracy of the tool by checking articles that are about the organization. Much debate has occurred on blogs and e-mail discussion lists, still there are people who wouldn't know about the blog. The challenge we info pros is to manage the expectations of the clients and patrons, and teach them how to trust and verify.
Bauerlein, M. REPN TRI to the Fullest!!! Volume 8 Pages 2008 [243]
Baytiyeh, H. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters Volume 13 Pages 128--40 NaN [244]
Beer, D Making Friends with Jarvis Cocker: Music Culture in the Context of Web 2.0 {CULTURAL} {SOCIOLOGY} Volume 2 Pages 222--241 2008 [245]
The movement toward what has been described as Web 2.0 has brought with it some significant transformations in the practices, organization and relations of music culture. The user-generated and web-top applications of Web 2.0 are already popular and widely used, the social networking site {MySpace} already having more than 130 million members worldwide. By focusing specifically upon the presence of the popular music performer Jarvis Cocker across various Web 2.0 applications, this article seeks to open up a series of questions and create opportunities for research into what is happening in contemporary music culture. This exploratory article lays out an agenda for research into music culture and Web 2.0 that is not only concerned with the implications of Web 2.0 for music, but which also attempts to understand the part played by music in making the connections that form the collaborative and participatory cultures of Web 2.0 and the flickering friendships of social networking sites.
Belden, Dreanna; Stephens, Michael {(Editor} & Cox, Christopher N. {(Editor} Harnessing Social Networks to Connect with Audiences : If You Build It, Will They Come 2.0? Internet reference services quarterly Volume 13 Pages 99--111 2008 []
Digital libraries offer users a wealth of online resources, but most of these materials remain hidden to potential users. Established strategies for outreach and promotion bring limited success when trying to connect with users accustomed to Googling their way through research. Social Networks provide an opportunity for connecting with audiences in the places they habitually seek information. The University of North Texas Libraries' Portal to Texas History (http://texashistory.unt. edu/) has experienced dramatic increases in Web usage and reference requests by harnessing the power of social networks such as Wikipedia and My Space.
Bell, S. Wikis as legitimate research sources Online Volume 32 Pages 34--7 2008 []
Too many people equate the word wiki" with Wikipedia and
Berinstein, Paula Wikipedia and britannica : The kid's all right (and so's the old man) Searcher {(Medford} Volume 14 Pages 2006 []
Peut-on comparer Wikipedia, l'encyclopédie communautaire du Web, et {l'Encyclopaedia} Britannica ? Contributeurs, public, mission, ampleur, processus éditorial, autorité, tout les distingue. Wikipedia est un exemple fascinant du passage à un modèle radicalement différent, celui de l'édition collaborative et du consensus provisoire. Mais en dépit de sa popularité, Wikipedia souffre d'absence de crédibilité en tant que source faisant autorité.
Besten, Matthijs Den & Dalle, {Jean-Michel} Keep it simple: A companion for simple wikipedia? Industry and Innovation Volume 15 Pages 169--178 2008 [246]
In this paper, we inquire about some of the ways in which the community around Simple Wikipedia - an offspring of Wikipedia, the notorious free online encyclopedia - manages the online collaborative production of reliable knowledge. We focus on how it keeps its collection of articles simple" and easy to read. We find that the labeling of pages as "unsimple" by core members of the community plays a significant but seemingly insufficient role. We suggest that the nature of this mode of decentralized knowledge production and the structure of Wiki-technology might call for the implementation of an editorial companion to the community."
Bhole, Abhijit; Fortuna, Blaz; Grobelnik, Marko & Mladenic, Dunja Extracting named entities and relating them over time based on Wikipedia Informatica {(Ljubljana)} Volume 31 Pages 463--468 2007 []
This paper presents an approach to mining information relating people, places, organizations and events extracted from Wikipedia and linking them on a time scale. The approach consists of two phases: (1) identifying relevant pages - categorizing the articles as containing people, places or organizations; (2) generating timeline - linking named entities and extracting events and their time frame. We illustrate the proposed approach on 1.7 million Wikipedia articles.
Birbal, Ria; Maharajh, Hari D; Birbal, Risa; Clapperton, Maria; Jarvis, Johnathan; Ragoonath, Anushka & Uppalapati, Kali Cybersuicide and the adolescent population: challenges of the future? International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Volume 21 Pages 151--159 2009 [247]
Cybersuicide is a term used in reference to suicide and its ideations on the Internet. Cybersuicide is associated with websites that lure vulnerable members of society and empower them with various methods and approaches to deliberate self-harm. Ease of accessibility to the Internet and the rate at which information is dispersed contribute to the promotion of 'offing' one's self which is particularly appealing to adolescents. This study aims to explore this phenomenon, which seems to be spreading across generations, cultures, and races. Information and articles regarding Internet suicide and other terminology, as well as sub-classifications concerning this new form of suicide, were reviewed. Through search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Wikipedia, we investigated the differentiations between 'web cam' suicide, 'net suicide packs', sites that merely offer advice on how to commit suicide and sites that are essential in providing the means of performing the act. Additionally, materials published in scientific journals and data published by the Public Health Services, Centers for Disease Control, and materials from private media agencies were reviewed. Resources were also sourced from The Faculty of Medical Sciences Library, {UWI} at Mt. Hope. Cybersuicide is a worldwide problem among adolescents and a challenge of the future.
Bizer, Christian; Lehmann, Jens; Kobilarov, Georgi; Auer, Soren; Becker, Christian; Cyganiak, Richard & Hellmann, Sebastian DBpedia - A crystallization point for the Web of Data Journal of Web Semantics Volume 7 Pages 154--165 2009 [248]
The {DBpedia} project is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and to make this information accessible on the Web. The resulting {DBpedia} knowledge base currently describes over 2.6 million entities. For each of these entities, {DBpedia} defines a globally unique identifier that can be dereferenced over the Web into a rich {RDF} description of the entity, including human-readable definitions in 30 languages, relationships to other resources, classifications in four concept hierarchies, various facts as well as data-level links to other Web data sources describing the entity. Over the last year, an increasing number of data publishers have begun to set data-level links to {DBpedia} resources, making {DBpedia} a central interlinking hub for the emerging Web of Data. Currently, the Web of interlinked data sources around {DBpedia} provides approximately 4.7 billion pieces of information and covers domains such as geographic information, people, companies, films, music, genes, drugs, books, and scientific publications. This article describes the extraction of the {DBpedia} knowledge base, the current status of interlinking {DBpedia} with other data sources on the Web, and gives an overview of applications that facilitate the Web of Data around {DBpedia.} 2009 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Black, Erik W. Wikipedia and academic peer review: Wikipedia as a recognised medium for scholarly publication? Online Information Review Volume 32 Pages 73--88 2008 [249]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to engage in a thought experiment, exploring the use of Wikipedia or similar content-malleable systems for the review and dissemination of academic knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - By looking at other sources, the paper considers the current state of the academic peer-review process, discusses Wikipedia and reflects on dynamic content creation and management applications currently in use in academia. Findings - The traditional peer review process must be updated to match the rapid creation and diffusion of knowledge that characterises the 21st century. The Wikipedia concept is a potential model for more rapid and reliable dissemination of scholarly knowledge. The implications of such a concept would have a dramatic effect on the academic community. Originality/value - This paper promotes a radical idea for changing the methods by which academic knowledge is both constructed and disseminated.
Black, Erik W. Wikipedia and academic peer review Online Information Review Volume 32 Pages 2008 []
The purpose of this paper is to engage in a thought experiment, exploring the use of Wikipedia or similar content-malleable systems for the review and dissemination of academic knowledge. By looking at other sources, the paper considers the current state of the academic peer-review process, discusses Wikipedia and reflects on dynamic content creation and management applications currently in use in academia. The traditional peer review process must be updated to match the rapid creation and diffusion of knowledge that characterizes the 21st century. The Wikipedia concept is a potential model for more rapid and reliable dissemination of scholarly knowledge. The implications of such a concept would have a dramatic effect on the academic community. This paper promotes a radical idea for changing the methods by which academic knowledge is both constructed and disseminated. {[PUBLICATION} {ABSTRACT]
Blackman, S Nature has Wikipedia in its cites {SCIENTIST} Volume 20 Pages 18--19 2006 [250]
Bleicher, Paul Web 2.0 Revolution: Power to the People. Applied Clinical Trials Volume 15 Pages 34--36 2006 []
The article highlights developments in the use of websites and weblogs citing the range of services available on the world wide web. One information source is the Wikipedia, which is an online encyclopedia of information that uses an open source software. On the other hand, blogging software sites allow an unsophisticated user to set up a blog in minutes and begin publishing on a topic of their choice almost immediately.
Boyer, C Education and consumer informatics Yearbook of Medical Informatics Pages 72--74 2010 [251]
{OBJECTIVES:} To evaluate the extent to which the Internet is accessed for health information and perceived as useful to varying groups classified primarily according to age. {METHOD:} Synopsis of the articles on education and consumer health informatics selected for the {IMIA} Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2010. {RESULTS:} A growing number of individuals are actively seeking health information through a varying selection of resources. The Internet is now seen as a major source of health information alongside with books and other means of paper-based literature. However, it is not clear how the Internet is perceived by varied groups such as those coming from differing age groups. {CONCLUSION:} The papers selected attempt to obtain a better understanding about how the public perceives and uses the Internet as an information gathering tool-especially for health information. The papers also explore into how the Internet is used by different groups of people. As all online health information is not of uniform quality, it is important to access and rely on quality medical information. This issue is also dealt with, where the popularity of Wikipedia is measured with the popularity of reliable web sources such as Medline Plus and {NHS} Direct.
Brokowski, Laurie & Sheehan, Amy Heck Evaluation of pharmacist use and perception of Wikipedia as a drug information resource The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Volume 43 Pages 1912--1913 2009 [252]
Brown, James J. Essjay's Ethos": Rethinking Textual Origins and Intellectual Property" College Composition and Communication Volume 61 Pages 2009 []
Discussions of intellectual property are often the focus of rhetoric and composition research, and the question of textual origins grounds these discussions. Through an examination of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia anyone can edit, this essay addresses disciplinary concerns about textual origins and intellectual property through a discussion of situated and constructed ethos." {(Contains} 8 notes.)"
Brunsell, Eric & Horejsi, Martin Wiki, Wiki! Science Teacher Volume 77 Pages 2010 []
The article focuses on the benefits of wikis to science students. The introduction of the crowd-source encyclopedia called Wikipedia in 2001 is credited for the increased wiki visibility. The value of wikis in education is attributed to their ease of use, accessibility and opportunity for students to collaborate on projects in and outside of class. Among the wiki projects ideal for students are creating online posters and virtual museum exhibits.
Bryant, Antony Wiki and the Agora: 'It's organising, Jim, but not as we know it' Development in Practice Volume 16 Pages 559--569 2006 [253]
This article argues that those keen to characterise and harness the empowering potential of Information and Communications Technology {[ICT]} for development projects must understand that the very existence of this technology opens up alternative models of co-operation and collaboration. These models themselves necessitate breaking away from 'traditional' command-and-control models of management. One alternative is to persuade participants, or potential participants, to co-ordinate their efforts along the lines exemplified by the open-source software movement and the contributors to Wikipedia: models of co-ordination that ought not to work but appear to do so. The article offers a summary of this argument, and then suggests ways in which {NGOs} in particular might try to incorporate these insights into their strategies. This is particularly critical for organisations that rely on increasingly pressurised funding opportunities, and which also seek to develop and engender participation and determination from within and among specific target groupings.
Bunescu, R. Learning for information extraction: From named entity recognition and disambiguation to relation extraction Pages 2007 [254]
{BUSH}, {GAIL} Thinking Around the Corner: The Power of Information Literacy. Phi Delta Kappan Volume 90 Pages 446--447 2009 []
The article discusses methods teacher can use to increase information literacy in students who must function in an information society. The author suggests teachers should train students to examine sources of information, such as websites or newspapers, for accuracy and bias. She recommends that students be instructed to verify facts and notes the unreliability of the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia. Teachers can use global topics such as globalization and environmental issues to help students explore local connections and develop critical thinking skills. Social networking websites and multi-user virtual environments can be used to promote cooperative learning.
Buzzi, Marina & Leporini, Barbara Editing Wikipedia content by screen reader: easier interaction with the Accessible Rich Internet Applications suite Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology Volume 4 Pages 264--275 2009 [255]
{PURPOSE:} This study aims to improve Wikipedia usability for the blind and promote the application of standards relating to Web accessibility and usability. {METHOD:} First, accessibility and usability of Wikipedia home, search result and edit pages are analysed using the {JAWS} screen reader; next, suggestions for improving interaction are proposed and a new Wikipedia editing interface built. Most of the improvements were obtained using the Accessible Rich Internet Applications {(WAI-ARIA)} suite, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium {(W3C)} within the framework of the Web Accessibility Initiative {(WAI).} Last, a scenario of use compares interaction of blind people with the original and the modified interfaces. {RESULTS:} Our study highlights that although all contents are accessible via screen reader, usability issues exist due to the user's difficulties when interacting with the interface. The scenario of use shows how building an editing interface with the {W3C} {WAI-ARIA} suite eliminates many obstacles that can prevent blind users from actively contributing to Wikipedia. {CONCLUSION:} The modified Wikipedia editing page is simpler to use via a screen reader than the original one because {ARIA} ensures a page overview, rapid navigation, and total control of what is happening in the interface.
Calkins, S. Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom Volume 20 Pages 123--43 NaN [256]
Calkins, Susanna & Kelley, Matthew R Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom Journal on Excellence in College Teaching Volume 20 Pages 2009 []
The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and community nature of Wikipedia as well as Wikipedia's accuracy, reputability, ease, and accessibility. Furthermore, they examined students' reflections on issues of plagiarism, responsibility, and whether Wikipedia qualifies as a scholarly source. Student perceptions were closely related to their level of intellectual and ethical development as defined by Perry (1970, 1998). {(Contains} 2 tables.)
Callis, Kristine L.; Christ, Lindsey R.; Resasco, Julian; Armitage, David W.; Ash, Jeremy D.; Caughlin, Timothy T.; Clemmensen, Sharon F.; Copeland, Stella M.; Fullman, Timothy J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Olson, Charley; Pruner, Raya A.; {Vieira-Neto}, Ernane {H.M.}; {West-Singh}, Raneve & Bruna, Emilio M. Improving Wikipedia: educational opportunity and professional responsibility Trends in Ecology \& Evolution Volume 24 Pages 177--179 2009 [257]
Camihort, Karin Moyano Students as Creators of Knowledge: When Wikipedia Is the Assignment. Athletic Therapy Today Volume 14 Pages 30--34 2009 []
The article examines the use of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia in higher education. Wikipedia is said not to be suitable to be cited as a reference in academic writing, but is described as a valuable teaching aid in the classroom. Means of having college students present their research and classroom learning on the online encyclopedia are discussed.
Campbell, Charles Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. {TDR:} The Drama Review Volume 53 Pages 185--187 2009 []
The article reviews the web site Wikipedia, located at
Cantador, Iv�n; Konstas, Ioannis & Jose, Joemon M. Categorising Social Tags to Improve Folksonomy-based Recommendations Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web Pages NaN []
Capocci, A.; Rao, F. & Caldarelli, G. Taxonomy and clustering in collaborative systems: the case of the on-line encyclopedia wikipedia Europhysics Letters Volume 81 Pages 28006--1 2008 [258]
In this paper we investigate the nature and structure of the relation between imposed classifications and real clustering in a particular case of a scale-free network given by the on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. We find a statistical similarity in the distributions of community sizes both by using the top-down approach of the categories division present in the archive and in the bottom-up procedure of community detection given by an algorithm based on the spectral properties of the graph. Regardless of the statistically similar behaviour, the two methods provide a rather different division of the articles, thereby signaling that the nature and presence of power laws is a general feature for these systems and cannot be used as a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of a clustering method.
Capocci, A.; Servedio, {V.D.P.}; Colaiori, F.; Buriol, {L.S.}; Donato, D.; Leonardi, S. & Caldarelli, G. Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: The internet encyclopedia Wikipedia Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Volume 74 Pages 2006 [259]
We present an analysis of the statistical properties and growth of the free on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. By describing topics by vertices and hyperlinks between them as edges, we can represent this encyclopedia as a directed graph. The topological properties of this graph are in close analogy with those of the World Wide Web, despite the very different growth mechanism. In particular, we measure a scale-invariant distribution of the in and out degree and we are able to reproduce these features by means of a simple statistical model. As a major consequence, Wikipedia growth can be described by local rules such as the preferential attachment mechanism, though users, who are responsible of its evolution, can act globally on the network. 2006 The American Physical Society.
Carpineto, Claudio; Mizzaro, Stefano; Romano, Giovanni & Snidero, Matteo Mobile information retrieval with search results clustering: Prototypes and evaluations Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 60 Pages 877--895 2009 [260]
Web searches from mobile devices such as {PDAs} and cell phones are becoming increasingly popular. However, the traditional list-based search interface paradigm does not scale well to mobile devices due to their inherent limitations. In this article, we invthe application of search results clustering, used with some success for desktop computer searches, to the mobile scenario. Building on {CREDO} {(Conceptual} Reorganization of Documents), a Web clustering engine based on concept lattices, we present imobile versions Credino and {SmartCREDO} , for {PDAs} and cell phones, respectively. Next, we evaluate the retrieval performance of the three prototype systems. We measure the effectiveness of their clustered results compared to a ranked list of results on a retrieval task, by means of the device-independent notion of subtopic reach time with a reusable test collection built from Wikipedia ambiguous entries. Then, we make a crosscomparison of methods (i.e., clustering and ranked list) and dev(i.e., desktop, {PDA,} and cell phone), using an interactive information-finding task performed by external participants. The main finding is that clustering engines are a viable complementary approach to plain search engines both for desktop and mobilsearches especially, but not only, for multitopic informational queries. 2009 {ASIST.
Castelluccio, M. A New Year, a New Internet Strategic Finance Volume 89 Pages 2008 []
A wiki, according to the guy who invented them, is the simplest online database that could possibly work. Ward Cunningham launched his first wiki in 1995, and the format has been widely adopted since by academics, artists, hackers, and business professionals. The most famous wiki is Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia. Like other wikis, Wikipedia has an open editing system where the readers are the contributing editors and proofreaders. The readers write the articles. One of the problems with defining wikis is that the word, which actually means quick" in Hawaiian
Caverly, David C. & Ward, Anne Techtalk: Wikis and Collaborative Knowledge Construction. Journal of Developmental Education Volume 32 Pages 36--37 2008 []
The article explores the use of wikis in college classrooms, particularly for developmental education {(DE)} students. A wiki refers to a variety of dynamic Web pages that can be edited using Web browsers. Examples of wikis include Wikipedia, {MySpace} and {YouTube.} It discusses the vulnerability of wikis like Wikipedia to present a constructed reality dependent on those who post. Information is presented on the instructional applications of wikis, namely resource wikis, presentation wikis, gateway wikis, simulation wikis and illuminated wikis.
Cedergren, Magnus Open content and value creation First Monday Volume 8 Pages 2003 []
Discusses the value, and motivations between cooperative creators in working with online open content projects; uses value models for the Open Directory Project {(ODP),} Wikipedia, and Prelinger's Movies to trace value exchanges. Open content is defined as content produced not-for-profit, often collectively within a virtual community, with the intentional purpose of making content available for further distribution and improvement by others at no cost.
Chakrabarti, Manali Why Did Indian Big Business Pursue a Policy of Economic Nationalism1 in the Interwar Years? A New Window to an Old Debate Modern Asian Studies Volume 43 Pages 2008 [261]
Chaletzky, Aaron D. Wiki: The Collaborative Resource for Library Science and Information Technology Professionals. Slavic \& East European Information Resources Volume 7 Pages 133--140 2006 []
This paper looks at the value of wikis as a collaborative resource for library science and digital libraries, briefly explores the history of wikis, cites examples of why wikis are viewed with hope and suspicion, and illustrates a wiki in use by the Digital Conversion Team at The Library of Congress. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Chander, Anupam & Sunder, Madhavi Everyone's a Superhero: A Cultural Theory of Mary Sue" Fan Fiction as Fair Use" California Law Review Volume 95 Pages 2007 []
Fan fiction spans all genres of popular culture, from anime to literature. In every fan lierature, there is the Mary Sue. According to Wikipedia, a {Mary} Sue" is a fictional character who is portrayed in an idealized way and lacks noteworthy flaws and appears in the form of a new character beamed into the story or a marginal character brought out from the shadows. {"Mary} Sue" is often a pejorative expression
Chandler, C. J. Sleeping with the Enemy: Wikipedia in the College Classroom Volume 43 Pages 247--57 2010 [262]
{Chandler-Olcott}, Kelly Digital Literacies. A Tale of Two Tasks: Editing in the Era of Digital Literacies Journal of Adolescent \& Adult Literacy Volume 53 Pages 2009 []
This article argues that editing in the era of digital literacies is a complex, collaborative endeavor that requires a sophisticated awareness of audience and purpose and a knowledge of multiple conventions for conveying meaning and ensuring accuracy. It compares group editing of an article about the New York Yankees baseball team on Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia, to the decontextualized proofreading task required of seventh graders on a state-level examination. It concludes that literacy instruction in schools needs to prepare students for the multiple dimensions of editing in both print and online environments, which means teaching them to negotiate meanings with others, not merely to correct surface-feature errors. {(Contains} 1 figure.)
liang Chen, Hsin The perspectives of higher education faculty on Wikipedia Electronic Library Volume 28 Pages 361--73 2010 [263]
Purpose - This purpose of this paper is to investigate whether higher education instructors use information from Wikipedia for teaching and research. Design/methodology/approach - This is an explorative study to identify important factors regarding user acceptance and use of emerging information resources and technologies in the academic community. A total of 201 participants around the world answered an online questionnaire administered by a commercial provider. The questionnaire consisted of 16 Likert-scaled questions to assess participants' agreement with each question along with an optional open-ended explanation. Findings - The findings of this project confirm that internet access was related to faculty technology use. Online resources and references were ranked the first choice by the participants when searching for familiar and unfamiliar topics. The investigator found that participants' academic ranking status, frequency of e-mail use and academic discipline were related to their use of online databases, web-based information and directing students to information from the Web. Although the participants might often use online resources for research and teaching, Wikipedia's credibility was the participants' major concern. Research limitations/implications - This project is an exploratory study and more considerations are needed for this research area. Originality/value - The paper shows that participants who used online databases more often showed a negative attitude toward Wikipedia. Those participants who used Wikipedia for teaching and research also allowed students to use information from Wikipedia and were more likely to be contributors to Wikipedia.
Chen, Hsinchun Trends Controversies [Business and Market Intelligence 2.0] {IEEE} Intelligent Systems Volume 25 Pages 68--83 2010 [264]
Business Intelligence {(BI),} a term coined in 1989, has gained much traction in the {IT} practitioner community and academia over the past two decades. According to Wikipedia, {BI} refers to the skills
liang Chen, Hsin The use and sharing of information from Wikipedia by high-tech professionals for work purposes Electronic Library Volume 27 Pages 893--905 2009 [265]
{Purpose-The} aim of this paper is to focus on discovering whether high-tech professionals as a user community search for information from Wikipedia to fulfill their job duties and, if they do, how they share information with co-workers and clients. Design/methodology/approach - An online questionnaire was used, administered by a commercial provider. The questionnaire consisted of 15 Likert-scaled questions to assess participants' agreement with each question along with an optional open-ended explanation. A total of 68 participants successfully answered the questionnaire. Participants' Likert rating scores were analyzed by two-way {ANOVA,} one-way {ANOVA} and correlational analyses using {SPSS.} {Findings-The} analyses examined relationships among participants' characteristics, their use of information resources for research and teaching, information-sharing behaviors, and use/non-use of Wikipedia. Findings indicated that the participants treated Wikipedia as a ready reference for general information. Their concern is that Wikipedia only has a limited number of entries available at this point. They suggested that Wikipedia needed to improve the contribution and editorial process and to make it more rigorous. {Originality/value-Personal} information infrastructure affects how the high-tech professionals surveyed use-and-share information from Wikipedia for work. In the current situation, the participants consider Wikipedia to be a developing information resource and show less interest in contributing to it. The project is an exploratory study and more considerations are needed for this research area.
Chen, {Ching-Jung} Art history: a guide to basic research resources Collection Building Volume 28 Pages 122--5 2009 [266]
The purpose of this paper is to present basic resources and practical strategies for undergraduate art history research. The paper is based on the author's experience as both an art librarian and instructor for a core requirement art history course. The plan detailed in this paper covers every step of the research process, from exploring the topic to citing the sources. The resources listed, which include subscription databases as well as public Web sites, are deliberately limited to a manageable number. Additional topics include defining the scope of inquiry and making appropriate use of Internet resources such as Wikipedia. The paper provides the academic librarian with clear guidance on basic research resources in art history.
Chen, {Nian-Shing} & Hsieh, {Sheng-Wen} Kinshuk Effects of short-term memory and content representation type on mobile language learning Language, Learning \& Technology Volume 12 Pages NaN [267]
Cheong, Pauline Hope; Halavais, Alexander & Kwon, Kyounghee The Chronicles of Me: Understanding Blogging as a Religious Practice. Journal of Media \& Religion Volume 7 Pages 107--131 2008 []
Blogs represent an especially interesting site of online religious communication. Analysis of the content of 200 blogs with mentions of topics related to Christianity, as well as interviews of a subset of these bloggers, suggests that blogs provide an integrative experience for the faithful, not a “third place,� but a melding of the personal and the communal, the sacred and the profane. Religious bloggers operate outside the realm of the conventional nuclear church as they connect and link to mainstream news sites, other nonreligious blogs, and online collaborative knowledge networks such as Wikipedia. By chronicling how they experience faith in their everyday lives, these bloggers aim to communicate not only to their communities and to a wider public but also to themselves. This view of blogging as a contemplative religious experience differs from the popular characterization of blogging as a trivial activity. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Chesney, T. An empirical examination of Wikipedia’s credibility First Monday Volume 11 Pages 0--0 2006 []
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopaedia; anyone can add content or edit existing content. The idea behind Wikipedia is that members of the public can add their own personal knowledge, anonymously if they wish. Wikipedia then evolves over time into a comprehensive knowledge base on all things. Its popularity has never been questioned, although some have speculated about its authority. By its own admission, Wikipedia contains errors. A number of people have tested Wikipedia’s accuracy using destructive methods, that is, deliberately inserting errors. This has been criticized by Wikipedia. This short study examined Wikipedia’s credibility by asking 258 research staff, with a response rate of 21\%, to read an article and assess its credibility, the credibility of its author, and the credibility of Wikipedia as a whole. Staff were either given an article in their own expert domain or a random article. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of their perceived credibility of Wikipedia or of the articles’ authors, but a difference was found in the credibility of the articles—the experts found Wikipedia’s articles to be more credible than the nonexperts. This suggests that the accuracy of Wikipedia is high. However, the results should not be seen as support for Wikipedia as a totally reliable resource as, according to the experts, 13\% of the articles contain mistakes.
Childs, Sue Wikipedia He@lth Information on the Internet Volume 47 Pages 2005 []
Cho, Hichang; Chen, Meihui & Chung, Siyoung Testing an Integrative Theoretical Model of Knowledge-Sharing Behavior in the Context of Wikipedia Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 61 Pages 1198--1212 2010 [268]
This study explores how and why people participate in collaborative knowledge-building practices in the context of Wikipedia. Based on a survey of 223 Wikipedians, this study examines the relationship between motivations, internal cognitive beliefs, social-relational factors, and knowledge-sharing intentions. Results from structural equation modeling {(SEM)} analysis reveal that attitudes, knowledge self-efficacy, and a basic norm of generalized reciprocity have significant and direct relationships with knowledge-sharing intentions. Altruism (an intrinsic motivator) is positively related to attitudes toward knowledge sharing, whereas reputation (an extrinsic motivator) is not a significant predictor of attitude. The study also reveals that a social-relational factor, namely, a sense of belonging, is related to knowledge-sharing intentions indirectly through different motivational and social factors such as altruism, subjective norms, knowledge self-efficacy, and generalized reciprocity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. 2010 {ASIST.
Choolhun, Natasha Google: to use, or not to use. What is the question? Legal Information Management Volume 9 Pages 2009 [269]
Chu, E. Sparse relational data sets: Issues and an application Pages 2008 [270]
and a wide table to store the resulting sparse data set
Chua, Alton Y. K.; Kaynak, Selcan & Foo, Schubert S. B. An analysis of the delayed response to hurricane katrina through the lens of knowledge management Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 58 Pages 391--403 2007 [271]
In contrast to many recent large-scale catastrophic events, such as the Turkish earthquake in 1999, the 9/11 attack in New York in 2001, the Bali Bombing in 2002, and the Asian Tsunami in 2004, the initial rescue effort towards Hurricane Katrina in the {U.S.} in 2005 had been sluggish. Even as Congress has promised to convene a formal inquiry into the response to Katrina, this article offers another perspective by analyzing the delayed response through the lens of knowledge management {(KM).} A {KM} framework situated in the context of disaster management is developed to study three distinct but overlapping {KM} processes, namely, knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge reuse. Drawing from a total of more than 400 documents - including local, national, and foreign news articles, newswires, congressional reports, and television interview transcripts, as well as Internet resources such as wikipedia and blogs - 14 major delay causes in Katrina are presented. The extent to which the delay causes were a result of the lapses in {KM} processes within and across the government agencies are discussed. 2006 Wiley Periodicals. Inc.
Chute, C G Distributed biomedical terminology development: from experiments to open process Yearbook of Medical Informatics Pages 58--63 2010 [272]
{OBJECTIVE:} Can social computing efforts materially alter the distributed creation and maintenance of complex biomedical terminologies and ontologies; a review of distributed authoring history and status. {BACKGROUND:} Social computing projects, such as Wikipedia, have dramatically altered the perception and reality of large-scale content projects and the labor required to create and maintain them. Health terminologies have become large, complex, interdependent content artifacts of increasing importance to biomedical research and the communities understanding of biology, medicine, and optimal healthcare practices. The question naturally arises as to whether social computing models and distributed authoring platforms can be applied to the voluntary, distributed authoring of high-quality terminologies and ontologies. {METHODS:} An historical review of distributed authoring developments. {RESULTS:} The trajectory of description logic-driven authoring tools, group process, and web-based platforms suggests that public distributed authoring is likely feasible and practical; however, no compelling example on the order of Wikipedia is yet extant. Nevertheless, several projects, including the Gene Ontology and the new revision of the International Classification of Disease {(ICD-11)} hold promise.
Ciesielka, D. Using a Wiki to Meet Graduate Nursing Education Competencies in Collaboration and Community Health Volume 47 Pages 473--6 2008 [273]
Ciffolilli, A. Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: the case of Wikipedia First Monday Volume 8 Pages 2003 [274]
Virtual communities constitute a building block of the information society. These organizations appear capable to guarantee unique outcomes in voluntary association since they cancel physical distance and ease the process of searching for like-minded individuals. In particular, open source communities, devoted to the collective production of public goods, show efficiency properties far superior to the traditional institutional solutions to the public goods issue (e.g. property rights enforcement and secrecy). We employ team and club good theory as well as transaction cost economics to analyse the Wikipedia online community, which is devoted to the creation of a free encyclopaedia. An interpretative framework explains the outstanding success of Wikipedia thanks to a novel solution to the problem of graffiti attacks-the submission of undesirable pieces of information. Indeed, Wiki technology reduces the transaction cost of erasing graffiti and therefore prevents attackers from posting unwanted contributions. The issue of the sporadic intervention of the highest authority in the system is examined, and the relatively more frequent local interaction between users is emphasized. The constellation of different motivations that participants may have is discussed, and the barriers-free recruitment process analysed. A few suggestions, meant to encourage long term sustainability of knowledge assemblages, such as Wikipedia, are provided. Open issues and possible directions for future research are also discussed
Cimini, Nicholas Struggles online over the meaning of 'Down's syndrome': A 'dialogic' interpretation Health {(London,} England: 1997) Volume 14 Pages 398--414 2010 [275]
Bakhtin's suggestion that a unified truth demands a 'multiplicity of consciousnesses' seems particularly relevant in the 'globally connected age'. At a time when the {DIY/'punk} ethic' seems to prevail online, and Wikipedia and blogging means that anyone with access to the Internet can enter into public deliberation, it is worth considering the potential for mass communication systems to create meaningful changes in the way that 'disability' is theorized. Based on the findings of qualitative research, this study explores competing interpretations of disability, specifically dialogue online over the meaning of Down's syndrome, from the vantage point of an approach towards language analysis that emanates from the work of the Bakhtin Circle. It will be shown that, suitably revised and supplemented, elements of Bakhtinian theory provide powerful tools for understanding online relations and changes in the notion of disability. It will also be shown that, while activists in the disabled people's movement have managed to effect modest changes to the way that disability is theorized, both online and in the 'real world', there remains a great deal still to be achieved. This study allows us to understand better the social struggles faced by disabled people and the opportunities open to them.
Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N Kamel & Dzenowagis, Joan H Scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Volume 42 Pages 1814--1821 2008 [276]
Conrad, M. Public History and its Discontents or History in the Age of Wikipedia Journal of the Canadian Historical Association Volume 18 Pages 2007 [277]
Cosley, Daniel Regis Helping hands: Design for member-maintained online communities Pages 2006 [278]
Coursey, K. The value of everything: Ranking and association with encyclopedic knowledge Pages 2009 [279]
which in turn can be effectively utilized for enumeration and comparison at a semantic level."
Crawford, Diane Editorial Pointers. Communications of the {ACM} Volume 50 Pages 2007 []
The article introduces several features contained in the current issue, including contributions from Oded Nov on what inspires people to provide content to Wikipedia, Matt Bishop and David Wagner on the state of California's e-voting machines, and David Lorge Parnas on the shortcomings of evaluating researchers according to how many papers they publish.
Cress, Ulrike & Kimmerle, Joachim A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis International Journal of {Computer-Supported} Collaborative Learning Volume 3 Pages 105--122 2008 [280]
Cross, Tom Puppy smoothies: improving the reliability of open, collaborative wikis First Monday Volume 11 Pages 2006 []
The reliability of information collected from at large Internet users by open collaborative wikis such as Wikipedia has been a subject of widespread debate. This paper provides a practical proposal for improving user confidence in wiki information by coloring the text of a wiki article based on the venerability of the text. This proposal relies on the philosophy that bad information is less likely to survive a collaborative editing process over large numbers of edits. Colorization would provide users with a clear visual cue as to the level of confidence that they can place in particular assertions made within a wiki article.
Crovitz, D. Wikipedia: Friend, Not Foe Volume 98 Pages 91--7 2009 [281]
Crovitz, D. Wikipedia: Friend, Not Foe Volume 98 Pages 91--7 2009 [282]
Crovitz, Darren & Smoot, W. Scott Wikipedia: Friend, Not Foe English Journal Volume 98 Pages 2009 []
As online research has become an increasingly standard activity for middle school and high school students, Wikipedia ( has simultaneously emerged as the bane of many teachers who include research-focused assignments in their courses. An online encyclopedia that allows anyone to edit its entries, Wikipedia has educators fed up with students using the site as a primary resource and citing its content in their essays. For some the site seems to represent the worst of how the Internet has dumbed down the research process, with its easily accessible but unsubstantiated (if not downright false) information on almost any topic, a student's citation of which amounts to a mockery of legitimate inquiry. After all, how can a site that allows anyone" to add
Crundwell, G. Enhancing the validity of the SAPS gold fingerprinting database through improved sample-collection techniques Pages 2008 [283]
and is in the possession of
Csomai, A. Keywords in the mist: Automated keyword extraction for very large documents and back of the book indexing Pages 2008 [284]
Csomai, A. & Mihalcea, R. Linking documents to encyclopedic knowledge {IEEE} Intelligent Systems Volume 23 Pages 34--41 2008 [285]
Wikipedia has become one of the largest online repositories of encyclopedic knowledge. Wikipedia editions are available for more than 200 languages, with entries varying from a few pages to more than 1 million articles per language. Embedded in each Wikipedia article is an abundance of links connecting the most important words or phrases in the text to other pages, thereby letting users quickly access additional information. An automatic text-annotation system combines keyword extraction and word-sense disambiguation to identify relevant links to Wikipedia pages.
{Czarnecka-Kujawa}, Kasia; Abdalian, Rupert & Grover, Samir C. M1042 The Quality of Open Access and Open Source Internet Material in Gastroenterology: Is Wikipedia Appropriate for Knowledge Transfer to Patients? Gastroenterology Volume 134 Pages April NaN []
Dalby, Andrew Wikipedia(s) on the language map of the world English Today Volume 23 Pages 2007 [286]
Damrosch, D. Toward a History of World Literature Volume 39 Pages 481--95 2008 [287]
Daub, Jennifer; Gardner, Paul P; Tate, John; Ramsköld, Daniel; Manske, Magnus; Scott, William G; Weinberg, Zasha; {Griffiths-Jones}, Sam & Bateman, Alex The RNA WikiProject: community annotation of RNA families {RNA} {(New} York, {N.Y.)} Volume 14 Pages 2462--2464 2008 [288]
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become one of the most important online references in the world and has a substantial and growing scientific content. A search of Google with many {RNA-related} keywords identifies a Wikipedia article as the top hit. We believe that the {RNA} community has an important and timely opportunity to maximize the content and quality of {RNA} information in Wikipedia. To this end, we have formed the {RNA} {WikiProject} {(\_RNA)} as part of the larger Molecular and Cellular Biology {WikiProject.} We have created over 600 new Wikipedia articles describing families of noncoding {RNAs} based on the Rfam database, and invite the community to update, edit, and correct these articles. The Rfam database now redistributes this Wikipedia content as the primary textual annotation of its {RNA} families. Users can, therefore, for the first time, directly edit the content of one of the major {RNA} databases. We believe that this {Wikipedia/Rfam} link acts as a functioning model for incorporating community annotation into molecular biology databases.
Daughton, Suzanne M. Cursed with self-awareness": gender-bending subversion Pages NaN []
Davis, Chris; Nikolic, Igor & Dijkema, Gerard {P.J.} Industrial ecology 2.0 Journal of Industrial Ecology Volume 14 Pages 707--726 2010 [289]
Summary: Industrial ecology {(IE)} is an ambitious field of study where we seek to understand systems using a wide perspective ranging from the scale of molecules to that of the planet. Achieving such a holistic view is challenging and requires collecting, processing, curating, and sharing immense amounts of data and knowledge. We are not capable of fully achieving this due to the current state of tools used in {IE} and current community practices. Although we deal with a vastly interconnected world, we are not so good at efficiently interconnecting what we learn about it. This is not a problem unique to {IE,} and other fields have begun to use tools supported by the World Wide Web to meet these challenges. We discuss these sets of tools and illustrate how community driven data collection, processing, curation, and sharing is allowing people to achieve more than ever before. In particular, we discuss standards that have been created to allow for interlinking of data dispersed across multiple Web sites. This is currently visible in the Linking Open Data initiative, which among others contains interlinked datasets from the {U.S.} and {U.K.} governments, biology databases, and Wikipedia. Since the types of technologies and standards involved are outside the normal scope of work by many industrial ecologists, we attempt to explain the relevance, implications, and benefits through a discussion of many real examples currently on the Web. From these, we discuss several best practices, which can be enabling factors for how {IE} and the community can more efficiently and effectively meet its ambitions-an agenda for Industrial Ecology 2.0. 2010 by Yale University.
Decker, Bjorn; Ras, Eric; Rech, Jorg; Jaubert, Pascal & Rieth, Marco Wiki-Based stakeholder participation in requirements engineering {IEEE} Software Volume 24 Pages 28--35 2007 [290]
Requirements elicitation and documentation are complex activities. The quality of their products can improve through stakeholders' participation, particularly in high-uncertainty projects. However, participative {RE,} especially in distributed environments, needs a platform that can support effective collaboration. The authors adapted the Wikipedia approach to collaboration in content creation to support active stakeholder participation in {RE,} including a document structure for wikibased {RE.} They discuss challenges and solutions based on their experience. 2007 {IEEE.
Dede, C. A Seismic Shift in Epistemology {EDUCAUSE} Review Volume 43 Pages NaN []
Web 2.0 is redefining what and how and with whom people learn. The term Web 2.0 reflects a shift in leading-edge applications on the World Wide Web, a shift from the presentation of material by Web site providers to the active co-construction of resources by communities of contributors. The epistemology that leans to validity of knowledge in Web 2.0 media such as Wikipedia is peer-review from people seen, by the community of contributors, as having unbiased perspectives. Certainly, the contrasts between Classical knowledge and Web 2.0 knowledge are continua rather than dichotomies, and one can find Web communities with epistemologies located between the sharp distinctions. Perhaps some similar synthesis about the nature of education can likewise bridge the Classical and the Web 2.0 views of knowledge, expertise, and learning -- providing a smooth transition over this seismic shift in epistemology.
Demartini, G.; Firan, C.; Iofciu, T.; Krestel, R. & Nejdl, W. Why finding entities in Wikipedia is difficult, sometimes Information Retrieval Volume 13 Pages 2010 [291]
Denning, Peter; Horning, Jim; Parnas, David & Weinstein, Lauren Wikipedia risks Communications of the {ACM} Volume 48 Pages 2005 [292]
Several risks related to Wikipedia, a venerable form of knowledge organization and dissemination are presented. Wikipedia does not confirm the accuracy of the information presented by them, and is unable to tell the motives of the contributors to an article. It is difficult to determine how qualified an article's contributors are, the revision histories often identify them by pseudonyms, making it difficult to check credentials and sources. Many articles in the Wikipedia do not cite independent sources. Wikipedia contains no formal peer review process for fact-checking, and the editors themselves might not be well versed in the topics they write about. The Wikipedia cannot attain the status of a true encyclopedia without more formal content-inclusion and expert review procedures.
Denoyer, Ludovic & Gallinari, Patrick Overview of the INEX 2008 XML Mining Track Advances in Focused Retrieval Pages Jaap Kamps Archives and Information Studies/Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 1012 XT 2009 [293]
We describe here the {XML} Mining Track at {INEX} 2008. This track was launched for exploring two main ideas: first identifying key problems for mining semi-structured documents and new challenges of this emerging field and second studying and assessing the potential of machine learning techniques for dealing with generic Machine Learning {(ML)} tasks in the structured domain i.e. classification and clustering of semi structured documents. This year, the track focuses on the supervised classification and the unsupervised clustering of {XML} documents using link information. We consider a corpus of about 100,000 Wikipedia pages with the associated hyperlinks. The participants have developed models using the content information, the internal structure information of the {XML} documents and also the link information between documents.
Denoyer, Ludovic & Gallinari, Patrick The Wikipedia XML corpus {ACM} {SIGIR} Forum Homepage Volume 40 Pages 64 -- 69 2006 [294]
Wikipedia is a well known free content, multilingual encyclopedia written collaboratively by contributors around the world. Anybody can edit an article using a wiki markup language that offers a simplified alternative to {HTML.} This encyclopedia is composed of millions of articles in different languages.
Devereux, Barry; Pilkington, Nicholas; Poibeau, Thierry & Korhonen, Anna Towards Unrestricted, Large-Scale Acquisition of Feature-Based Conceptual Representations from Corpus Data Research on Language and Computation Volume 7 Pages 137 -- 170 2009 [295]
In recent years a number of methods have been proposed for the automatic acquisition of feature-based conceptual representations from text corpora. Such methods could offer valuable support for theoretical research on conceptual representation. However, existing methods do not target the full range of concept-relation-feature triples occurring in human-generated norms (e.g. flute produce sound) but rather focus on concept-feature pairs (e.g. flute --- sound) or triples involving specific relations only (e.g. is-a or part-of relations). In this article we investigate the challenges that need to be met in both methodology and evaluation when moving towards the acquisition of more comprehensive conceptual representations from corpora. In particular, we investigate the usefulness of three types of knowledge in guiding the extraction process: encyclopedic, syntactic and semantic. We present first a semantic analysis of existing, human-generated feature production norms, which reveals information about co-occurring concept and feature classes. We introduce then a novel method for large-scale feature extraction which uses the class-based information to guide the acquisition process. The method involves extracting candidate triples consisting of concepts, relations and features (e.g. deer have antlers, flute produce sound) from corpus data parsed for grammatical dependencies, and re-weighting the triples on the basis of conditional probabilities calculated from our semantic analysis. We apply this method to an automatically parsed Wikipedia corpus which includes encyclopedic information and evaluate its accuracy using a number of different methods: direct evaluation against the {McRae} norms in terms of feature types and frequencies, human evaluation, and novel evaluation in terms of conceptual structure variables. Our investigation highlights a number of issues which require addressing in both methodology and evaluation when aiming to improve the accuracy of unconstrained feature extraction further.
Devgan, Lara; Powe, Neil; Blakey, Brittony & Makary, Martin Wiki-Surgery? Internal validity of Wikipedia as a medical and surgical reference Journal of the American College of Surgeons Volume 205 Pages September NaN []
Dijck, J Van & Nieborg, D Wikinomics and its discontents: a critical analysis of Web 2.0 business manifestos {NEW} {MEDIA} \& {SOCIETY} Volume 11 Pages 855--874 2009 [296]
{'Collaborative} culture', 'mass creativity' and 'co-creation' appear to be contagious buzzwords that are rapidly infecting economic and cultural discourse on Web 2.0. Allegedly, peer production models will replace opaque, top-down business models, yielding to transparent, democratic structures where power is in the shared hands of responsible companies and skilled, qualified users. Manifestos such as Wikinomics {(Tapscott} and Williams, 2006) and {'We-Think'} {(Leadbeater,} 2007) argue collective culture to be the basis for digital commerce. This article analyzes the assumptions behind this Web 2.0 newspeak and unravels how business gurus try to argue the universal benefits of a democratized and collectivist digital space. They implicitly endorse a notion of public collectivism that functions entirely inside commodity culture. The logic of Wikinomics and {'We-} Think' urgently begs for deconstruction, especially since it is increasingly steering mainstream cultural theory on digital culture.
van Dijk, Z Wikipedia and lesser-resourced languages {LANGUAGE} {PROBLEMS} \& {LANGUAGE} {PLANNING} Volume 33 Pages 234--250 2009 [297]
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, exists in more than 260 different language editions, some larger, some smaller. This article deals with difficulties in comparing them with each other and assessing their strength. Wikimedia Statistics can mislead if not interpreted with a knowledge about the ways Wikipedia editing works. Many language editions embellish the total number of articles by creating pseudo-articles with little or no encyclopedic value. The main question of the study presented by this article is what factors make a language edition grow, such as the existence of a standardized language, language status, Internet access for the average speaker, and the attitude of speakers to their language.
Dobozy, Eva & Gross, Julia e-Partnerships: Library information acquisition in the comfort of students' digital homes Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 312--319 NaN [298]
Dohn, {N.B.} Web 2.0-mediated competence-implicit educational demands on learners Electronic Journal of {e-Learning} Volume 7 Pages 111--18 2009 []
The employment of Web 2.0 within higher educational settings has become increasingly popular. Reasons for doing so include student motivation, didactic considerations of facilitating individual and collaborative knowledge construction, and the support Web 2.0 gives the learner in transgressing and resituating content and practices between the formal and informal learning settings in which s/he participates. However, introducing Web 2.0-practices into educational settings leads to tensions and challenges in practice because of conceptual tensions between the views of knowledge and learning inherent in Web 2.0-practices and in the educational system: Implicit in Web 2.0-practices is a conception of 'knowledge' as, on the one side, process and activity, i.e. as use, evaluation, transformation and reuse of material, and, on the other, the product side, as a distributed attribute of a whole system (such as Wikipedia) or community of practice (such as the community of practice of Wikipedia contributors). In contrast, 'knowledge' within the educational system is traditionally viewed as a state possessed by the individual, and learning as the acquisition of this state. This paper is an analysis of the challenges which these tensions lead to for the learners. The argument is that Web 2.0-mediated learning activities within an educational setting place implicit competence demands on the students, along with the more explicit ones of reflexivity, participation and knowledge construction. These demands are to some extent in conflict with each other as well as with the more explicit ones. A simple example of such conflicting competence demands is experienced when students develop a course wiki: The Web 2.0-competence demands here concern the doing something with the material. The copy-pasting of e.g. a Wikipedia-article without referencing it from this point of view is a legitimate contribution to the knowledge building of the course wiki. In contrast, educational competence demands require the student to participate actively in the formulation of the course wiki-articles. Copy-pasting without reference from this point of view is cheating. Here, the student is met with the incoherent requirement of authoring entries that display the acquisition of a knowledge state in a context where authorship is renounced and knowledge is understood dynamically and distributively. More generally, in Web 2.0-mediated educational learning activities, the student is required to manoeuvre in a field of interacting, yet conflicting, demands, and the assessment of his/her competence stands the risk of being more of an evaluation of the skill to so manoeuvre than of skills and knowledge explicitly pursued in the course.
Dondio, P. & Barrett, S. Computational trust in Web content quality: a comparative evalutation on the Wikipedia project Informatica Volume 31 Pages 151--60 2007 []
The problem of identifying useful and trustworthy information on the World Wide Web is becoming increasingly acute as new tools such as wikis and blogs simplify and democratize publication. It is not hard to predict that in the future the direct reliance on this material will expand and the problem of evaluating the trustworthiness of this kind of content become crucial. The Wikipedia project represents the most successful and discussed example of such online resources. In this paper we present a method to predict Wikipedia articles trustworthiness based on computational trust techniques and a deep domain-specific analysis. Our assumption is that a deeper understanding of what in general defines high-standard and expertise in domains related to Wikipedia h i.e. content quality in a collaborative environment h mapped onto Wikipedia elements would lead to a complete set of mechanisms to sustain trust in Wikipedia context. We present a series of experiment. The first is a study-case over a specific category of articles; the second is an evaluation over 8 000 articles representing 65\% of the overall Wikipedia editing activity. We report encouraging results on the automated evaluation of Wikipedia content using our domain-specific expertise method. Finally, in order to appraise the value added by using domain-specific expertise, we compare our results with the ones obtained with a pre-processed cluster analysis, where complex expertise is mostly replaced by training and automatic classification of common features.
Dorji, Tshering; sayed Atlam, El; Yata, Susumu; Fuketa, Masao; Morita, Kazuhiro & ichi Aoe, Jun Extraction, selection and ranking of Field Association (FA) Terms from domain-specific corpora for building a comprehensive FA terms dictionary Knowledge and Information Systems Pages 1--21 2010 [299]
Dorroh, Jennifer Wiki: Don't Lose That Number. American Journalism Review Volume 27 Pages 50--51 2005 []
This article explores the advantages provided by wikis to news organizations. Some online media experts say news sites should not give up on the wiki form too quickly. According to Nora Paul, director of the Institute for Media Studies at the University of Minnesota, news outlets that ignore wikis may miss a rich opportunity to expand their influence and their brand. Furthermore, wikis let readers do something they have never done with the newspaper before: They can edit, on the fly, text that has already been put out there, and then track the kinds of changes or contributions that others have made. The focus of Wikipedia and Wikinews on reporting, rather than on the opinion writing that the Times attempted, provides a useful model for news sites that aim to draw more reader input. A group of investigators could also use a wiki as a collection point for the information they unearth.
Doughty, Howard A {(REVIEWER)} Wikipedia [ ] College Quarterly Volume 8 Pages 2005 []
Duguid, P. Limits of self-organization: Peer production and laws of quality" First Monday Volume 11 Pages 0--0 2006 []
People often implicitly ascribe the quality of peer production projects such as Project Gutenberg or Wikipedia to what the author calls “laws� of quality. These are drawn from open source software development and it is not clear how applicable they are outside the realm of software. In this article, the author looks at examples from peer production projects to ask whether faith in these laws does not so much guarantee quality as hide the need for improvement. The author concludes that, given the bulk of these projects (52 million tracks in the Gracenote database, 1 million entries on the English Wikipedia site, 17,000 books on Project Gutenberg), sampling for quality is both difficult and tendentious. Clearly, the author's is not a scientific survey. Nor was his intention simply to find flaws. Rather, the author used these examples to try, however inadequately, to raise questions about the transferability of open source quality assurance to other domains. The author's underlying argument is that the social processes of open source software production may transfer to other fields of peer production, but, with regard to quality, software production remains a special case.
Ebner, Martin; {Kickmeier-Rust}, Michael & Holzinger, Andreas Utilizing Wiki-Systems in higher education classes: A chance for universal access? Universal Access in the Information Society Volume 7 Pages 199--207 2008 [300]
Ehmann, K.; Large, A. & Beheshti, J. Collaboration in context: comparing article evolution among subject disciplines in Wikipedia First Monday Volume 13 Pages 19 pp. 2008 []
This exploratory study examines the relationships between article and talk page contributions and their effect on article quality in Wikipedia. The sample consisted of three articles each from the hard sciences, soft sciences, and humanities, whose talk page and article edit histories were observed over a five-month period and coded for contribution types. Richness and neutrality criteria were then used to assess article quality and results were compared within and among subject disciplines. This study reveals variability in article quality across subject disciplines and a relationship between talk page discussion and article editing activity. Overall, results indicate the initial article creator's critical role in providing a framework for future editing as well as a remarkable stability in article content over time.
Eijkman, H. Academics and Wikipedia: Reframing Web 2.0+as a disruptor of traditional academic power-knowledge arrangements {Campus-Wide} Information Systems Volume 27 Pages 173--85 2010 [301]
Purpose - There is much hype about academics' attitude to Wikipedia. This paper seeks to go beyond anecdotal evidence by drawing on empirical research to ascertain how academics respond to Wikipedia and the implications these responses have for the take-up of Web 2.0+. It aims to test the hypothesis that Web 2.0+, as a platform built around the socially constructed nature of knowledge, is inimical to conventional power-knowledge arrangements in which academics are traditionally positioned as the key gatekeepers to knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - The research relies on quantitative and qualitative data to provide an evidence-based analysis of the attitudes of academics towards the student use of Wikipedia and towards Web 2.0+. These data were provided via an online survey made available to a number of universities in Australia and abroad. As well as the statistical analysis of quantitative data, qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis using relational coding. Findings - The data by and large demonstrate that Wikipedia continues to be a divisive issue among academics, particularly within the soft sciences. However, Wikipedia is not as controversial as popular publicity would lead one to believe. Many academics use it extensively though cautiously themselves, and therefore tend to support a cautious approach to its use by students. However, evidence supports the assertion that there is an implicit if not explicit awareness among academics that Wikipedia, and possibly by extension Web 2.0+, are disruptors of conventional academic power-knowledge arrangements. Practical implications - It is clear that academics respond differently to the disruptive effects that Web 2.0+has on the political economy of academic knowledge construction. Contrary to popular reports, responses to Wikipedia are not overwhelmingly focused on resistance but encompass both cautious and creative acceptance. It is becoming equally clear that the increasing uptake of Web 2.0+in higher education makes it inevitable that academics will have to address the political consequences of this reframing of the ownership and control of academic knowledge production. Originality/value - The paper demonstrates originality and value by providing a unique, evidence-based insight into the different ways in which academics respond to Wikipedia as an archetypal Web 2.0+application and by positioning Web 2.0+within the political economy of academic knowledge construction.
Eijkman, H. Web 2.0 as a non-foundational network-centric learning space {Campus-Wide} Information Systems Volume 25 Pages 93--104 2008 [302]
This paper aims to initiate a timely discussion about the epistemological advantages of Web 2.0 as a non-foundational network-centric learning space in higher education. A philosophical analysis of the underpinning design principles of Web 2.0 social media and of conventional foundational and emergent non-foundational learning and which uses Wikipedia as a case study. For academics in higher education to take a more informed approach to the use of Web 2.0 in formal learning settings and begin to consider integrating Web 2.0's architecture of participation with a non-foundational architecture of learning, focused on acculturation into networks of practice. The paper argues that the continuing dominance and therefore likely application of conventional old paradigm foundational learning theory will work against the grain of, if not undermine, the powerful affordances Web 2.0 social media provides for learning focused on social interaction and collaborative knowledge construction. The paper puts the case for non-foundational learning and draws attention to the importance of aligning Web 2.0's architecture of participation with a non-foundational architecture of acculturation as the latter is better epistemologically placed to more fully realise the potential of Web 2.0 to position students on trajectories of acculturation into their new networks of practice. This paper exposes the epistemological dilemma Web 2.0's participatory culture poses for academics wedded to conventional ideas about the nature of knowledge and learning as is, for instance, clearly evidenced by their sceptical disposition towards or outright rejection of, Wikipedia.
Ekins, S. & Williams, J. Precompetitive preclinical ADME/Tox data: set it free on the web to facilitate computational model building and assist drug development Lab on a Chip Volume 10 Pages 13--22 2010 [303]
Web-based technologies coupled with a drive for improved communication between scientists have resulted in the proliferation of scientific opinion, data and knowledge at an ever-increasing rate. The increasing array of chemistry-related computer-based resources now available provides chemists with a direct path to the discovery of information, once previously accessed via library services and limited to commercial and costly resources. We propose that preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity data as well as pharmacokinetic properties from studies published in the literature (which use animal or human tissues in vitro or from in vivo studies) are precompetitive in nature and should be freely available on the web. This could be made possible by curating the literature and patents, data donations from pharmaceutical companies and by expanding the currently freely available {ChemSpider} database of over 21 million molecules with physicochemical properties. This will require linkage to {PubMed,} {PubChem} and Wikipedia as well as other frequently used public databases that are currently used, mining the full text publications to extract the pertinent experimental data. These data will need to be extracted using automated and manual methods, cleaned and then published to the {ChemSpider} or other database such that it will be freely available to the biomedical research and clinical communities. The value of the data being accessible will improve development of drug molecules with good {ADME/Tox} properties, facilitate computational model building for these properties and enable researchers to not repeat the failures of past drug discovery studies.
Elia, Antonella QUANTITATIVE DATA AND GRAPHICS ON LEXICAL SPECIFICITY AND INDEX OF READABILITY: THE CASE OF WIKIPEDIA. {RaeL:} Revista Electronica de Linguistica Aplicada Pages 248--271 2009 []
Issue 8
Elvebakk, B. Philosophy democratized? First Monday Volume 13 Pages 1 pp. 2008 []
This article compares the individuals categorized as 20th century philosophers in Wikipedia with the selection found in two major edited and widely used online philosophy resources. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy {(} and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( These are both free online resources, but unlike Wikipedia- they are written and edited by members of the academic community, and thus sanctioned by the established communities. The individuals presented as 20th century philosophers are compared along the parameters of year of birth, gender, and national and disciplinary backgrounds. The results show that although the types of academics listed in Wikipedia are generally similar to those in the other encyclopaedias, their relative youth and their very numbers may still serve to give the user a very different impression on philosophy as a field.
Elveren, Erhan & YumuÅŸak, Nejat Tuberculosis Disease Diagnosis Using Artificial Neural Network Trained with Genetic Algorithm Journal of Medical Systems Pages 2009 [304]
Tuberculosis is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacterium; in humans it is mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis {(Wikipedia} 2009). It is a great problem for most developing countries because of the low diagnosis and treatment opportunities. Tuberculosis has the highest mortality level among the diseases caused by a single type of microorganism. Thus, tuberculosis is a great health concern all over the world, and in Turkey as well. This article presents a study on tuberculosis diagnosis, carried out with the help of multilayer neural networks {(MLNNs).} For this purpose, an {MLNN} with two hidden layers and a genetic algorithm for training algorithm has been used. The tuberculosis dataset was taken from a state hospital's database, based on patient's epicrisis reports.
Endres, Joe Wiki websites wealth of information {INFORM} - International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials Volume 17 Pages 2006 []
In 1995, the Wiki technology was developed to create encyclopedic entries on subjects that are the culmination of the knowledge and experience each contributor brings to the table. On 20 June 2003, the Wikimedia Foundation was created to manage Wiki projects. The goal of the Wikimedia Foundation is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects and to provide the full contents of these projects to the public free of charge. Currently, the Foundation has seven active projects: Wikipedia, Wikitionary, Wikiquote, Wikisource, Wikibooks, Wikijunior, Wikimedia Commons, Wikinews, and Wikispecies.
Erdmann, Maike; Nakayama, Kotaro; Hara, Takahiro & Nishio, Shojiro Improving the extraction of bilingual terminology from Wikipedia {ACM} Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications Volume 5 Pages 2009 [305]
Research on the automatic construction of bilingual dictionaries has achieved impressive results. Bilingual dictionaries are usually constructed from parallel corpora, but since these corpora are available only for selected text domains and language pairs, the potential of other resources is being explored as well. In this article, we want to further pursue the idea of using Wikipedia as a corpus for bilingual terminology extraction. We propose a method that extracts term-translation pairs from different types of Wikipedia link information. After that, an {SVM} classifier trained on the features of manually labeled training data determines the correctness of unseen term-translation pairs. 2009 {ACM.
Fallis, Don Toward an epistemology of Wikipedia Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 59 Pages 1662--1674 2008 [306]
Wikipedia (the free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit") is having a huge impact on how a great many people gather information about the world. So
Fallis, D. & Whitcomb, D. Epistemic values and information management Information Society Volume 25 Pages 175--189 2009 []
In contemporary life, some of the most important decisions that people must make are about the management of information (e.g., about the collection, organization, distribution, and evaluation of information). Legislatures have to decide which privacy and intellectual property laws to adopt, libraries have to decide which information resources (book, journals, databases, etc.) to collect and how to organize them, and individuals have to decide whether to trust the information that they find on Wikipedia or on the Internet in general. This article combines epistemology and decision analysis in an attempt to better equip people to make such information management decisions.
Farhoodi, M.; Yari, A. & Mahmoudi, M. A Persian Web Page Classifier Applying a Combination of Content-Based and Context-Based Features International Journal of Information Studies Volume 1 Pages 263--71 2009 []
There are many automatic classification methods and algorithms that have been propose for content-based or context-based features of web pages. In this paper we analyze these features and try to exploit a combination of features to improve categorization accuracy of Persian web page classification. In this work we have suggested a linear combination of different features and adjusting the optimum weighing during application. To show the outcome of this approach, we have conducted various experiments on a dataset consisting of all pages belonging to Persian Wikipedia in the field of computer. These experiments demonstrate the usefulness of using content-based and context-based web page features in a linear weighted combination.
Farrell, Henry & Schwartzberg, Melissa Norms, Minorities, and Collective Choice Online Ethics \& International Affairs Volume 22 Pages 357--367 2008 []
Building on case studies of Wikipedia and the Daily Kos, this essay argues that different kinds of rules shape relations between members of the majority and of the minority in these communities in important and consequential ways. Adapted from the source document.
Farrelly, M. G Wiki – What? Volume 47 Pages 30--1 2008 [307]
Ferrandez, Sergio; Toral, Antonio; Ferrandez, Oscar; Ferrandez, Antonio & Munoz, Rafael Exploiting Wikipedia and EuroWordNet to solve Cross-Lingual Question Answering Information Sciences Volume 179 Pages 3473--3488 2009 [308]
This paper describes a new advance in solving {Cross-Lingual} Question Answering {(CL-QA)} tasks. It is built on three main pillars: (i) the use of several multilingual knowledge resources to reference words between languages (the Inter Lingual Index {(ILI)} module of {EuroWordNet} and the multilingual knowledge encoded in Wikipedia); (ii) the consideration of more than only one translation per word in order to search candidate answers; and (iii) the analysis of the question in the original language without any translation process. This novel approach overcomes the errors caused by the common use of Machine Translation {(MT)} services by {CL-QA} systems. We also expose some studies and experiments that justify the importance of analyzing whether a Named Entity should be translated or not. Experimental results in bilingual scenarios show that our approach performs better than an {MT} based {CL-QA} approach achieving an average improvement of 36.7\%. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferriter, Meghan M Arguably the Greatest": Sport Fans and Communities at Work on Wikipedia" Sociology of Sport Journal Volume 26 Pages 127--154 2009 []
This article explores the socially constructed space of Wikipedia and how the process and structure of Wikipedia enable it to act both as a vehicle for communication between sport fans and to subtly augment existing public narratives about sport. As users create article narratives, they educate fellow fans in relevant social and sport meanings. This study analyzes two aspects of Wikipedia for sports fans, application of statistical information and connecting athletes with other sports figures and organizations, through a discourse analysis of article content and the discussion pages of ten sample athletes. These pages of retired celebrity athletes provide a means for exploring the multidirectional production processes used by the sport fan community to celebrate recorded events of sporting history in clearly delineated and verifiable ways, thus maintaining the sport fans' community social values. Adapted from the source document.
Fiedler, T. The Web's Pathway to Accuracy Nieman Reports Volume 62 Pages 2008 []
Wikipedia is the wildly popular Internet encyclopedia that proudly operates on the idea that there is more wisdom to be found in its crowds of anonymous readers than in the brains of editors and academics. Here, Fielder details how Wikipedia's credible source of information was badly damaged. He argues that the damage came shortly after Wikipedia launched a bogus entry stating that John Seigenthaler, Sr., a prominent journalist at {USA} Today may have played a role in the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy in 1963 and Robert Kennedy in 1968. He notes that none of the blogs were true, yet the Wikipedia posted it for four months and it was picked up and reproduced without change on two other web sites.
Finlayson, Alexander Westminster and Wikipedia: The Westminster Seminar in the Twenty-First Century Westminster Theological Journal Pages 217--228 2007 []
Surveys how libraries have developed with particular reference to the relationship between the church and the library, and notes specific challenges and trends facing academic and seminary libraries today. Information on paper is being displaced, at least to some degree, in favor of electronic information. While the age of the books is not over, it is true that information in increasingly accessible in digital formats. Reflects on ehy Westminster still needs its library.
Fiore, Francine [Ultraviolet rays mission. Solar prevention in the school environment] Perspect Infirm Pages NaN []
Fiore, Francine [Medications in Wikipedia. Comparison of reliability] Perspective Infirmière: Revue Officielle De {l'Ordre} Des Infirmières Et Infirmiers Du Québec Volume 6 Pages 2009 [309]
Fister, B. Wikipedia and the challenge of read/write culture Library Issues Volume 27 Pages 1--4 2007 []
The author describes in vivid detail how Wikipedia and other social tools are affecting the behavior of students. These new tools also impact the curriculum of campus information literacy courses usually taught by libraries working in partnership with faculty.
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Peer-to-peer review and the future of scholarly authority Cinema Journal Volume 48 Pages NaN [310]
Fonarow, W. [The Encyclopedia of Indie Rock] Volume 28 Pages 457--9 2009 [311]
Forte, A. Learning in public: Information literacy and participatory media Pages 2009 [312]
Forte, A. & Bruckman, A. Writing, Citing, and Participatory Media: Wikis as Learning Environments in the High School Classroom International Journal of Learning Volume 1 Pages 23--44 2009 []
Forte, Andrea; Larco, Vanesa & Bruckman, Amy Decentralization in wikipedia governance Journal of Management Information Systems Volume 26 Pages 49--72 2009 [313]
How does self-governance" happen in Wikipedia? Through in-depth interviews with 20 individuals who have held a variety of responsibilities in the English-language Wikipedia
Fox, Bob Teaching Through Technology: Changing Practices in Two Universities International Journal on {E-Learning} Volume 6 Pages 187--203 NaN [314]
Francke, H. & Sundin, O. An inside view: credibility in Wikipedia from the perspective of editors Information Research Volume 15 Pages 16 pp. 2010 []
Introduction. The question of credibility in participatory information environments, particularly Wikipedia, has been much debated. This paper investigates how editors on Swedish Wikipedia consider credibility when they edit and read Wikipedia articles. Method. The study builds on interviews with 11 editors on Swedish Wikipedia, supported by a document analysis of policies on Swedish Wikipedia. Analysis. The interview transcripts have been coded qualitatively according to the participants' use of Wikipedia and what they take into consideration in making credibility assessments. Results. The participants use Wikipedia for purposes where it is not vital that the information is correct. Their credibility assessments are mainly based on authorship, verifiability, and the editing history of an article. Conclusions. The situations and purposes for which the editors use Wikipedia are similar to other user groups, but they draw on their knowledge as members of the network of practice of wikipedians to make credibility assessments, including knowledge of certain editors and of the {MediaWiki} architecture. Their assessments have more similarities to those used in traditional media than to assessments springing from the wisdom of crowds.
FranÄ?ula, Nedjeljko Map Projections in Wikipedia. Cartography \& Geoinformation Volume 8 Pages 2009 []
A discussion on an article about map projection, published in wikipedia, is presented. The article presents a definition of a map projection. It tackles various issues concerning map projections including the construction of a map projection, selection of a model for the shape of the Earth, and an analysis of pseudocylindrical and azimuthal projections. The author claims that the article provides a reliable source of information on map projections.
Friedlin, Jeff & {McDonald}, Clement J An evaluation of medical knowledge contained in Wikipedia and its use in the LOINC database Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: {JAMIA} Volume 17 Pages 283--287 2010 [315]
The logical observation identifiers names and codes {(LOINC)} database contains 55 000 terms consisting of more atomic components called parts. {LOINC} carries more than 18 000 distinct parts. It is necessary to have definitions/descriptions for each of these parts to assist users in mapping local laboratory codes to {LOINC.} It is believed that much of this information can be obtained from the internet; the first effort was with Wikipedia. This project focused on 1705 laboratory analytes (the first part in the {LOINC} laboratory name). Of the 1705 parts queried, 1314 matching articles were found in Wikipedia. Of these, 1299 (98.9\%) were perfect matches that exactly described the {LOINC} part, 15 (1.14\%) were partial matches (the description in Wikipedia was related to the {LOINC} part, but did not describe it fully), and 102 (7.76\%) were mis-matches. The current release of {RELMA} and {LOINC} include Wikipedia descriptions of {LOINC} parts obtained as a direct result of this project.
Friesen, N. & Hopkins, J. Wikiversity; or education meets the free culture movement: an ethnographic investigation First Monday Volume 13 Pages 13 pp. 2008 [316]
Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, has challenged the way that reference works are used and understood, and even the way that the collective enterprise of knowledge construction and circulation is itself conceptualized. The article presents an ethnographic study of Wikiversity, an educationally-oriented sister project to Wikipedia. It begins by providing an overview of the orientations and aims of Wikiversity. which seeks to provide for participants both open educational contents and an open educational community. It then undertakes a detailed examination of this project's emerging, overlapping communities and cultures by providing descriptions produced through a combination of ethnographic techniques. These descriptions focus on the experiences of a participant-observer in the context of an 11-week course developed and delivered via Wikiversity, titled Composing Free and Open Online Educational Resources. These descriptions are discussed and interpreted through reference to qualitative studies of the more developed dynamics of the Wikipedia effort - allowing this study to trace the possible trajectories for the future development of the fledgling Wikiversity project. In this way, this paper investigates the communal and cultural dynamics of an undertaking that - should it meet only with a fraction of Wikipedia's success - will be of obvious significance to education generally.
Furbach, Ulrich; Glöckner, Ingo; Helbig, Hermann & Pelzer, Björn Logic-Based Question Answering {KI} - Künstliche Intelligenz Volume 24 Pages 51--55 2010 [317]
G., Delia Juárez Wikipedia Nexos: Sociedad, Ciencia, Literatura Volume 30 Pages NaN [318]
Gabrilovich, Evgeniy Feature Generation for Textual Information Retrieval Using World Knowledge Pages 2006 [319]
Imagine an automatic news filtering system that tracks company news. Given the news item {FDA} approves ciprofloxacin for victims of anthrax inhalation"
conventional information retrieval systems represent documents as bags of words and are restricted to learning from individual word occurrences in the (necessarily limited) training set. We propose to enrich document representation through automatic use of vast repositories of human knowledge. To this end we use Wikipedia and the Open Directory Project Pages thus implicitly performing word sense disambiguation. Coupled with the ability to generalize from words to concepts NaN []
Pages NaN []
which represents documents in the space of "latent concepts" computed using Singular Value Decomposition. We propose Explicit Semantic Analysis which uses the feature generator methodology to represent the meaning of text fragments in a high-dimensional space of features based on natural concepts identified and described by humans. Computing semantic relatedness in this space yields substantial improvements as judged by the very high correlation of computed scores with human judgments." Pages NaN []
Gabrilovich, Evgeniy & Markovitch, Shaul Wikipedia-based semantic interpretation for natural language processing Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research Volume 34 Pages 443--498 2009 []
Adequate representation of natural language semantics requires access to vast amounts of common sense and domain-specific world knowledge. Prior work in the field was based on purely statistical techniques that did not make use of background knowledge, on limited lexicographic knowledge bases such as {WordNet,} or on huge manual efforts such as the {CYC} project. Here we propose a novel method, called Explicit Semantic Analysis {(ESA),} for fine-grained semantic interpretation of unrestricted natural language texts. Our method represents meaning in a high-dimensional space of concepts derived from Wikipedia, the largest encyclopedia in existence. We explicitly represent the meaning of any text in terms of Wikipedia-based concepts. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method on text categorization and on computing the degree of semantic relatedness between fragments of natural language text. Using {ESA} results in significant improvements over the previous state of the art in both tasks. Importantly, due to the use of natural concepts, the {ESA} model is easy to explain to human users. 2009 {AI} Access Foundation. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Paul P.; Daub, Jennifer; Tate, John; Moore, Benjamin L.; Osuch, Isabelle H.; {Griffiths-Jones}, Sam; Finn, Robert D.; Nawrocki, Eric P.; Kolbe, Diana L.; Eddy, Sean R. & Bateman, Alex Rfam: Wikipedia, clans and the decimal" release" Nucleic Acids Res. Pages gkq1129 2010 [320]
The Rfam database aims to catalogue non-coding {RNAs} through the use of sequence alignments and statistical profile models known as covariance models. In this contribution, we discuss the pros and cons of using the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, as a source of community-derived annotation. We discuss the addition of groupings of related {RNA} families into clans and new developments to the website. Rfam is available on the Web at
Garfinkel, Simson L. Wikipedia and the meaning of truth Technology Review Volume 111 Pages 2008 []
Some of the advancement and breakthroughs in materials are discussed. Researchers have fabricated a material for ultrahigh resolution microscopes that interacts with near-infrared light in a way that no naturally occurring material does. Devices made from the material could be used in microscopes to produce much sharper images. The material is made up of alternating layers of a metal, which conducts electricity, and an insulating material; both are punched with a grid of square holes. A new electrolyte developed for use in solid-oxide fuel cells has 100 million times the ionic conductivity of conventional electrolytes at room temperature. The researchers have combined nanometer-thick layers of the electrolyte, an yttria-stabilized zirconia, with 10-nanometer-thick layers of strontium titanate to make cool fuel cells. The new electrolyte developed for use in solid-oxide fuel cells has 100 million times the ionic conductivity of conventional electrolytes at room temperature.
Garud, R; Jain, S & Tuertscher, P Incomplete by design and designing for incompleteness {ORGANIZATION} {STUDIES} Volume 29 Pages 351--371 2008 [321]
The traditional scientific approach to design extols the virtues of completeness. However, in environments characterized by continual change, there are challenges in adopting such an approach. We examine Linux and Wikipedia as two exemplary cases to explore the nature of design in such a protean world. Our observations highlight a pragmatic approach to design in which incompleteness is harnessed in a generative manner. This suggests a change in the meaning of the word 'design' itself - from one that separates the process of design from its outcome, to one that considers design as both the medium and outcome of action.
Gehl, R. A cultural and political economy of Web 2.0 Pages 2010 [322]
Geiger, R. Working within wikipedia: Infrastructures of knowing and knowledge production Pages 2009 [323]
is often mystified in the public and academic imagination. Because Wikipedia allows anyone to edit any article at any time in any manner without review, common sense is astounded when it is claimed that the encyclopedia exhibits roughly the same level of quality as the Encyclopedia Britannica. This is largely because popular representations of Wikipedia hold that the project's software system, social structure, lack of management, and cultural values all seem to be built precisely to discourage such regulation. As such, the fact that Wikipedia works remains a mystery, seemingly contradicting everything that we as a society know about how humans organize in groups. In response, researchers from many disciplines have attempted to forge explanations of the encyclopedia project's order and regularity by adapting existing theories to Wikipedia. More sociologically-inclined researchers argue that Wikipedia is more like a traditional society, held together by shared norms, rules, traditions, roles, institutions, discourses, and other sociocultural macro-structures. Another tradition has compared Wikipedia to a market-based economy in which editors interact in unmediated and uncoordinated micro-level 'transactions.' In this thesis, I critique both of these depictions of Wikipedia, which take for granted the project's largely-invisible and unofficial infrastructures of knowing and knowledge production. While the 'anyone can edit' functionality of Wikipedia's software architecture is essential, social and economic explanations of Wikipedia have generally failed to take into account technology in Wikipedia beyond this generic feature. As I show, there are a significant number of transformative technologies which have been deployed both officially and unofficially. Order in Wikipedia emerges not merely from social or economic forces, but alongside complex assemblages of technical and social actors who work to associate, aggregate, delegate, routinize, contextualize, and operationalize the seemingly-autonomous act of contributing to a Wikipedia article. I argue that research into Wikipedia must take into account the diverse and heterogeneous assemblage of humans and non-humans who are constantly working to make Wikipedia into the kind of place where either social or economic forces can come on the scene to explain how millions of individuals can work together to produce the largest encyclopedia in human history.
George, A. Avoiding tragedy in the wiki-commons Virginia Journal of Law and Technology Volume 12 Pages 1--42 2007 []
Thousands of volunteers contribute to Wikipedia, with no expectation of remuneration or direct credit and with the constant risk of their work being altered As a voluntary public good it seems that Wikipedia ought to face a problem of noncontribution Yet Wikipedia overcomes this problem, like much of the open- source movement, by locking in a core group of dedicated volunteers who are motivated by a desire to join and gain status within the Wikipedia community. Still, undesirable contribution is just as significant a risk to Wikipedia as noncontribution Bad informational inputs, including vandalism and anti-intellectualism, put the project at risk because Wikipedia requires a degree of credibility to maintain its lock-in effect. At the same time, Wikipedia is so dependent on the work of its core community that governance strategies to exclude these bad inputs must be delicately undertaken. This article argues that to maximize useful participation, Wikipedia must carefully combat harmful inputs while preserving the zeal of its core community, as failure to do either may result in tragedy.
Gibson, David Make It a Two-Way connection: A Response to “Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media� Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education Volume 8 Pages 305--309 NaN [324]
Gilbert, Eric & Karahalios, Karrie Using social visualization to motivate social production {IEEE} Transactions on Multimedia Volume 11 Pages 413--421 2009 [325]
In this paper we argue that social visualization can motivate contributors to social production projects, such as Wikipedia and open source development. As evidence, we present {CodeSaw,} a social visualization of open source software development that we studied with real open source communities. {CodeSaw} mines open source archives to visualize group dynamics that currently lie buried in textual databases. Furthermore, {CodeSaw} becomes an active social space itself by supporting comments directly inside the visualization. To demonstrate {CodeSaw,} we apply it to a popular open source project, showing how the visualization reveals group dynamics and individual roles. The paper concludes by presenting evidence that {CodeSaw,} and social visualization more generally, can motivate contributors to social production projects if the visualization leaves the laboratory and makes it to the community visualized. 2006 {IEEE.
Giles, Jim Wikipedia rival calls in the experts. Nature Volume 443 Pages 2006 []
The article reports the launch of an online encyclopaedia Citizendium, which is reportedly going to use all of Wikipedia's content but in another website ( According to Larry Sanger, the co-founder of Wikipedia, this would give scientists a new organizational framework to clean up and improve on the work started by Wikipedia. Reportedly many scientists have no desire to navigate the treacherous waters of Wikipedia's editorial system.
{Godwin-Jones}, Robert Emerging technologies focusing on form: tools and strategies Language, Learning \& Technology Volume 13 Pages NaN [326]
Goldspink, Christopher NORMATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN WIKIPEDIA Information Volume 13 Pages 652--673 2010 []
This paper examines the effect of norms and rules on editor communicative behaviour in Wikipedia. Specifically, processes of micro-coordination through speech acts are examined as a basis for norm establishment, maintenance, reinforcement and effectiveness. This is pursued by analysing discussion pages taken from a sample of controversial and featured articles. The results reveal some unexpected patterns. Despite the Wikipedia community generating a large number of rules, etiquettes and guidelines, the explicit invocation of rules and/or the use of wider social norms is rare and appears to play a very small role in influencing editor behaviour. The emergent pattern of communicative exchange is not well aligned either with rules established by Wikipedia contributors or with the characteristics of a coherent community and nor is it consistent with the behaviour needed to reach agreement on controversial topics. The paper concludes by offering some tentative hypotheses as to why this may be so and outlines possible future research which may help distinguish between alternatives. Adapted from the source document.
Goldspink, C. Social self-regulation in computer mediated communities: the case of Wikipedia International Journal of Agent Technologies \& Systems Volume 1 Pages 19--33 2009 []
This article documents the findings of research into the governance mechanisms within the distributed on-line community known as Wikipedia. It focuses in particular on the role of normative mechanisms in achieving social self regulation. A brief history of the Wikipedia is provided. This concentrates on the debate about governance and also considers characteristics of the wiki technology which can be expected to influence governance processes. The empirical findings are then presented. These focus on how Wikipedians use linguistic cues to influence one another on a sample of discussion pages drawn from both controversial and featured articles. Through this analysis a tentative account is provided of the agent-level cognitive mechanisms which appear necessary to explain the apparent behavioural coordination. The findings are to be used as a foundation for the simulation of normative 'behaviour. The account identifies some of the challenges that need to be addressed in such an attempt including a mismatch between the case findings and assumptions used in past attempts to simulate normative behaviour.
González, Pedro Urra El enfoque de colaboración de Wikipedia y el proyecto Wikiprofesional. {ACIMED} Volume 18 Pages 1--3 2008 []
En este artículo se considera el proyecto de colaboración científica {WikiProteínas,} enfocado a recolectar e integrar los conocimientos sobre proteínas y su importancia en la biología y la medicina. Dicha iniciativa se realiza en el marco proyectual de las tecnologías Wiki y {WikiProfesional} {(Http://
Goodman, Rachel Students Contribute to a Global Community through Improvement of Wikipedia The American Biology Teacher Volume 70 Pages 2008 [327]
Gorman, J. Respect My Authority {Code4Lib} Journal Pages NaN []
Grayson, George W.; Klesner, Joseph L.; Wuhs, Steven T. & González, Francisco E. Evolution of Mexico and Other Single-Party States International Studies Review Volume 9 Pages 322--367 2007 [328]
Greenstein, Shane Wagging Wikipedia's long tail {IEEE} Micro Volume 27 Pages 6+79 2007 [329]
In 2005, Wikipedia surpassed Encarta as the Internet's most popular reference site. Wikipedia calls itself the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit
Greysen, S Ryan; Kind, Terry & Chretien, Katherine C Online professionalism and the mirror of social media Journal of General Internal Medicine Volume 25 Pages 1227--1229 2010 [330]
The rise of social media--content created by Internet users and hosted by popular sites such as Facebook, Twitter, {YouTube,} and Wikipedia, and blogs--has brought several new hazards for medical professionalism. First, many physicians may find applying principles for medical professionalism to the online environment challenging in certain contexts. Second, physicians may not consider the potential impact of their online content on their patients and the public. Third, a momentary lapse in judgment by an individual physician to create unprofessional content online can reflect poorly on the entire profession. To overcome these challenges, we encourage individual physicians to realize that as they tread" through the World Wide Web
Grier, David Alan The Spirit of Combination Computer Volume 43 Pages 6--9 2010 []
Grzega, Joachim How Onomasiologists Can Help with Contributing to Wikipedia Onomasiology Online Volume 7 Pages 1--15 2006 []
In this article Wikipedia is presented as the most important everyday venue for knowledge management. The three different main styles are described: namely the ones of articles, article talk pages and user pages. Then several aspects are commented on from an onomasiologist’s perspective: (1) content management on talk pages (e.g. thematic structures should be preferred over linear structures), (2) evaluation of cited sources (e.g. authors should be experts, results should have appeared in acknowledged venues, facts and opinions should be distinguished), (3) expert-layperson communication (e.g. different types of definitions including the use of examples should be used, jargon can be used if explained, contents should be structured from the general to the specific, description instead of evaluation should be used), (4) linking (including setting links to one’s own article in other articles) and (5) categorizing into conceptual fields. Examples are taken from the English version of Wikipedia, but generalizable to other versions as well. The final section of the paper gives a few ideas for integrating the observations of the article into high-school and university education: In every subject students should be encouraged to practice expert-novice communication through collaborating in Wikipedia; students are offered guidelines on contributing (to) articles (e.g. concerning the creation and understanding of definitions, text structure, jargon, neutral point of view, linking and categorizing) and guidelines on contributing to talk pages (e.g. the use of an “integrative style�, which aims at achieving consensus between contributors and not at having administrators decide on the content of articles).
Grzega, Joachim How Onomasiologists Can Help with Contributing to Wikipedia Onomasiology Online Volume 7 Pages 1--15 2006 []
In this article Wikipedia is presented as the most important everyday venue for knowledge management. The three different main styles are described: articles, article talk pages, and user pages. Then several aspects are commented on from an onomasiologist's perspective: (1) content management on talk pages (e.g. thematic structures should be preferred over linear structures); (2) evaluation of cited sources (e.g. authors should be experts, results should have appeared in acknowledged venues, facts and opinions should be distinguished); (3) expert-layperson communication (e.g. different types of definitions including the use of examples should be used, jargon can be used if explained, contents should be structured from the general to the specific, description instead of evaluation should be used); (4) linking (including setting links to one's own article in other articles); and (5) categorizing into conceptual fields. Examples are taken from the English version of Wikipedia \& are generalizable to other versions. The final section of the paper gives a few ideas for integrating the observations of the article into high-school and university education: In every subject students should be encouraged to practice expert-novice communication through collaborating in Wikipedia; students are offered guidelines on contributing (to) articles (e.g. concerning the creation and understanding of definitions, text structure, jargon, neutral point of view, linking and categorizing) and guidelines on contributing to talk pages (e.g. the use of an integrative style"
Gunnels, C. Librarians on the verge of an epistemological breakdown Community \& Junior College Libraries Volume 14 Pages 111--20 2007 [331]
During the enlightenment of eighteenth-century France, the encyclopedists created a systematic compilation of all human knowledge in order to dispel current disinformation imposed by kings and clergy. The resultant Encyclopedie has been considered the turning point of the enlightenment, where knowledge became power and the power was made accessible to the people. This article explores the digital phenomenon of Web 2.0 and questions whether we are experiencing another epistemological shift similar to the Encyclopedie. It then discusses teaching information literacy and gives practical ways for community college librarians to incorporate Wikipedia, Google, and other digital sources into their instruction to teach research skills and critical thinking.
{GUNNELS}, {CLAIRE} B. & {SISSON}, {AMY} Confessions of a Librarian or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Google. Community \& Junior College Libraries Volume 15 Pages 15--21 2009 []
Have you ever stopped to think about life before Google? We will make the argument that Google is the first manifestation of Web 2.0, of the power and promise of social networking and the ubiquitous wiki. We will discuss the positive influence of Google and how Google and other social networking tools afford librarians leading-edge technologies and new opportunities to teach information literacy. Finally, we will include a top seven list of googlesque tools that no librarian should be without. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Guo, Tao; Schwartz, {D.G.}; Burstein, F. & Linger, H. Codifying collaborative knowledge: using Wikipedia as a basis for automated ontology learning Knowledge Management Research \& Practice Volume 7 Pages 206--17 2009 [332]
In the context of knowledge management, ontology construction can be considered as a part of capturing of the body of knowledge of a particular problem domain. Traditionally, ontology construction assumes a tedious codification of the domain experts knowledge. In this paper, we describe a new approach to ontology engineering that has the potential of bridging the dichotomy between codification and collaboration turning to Web 2.0 technology. We propose to shift the primary source of ontology knowledge from the expert to socially emergent bodies of knowledge such as Wikipedia. Using Wikipedia as an example, we demonstrate how core terms and relationships of a domain ontology can be distilled from this socially constructed source. As an illustration, we describe how our approach achieved over 90\% conceptual coverage compared with Gold standard hand-crafted ontologies, such as Cyc. What emerges is not a folksonomy, but rather a formal ontology that has nonetheless found its roots in social knowledge.
Gurevych, Iryna & Wolf, Elisabeth Expert-Built and Collaboratively Constructed Lexical Semantic Resources Language and Linguistics Compass Volume 4 Pages 1074--1090 2010 [333]
Ha, Jae Kyung & Kim, {Yong-Hak} An Exploration on On-line Mass Collaboration: focusing on its motivation structure. International Journal of Social Sciences Volume 4 Pages 138--143 2009 []
The Internet has become an indispensable part of our lives. Witnessing recent web-based mass collaboration, e.g. Wikipedia, people are questioning whether the Internet has made fundamental changes to the society or whether it is merely a hyperbolic fad. It has long been assumed that collective action for a certain goal yields the problem of free-riding, due to its non-exclusive and non-rival characteristics. Then, thanks to recent technological advances, the on-line space experienced the following changes that enabled it to produce public goods: 1) decrease in the cost of production or coordination 2) externality from networked structure 3) production function which integrates both self-interest and altruism. However, this research doubts the homogeneity of on-line mass collaboration and argues that a more sophisticated and systematical approach is required. The alternative that we suggest is to connect the characteristics of the goal to the motivation. Despite various approaches, previous literature fails to recognize that motivation can be structurally restricted by the characteristic of the goal. First we draw a typology of on-line mass collaboration with 'the extent of expected beneficiary' and 'the existence of externality', and then we examine each combination of motivation using Benkler's framework. Finally, we explore and connect such typology with its possible dominant participating motivation. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Haas, Christina Editor's Introduction: Writing and New Media Special Issue. Written Communication Volume 25 Pages 163--165 2008 []
The article discusses various reports published within the article, including one by Jeff Bezemer, and Gunther Kress on social semiotics of writing, and another by John Jones on revision patterns in Wikipedia articles.
Hahn, J. Information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod Touch Reference Services Review Volume 38 Pages 284--98 2010 [334]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study which inquired into undergraduate student information seeking with Wikipedia on the {iPod} touch. Design/methodology/approach - Data are drawn from {iPod} search logs and student survey responses. Search log data are coded with {FRBR} subject entities (group 3 entity sets) for analysis. Findings - Students characterize the overall nature of information searched for with the Wikipedia app to be for recreational and for short factual information. Recreational searching as a way in which undergraduate students utilize mobile technology is an earlier finding of Wikipedia {iPod} usage, and is verified as a trend of undergraduate student search using the {iPod.} All undergraduate student participants of the Wikipedia app on a mobile interface report this tool as helping to become more efficient in their research. Students viewed Wikipedia articles about people and concepts more so than other article types. Originality/value - Undergraduate student mobile search log analysis over a specific type of information resource on the {iPod} Touch is an original usability project. Previous mobile search log analysis analyzes thousands of unknown users and millions of anonymous queries, where the devices used for searching are not always identifiable and trends about touch screens cannot be ascertained.
Hahn, J. On the remediation of Wikipedia to the iPod Reference Services Review Volume 37 Pages 272--85 2009 [335]
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study of information search on mobile devices, seeking to understand mobile computing best practice in the design of library services. Three second-year undergraduate students took part in this semester long study. They are loaned {iPods} with a Wikipedia copy to use as desired. Usability data are drawn from search logs recording titles of the articles searched and an Internet-based survey completed by students. Students characterize the nature of information searched for on the Wikipedia {iPods} as recreational. Students did not utilize the {iPods} for academic research. Search logs show students viewed articles primarily about objects. The results of this paper do not show generalized principles of mobile search. More data collected from additional sets of users are needed in order to articulate principles of mobile search. If it is the case that students will primarily make use of mobile computing for recreational or leisurely purposes then library services on mobile computing platforms must be designed accordingly. The paper presents methods for the study of information search though mobile computing and poses questions resulting from this paper that require further study.
Haider, J. & Sundin, O. Beyond the legacy of the Enlightenment? Online encyclopaedias as digital heterotopias First Monday Volume 15 Pages 16 pp. 2010 []
This article explores how we can understand contemporary participatory online encyclopaedic expressions, particularly Wikipedia, in their traditional role as continuation of the Enlightenment ideal, as well as in the distinctly different space of the Internet. Firstly we position these encyclopaedias in a historical tradition. Secondly, we assign them a place in contemporary digital networks which marks them out as sites in which Enlightenment ideals of universal knowledge take on a new shape. We argue that the Foucauldian concept of heterotopia, that is special spaces which exist within society, transferred online, can serve to understand Wikipedia and similar participatory online encyclopaedias in their role as unique spaces for the construction of knowledge, memory and culture in late modern society.
Haigh, Carol A Wikipedia as an evidence source for nursing and healthcare students Nurse Education Today Pages 2010 [336]
Halavais, A. & Lackaff, D. An analysis of topical coverage of Wikipedia Journal of Computer Mediated Communication Volume 13 Pages 429--440 2008 []
Many have questioned the reliability and accuracy of Wikipedia. This article looks at a different but closely related one in the following: How broad is the coverage of Wikipedia? Differences in the interests and attention of Wikipedia's editors mean that some areas, in the traditional sciences, for example, are better covered than others. Two approaches to measuring this coverage are presented. The first maps the distribution of topics on Wikipedia to the distribution of books published. The second compares the distribution of topics in three established, field-specific academic encyclopedias to the articles found in Wikipedia. Unlike the top-down construction of traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia's topical coverage is driven by the interests of its users, and as a result, the reliability and completeness of Wikipedia is likely to be different depending on the subject area of the article.
Hall, Elton TAKING NOTE The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, Inc. Pages NaN [337]
Hall, Gary Wikination: On Peace and Conflict in the Middle East Cultural Politics Volume 5 Pages 5--25 2009 []
This article begins by analyzing critically the usefulness of the recent political philosophy of Chantal Mouffe for reconceptualizing ideas of peace \& conflict. It takes as its focus for doing so the situation of the Middle East. It proceeds to show how Mouffe's radical democratic politics is actually just another form of the liberalism of Habermas \& Rawls that she positions her theory against. The article then explores the potential digital media hold for making affirmative, affective, hyperpolitical interventions in specific contents \& singular situations. In particular it advocates using the wiki medium -- hence the piece's Wikipedia-like form -- to experiment with new ways of organizing institutions, cultures, communities, \& countries which do not uncritically repeat the reductive adherence to democracy, hegemony, \& Western, bourgeois, liberal humanism identified in Mouffe, but which can also be located in the institution of academic criticism more widely. {'WikiNation'} is part of a series of 'performative media' projects. Performative media here stands for media that do not endeavor to represent the world so much as have an effect in or on it. They are media which produce the things of which they speak, in other words, \& which are engaged primarily in their actual performance. Adapted from the source document.
Hamjavar, Farid Wikipedia woes [2] {DB2} Magazine Volume 10 Pages 2005 []
No abstract available
Hansen, S.; Berente, N. & Lyytinen, K. Wikipedia, critical social theory, and the possibility of rational discourse Information Society Volume 25 Pages 38--59 2009 [338]
Information systems researchers that apply critical social perspectives frequently emphasize the potential for information technology to serve as a mechanism for increased rationalization, domination, and control. Such theorists often overlook or discount the liberating aspects of information systems. In this study, we apply the ideal of rational discourse developed by Jurgen Habermas to the phenomenon of Wikipedia in an effort to explore empirically the emancipatory potential of information systems. We contend that Wikipedia embodies an approximation of the necessary conditions for rational discourse. While several challenges persist, the example of Wikipedia illustrates the positive potential of information systems in supporting the emergence of more emancipatory forms of communication. The corresponding implications for researchers and design professionals alike are discussed.
Hara, Noriko; Shachaf, Pnina & Hew, Khe Foon Cross-cultural analysis of the Wikipedia community Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 61 Pages 2097--2108 2010 [339]
This article reports a cross-cultural analysis of four Wikipedias in different languages and demonstrates their roles as communities of practice {(CoPs).} Prior research on {CoPs} and on the Wikipedia community often lacks cross-cultural analysis. Despite the fact that over 75\% of Wikipedia is written in languages other than English, research on Wikipedia primarily focuses on the English Wikipedia and tends to overlook Wikipedias in other languages. This article first argues that Wikipedia communities can be analyzed and understood as {CoPs.} Second, norms of behaviors are examined in four Wikipedia languages {(English,} Hebrew, Japanese, and Malay), and the similarities and differences across these four languages are reported. Specifically, typical behaviors on three types of discussion spaces (talk, user talk, and Wikipedia talk) are identified and examined across languages. Hofstede's dimensions of cultural diversity as well as the size of the community and the function of each discussion area provide lenses for understanding the similarities and differences. As such, this article expands the research on online {CoPs} through an examination of cultural variations across multiple {CoPs} and increases our understanding of Wikipedia communities in various languages. 2010 {ASIST.
Hardy, Mat Wiki Goes to War {AQ} - Journal of Contemporary Analysis Volume 79 Pages 17--22 2007 []
Since launching nearly six years ago, Wikipedia has exhibited sustained growth as an interest encyclopedic resource. Amongst the millions of pages, the 2006 {Israel-Lebanon} conflict is one of the most revised \& popular topics of all, ranking even above the Second World War. Why is this \& what do Wikipedia \& its daughter project, Wikinews, have to offer history, academia \& journalism in their coverage of the Middle East? Adapted from the source document.
Harouni, H High School Research and Critical Literacy: Social Studies With and Despite Wikipedia {HARVARD} {EDUCATIONAL} {REVIEW} Volume 79 Pages 473--493 2009 [340]
Drawing on experiences in his social studies classroom, Houman Harouni evaluates both the challenges and possibilities of helping high school students develop critical research skills. The author describes how he used Wikipedia to design classroom activities that address issues of authorship, neutrality, and reliability in information gathering. The online encyclopedia is often lamented by teachers, scholars, and librarians, but its widespread use necessitates a new approach to teaching research. In describing the experience, Harouni concludes that teaching research skills in the contemporary context requires ongoing observations of the research strategies and practices students already employ as well as the active engagement of student interest and background knowledge.
Harsell, Dana Michael Wikis in the Classroom: Faculty and Student Perspective Journal of Political Science Education Volume 6 Pages 310 -- 314 2010 [341]
In March 2009, a faculty member and four political science students led a forum entitled {“Wikis} in the Classroom: Student and Faculty Perspective.� The discussion centered on a number of benefits and concerns with the use of wikis as an instructional tool within the classroom. Based on student and faculty feedback, this article expands on four themes that emerged from the roundtable discussion: training, applicability of assignments, setting clear guidelines, and expectations and grading.
Hartling, F The Digital Author?: Authorship in the Digital Era {PRIMERJALNA} {KNJIZEVNOST} Pages NaN []
Since the birth of the World Wide Web as the most,successful application of the Internet there have been hopes of literary theorists {(Landow,} Bolter) that the new digital media would. finally allow for the death of the author" and the birth of the "writing reader". The hypertext as new genre of text seemed to be powerful enough to fulfill the older hopes of the poststructuralists {(Barthes
Head, {A.J.} & Eisenberg, {M.B.} How today's college students use Wikipedia for course-related research First Monday Volume 15 Pages 15 pp. 2010 []
Findings are reported from student focus groups and a large-scale survey about how and why students (enrolled at six different {U.S.} colleges) use Wikipedia during the course-related research process. A majority of respondents frequently used Wikipedia for background information, but less often than they used other common resources, such as course readings and Google. Architecture, engineering, and science majors were more likely to use Wikipedia for course-related research than respondents in other majors. The findings suggest Wikipedia is used in combination with other information resources. Wikipedia meets the needs of college students because it offers a mixture of coverage, currency, convenience, and comprehensibility in a world where credibility is less of a given or an expectation from today's students.
Hemphill, C. NETWORK NEUTRALITY AND THE FALSE PROMISE OF ZERO-PRICE REGULATION Yale Journal on Regulation Volume 25 Pages 2008 []
This Article examines zero-price regulation, the major distinguishing feature of many modern network neutrality" proposals. A zero-price rule prohibits a broadband Internet access provider from charging an application or content provider (collectively
Henderson, L. Tribal Knowledge Applied Clinical Trials Volume 19 Pages 2010 [342]
tribal knowledge can be converted into company property. It is often a good source of test factors during improvement efforts." That from Wikipedia
Hepp, M.; Siorpaes, K. & Bachlechner, D. Harvesting Wiki consensus: using Wikipedia entries as vocabulary for knowledge management {IEEE} Internet Computing Volume 11 Pages 54--65 2007 []
Vocabularies that provide unique identifiers for conceptual elements of a domain can improve precision and recall in knowledge-management applications. Although creating and maintaining such vocabularies is generally hard, wiki users easily manage to develop comprehensive, informal definitions of terms, each one identified by a {URI.} Here, the authors show that the {URIs} of Wikipedia entries are reliable identifiers for conceptual entities. They also demonstrate how Wikipedia entries can be used for annotating Web resources and knowledge assets and give precise estimates of the amount of Wikipedia {URIs} in terms of the popular Proton ontology's top-level concepts.
Herr, Bruce W; Huang, Weixia; Penumarthy, Shashikant & Börner, Katy Designing highly flexible and usable cyberinfrastructures for convergence Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Volume 1093 Pages 161--179 2006 [343]
This article presents the results of a 7-year-long quest into the development of a dream tool" for our research in information science and scientometrics and more recently
Hickerson, C. A & Thompson, S. R Dialogue through wikis: A pilot exploration of dialogic public relations and wiki websites {PRism} Online {PR} Journal Volume 6 Pages NaN []
Hicks, Troy Expanding the Conversation: A Commentary Toward Revision of Swenson, Rozema, Young, McGrail, and Whitin Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education Volume 6 Pages 46--55 NaN [344]
Hilbert, Martin The Maturing Concept of E-Democracy: From E-Voting and Online Consultations to Democratic Value Out of Jumbled Online Chatter Journal of Information Technology \& Politics Volume 6 Pages 87--110 2009 []
Early literature on e-democracy was dominated by euphoric claims about the benefits of e-voting (digital direct democracy) or continuous online citizen consultations (digital representative democracy). High expectations have gradually been replaced with more genuine approaches that aim to break with the dichotomy of traditional notions of direct and representative democracy. The ensuing question relates to the adequate design of information and communication technology {(ICT)} applications to foster such visions. This article contributes to this search and discusses issues concerning the adequate institutional framework. Recently, so-called Web 2.0 applications, such as social networking and Wikipedia, have proven that it is possible for millions of users to collectively create meaningful content online. While these recent developments are not necessarily labeled e-democracy in the literature, this article argues that they and related applications have the potential to fulfill the promise of breaking with the longstanding democratic trade-off between group size (direct mass voting on predefined issues) and depth of argument (deliberation and discourse in a small group). Complementary information-structuring techniques are at hand to facilitate large-scale deliberations and the negotiation of interests between members of a group. This article presents three of these techniques in more depth: weighted preference voting, argument visualization, and the Semantic Web initiative. Notwithstanding these developments, the maturing concept of e-democracy still faces serious challenges. Questions remain in political and computer science disciplines that ask about adequate institutional frameworks, the omnipresent democratic challenges of equal access and free participation, and the appropriate technological design. Adapted from the source document.
Hochstotter, Nadine & Lewandowski, Dirk What users see - Structures in search engine results pages Information Sciences Volume 179 Pages 1796--1812 2009 [345]
This paper investigates the composition of search engine results pages. We define what elements the most popular web search engines use on their results pages (e.g., organic results, advertisements, shortcuts) and to which degree they are used for popular vs. rare queries. Therefore, we send 500 queries of both types to the major search engines Google, Yahoo, and Ask. We count how often the different elements are used by the individual engines. In total, our study is based on 42,758 elements. Findings include that search engines use quite different approaches to results pages composition and therefore, the user gets to see quite different results sets depending on the search engine and search query used. Organic results still play the major role in the results pages, but different shortcuts are of some importance, too. Regarding the frequency of certain host within the results sets, we find that all search engines show Wikipedia results quite often, while other hosts shown depend on the search engine used. Both Google and Yahoo prefer results from their own offerings (such as {YouTube} or Yahoo Answers). Since we used the .com interfaces of the search engines, results may not be valid for other country-specific interfaces. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, David A. & Mehra, Said K. WIKITRUTH THROUGH WIKIORDER. Emory Law Journal Volume 59 Pages 151--209 2009 []
How does large-scale social production coordinate individual behavior to produce public goods? In 1968, Hardin denied that the creation of public goods absent markets or the State is possible. Benkler, Shirky, Zittrain, and Lessig recently countered that the necessary coordination might emerge though social norms. However, scholars have not fully explained how this coordination is to occur. Focusing on Wikipedia, we argue that the site `s dispute resolution process is an important force in promoting the public good it produces, i.e., a large number of relatively accurate public encyclopedia articles. We describe the development and shape of Wikipedia's existing dispute resolution system. Further, we present a statistical analysis based on coding of over 250 arbitration opinions from Wikipedia's arbitration system. The data show that Wikipedia's dispute resolution ignores the content of user disputes, and focuses on user conduct instead. Based on fairly formalized arbitration findings, we find a high correlation between the conduct found and the remedies ordered. In effect, the system functions not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting users, but to weed out problematic users while weeding potentially productive users back in to participate. Game theorists have modeled large-scale social production as a solution to the herder problem/multi-player Prisoner's Dilemma. But we demonstrate that the weeding in" function reflects dynamics more accurately captured in coordination games. In this way
Holley, R. Crowdsourcing: How and Why Should Libraries Do It? {D-Lib} Magazine Volume 16 Pages 15 pp. 2010 [346]
The definition and purpose of crowdsourcing and its relevance to libraries is discussed with particular reference to the Australian Newspapers service, {FamilySearch,} Wikipedia, Distributed Proofreaders, Galaxy Zoo and The Guardian {MP's} Expenses Scandal. These services have harnessed thousands of digital volunteers who transcribe, create, enhance and correct text, images and archives. Known facts about crowdsourcing are presented and helpful tips and strategies for libraries beginning to crowdsource are given.
Holloway, T.; Bozicevic, M. & Borner, K. Analyzing and visualizing the semantic coverage of Wikipedia and its authors Complexity Volume 12 Pages 30--40 2007 [347]
This article presents a novel analysis and visualization of English Wikipedia data. Our specific interest is the analysis of basic statistics, the identification of the semantic structure and the age of the categories in this free online encyclopedia, and the content coverage of its highly productive authors
Hoorn, E. & van Hoorn, D. Critical assessment of using wikis in legal education {JILT-Journal} of Information Law \& Technology Pages 28--37 2008 []
Wikis serve to support collaborative writing on the Web. The best known example of a wiki is Wikipedia, an open encyclopedia on the web. This paper is meant to explore possible uses of a wiki-environment in legal education. Firstly, it describes the actual use of a closed wiki environment in a class on Cybercrime in the Netherlands. Secondly, the paper explores the possibilities for international collaboration of students without face to face contact. Innovative use of wikis in learning situations demands insights in educational design and best practices of educators. We will show that for students as well as educators the use of a wiki is an easy and effective way of using technology in order to get engaged in new forms of learning. The paper is intended for legal educators who share an interest in innovative approaches to legal education.
{Houghton-Jan}, Sarah Twenty Steps to Marketing Your Library Online Journal of Web Librarianship Volume 1 Pages 81 -- 90 2008 [348]
Libraries are quite practiced at outreach activities in the physical world, but now, just as our services and resources have moved online, so must our outreach efforts. This article provides a list of twenty practical things libraries can do to begin to delve into the world of online outreach. Topics covered include listing your library in Wikipedia, listing library events in local community calendars, listing librarians in expert-finding directories, pushing newsletters out via {RSS,} being present in online game and other environments, and much more. The requirements for online outreach at libraries will always be evolving, but this starter list will provide a place for all libraries to begin their foray into online outreach and marketing.
Hu, B. WiKi'mantics: interpreting ontologies with WikipediA Knowledge and Information Systems Volume 25 Pages 2010 []
In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations can be boiled down to one fundamental task: finding as accurately as possible the semantics hiding beneath the superficial representation of ontological entities. This, however, is not an easy task due to the ambiguous nature of semantics and a lack of systematic engineering method to guide how we comprehend semantics. We acknowledge the gap between human cognition and knowledge representation formalisms: even though precise logic formulae can be used as the canonical representation of ontological entities, understanding of such formulae may vary. A feasible solution to juxtaposing semantics interpretation, therefore, is to reflect such cognitive variations. In this paper, we propose an approximation of semantics using sets of words/phrases, referred to as {WKmantic} vectors. These vectors are emerged through a set of well-tuned methods gradually surfacing the semantics that remain implicit otherwise. Given a concept, we first identify its conceptual niche amongst its neighbours in the graph representation of the ontology. We generate a natural language paraphrases of the isolated sub-graph and project this textual description upon a large document repository. {WKmantic} vectors are then drawn from the document repository. We evaluated each of the aforementioned steps by way of user {study.[PUBLICATION} {ABSTRACT]
Hughes, Benjamin; Joshi, Indra; Lemonde, Hugh & Wareham, Jonathan Junior physician's use of Web 2.0 for information seeking and medical education: A qualitative study International Journal of Medical Informatics Volume 78 Pages 645--655 2009 [349]
Background: Web 2.0 internet tools and methods have attracted considerable attention as a means to improve health care delivery. Despite evidence demonstrating their use by medical professionals, there is no detailed research describing how Web 2.0 influences physicians' daily clinical practice. Hence this study examines Web 2.0 use by 35 junior physicians in clinical settings to further understand their impact on medical practice. Method: Diaries and interviews encompassing 177 days of internet use or 444 search incidents, analyzed via thematic analysis. Results: Results indicate that 53\% of internet visits employed user-generated or Web 2.0 content, with Google and Wikipedia used by 80\% and 70\% of physicians, respectively. Despite awareness of information credibility risks with Web 2.0 content, it has a role in information seeking for both clinical decisions and medical education. This is enabled by the ability to cross check information and the diverse needs for background and non-verified information. Conclusion: Web 2.0 use represents a profound departure from previous learning and decision processes which were normally controlled by senior medical staff or medical schools. There is widespread concern with the risk of poor quality information with Web 2.0 use, and the manner in which physicians are using it suggest effective use derives from the mitigating actions by the individual physician. Three alternative policy options are identified to manage this risk and improve efficiency in Web 2.0's use. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huss, Jon W; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Martone, Michael; Roberts, Donabel; Pizarro, Angel; Valafar, Faramarz; Hogenesch, John B & Su, Andrew I The Gene Wiki: community intelligence applied to human gene annotation Nucleic Acids Research Volume 38 Pages D633--639 2010 [350]
Annotating the function of all human genes is a critical, yet formidable, challenge. Current gene annotation efforts focus on centralized curation resources, but it is increasingly clear that this approach does not scale with the rapid growth of the biomedical literature. The Gene Wiki utilizes an alternative and complementary model based on the principle of community intelligence. Directly integrated within the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, the goal of this effort is to build a gene-specific review article for every gene in the human genome, where each article is collaboratively written, continuously updated and community reviewed. Previously, we described the creation of Gene Wiki 'stubs' for approximately 9000 human genes. Here, we describe ongoing systematic improvements to these articles to increase their utility. Moreover, we retrospectively examine the community usage and improvement of the Gene Wiki, providing evidence of a critical mass of users and editors. Gene Wiki articles are freely accessible within the Wikipedia web site, and additional links and information are available at {\_Wiki.
Hussey, S. R [Wikipedia] Volume 36 Pages 2010 [351]
Hussey, Sandra R. Wikipedia: A New Community of Practice? Journal of Academic Librarianship Volume 36 Pages 2010 []
The article reviews the book {Wikipedia:} A New Community of Practice?" by Dan {O'Sullivan.}"
Huvila, I. Where does the information come from? Information source use patterns in Wikipedia Information Research Volume 15 Pages 24 pp. 2010 []
Introduction. Little is known about Wikipedia contributors' information behaviour and from where and how the information in the encyclopaedia originated. Even though a large number of texts in Wikipedia cite external sources according to the intentions of the verifiability policy, many articles lack references and in many others the references have been added afterwards. Method. This article reports the results of a Web survey of information source use patterns, answered by 108 Wikipedia contributors in spring 2008. Analysis. The qualitative questions were analysed using a close reading and grounded theory approach. The multiple-choice questions were analysed using descriptive statistics and bi-variate correlation analysis. Results. The results indicate that there are several distinct groups of contributors using different information sources. The results also indicate a preference for sources available online. However, in spite of the popularity of online material a significant proportion of the original information is based on printed literature, personal expertise and other non-digital sources of information. The information source use of Wikipedia contributors is also illustrative of the complexity and life-world scope of human information behaviour. Conclusions. Understanding the information source use of contributors helps us to understand how new Wikipedia articles emerge, how edits are motivated, where the information actually comes from and more generally, what kind of information may be expected to be found in Wikipedia.
Hwang, H. Dynamic link-based ranking over large-scale graph-structured data Pages 2010 [352]
Hwang, Heasoo; Balmin, Andrey; Reinwald, Berthold & Nijkamp, Erik BinRank: Scaling dynamic authority-based search using materialized subgraphs {IEEE} Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering Volume 22 Pages 1176--1190 2010 [353]
Dynamic authority-based keyword search algorithms, such as {ObjectRank} and personalized {PageRank,} leverage semantic link information to provide high quality, high recall search in databases, and the Web. Conceptually, these algorithms require a query-time {PageRank-style} iterative computation over the full graph. This computation is too expensive for large graphs, and not feasible at query time. Alternatively, building an index of precomputed results for some or all keywords involves very expensive preprocessing. We introduce {BinRank,} a system that approximates {ObjectRank} results by utilizing a hybrid approach inspired by materialized views in traditional query processing. We materialize a number of relatively small subsets of the data graph in such a way that any keyword query can be answered by running {ObjectRank} on only one of the subgraphs. {BinRank} generates the subgraphs by partitioning all the terms in the corpus based on their co-occurrence, executing {ObjectRank} for each partition using the terms to generate a set of random walk starting points, and keeping only those objects that receive non-negligible scores. The intuition is that a subgraph that contains all objects and links relevant to a set of related terms should have all the information needed to rank objects with respect to one of these terms. We demonstrate that {BinRank} can achieve subsecond query execution time on the English Wikipedia data set, while producing high-quality search results that closely approximate the results of {ObjectRank} on the original graph. The Wikipedia link graph contains about 108 edges, which is at least two orders of magnitude larger than what prior state of the art dynamic authority-based search systems have been able to demonstrate. Our experimental evaluation investigates the trade-off between query execution time, quality of the results, and storage requirements of {BinRank.} 2010 {IEEE.
Hyatt, J. The Oh-So-Practical Magic of Open-Source Innovation {MIT} Sloan Management Review Volume 50 Pages 2008 []
{MySQL} {AB,} the business Marten Mickos has built since 2001, has committed itself to open-source innovation since its founding in 1995 with results successful enough that Sun Microsystems Inc. acquired what is the worlds fastest-growing database vendor earlier this year for \$1 billion. ike such well-known proponents as Linux, the operating system, and Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, {MySQL} shares its source code for free, giving programmers everywhere permission to debug, add features or otherwise modify the product before redistributing it. In an interview, Mickos, now a senior vice president at Sun, discusses freely sharing his ideas about why this Internet-age version of a barn-raising produces superior innovation, what murky motivations keep all those developers devoted and why Leonardo da Vinci is the father of the open-source movement.
Iandoli, L.; Klein, M. & Zollo, G. Enabling on-line deliberation and collective decision-making through large-scale argumentation: a new approach to the design of an Internet-based mass collaboration platform International Journal of Decision Support System Technology Volume 1 Pages 69--92 2009 []
The successful emergence of on-line communities, such as open source software and Wikipedia, seems due to an effective combination of intelligent collective behavior and Internet capabilities. However, current Internet technologies, such as forum, wikis and blogs appear to be less supportive for knowledge organization and consensus formation. In particular very few attempts have been done to support large, diverse, and geographically dispersed groups to systematically explore and come to decisions concerning complex and controversial systemic challenges. In order to overcome the limitations of current collaborative technologies, in this article, we present a new large-scale collaborative platform based on argumentation mapping. To date argumentation mapping has been effectively used for small-scale, co-located groups. The main research questions this work faces are: can argumentation scale? Will large-scale argumentation outperform current collaborative technologies in collective problem solving and deliberation? We present some preliminary results obtained from a first field test of an argumentation platform with a moderate-sized (few hundreds) users community.
Iba, Takashi; Nemoto, Keiichi; Peters, Bernd & Gloor, Peter A. Analyzing the Creative Editing Behavior of Wikipedia Editors: Through Dynamic Social Network Analysis Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Volume 2 Pages 6441--6456 2010 [354]
Inceoglu, Mustafa M. Establishing a K-12 circuit design program {IEEE} Transactions on Education Volume 53 Pages 152--157 2010 [355]
Outreach, as defined by Wikipedia, is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences, or the general public. This paper describes a computer engineering outreach project of the Department of Computer Engineering at Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, to a local elementary school. A group of 14 K-12 students was chosen by a four-stage selection method to participate in this project. This group was then taught discrete mathematics and logic design courses from the core curriculum of the Computer Engineering program. The two 11-week courses have a total of 132 contact h. The course contents are conveyed through both theoretical lessons and laboratory sessions. All of the laboratory sessions were carried out by K-12 students. Volunteer teachers from the elementary school participated in the project. The evaluations carried out during and at the end of project indicated the degree of satisfaction on the part of students and teachers. The project is still ongoing with the same methodology in its third year. 2009 {IEEE.
Iorio, Angelo Di; Musetti, Alberto; Peroni, Silvio & Vitali, Fabio Ontology-driven generation of wiki content and interfaces New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia Volume 16 Pages 9--31 2010 [356]
The planetary success of Wikipedia has opened the road to using wikis as shared resources for communities to collect and organize facts, concepts, and structures that constitute both the shared knowledge of the community and, more often than not, the very reason for the community to exist. The ease of creating, editing, and debating one's own and each other's contributions to the wiki knowledge-based are key aspects of the success and livelihood of the community itself. The need for semantic wiki data cannot be separated from the need of friendly authoring environments for those data. This paper introduces a framework that allows users to easily create semantic wiki content by exploiting ontology-driven forms and templates. The system, called {OWiki,} is an instantiation of a more general model, named {GAFFE,} that exploits ontologies to generate metadata editors. Both {GAFFE} and {OWiki} are presented in this paper, with particular attention to the way they exploit ontologies to model the community shared knowledge, the interfaces used to create that knowledge, and the way it evolves. 2010 Taylor Francis.
Jacobs, {M.L.} Libraries and the mobile revolution: remediation=relevance Reference Services Review Volume 37 Pages 286--90 2009 [357]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at the big picture of where academic libraries fit into the mobile revolution. Design/methodology/approach - Using Jim Hahn's accompanying article, On the remediation of Wikipedia and the {iPod,} the author comments on what remediation means for the academic library culture as a whole. The reflections are based on observations of current trends in technology and the emergence of a mobile culture. A definition of this generation of library users is suggested - the {ING} (information now generation). Editorial in nature, the paper also discusses some new technologies and how they might be applicable to the technological growth of libraries. Findings - This reflection of current trends encourages librarians to look/listen, explore, apply, prevail when it comes to applying emerging technologies to the library world. Originality/value - The paper offers insights into how librarians can prepare themselves for the remediation revolution.
Jacso, Peter Wikipedia Online {(Wilton,} Connecticut) Volume 26 Pages 2002 []
Jahnke, Isa Dynamics of social roles in a knowledge management community Computers in Human Behavior Volume 26 Pages 533--546 2010 [358]
With the emergence of community-oriented Information and Communication Technology {(ICT)} applications, e.g., Wikipedia, the popularity of socio-technical phenomena in society has increased. This development emphasises the need to further our understanding of how computer-supported social group structures change over time and what forms emerge. This contribution presents the results of a qualitative field study of a {Socio-Technical} Community {(STC).} The {STC} is described from its founding (in 2001) to its sustainable development (in 2006) as well as its transformation phase (2007-2008). The design-based research approach revealed changes of social structures by social roles within the {STC} over time. The central conclusion is that such {STC's} - networks of computer-mediated communication and human interaction - evolve a specific kind of social structure, which is formal rather than informal. The results indicate that a group evolves from an informal trust-based community with few formal roles to a {STC} where the social mechanisms, and not the software architecture, supports knowledge management processes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jancarik, A. & Jancarikova, K. Wiki Tools in the Preparation and Support of e-Learning Courses Electronic Journal of {e-Learning} Volume 8 Pages 123--32 2010 []
Wiki tools, which became known mainly thanks to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, represent quite a new phenomenon on the Internet. The work presented here deals with three areas connected to a possible use of wiki tools for the preparation of an e-learning course. To what extent does contain terms necessary for scientific lectures at the university level and to what extent are they localised into other languages? The second area covers the use of Wikipedia as a knowledge base for e-learning study materials. Our experience with Enviwiki which originated within the {E-V} Learn project and its use in e-learning courses is presented. The third area aims at the use of wiki tools for building a knowledge base and sharing experience of the participants of an e-learning course.
Jaques, R. Twitter ye not [Web 2.0 and social networks] Financial Director Pages 2008 []
There is more than a slight hint of old wine in new bottles about the hype surrounding Web 2.0 technology. And the nagging scepticism is hardly surprising as firms of all sizes have long been successfully using {IT} systems such as email, shared documents and instant messaging to improve collaboration and communication among staff members. Given that these technologies are now well proven, why should firms need to resort to anything as exotic as a wiki (a collection of web pages that enables anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content, says the ultimate wiki, Wikipedia), or as apparently puerile as a social networking site? It is argued in more conservative corporate circles that this new-fangled social networking fad should remain the preserve of Facebooking and Twittering teenagers. So the advice to savvy firms is clear: whether you like it or not, social software is coming your way and cannot be ignored. While the bottles in which the technology is packaged may appear a trifle dusty, the smart thing to do is raise your glasses to the brave new(ish) world of Web 2.0.
Javanmardi, Sara; Lopes, Cristina & Baldi, Pierre Modeling user reputation in wikis Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Volume 3 Pages 126--139 2010 [359]
Collaborative systems available on the Web allow millions of users to share information through a growing collection of tools and platforms such as wikis, blogs, and shared forums. By their very nature, these systems contain resources and information with different quality levels. The open nature of these systems, however, makes it difficult for users to determine the quality of the available information and the reputation of its providers. Here, we first parse and mine the entire English Wikipedia history pages in order to extract detailed user edit patterns and statistics. We then use these patterns and statistics to derive three computational models of a user's reputation. Finally, we validate these models using ground-truth Wikipedia data associated with vandals and administrators. When used as a classifier, the best model produces an area under the receiver operating characteristic {(ROC)} curve {(AUC)} of 0.98. Furthermore, we assess the reputation predictions generated by the models on other users, and show that all three models can be used efficiently for predicting user behavior in Wikipedia. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jennings, E. Using Wikipedia to teach information literacy College \& Undergraduate Libraries Volume 15 Pages 432--7 2008 [360]
Today's college student often starts his research by using a search engine. Because of this, Wikipedia is increasingly becoming the go to reference resource for the newest generation of students. However, many students do not know about the problems (e.g., vandalism) associated with this tool other than ambiguous warnings from librarians and faculty who say that it should not be used for research. Librarians and faculty should help remove the stigma associated with Wikipedia by embracing this Website and its imperfections as a way to make information literacy instruction valuable for the twenty-first-century student.
Jijkoun, Valentin & Rijke, Maarten Overview of the WiQA Task at CLEF 2006 Evaluation of Multilingual and Multi-modal Information Retrieval Pages Springer--Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg ©2007 2007 [361]
We describe {WiQA} 2006, a pilot task aimed at studying question answering using Wikipedia. Going beyond traditional factoid questions, the task considered at {WiQA} 2006 was to return--given an source page from Wikipedia--to identify snippets from other Wikipedia pages, possibly in languages different from the language of the source page, that add new and important information to the source page, and that do so without {repetition.A} total of 7 teams took part, submitting 20 runs. Our main findings are two-fold: (i) while challenging, the tasks considered at {WiQA} are do-able as participants achieved impressive scores as measured in terms of yield, mean reciprocal rank, and precision, (ii) on the bilingual task, substantially higher scores were achieved than on the monolingual tasks.
{Jimenez-Pelayo}, J. Wikipedia as controlled vocabulary: has the traditional authority control been surpassed? El Profesional de la Informacion Volume 18 Pages 188--201 2009 [362]
Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, is the first project to have been born specifically from and for the Web and which has developed an authority control system for access to their information. Here, the different elements, procedures and principles which make up the Wikipedia authority control system is analysed, and a critical analogy is traced between them and those that meet the traditional authority control applied to bibliographical catalogues. From the critical comparison of both models, one wonders up to what point the authority control, constrained by the weight of tradition and by its hopeless adaptation to technology, has been surpassed by developments such as Wikipedia which are based on a philosophy of flexibility and common sense and where the rules are decided by and for the user. The enormous potential and reach of the Wikipedia authority model make it a true contender to become the normal system of access to the semantic Web.
Johnson, B. Wikipedia as collective action: Personal incentives and enabling structures Pages 2007 [363]
Johnson, D. Up on Angels Landing {ISHN} Volume 44 Pages 2010 [364]
the trail goes through a gradual ascent. Walter's Wiggles
Johnson, {P.T.}; Chen, {J.K.}; Eng, J.; Makary, {M.A.} & Fishman, {E.K.} A comparison of World Wide Web resources for identifying medical information Academic Radiology Volume 15 Pages 1165--72 2008 [365]
Jones, J Patterns of revision in online writing - A study of wikipedia's featured articles {WRITTEN} {COMMUNICATION} Volume 25 Pages 262--289 2008 [366]
This study examines the revision histories of 10 Wikipedia articles nominated for the site's Featured Article Class {(FAC),} its highest quality rating, 5 of which achieved {FAC} and 5 of which did not. The revisions to each article were coded, and the coding results were combined with a descriptive analysis of two representative articles in order to determine revision patterns. All articles in both groups showed a higher percentage of additions of new material compared to deletions and revisions that rearranged the text. Although the {FAC} articles had roughly equal numbers of content and surface revisions, the {non-FAC} articles had fewer surface revisions and were dominated by content revisions. Although the unique features of the Wikipedia environment inhibit strict comparisons between these results and those of earlier revision studies, these results suggest revision in this environment places unique structural demands on writers, possibly leading to unique revision patterns.
Jordan, Christopher Contextual retrieval of single Wikipedia articles to support the reading of academic abstracts Pages 1979 []
Google style search engines are currently some of the most popular tools that people use when they are looking for information. There are a variety of reasons that people can have for conducting a search, although, these reasons can generally be distilled down to users being engaged in a task and developing an information need that impedes them from completing that task at a level which is satisfactory to them. The Google style search engine, however, is not always the most appropriate tool for every user task. In this thesis, our approach to search differs from the traditional search engine as we focus on providing support to users who are reading academic abstracts. When people do not understand a passage in the abstract they are reading, they often look for more detailed information or a definition. Presenting them with a list of possibly relevant search results, as a Google style search would, may not immediately meet this information need. In the case of reading, it is logical to hypothesize that userswould prefer to receive a single document containing the information that they need. Developed in this thesis are retrieval algorithms that use the abstract being read along with the passage that the user is interested in to retrieve a single highly related article from Wikipedia. The top performing algorithm from the experiments conducted in this thesis is able to retrieve an appropriate article 77\% of the time. This algorithm was deployed in a prototype reading support tool. {LiteraryMark,} in order to investigate the usefulness of such a tool. The results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis indicate that {LiteraryMark} is able to significantly improve the understanding and confidence levels of people reading abstracts.
Jordan, Chris & Watters, Carolyn Addressing gaps in knowledge while reading Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 60 Pages 2255--2268 2009 [367]
Reading is a common everyday activity for most of us. In this article, we examine the potential for using Wikipedia to fill in the gaps in one's own knowledge that may be encountered while reading. If gaps are encountered frequently while reading, then this may detract from the reader's final understanding of the given document. Our goal is to increase access to explanatory text for readers by retrieving a single Wikipedia article that is related to a text passage that has been highlighted. This approach differs from traditional search methods where the users formulate search queries and review lists of possibly relevant results. This explicit search activity can be disruptive to reading. Our approach is to minimize the user interaction involved in finding related information by removing explicit query formulation and providing a single relevant result. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we first examined the effectiveness of three contextual algorithms for retrieval. To evaluate the effectiveness for readers, we then developed a functional prototype that uses the text of the abstract being read as context and retrieves a single relevant Wikipedia article in response to a passage the user has highlighted. We conducted a small user study where participants were allowed to use the prototype while reading abstracts. The results from this initial study indicate that users found the prototype easy to use and that using the prototype significantly improved their stated understanding and confidence in that understanding of the academic abstracts they read. 2009 {ASIS} T.
Jr., James Brown From Friday to Sunday: The hacker ethic and shifting notions of labour, leisure and intellectual property Leisure Studies Volume 27 Pages 395--409 2008 [368]
Leisure studies scholars have theorised how the Web is changing leisure experiences, and this essay continues that work by discussing the Web and shifting notions of leisure, labour and intellectual property. Much online activity is described under the umbrella term of 'piracy'. By discussing online cultural production in terms of what Pekka Himanen calls the hacker ethic, we can rethink rhetorics of piracy and better understand the positive and negative aspects of online activities. Rather than thinking of online activity as derivative, we can reframe Web texts as doing what all cultural texts do - build upon the past. The ethic of the Web is built on a hacker approach to work, play, collaboration, intellectual property. Facebook applications and Wikipedia entries are just two examples of Web users' embrace of the hacker ethic. But is this labour or leisure? Is Wikipedia, a text edited and maintained by volunteers, the result of work or play? Himanen provides a new way to view online activities that sit in between the categories of labour and leisure. Further, the hacker ethic allows us to understand the contested terms of labour and leisure alongside a third contested term: intellectual property. This paper provides a framework to help us better understand the new immaterial aspects of leisure activity happening on the Web. A discussion of these activities in terms of the hacker ethic allows scholars to explore shifting notions of labour, leisure and intellectual property without resorting to rhetorics of piracy.
Jr., Joseph M. Reagle Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication" New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia Volume 16 Pages 161--180 2010 [369]
Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to some bitter disputes. Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be as addictive as cocaine". Yet
Judd, Terry & Kennedy, Gregor A five-year study of on-campus Internet use by undergraduate biomedical students Computers and Education Volume 55 Pages 1564--1571 2010 [370]
This paper reports on a five-year study (2005-2009) of biomedical students' on-campus use of the Internet. Internet usage logs were used to investigate students' sessional use of key websites and technologies. The most frequented sites and technologies included the university's learning management system, Google, email and Facebook. Email was the primary method of electronic communication. However, its use declined over time, with a steep drop in use during 2006 and 2007 appearing to correspond with the rapid uptake of the social networking site Facebook. Both Google and Wikipedia gained in popularity over time while the use of other key information sources, including the library and biomedical portals, remained low throughout the study. With the notable exception of Facebook, most {'Web} 2.0' technologies attracted little use. The {'Net} Generation' students involved in this study were heavy users of generalist information retrieval tools and key online university services, and prefered to use externally hosted tools for online communication. These and other findings have important implications for the selection and provision of services by universities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Judd, T. & Kennedy, G. Expediency-based practice? Medical students' reliance on Google and Wikipedia for biomedical inquiries British Journal of Educational Technology Pages no 2009 [371]
Kalantidis, Yannis; Tolias, Giorgos; Avrithis, Yannis; Phinikettos, Marios; Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos & Kollias, Stefanos VIRaL: Visual Image Retrieval and Localization Multimedia Tools and Applications Pages 1--38 2010 [372]
Kane, G. C. & Fichman, R. G. The Shoemaker’s Children: Using Wikis for Information Systems Teaching, Research, and Publication {MIS} Quarterly Volume 33 Pages 1--17 2009 []
This paper argues that Web 2.0 tools, specifically wikis, have begun to influence business and knowledge sharing practices in many organizations. Information Systems researchers have spent considerable time exploring the impact and implications of these tools in organizations, but those same researchers have not spent sufficient time considering whether and how these new technologies may provide opportunities for us to reform our core practices of research, review, and teaching. To this end, this paper calls for the {IS} discipline to engage in two actions related to wikis and other Web 2.0 tools. First, the {IS} discipline ought to engage in critical reflection about how wikis and other Web 2.0 tools could allow us to conduct our core processes differently. Our existing practices were formulated during an era of paperbased exchange; wikis and other Web 2.0 tools may enable processes that could be substantively better. Nevertheless, users can appropriate information technology tools in unexpected ways, and even when tools are appropriated as expected there can be unintended negative consequences. Any potential changes to our core processes should, therefore, be considered critically and carefully, leading to our second recommended action. We advocate and describe a series of controlled experiments that will help assess the impact of these technologies on our core processes and the associated changes that would be necessary to use them. We argue that these experiments can provide needed information regarding Web 2.0 tools and related practice changes that could help the discipline better assess whether or not new practices would be superior to existing ones and under which circumstances.
Kaplan, {A.M.} & Haenlein, M. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media Business Horizons Volume 53 Pages 59--68 2010 [373]
The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, {YouTube,} Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term Social Media exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media. {[All} rights reserved Elsevier].
Kasneci, Gjergji; Ramanath, Maya; Suchanek, Fabian & Weikum, Gerhard The YAGO-NAGA approach to knowledge discovery {SIGMOD} Record Volume 37 Pages 41--47 2008 [374]
This paper gives an overview on the {YAGO-NAGA} approach to information extraction for building a conveniently searchable, large-scale, highly accurate knowledge base of common facts. {YAGO} harvests infoboxes and category names of Wikipedia for facts about individual entities, and it reconciles these with the taxonomic backbone of {WordNet} in order to ensure that all entities have proper classes and the class system is consistent. Currently, the {YAGO} knowledge base contains about 19 million instances of binary relations for about 1.95 million entities. Based on intensive sampling, its accuracy is estimated to be above 95 percent. The paper presents the architecture of the {YAGO} extractor toolkit, its distinctive approach to consistency checking, its provisions for maintenance and further growth, and the query engine for {YAGO,} coined {NAGA.} It also discusses ongoing work on extensions towards integrating fact candidates extracted from natural-language text sources.
Kay, Robin & Lauricella, Sharon Exploring the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptops in Higher Education Classrooms Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 4140--4144 NaN [375]
Keim, B. News feature: WikiMedia Nature Medicine Volume 13 Pages 231–233 2007 []
Kennedy, K. Textual curators and writing machines: Authorial agency in encyclopedias, print to digital Pages 2009 [376]
Kim, Ji Yeon; Gudewicz, Thomas M; Dighe, Anand S & Gilbertson, John R The pathology informatics curriculum wiki: Harnessing the power of user-generated content Journal of Pathology Informatics Volume 1 Pages 2010 [377]
{BACKGROUND:} The need for informatics training as part of pathology training has never been so critical, but pathology informatics is a wide and complex field and very few programs currently have the resources to provide comprehensive educational pathology informatics experiences to their residents. In this article, we present the pathology informatics curriculum wiki"
Kim, Won; Jeong, {Ok-Ran} & Lee, {Sang-Won} On social Web sites Information Systems Volume 35 Pages 215--236 2010 [378]
Today hundreds of millions of Internet users are using thousands of social Web sites to stay connected with their friends, discover new friends
Kim, {Jung-Mn}; Shin, Hyopil & Kim, {Hyoung-Joo} Schema and constraints-based matching and merging of Topic Maps Information Processing and Management Volume 43 Pages 930--945 2007 [379]
In this paper, we propose a multi-strategic matching and merging approach to find correspondences between ontologies based on the syntactic or semantic characteristics and constraints of the Topic Maps. Our multi-strategic matching approach consists of a linguistic module and a Topic Map constraints-based module. A linguistic module computes similarities between concepts using morphological analysis, string normalization and tokenization and language-dependent heuristics. A Topic Map constraints-based module takes advantage of several Topic Maps-dependent techniques such as a topic property-based matching, a hierarchy-based matching, and an association-based matching. This is a composite matching procedure and need not generate a cross-pair of all topics from the ontologies because unmatched pairs of topics can be removed by characteristics and constraints of the Topic Maps. Merging between Topic Maps follows the matching operations. We set up the {MERGE} function to integrate two Topic Maps into a new Topic Map, which satisfies such merge requirements as entity preservation, property preservation, relation preservation, and conflict resolution. For our experiments, we used oriental philosophy ontologies, western philosophy ontologies, Yahoo western philosophy dictionary, and Wikipedia philosophy ontology as input ontologies. Our experiments show that the automatically generated matching results conform to the outputs generated manually by domain experts and can be of great benefit to the following merging operations. 2006.
Kimmerle, Joachim; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Harrer, Andreas & Cress, Ulrike VISUALIZING CO-EVOLUTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Information, Communication \& Society Pages 2010 [380]
This paper describes how processes of knowledge building with wikis may be visualized, citing the user-generated online encyclopedia Wikipedia as an example. The underlying theoretical basis is a framework for collaborative knowledge building with wikis that describes knowledge building as a co-evolution of individual and collective knowledge. These co-evolutionary processes may be visualized graphically, applying methods from social network analysis, especially those methods that take dynamic changes into account. For this purpose, we have undertaken to analyse, on the one hand, the temporal development of a Wikipedia article and related articles that are linked to this core article. On the other hand, we analysed the temporal development of those users who worked on these articles. The resulting graphics show an analogous process, both with regard to the articles that refer to the core article and to the users involved. These results provide empirical support for the co-evolution model.
Kimura, Bert & Ho, Curtis Technology Trends in Learning and Implications for Intercultural Exchange Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 326--330 NaN [381]
Kinsella, Sheila; Breslin, John G.; Passant, Alexandre & Decker, Stefan Applications of Semantic Web Methodologies and Techniques to Social Networks and Social Websites Reasoning Web Pages Springer--Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg ©2008 2008 [382]
One of the most visible trends on the Web is the emergence of {Social} Web" sites which facilitate the creation and gathering of knowledge through the simplification of user contributions via blogs
Kitchen, R. Not an authority. British Dental Journal Volume 206 Pages 2009 [383]
A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article {Wikipedia} use
Knapp, Margaret M. eBay, Wikipedia, and the future of the footnote Theatre History Studies Volume 28 Pages NaN [384]
Kohn, {R.S.} Of Descartes And Of Train Schedules: Evaluating The Encyclopedia Judaica, Wikipedia, And Other General And Jewish Studies Encyclopedias Library Review Volume 59 Pages 249--60 2010 [385]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the second edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica (2007) within its broader historical context of the production of encyclopedias in the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries. The paper contrasts the 2007 edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica to the Jewish Encyclopedia published between 1901 and 1905, and to the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica published in 1972; then contrasts the 2007 edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica to Wikipedia and to other projects of online encyclopedias. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides a personal reflective review of the sources in question. Findings - That Encyclopaedia Judaica in its latest edition does not adequately replace the original first edition in terms of depth of scholarly work. It is considered that the model offered by Wikipedia could work well for the Encyclopaedia Judaica, allowing it to retain the core of the expert knowledge, and at the same time channel the energy of volunteer editors which has made Wikipedia such a success. Practical implications - The paper is of interest to those with an interest in encyclopedia design or Jewish studies. Originality/value - This paper provides a unique reflection on the latest edition of the encyclopedia and considers future models for its publication based on traditional and non-traditional methods.
Kolbitsch, J & Maurer, H The transformation of the Web: How emerging communities shape the information we consume {JOURNAL} {OF} {UNIVERSAL} {COMPUTER} {SCIENCE} Pages NaN []
To date, one of the main aims of the World Wide Web has been to provide users with information. In addition to private homepages, large professional information providers, including news services, companies, and other organisations have set up web-sites. With the development and advance of recent technologies such as wikis, blogs, podcasting and file sharing this model is challenged and community-driven services are gaining influence rapidly. These new paradigms obliterate the clear distinction between information providers and consumers. The lines between producers and consumers are blurred even more by services such as Wikipedia, where every reader can become an author, instantly. This paper presents an overview of a broad selection of current technologies and services: blogs, wikis including Wikipedia and Wikinews, social networks such as Friendster and Orkut as well as related social services like, file sharing tools such as Flickr, and podcasting. These services enable user participation on the Web and manage to recruit a large number of users as authors of new content. It is argued that the transformations the Web is subject to are not driven by new technologies but by a fundamental mind shift that encourages individuals to take part in developing new structures and content. The evolving services and technologies encourage ordinary users to make their knowledge explicit and help a collective intelligence to develop.
Kolbitsch, J. & Maurer, H. Community Building around Encyclopaedic Knowledge Journal of Computing and Information Technology Volume 14 Pages 2004 [386]
This paper gives a brief overview of current technologies in systems handling encyclopaedic knowledge. Since most of the electronic encyclopaedias currently available are rather static and inflexible, greatly enhanced func- tionality is introduced that enables users to work more effectively and collaboratively. Users have the ability, for instance, to add annotations to every kind of object and can have private and shared workspaces. The techniques described employ user profiles in order to adapt to users and involve statistical analysis to improve search results. Moreover, a tracking and navigation mechanism based on trails is presented. The second part of the paper details community building around encyclopaedic knowledge with the aim to involve “plain� users and experts in environments with largely editorial content. The foundations for building a user community are specified along with significant facets such as retaining the high quality of content, rating mech- anisms and social aspects. A system that implements large portions of the community-related concepts in a heterogeneous environment of several largely indepen- dent data sources is proposed. Apart from online and {DVD-based} encyclopaedias, potential application areas are {e-Learning,} corporate documentation and knowledge management systems.
Konieczny, Piotr Adhocratic Governance in the Internet Age: A Case of Wikipedia Journal of Information Technology \& Politics Volume 7 Pages 263 -- 283 2010 [387]
In recent years, a new realm has appeared for the study of political and sociological phenomena: the Internet. This article will analyze the decision-making processes of one of the largest online communities, Wikipedia. Founded in 2001, Wikipedia—now among the top-10 most popular sites on the Internet—has succeeded in attracting and organizing millions of volunteers and creating the world's largest encyclopedia. To date, however, little study has been done of Wikipedia's governance. There is substantial confusion about its decision-making structure. The organization's governance has been compared to many decision-making and political systems—from democracy to dictatorship, from bureaucracy to anarchy. It is the purpose of this article to go beyond the earlier simplistic descriptions of Wikipedia's governance in order to advance the study of online governance, and of organizations more generally. As the evidence will show, while Wikipedia's governance shows elements common to many traditional governance models, it appears to be closest to the organizational structure known as adhocracy.
Konieczny, P. Governance, Organization, and Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of Wikipedia Sociological Forum Volume 24 Pages 162--192 2009 [388]
Konieczny, Piotr Wikis and Wikipedia as a Teaching Tool International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning Volume 4 Pages 2007 [389]

Wikis are a very versatile and easy-to-use tool that is finding increasing applications in teaching and learning. This paper will illustrate how teaching academics can join the wiki revolution. First. it will introduce the common wikis and then focus on Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, which has become one of the most popular Internet sites and offers unique opportunities for teachers and learners. It will describe how wikis and Wikipedia are used as a teaching tool and how to develop them further.

Wikipedia can be used for various assignments: for example, students can be asked to reference an unreferenced article or create a completely new one. In doing so, students will see that writing an article is not a 'tedious assignment' but an activity that millions do 'for fun'. By submitting their work to Wikipedia students will see their work benefiting – and being improved upon – by the entire world.
Korfiatis, Nikolaos Th.; Poulos, Marios & Bokos, George Evaluating authoritative sources using social networks: An insight from Wikipedia Online Information Review Volume 30 Pages 252--262 2006 [390]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to evaluating contributions in collaborative authoring environments, and in particular, Wikis using social network measures. Design/methodology/approach - A social network model for Wikipedia has been constructed, and metrics of importance such as centrality have been defined. Data has been gathered from articles belonging to the same topic using a web crawler, in order to evaluate the outcome of the social network measures in the articles. Findings - Finds that the question of the reliability regarding Wikipedia content is a challenging one and as Wikipedia grows, the problem becomes more demanding, especially for topics with controversial views such as politics or history. Practical implications - It is believed that the approach presented here could be used to improve the authoritativeness of content found in Wikipedia and similar sources. Originality/value - This work tries to develop a network approach to the evaluation of Wiki contributions, and approaches the problem of quality Wikipedia content from a social network point of view. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Korosec, L; Limacher, P A; Luthi, H P & Brandle, M P Chemical Information Media in the Chemistry Lecture Hall: A Comparative Assessment of Two Online Encyclopedias {CHIMIA} Pages NaN []
The chemistry encyclopedia Rompp Online and the German universal encyclopedia Wikipedia were assessed by first-year university students on the basis of a set of 30 articles about chemical thermodynamics. Criteria with regard to both content and form were applied in the comparison; 619 ratings (48\% participation rate) were returned. While both encyclopedias obtained very good marks and performed nearly equally with regard to their accuracy, the average overall mark for Wikipedia was better than for Rompp Online, which obtained lower marks with regard to completeness and length. Analysis of the results and participants' comments shows that students attach importance to completeness, length and comprehensibility rather than accuracy, and also attribute less value to the availability of sources which validate an encyclopedia article. Both encyclopedias can be promoted as a starting reference to access a topic in chemistry. However, it is recommended that instructors should insist that students do not rely solely on encyclopedia texts, but use and cite primary literature in their reports.
Korsgaard, Thomas Rune & Jensen, Christian D. Reengineering the Wikipedia for Reputation Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science Volume 244 Pages 81--94 2009 [391]
The Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia collaboratively edited by Internet users with a minimum of administration. Anybody can write an article for the Wikipedia and there is no verification of the author's expertise on the particular subject. This may lead to problems relating to the quality of articles, especially completeness and correctness of information, and inaccuracies in the Wikipedia have been rumoured to cause students to fail courses; innocent people have been associated with the killing of John F. Kennedy, etc. Providing a means to assess the correctness, completeness and impartiality of information in the Wikipedia is therefore vitally important for the users to build trust in the Wikipedia and ensure the continued success and growth of the system. Integrating a reputation system into the Wikipedia would help users assess the quality of articles and provide a powerful incentive for authors to improve the quality of their articles. There are currently more than 7.5 million articles in the Wikipedia, and more than a thousand new articles are added daily, so the investment in the existing system is significant. The introduction of a recommendation system should therefore not require any modifications to the existing Wikipedia software. In this paper we examine the problem of reengineering a large and popular system, in this case the Wikipedia, in order to include a reputation system. We propose a recommendation system, which allows Wikipedia users to calculate a personalised rating for any article based on feedback (recommendations) provided by other Wikipedia users. The recommendation system developed for the Wikipedia is based on a general architecture, which we believe applies to many existing applications for online collaboration. The proposed recommendation system is implemented in a proxy placed between the user's web-browser and the Wikipedia server, e.g., on the user's own machine, so there is no need to modify Wikipedia servers or software. A simple prototype of the proposed recommendation system is presented in this paper along with a preliminary evaluation of the prototype. 2009 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Kostakis, V. Identifying and understanding the problems of Wikipedia's peer governance: The case of inclusionists versus deletionists First Monday Volume 15 Pages 14 pp. 2010 []
Wikipedia has been hailed as one of the most prominent peer projects that led to the rise of the concept of peer governance. However, criticism has been levelled against Wikipedia's mode of governance. This paper, using the Wikipedia case as a point of departure and building upon the conflict between inclusionists and deletionists, tries to identify and draw some conclusions on the problematic issue of peer governance.
Kowalsky, David The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. Technical Communication Volume 57 Pages 106--107 2010 []
The article reviews the book {The} Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia
Krizhanovsky, {A.A.} & Smirnov, {A.V.} On the problem of wiki texts indexing Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences International Volume 48 Pages 616--624 2009 [392]
A new type of documents called a wiki page" is winning the Internet. This is expressed not only in an increase of the number of Internet pages of this type
Krotzsch, Markus; Vrandecic, Denny; Volkel, Max; Haller, Heiko & Studer, Rudi Semantic Wikipedia Web Semantics Volume 5 Pages 251--261 2007 [393]
Wikipedia is the world's largest collaboratively edited source of encyclopaedic knowledge. But in spite of its utility, its content is barely machine-interpretable and only weakly structured. With Semantic {MediaWiki} we provide an extension that enables wiki-users to semantically annotate wiki pages, based on which the wiki contents can be browsed, searched, and reused in novel ways. In this paper, we give an extended overview of Semantic {MediaWiki} and discuss experiences regarding performance and current applications. 2007 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Kubiszewski, Ida; Noordewier, Thomas & Costanza, Robert Perceived Credibility of Internet Encyclopedias Computers \& Education Pages NaN []
Kupiainen, Reijo; Suoranta, Juha & Vaden, Tere Fire Next Time: Or Revisioning Higher Education in the Context of Digital Social Creativity {E-Learning} Volume 4 Pages 2007 []
This article presents an idea of digital social creativity" as part of social media and examines an approach emphasising openness and experimentation and collaborative learning in the world of information and communication technologies. Wikipedia and similar digital tools provide both challenges to and possibilities for building learning sites in higher education and other forms of education and socialisation that recognise various forms of information and knowledge creation. The dialogical nature of knowledge and the emphasis on social interaction create a tremendous opportunity for education
Kuznetsov, Stacey Motivations of contributors to Wikipedia {ACM} {SIGCAS} Computers and Society Homepage Volume 36 Pages 2006 [394]
This paper aims to explain why people are motivated to contribute to the Wikipedia project. A comprehensive analysis of the motivations of Wikipedians is conducted using the iterative methodology developed by Batya Friedman and Peter Kahn in Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems and co-developed by Nissenbaum and Friedman in Bias in Computer Systems. The Value Sensitive Design {(VSD)} approach consists of three stages: Empirical Investigation, Conceptual Investigation, and Technical Investigation. During the empirical phase, motivations of the contributors to Wikipedia are identified through analysis of data from two published surveys and a pilot survey conducted at New York University. The underlying values behind these motivations are then defined in the conceptual phase of the study. Finally, a technical investigation is conducted in order to determine how features of the Wiki technology support and facilitate these values.
Kuznetsov, Stacey Wikipedia: an informal survey of NYU students {ACM} {SIGCAS} Computers and Society Homepage Volume 36 Pages 2006 [395]
An abstract is not available.
de Laat, P. B How can contributors to open-source communities be trusted? On the assumption, inference, and substitution of trust Ethics and Information Technology Volume 12 Pages 1–15 2010 []
Open-source communities that focus on content rely squarely on the contributions of invisible strangers in cyberspace. How do such communities handle the problem of trusting that strangers have good intentions and adequate competence? This question is explored in relation to communities in which such trust is a vital issue: peer production of software {(FreeBSD} and Mozilla in particular) and encyclopaedia entries {(Wikipedia} in particular). In the context of open-source software, it is argued that trust was inferred from an underlying ‘hacker ethic’, which already existed. The Wikipedian project, by contrast, had to create an appropriate ethic along the way. In the interim, the assumption simply had to be that potential contributors were trustworthy; they were granted ‘substantial trust’. Subsequently, projects from both communities introduced rules and regulations which partly substituted for the need to perceive contributors as trustworthy. They faced a design choice in the continuum between a high-discretion design (granting a large amount of trust to contributors) and a low-discretion design (leaving only a small amount of trust to contributors). It is found that open-source designs for software and encyclopaedias are likely to converge in the future towards a mid-level of discretion. In such a design the anonymous user is no longer invested with unquestioning trust.
Lacovara, Jane E When searching for the evidence, stop using Wikipedia! Medsurg Nursing: Official Journal of the Academy of {Medical-Surgical} Nurses Volume 17 Pages 2008 [396]
Lally, {A.M.} & Dunford, {C.E.} Using Wikipedia to extend digital collections {D-Lib} Magazine Volume 13 Pages 13 pp. 2007 []
In May 2006, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Initiatives unit began a project to integrate the {UW} Libraries Digital Collections into the information workflow of our students by inserting links into the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The idea for this project grew out of our reading of {OCLC's} 2005 report Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources which states that only 2\% of college and university students begin searching for information at a library Web site. It is, therefore, incumbent upon Librarians to look for new ways to reach out to our users where they begin their information search. The explosive growth of Wikipedia made it a prime candidate for our efforts at pushing information about the Libraries out to where users conduct their research. It should be noted here that our digital collections are already harvested and heavily used by people all over the world; in fact, Google and its affiliates are the top referrers of people to our collections.
Lange, Kathy Differences Between Statistics and Data Mining {DM} Review Volume 16 Pages 2006 []
From a business perspective, it doesn't really matter what you call it: statistics, data mining or predictive analytics. Competitive advantage comes from making better decisions faster and more confidently. A deceptively simple question triggers lively debate among analytical professionals: What is the difference between statistics and data mining? Wikipedia defines statistics as, {A} mathematical science pertaining to collection
Langlois, G & Elmer, G Wikipedia leeches? The promotion of traffic through a collaborative web format {NEW} {MEDIA} \& {SOCIETY} Volume 11 Pages 773--794 2009 [397]
This article investigates the circulation of Wikipedia entries on the web in an effort to determine the integration of its collaborative model into existing proprietary web formats. In particular it details the use of Wikipedia content as 'tags' or information that is used to increase traffic to webpages through search engine results. Consequently, the article discusses the need to develop theoretical models that provide for an understanding of both content and form on the web, particularly as formatted by open-source legal frameworks.
{LANGLOIS}, {GANAELE} The TechnoCultural dimensions of meaning [microform]: towards a mixed semiotics of the World Wide Web Pages 2008 []
This dissertation project argues that the study of meaning-making practices on the Web, and particularly the analysis of the power relations that organize communicational practices, needs to involve an acknowledgement of the importance of communication technologies. This project assesses the technocultural impact of software that automatically produces and dynamically adapts content to user input through a case study analysis of and of the {MediaWiki} software package. It offers an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that borrows from communication studies (discourse analysis, medium theory, cultural studies of technology), from new media studies (software criticism) and from Actor-network theory and Felix Guattari's mixed semiotics. In so doing, the research defines a new methodological framework through which the question of semiotics and discourse can be analyzed thanks to an exploration of the technocultural conditions that create communicative possibilities. The analysis of examines how the deployment of tools to track, shape and predict the cultural desires of users raises questions related to the imposition of specific modes of interpretation. In particular, I highlight the process through which user-produced meanings are incorporated within software-produced semiotic systems so as to embed cultural processes within a commercial imperative. While is an instance of the commercial use of dynamic content production techniques on the Web, Wikipedia stands as a symbol of non-commercial knowledge production. The Wikipedia model is not only cultural, but also technical as mass collaborative knowledge production depends on a suite of software tools - the {MediaWiki} architecture - that enables new discursive practices. The Wikipedia model is the result of a set of articulations between technical and cultural processes, and the case study examines how this model is captured, modified and challenged by other websites using the same wiki architecture as Wikipedia. In particular, I examine how legal and technical processes on the Web appropriate discursive practices by capitalizing on user-produced content as a source of revenue.
Larsson, G. Cyber-Islamophobia?: The case of WikiIslam Volume 1 Pages 53--67 NaN [398]
Laslie, Mitch The People's Encyclopedia. Science Volume 301 Pages 2003 []
The do-it-yourself spirit flourishes on the Internet, where for the last two-and-a-half years, readers have been writing and editing their own encyclopedia, known as Wikipedia. It now has more than 152,000 articles under way in English, and the project's participants aim to create the world's largest encyclopedia. Wikipedia offers a substantial science section, with biographies of scientists such as the late paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, backgrounds on subjects such as relativity and acid-base reactions, and overviews of major disciplines. These articles brim with links to other Wikipedia entries and outside sources. Instead of undergoing formal peer review by experts, these articles endure the scrutiny of readers, who can edit, correct, and polish the prose.
Laurent, {MR} & Vickers, {TJ} Seeking Health Information Online: Does Wikipedia Matter? {JOURNAL} {OF} {THE} {AMERICAN} {MEDICAL} {INFORMATICS} {ASSOCIATION} Volume 16 Pages 471--479 2009 [399]
Lawler, C. Action research as a congruent methodology for understanding wikis: the case of Wikiversity Volume 2008 Pages 1--11 2008 [400]
Lawler, Cormac A 'resource review’ of Wikipedia. Counselling \& Psychotherapy Research Volume 6 Pages 149--150 2006 []
The article offers information on Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia. The articles and definitions published in Wikipedia can be edited. Articles usually start as a single sentence and they grow over time through collaborative writing and editing. A discussion page for every article is also provided for people interested in or concerned with the content of that article.
Leary, John Testing Wiki Credibility. Communications of the {ACM} Volume 49 Pages 2006 []
A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article {Wikipedia} Risks" by Peter Denning in the December 2005 issue."
Lee, Julian C. H. Why Isn't Panesar a Pommie Bastard? Multiculturalism and the Implications of Cricket Australia's Racial Abuse Policy Anthropology Today Volume 24 Pages 23--25 2008 [401]
Lee, Kangpyo; Kim, Hyunwoo; Jang, Chungsu & Kim, {Hyoung-Joo} FolksoViz: A subsumption-based folksonomy visualization using the wikipedia Journal of {KISS:} Computing Practices Volume 14 Pages 401--11 2008 []
Folksonomy, which is created through the collaborative tagging from many users, is one of the driving factors of Web 2.0. Tags are said to be the web metadata describing a web document. If we are able to find the semantic subsumption relationships between tags created through the collaborative tagging, it can help users understand the metadata more intuitively. In this paper, targeting tag data, we propose a method named {FolksoViz} for deriving subsumption relationships between tags by using Wikipedia texts. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model for deriving subsumption relationships based on the frequency of each tag on the Wikipedia texts, and {TSD} {(Tag} Sense Disambiguation) method for mapping each tag to a corresponding Wikipedia text. The derived subsumption pairs are visualized effectively on the screen. The experiment shows that our proposed algorithm managed to find the correct subsumption pairs with high accuracy.
Lehmann, Simon; Schwanecke, Ulrich & Dorner, Ralf Interactive visualization for opportunistic exploration of large document collections Information Systems Volume 35 Pages 260--269 2010 [402]
Finding relevant information in a large and comprehensive collection of cross-referenced documents like Wikipedia usually requires a quite accurate idea where to look for the pieces of data being sought. A user might not yet have enough domain-specific knowledge to form a precise search query to get the desired result on the first try. Another problem arises from the usually highly cross-referenced structure of such document collections. When researching a subject, users usually follow some references to get additional information not covered by a single document. With each document, more opportunities to navigate are added and the structure and relations of the visited documents gets harder to understand. This paper describes the interactive visualization Wivi which enables users to intuitively navigate Wikipedia by visualizing the structure of visited articles and emphasizing relevant other topics. Combining this visualization with a view of the current article results in a custom browser specially adapted for exploring large information networks. By visualizing the potential paths that could be taken, users are invited to read up on subjects relevant to the current point of focus and thus opportunistically finding relevant information. Results from a user study indicate that this visual navigation can be easily used and understood. A majority of the participants of the study stated that this method of exploration supports them finding information in Wikipedia. 2009 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Leinonen, T.; Vaden, T. & Suoranta, J. Learning in and with an open Wiki project: Wikiversity's potential in global capacity building First Monday Volume 14 Pages 11 pp. 2009 []
There is a chance that Wikiversity will become the Internet's free university just as Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia on the Internet. The building of an educational entity demands considering a number of philosophical and practical questions such as pedagogy and organization. In this paper we will address some of these, starting by introducing several earlier approaches and ideas related to wikis' potential for education. We continue by presenting three commonly used metaphors of learning: acquisition, participation and knowledge creation. Then we will present the main principles of two existing alternative educational approaches: free {aduH} education and free school movement. To test these educational approaches and practices on Wikiversity and increase our understanding of the possibilities of this initiative, in the spring of 2008 we implemented an experimental course in Wikiversity. We conclude with several recommendations essentially advocating for Wikiversity and the use of wikis in education. However, more than just presenting our opinions, as authors we aim to make an educated - traditionally and in the wiki way - contribution to the international discussion about the future of education for all in the digital era.
Leithner, A; {Maurer-Ertl}, W; Glehr, M; Friesenbichler, J; Leithner, K & Windhager, R Wikipedia and osteosarcoma: a trustworthy patients' information? {JOURNAL} {OF} {THE} {AMERICAN} {MEDICAL} {INFORMATICS} {ASSOCIATION} Volume 17 Pages 373--374 2010 [403]
The English version of the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, has been recently reported to be the prominent source of online health information. However, there is little information concerning the quality of information found in Wikipedia. Therefore, we created a questionnaire asking for scope, completeness, and accuracy of information found on osteosarcoma. Three independent observers tested the English version of Wikipedia, as well as the patient version and the health professional version of the {US} National Cancer Institute {(NCI)} website. Answers were verified with authoritative resources and international guidelines. The results of our study demonstrate that the quality of osteosarcoma-related information found in the English Wikipedia is good but inferior to the patient information provided by the {NCI.} Therefore, non-peer-reviewed commonly used websites offering health information, such as Wikipedia, should include links to more definitive sources, such as those maintained by the {NCI} and professional international organizations on healthcare treatments. Furthermore, frequent checks should make sure such external links are to the highest quality and to the best-maintained aggregate sites on a given healthcare topic.
{LeLoup}, Jean W. & Ponterio, Robert On the net: Wikipedia: a multilingual treasure trove Language, Learning \& Technology Volume 10 Pages NaN [404]
{LeLoup}, {JW} & Ponterio, R Wikipedia: A multilingual treasure trove {LANGUAGE} {LEARNING} \& {TECHNOLOGY} Volume 10 Pages 4--7 2006 [405]
Letia, Mihai; Preguica, Nuno & Shapiro, Marc Consistency without concurrency control in large, dynamic systems Volume 44 Pages 29--34 2010 [406]
Replicas of a commutative replicated data type {(CRDT)} eventually converge without any complex concurrency control. We validate the design of a non-trivial {CRDT,} a replicated sequence, with performance measurements in the context of Wikipedia. Furthermore, we discuss how to eliminate a remaining scalability bottleneck: Whereas garbage collection previously required a system-wide consensus, here we propose a flexible two-tier architecture and a protocol for migrating between tiers. We also discuss how the {CRDT} concept can be generalised, and its limitations.
Lewandowski, D. & Spree, U. Ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines revisited: Fair ranking for reasonable quality? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Pages n/a 2010 [407]
Lewis, Paul; Davies, Christie; Kuipers, Giselinde; Martin, Rod A.; Oring, Elliott & Raskin, Victor The Muhammad cartoons and humor research: A collection of essays. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Volume 21 Pages 1--46 2008 []
At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies {(Danish} University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled Transnational Ridicule and Response focused on the implications for humor research of the events surrounding the publication of the cartoons. Along with other materials, panelists were encouraged to review summaries of and timelines for the story available from the {BBC} and Wikipedia. Of the questions considered by panelists, the following drew interesting and, at times, provocative responses: Were the cartoons humorous; if so, did they represent a distinct or new kind of humor? Were the modes of global transmission of the cartoons new? Does the story have implications for ongoing humor research and advocacy? The goal was to approach the controversy not as partisans with particular political outlooks but as students of humor. The brief essays collected here were written following the conference by members of the panel {(Christie} Davies, Giselinde Kuipers, Paul Lewis, and Victor Raskin) and by two others who attended the colloquium {(Elliott} Oring and Rod A. Martin). After reviewing the essays, {HUMOR} editor Salvatore Attardo suggested that each of the participants be invited to read what the others had written and submit a brief response. Responses included here were received from Davies, Kuipers, Lewis, Oring, and Raskin. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Li, Decong; Li, Sujian; Li, Wenjie; Gu, Congyun & Li, Yun Keyphrase extraction based on topic relevance and term association Journal of Information and Computational Science Volume 7 Pages 293--299 2010 []
Keyphrases are concise representation of documents and usually are extracted directly from the original text. This paper proposes a novel approach to extract keyphrases. This method proposes two metrics, named topic relevance and term association respectively, for determining whether a term is a keyphrase. Using Wikipedia knowledge and betweenness computation, we compute these two metrics and combine them to extract important phrases from the text. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for keyphrases extaction. Copyright 2010 Binary Information Press.
Li, Y; Huang, K Y; Ren, F J & Zhong, Y X Exploring Words with Semantic Relations from Chinese Wikipedia {INFORMATION-AN} {INTERNATIONAL} {INTERDISCIPLINARY} {JOURNAL} Pages NaN []
This paper introduces a way of exploring words with semantic relations from Chinese Wikipedia documents. A corpus with structured documents is generated from Chinese Wikipedia pages. Then considering of the hyperlinks, text overlaps and word frequencies, word pairs with semantic relations are explored. Words can be self clustered into groups with tight semantic relations. We roughly measure the semantic relatedness with different document based algorithms and analyze the reliability of our measures in comparing experiment.
Liao, {Han-Teng} Conflict and consensus in the Chinese version of Wikipedia {IEEE} Technology and Society Magazine Volume 28 Pages 49--56 2009 [408]
It is not easy to initiate a new language version of Wikipedia. Although anyone can propose a new language version without financial cost, certain Wikipedia policies for establishing a new language version must be followed [30]. Once approved and created, the new language version needs tools to facilitate writing and reading in the new language. Even if a team tackles these technical and linguistic issues, a nascent community has to then develop its own editorial and administrative policies and guidelines, sometimes by translating and ratifying the policies in another language version (usually English). Given that Wikipedia does not impose an universal set of editorial and administrative policies and guidelines, the cultural and political nature of such communities remains open-ended. 2009 {IEEE.
Lichtenstein, S. & Parker, {C.M.} Wikipedia model for collective intelligence: a review of information quality International Journal of Knowledge and Learning Volume 5 Pages 254--72 2009 [409]
Online information seekers increasingly utilise the online encyclopaedia Wikipedia as a key reference source. Wikipedia's special feature is that it is based on the collective intelligence {(CI)} of lay citizens. Its consensus-building participatory knowledge-building processes replace traditional encyclopaedia processes founded on the knowledge of experts and gatekeeping practices. However there have been reports of concerns with the level of information quality provided by Wikipedia articles. This paper explores information quality for Wikipedia theoretically. First, it conceptualises the Wikipedia model of knowledge production and second, it analyses information quality for the model. Finally, the paper recommends some improvements for the model and discusses other implications for knowledge management theory and practice.
Lim, Sook How and why do college students use Wikipedia? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 60 Pages 2189--2202 2009 [410]
The purposes of this study were to explore college students' perceptions, uses of, and motivations for using Wikipedia and to understand their information behavior concerning Wikipedia based on social cognitive theory {(SCT).} A Web survey was used to collect data in the spring of 2008. The study sample consisted of students from an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the midwestern United States. A total of 134 students participated in the study, resulting in a 32.8\% response rate. The major findings of the study include the following: Approximately one-third of the students reported using Wikipedia for academic purposes. The students tended to use Wikipedia for quickly checking facts and finding background information. They had positive past experiences with Wikipedia; however, interestingly, their perceptions of its information quality were not correspondingly high. The level of their confidence in evaluating Wikipedia's information quality was, at most, moderate. Respondents' past experience with Wikipedia, their positive emotional state, their disposition to believe information {inWikipedia,and} information utility were positively related to their outcome expectations of Wikipedia. However, among the factors affecting outcome expectations, only information utility and respondents' positive emotions toward Wikipedia were related to their use of it. Further, when all of the independent variables, including the mediator, outcome expectations, were considered, only the variable information utility was related to Wikipedia use, which may imply a limited applicability of {SCT} to understanding Wikipedia use. However, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the applicability of this theory to Wikipedia use. Finally, this study supports the knowledge value of Wikipedia {(Fallis,} 2008), despite students' cautious attitudes toward Wikipedia. The study suggests that educators and librarians need to provide better guidelines for using Wikipedia, rather than prohibiting Wikipedia use altogether. 2009 {ASIS} T.
Lim, S & Kwon, N Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source? {LIBRARY} \& {INFORMATION} {SCIENCE} {RESEARCH} Volume 32 Pages 212--220 2010 [411]
This study examined gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Data were collected using a Web survey in spring 2008. The study used a convenient sample that consisted of students who had taken an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the Midwestern United States. A total of 134 out of 409 students participated in the study. As information consumers, male students used Wikipedia more frequently than their female counterparts did. With respect to the purposes of Wikipedia use, male students used Wikipedia for entertainment or idle reading more than their female counterparts, while there were no gender differences regarding Wikipedia use for other purposes. Male students were more likely to discount the risks involved when using Wikipedia information compared to their female counterparts. Furthermore, male students had higher ratings than female students regarding most aspects of Wikipedia, including outcome expectations, perceptions about its information quality, belief in the Wikipedia project itself, emotional states while using Wikipedia, confidence in evaluating information quality, and further exploration. Finally, there was no gender difference regarding the number of years of Wikipedia use. However, male students reported having more positive experiences with the information quality of Wikipedia than their female counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study were consistent with those of previous studies concerning gender. Given the acknowledgment of the knowledge value of Wikipedia in recent literature, it seems that there are more advantages to using Wikipedia than there are disadvantages. The current study shows that male students seem to enjoy such benefits more than female students and may have more opportunities to develop their information literacy skills than female students by actively using Wikipedia. This suggests that educators need to encourage female students in particular to explore Wikipedia strategically as an initial information source so that they can develop their information literacy skills for unconventional sources. {(C)} 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, C C; Wang, Y C & Tsai, R T H Japanese-Chinese Information Retrieval With an Iterative Weighting Scheme {JOURNAL} {OF} {INFORMATION} {SCIENCE} {AND} {ENGINEERING} Pages NaN []
This paper describes our {Japanese-Chinese} cross language information retrieval system. We adopt query-translation" approach and employ both a conventional {Japanese-Chinese} bilingual dictionary and Wikipedia to translate query terms. We propose that Wikipedia can be regarded as a good dictionary for named entity translation. According to the nature of Japanese writing system
Lin, M. Sharing knowledge and building communities: A narrative of the formation, development and sustainability of OOPS Pages 2006 [412]
at times
Lin, Tan Disco as operating system, part one Criticism Volume 50 Pages NaN [413]
Lin, {Chu-Cheng}; Wang, {Yu-Chun}; Yeh, {Chih-Hao}; Tsai, {Wei-Chi} & Tsai, Richard {Tzong-Han} Learning weights for translation candidates in Japanese-Chinese information retrieval Expert Systems with Applications Volume 36 Pages 7695--7699 2009 [414]
This paper describes our {Japanese-Chinese} information retrieval system. Our system takes the query-translation" approach. Our system employs both a more conventional bilingual {Japanese-Chinese} dictionary and Wikipedia for translating query terms. We propose that Wikipedia can be used as a good {NE} bilingual dictionary. By exploiting the nature of Japanese writing system
Lindsey, D. Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articIes First Monday Volume 15 Pages 7 pp. 2010 []
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Wikipedia's premier internal quality control mechanism, the featured article" process
Litterst, G. F Your Role in Music History Volume 55 Pages 50--1 2005 [415]
Liu, Shuang Improve text retrieval effectiveness and robustness Pages 2006 [416]
Liu, W H; Yang, W; Wu, X Q & Lin, Z X Direct determination of ethanol by laser Raman spectra with internal standard method {CHINESE} {JOURNAL} {OF} {ANALYTICAL} {CHEMISTRY} Pages NaN []
Immediate quantitative analysis of ethanol using internal standard by laser Raman spectra has been studied. Good linear correlation between the intensity ratios of the 884 cm(-1) (the {-CCO} hand of ethanol) to the 3200 cm(-1) (band of' water) and concentration of ethanol was obtained. The linear range of ethanol concentration are 4\%-40\%, the correlation coefficient was 0.9975, the detection limit of ethanol is 1.02\%. The method has been used to determine distilled spit-it, wikipedia, waxberry vino and alcohol cotton, the results show the alcohol concentration are 36.14\% 15.50\% 23.71\% 79.10\%, and the {RSD} are 0.2\%, 1.8\%, 2.5\% and 2.8\%, respectively. Non-destructive, non-intrusive nature of the method makes internal standard-laser Raman spectra as a convenience, accurate quantitative analysis method for ethanol.
Lizorkin, Dmitry; Velikhov, Pavel; Grinev, Maxim & Turdakov, Denis Accuracy estimate and optimization techniques for SimRank computation {VLDB} Journal Volume 19 Pages 45--66 2010 [417]
The measure of similarity between objects is a very useful tool in many areas of computer science, including information retrieval. {SimRank} is a simple and intuitive measure of this kind, based on a graph-theoretic model. {SimRank} is typically computed iteratively, in the spirit of {PageRank.} However, existing work on {SimRank} lacks accuracy estimation of iterative computation and has discouraging time complexity. In this paper, we present a technique to estimate the accuracy of computing {SimRank} iteratively. This technique provides a way to find out the number of iterations required to achieve a desired accuracy when computing {SimRank.} We also present optimization techniques that improve the computational complexity of the iterative algorithm from O(n4) in the worst case to {min(O(nl),} O(n3/ log2n)), with n denoting the number of objects, and l denoting the number object-to-object relationships. We also introduce a threshold sieving heuristic and its accuracy estimation that further improves the efficiency of the method. As a practical illustration of our techniques, we computed {SimRank} scores on a subset of English Wikipedia corpus, consisting of the complete set of articles and category links. {Springer-Verlag} 2009.
Locander, W. & Luechauer, D. Dr. Seuss's Sneetches Marketing Management Volume 17 Pages NaN [418]
Logan, Darren W.; Sandal, Massimo; Gardner, Paul P.; Manske, Magnus & Bateman, Alex Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia. {PLoS} Computational Biology Volume 6 Pages 1--3 2010 []
The article offers tips on how to edit wikipedia, an online encyclopedia containing millions of English language articles. It suggests Internet users to create a user account in Wikipedia because it offers privacy and security. It reminds the Internet users that Wikipedia is different from blogs that encourage editorializing and tells the users to treat other editors as collaborators. It also advises them to know the audience and avoid infringe copyright.
Loncarek, Karmen Surfing, Diving, and Epistemological Pleasure. Croatian Medical Journal Volume 50 Pages 416--418 2009 []
The author discusses the Internet surfing of medical patients who may not have submerse enough on the activity to get real knowledge as modern scientific production has been deprived of the benefits of epistemology. She urges medical professionals to contribute to Wikipedia. The author disapproves of several aspects of modern scientific production such as being highly regulated, professionalized, and profit-driven.
Lorenzen, M. Vandals, Administrators, and Sockpuppets, Oh My! An Ethnographic Study of Wikipedia’s Handling of Problem Behavior {MLA} forum Volume 5 Pages 2006 []
Louridas, Panagiotis Using Wikis in software development {IEEE} Software Volume 23 Pages 88--91 2006 [419]
Wikis have become one of the most popular tool shells. You can find them just about everywhere that demands effective collaboration and knowledge sharing at a low budget. Wikipedia has certainly enhanced their popularity, but they also have a place in intranet-based applications such as defect tracking, requirements management, test-case management, and project portals. The author describes wiki essentials and nicely distinguishes a variety of types. 2006 {IEEE.
Lu, Jianguo & Li, Dingding Estimating deep web data source size by capture---recapture method Information Retrieval Volume 13 Pages 70 -- 95 2010 [420]
Access critical reviews of computing literature. Become a reviewer for Computing Reviews
Lucia, Leão The mirror labyrinth: reflections on bodies and consciousness at cybertimes Technoetic Arts: a journal of speculative research Volume 3 Pages 19--41 2005 []
Discusses references to the body in cyber artworks, and how new technologies such as the World Wide Web are changing perceptions of the body. The author defines the body" for the purpose of the article as encompassing consciousness and involved in the process of all actions
Lucky, R. Technical Publications and the Internet {IEEE} Spectrum Volume 45 Pages 2008 []
Not all technical publications are freely accessible on the Web. The first argument that comes to mind is that institutions must restrict their publications to theft members to keep those members. There are a number of other arguments against free access to technical publications, including the revenue that libraries and publications bring to the institution. The Internet community has been inventing new ways to convey information and to collaborate in understanding it -- consumer reviews, discussion forums, blogs, community filtering, and the Wikipedia model. An interesting experiment that has come to the author's attention is a new policy called publish first, review later.
Lucky, Robert W. A Billion Amateurs. {IEEE} Spectrum Volume 44 Pages 2007 []
The author reflects on the positive impact and potential of the internet. He believes that the technology has unleashed creativity and generosity from amateurs around the world. He cites {YouTube,} Facebook, Wikipedia, Internet Movie Database and Flickr, among others, as examples of websites whose content is provided free by amateurs.
Lucky, Robert W. Reflections: A billion amateurs {IEEE} Spectrum Volume 44 Pages 2007 [421]
The Internet is now a medium for all sorts of people to share whatever comment or idea they have. There are a billion people out there that uses the Net in any instance. It seems that open-source or sharing information is the current trend, as seen in the 10 most popular Websites. For instance, Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is about sharing any information from just about anyone who comes and visits the site. Another is Flikr, which contain thousands upon thousands of pictures of every known place, taken from all angles and under all lighting conditions. Another is blogging, wherein 80 million people are involved in any one instance.
Luyt, B; Ally, Y; Low, {NH} & Ismail, {NB} Librarian Perception of Wikipedia: Threats or Opportunities for Librarianship? {LIBRI} Volume 60 Pages 57--64 2010 [422]
The rapid rise of Wikipedia as an information source has placed the traditional role of librarians as information gatekeepers and guardians under scrutiny with much of the professional literature suggesting that librarians are polarized over the issue of whether Wikipedia is a useful reference tool. This qualitative study examines the perceptions and behaviours of National Library Board {(NLB)} of Singapore librarians with regards to information seeking and usage of Wikipedia. It finds that instead of polarized attitudes, most librarians, although cautious about using Wikipedia in their professional capacity, hold a range of generally positive attitudes towards the online en-cyclopaedia, believing that it has a valid role to play in the information seeking of patrons today. This is heartening because it suggests the existence within the librarian population of attitudes that can be tapped to engage constructively with Wikipedia. Three of these in particular are briefly discussed at the end of the article: Wikipedia's ability to appeal to the socalled digital natives
Luyt, Brendan & Tan, Daniel Improving wikipedia's credibility: References and citations in a sample of history articles Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 61 Pages 715--722 2010 [423]
This study evaluates how well the authors of Wikipedia history articles adhere to the site's policy of assuring verifiability through citations. It does so by examining the references and citations of a subset of country histories. The findings paint a dismal picture. Not only are many claims not verified through citations, those that are suffer from the choice of references used. Many of these are from only a few {US} government Websites or news media and few are to academic journal material. Given these results, one response would be to declare Wikipedia unsuitable for serious reference work. But another option emerges when we jettison technological determinism and look at Wikipedia as a product of a wider social context. Key to this context is a world in which information is bottled up as commodities requiring payment for access. Equally important is the problematic assumption that texts are undifferentiated bearers of knowledge. Those involved in instructional programs can draw attention to the social nature of texts to counter these assumptions and by so doing create an awareness for a new generation of Wikipedians and Wikipedia users of the need to evaluate texts (and hence citations) in light of the social context of their production and use. {2010ASIST.
Luyt, Brendan; Tay, Chee Hsien Aaron; Lim, Hai Thian & Cheng, Kian Hong Improving wikipedia's accuracy: Is edit age a solution? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Volume 59 Pages 318--330 2008 [424]
Wikipedia is fast becoming a key information source for many despite criticism that it is unreliable and inaccurate. A number of recommendations have been made to sort the chaff from the wheat in Wikipedia, among which is the idea of color-coding article segment edits according to age {(Cross,} 2006). Using data collected as part of a wider study published in Nature, this article examines the distribution of errors throughout the life of a select group of Wikipedia articles. The survival time of each error edit" in terms of the edit counts and days was calculated and the hypothesis that surviving material added by older edits is more trustworthy was tested. Surprisingly
Luyt, B; Zainal, {CZBC}; Mayo, {OVP} & Yun, {TS} Young people's perceptions and usage of Wikipedia {INFORMATION} {RESEARCH-AN} {INTERNATIONAL} {ELECTRONIC} {JOURNAL} Volume 13 Pages 2008 [425]
Introduction. This exploratory study investigated the perception and usage of Wikipedia among young people. Method. Fifteen respondents aged thirteen to twenty-four were selected for the study. The respondents were composed of secondary and tertiary students, and recent tertiary level graduates. An interview schedule was designed to explore user experiences at three levels: the initial encounter with Wikipedia, the time when the user felt comfortable with Wikipedia, and the user's current state. Questions were open-ended and semi-structured to allow for probing. Interviews were conducted over a span of two weeks with each interview lasting 30-45 minutes. Follow-up questions were asked of some of the respondents for clarification purposes. Analysis. Interview data was used to test Wikipedia, viewed as a technology, against the model of technological appropriation developed by Carroll et al. for their own study of mobile phone use among young people. Results. We found that although Wikipedia is initially attractive for young people, it generally fails to become deeply integrated (appropriated) into the everyday lives of users, instead remaining an instrumental tool for the fulfilment of a narrow range of tasks. We also found that over time respondents do become aware of the problems of accuracy that Wikipedia poses. Conclusions. Given that Wikipedia has not assumed the role of a key technology in the lives of the young people studied here, concern over its use by educators may be overstated. Also, the fact that the respondents were aware of the drawbacks to its use should make the message of the need for checking alternative sources an easier one to impart to students. The key conclusion, however, is the need for those wishing to design more popular information systems to take into account the deeper needs of users to experiment with technology in order to make it fit their lives rather than the other way round. This is something that even Wikipedia, it seems, has been unable to achieve.
Ma, C. Commons-based peer production and Wikipedia: Social capital in action Pages 2006 [426]
{MacKinnon}, I. Wikipedia-based semantic enhancements for information nugget retrieval Pages 2008 [427]
Madison, {MJ}; Frischmann, {BM} & Strandburg, {KJ} CONSTRUCTING COMMONS IN THE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT {CORNELL} {LAW} {REVIEW} Volume 95 Pages 657--709 2010 [428]
This Article sets out a. framework for investigating sharing and resource-pooling arrangements for information- and knowledge-based works. We argue that adapting the approach pioneered by Elmor Ostrom and her collaborators to commons arrangements in the natural environment provides a template for examining the construction of commons in the cultural environment. The approach promises to lead to a better understanding of how participants in commons and pooling arrangements structure their interactions in relation to the environments in which they are embedded, in relation to information and knowledge resources that they produce and use, and in relation to one another Some examples of the types of arrangements we have in. mind are patent pools (such as the Manufacturer's Aircraft Association), open source software development projects (such as Linux), Wikipedia, the Associated Press, certain jamband communities, medieval guilds, and modern research universities. These examples are illustrative and far from exhaustive. Each involves a constructed cultural commons worth of independent study, but independent studies get us only so far. A more systematic approach is needed. An improved understanding of cultural commons is critical for obtaining a more complete perspective on intellectual property doctrine and its interactions with other legal and social mechanisms for governing creativity and innovation, in particular, and information and knowledge production, conservation, and consumption, generally. We propose and initial framework for evaluating and comparing the contours of different commons arrangements. The framework will allow us to develop an inventory of structural similarities and differences among cultural commons in different industries, disciplines, and knowledge domains and shed light on the underlying contextual reasons for such differences. Structural inquiery into a series of case studies will provide a basis from developing theories to exploan the emergence, form, and stability of the observed variety of cultural commons and eventually, to design models to explicate and infrorm institutional desing. The proposed approach would draw upon case studies from a while range of disciplines Among other things, we argue that theoretical apporaches to constructed cultural and use of pooled resources, internal licensing conditions, management of external relationships, and institutional forms, along with the degree of collaboration among members, sharing of human capital, degrees of integration among participants, and any specified purposed to the arrangement.
Maehre, J. What It Means to Ban Wikipedia: an Exploration of the Pedagogical Principles at Stake Volume 57 Pages 229--36 2009 [429]
Magnus, P. D On Trusting WIKIPEDIA Episteme - Edinburgh Volume 6 Pages 2009 []
Magnus, {P.D.} Early response to false claims in Wikipedia First Monday Volume 13 Pages 4 pp. 2008 []
A number of studies have assessed the reliability of entries in Wikipedia at specific times. One important difference between Wikipedia and traditional media, however, is the dynamic nature of its entries. An entry assessed today might be substantially extended or reworked tomorrow. This study paper assesses the frequency with which small, inaccurate changes are quickly corrected.
Malone, {TW}; Laubacher, R & Dellarocas, C The Collective Intelligence Genome {MIT} {SLOAN} {MANAGEMENT} {REVIEW} Volume 51 Pages 21--+ 2010 [430]
Google. Wikipedia. Threadless. All are platinum exemplars of collective intelligence in action. Two of them are famous. The third is getting there. Each of the three helps demonstrate how large, loosely organized groups of people can work together electronically in surprisingly effective ways sometimes even without knowing that they are working together, as in the case of Google. In the authors' work at {MIT's} Center for Collective Intelligence, they have gathered nearly 250 examples of web-enabled collective intelligence. After examining these examples in depth, they identified a relatively small set of building blocks that are combined and recombined in various ways in different collective intelligence systems. This article offers a new framework for understanding those systems - and more important, for understanding how to build them. It identifies the underlying building blocks - the genes" - that are at the heart of collective intelligence systems. It explores the conditions under which each gene is useful. And it begins to suggest the possibilities for combining and recombining these genes to not only harness crowds in general
Manthous, {CA} Why not physician-assisted death? {CRITICAL} {CARE} {MEDICINE} Volume 37 Pages 1206--1209 2009 [431]
Objective: The Hippocratic Oath states ...1 will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it
Maracke, Catharina Creative Commons International The International License Porting Project jipitec Volume 1 Pages 2010 [432]
When Creative Commons {(CC)} was founded in 2001, the core Creative Commons licenses were drafted according to United States Copyright Law. Since their first introduction in December 2002, Creative Commons licenses have been enthusiastically adopted by many creators, authors, and other content producers – not only in the United States, but in many other jurisdictions as well. Global interest in the {CC} licenses prompted a discussion about the need for national versions of the {CC} licenses. To best address this need, the international license porting project {(“Creative} Commons International� – formerly known as {“International} Commons�) was launched in 2003. Creative Commons International works to port the core Creative Commons licenses to different copyright legislations around the world. The porting process includes both linguistically translating the licenses and legally adapting the licenses to a particular jurisdiction such that they are comprehensible in the local jurisdiction and legally enforceable but concurrently retain the same key elements. Since its inception, Creative Commons International has found many supporters all over the world. With Finland, Brazil, and Japan as the first completed jurisdiction projects, experts around the globe have followed their lead and joined the international collaboration with Creative Commons to adapt the licenses to their local copyright. This article aims to present an overview of the international porting process, explain and clarify the international license architecture, its legal and promotional aspects, as well as its most recent challenges.
Marche, Stephen The iPad and Twenty-First-Century Humanism Queen's Quarterly Volume 117 Pages NaN [433]
Marie, Janyne Ste Favorite Reference Books. Key Words Volume 15 Pages 17--18 2007 []
The article highlights several medical references used in the discussion of indexing and suitable for the medical profession in the {U.S.} These include {Taber's} Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary
Markham, Selby; Krishnaswami, Shonali; Hurst, John; Cunningham, Steven; Saeedzadeh, Behrang; Gillick, Brett & Labbe, Cyril Experiencing a Context Aware Learning and Teaching Tool Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 3481--3485 NaN [434]
Markiewicz, D. Wikisafety is bound to grow {ISHN} Volume 43 Pages 2009 [435]
but now is used as a blend of words to describe varied aspects of mass collaboration. Wikipedia, the web-based encyclopedia, is the best example of this popular blend of words. Wikipedia (http:// {} is collaboratively written by volunteers. The content is free and anyone can edit the information.
Martin, A. Exploring the reintegration process for child soldiers: A case study of young women and their children in northern Uganda Pages 2009 [436]
Masic, Izet; Dilic, Mirza; Solakovic, Emir; Rustempasic, Nedzad & Ridjanovic, Zoran Why historians of medicine called Ibn al-Nafis second Avicenna? Med Arh Pages NaN []
At the end of {IX} and beginning of the X century begins development and renaissance of the medicine called Arabic, and which main representatives were: Ali {at-Taberi,} Ahmed {at-Taberi,} {Ar-Razi} {(Rhazes),} Ali ibn {al-Abbas} {al-Magusi} {(Haly),} ibn {al-Baitar,} ibn {al-Qasim} {al-Zahrawi} {(Abulcasis),} ibn Sina {(Avicenna),} ibn {al-Haitam} {(Alhazen),} ibn Abi {al-Ala} Zuhr {(Avenzor),} ibn Rushd {(Averroes)} and ibn {al-Nafis.} Doctors Taberi, Magusi and Razi were born as Persians. Each of the listed great doctors of the Arab medicine in their own way made legacy to the medical science and profession, and left lasting impression in the history of medicine. Majority of them is well known in the West well and have their place in the text-books as donors of significant medical treasure, without which medicine would probably, especially the one at the Middle dark century, be pale and prosaic, insufficiently studied and misunderstood, etc. Abdullah ibn Sina {(Avicenna)} remained unsurpassed in the series of above listed. Close to him can only come Alauddin ibn {al-Nafis,} who will in {mid-XII} century rebut some of the theories made by Avicenna and all his predecessors, from which he collected material for his big {al-Kanun} fit-tibb {(Cannon} of medicine). Cannon will be commended for centuries and fulfilled with new knowledge. One of the numerous and perhaps the best {comments-Excerpts} is from {Nafis-Mugaz} {al-Quanun,} article published as a reprint in War Sarajevo under the siege during 1995 in Bosnian language, translated from Arabic by the professor Sacir Sikiric and chief physician Hamdija Karamehmedovic in 1961. Today, at least 740 years since professor from Cairo and director of the Hospital {A-Mansuri} in Cairo Alauddin ibn Nefis (1210-1288), in his paper about pulse described small (pulmonary) blood circulatory system and coronary circulation. At the most popular search engines very often we can find its name, especially in English language. Majority of quotes about {al-Nafis} are on Arabic or Turkish language, although Ibn Nafis discovery is of world wide importance. Author of this article is among rare ones who in some of the indexed magazines emphasized of that event, and on that debated also some authors from Great Britain and {USA} in the respectable magazine Annals of Internal medicine. Citations in majority mentioning other two describers" or "discoverers" of pulmonary blood circulation
Masic, Izet; Dilic, Mirza; Solakovic, Emir; Rustempasic, Nedzad & Ridjanovic, Zoran Why historians of medicine called Ibn al-Nafis second Avicenna? Medicinski Arhiv Volume 62 Pages 244--249 2008 [437]
At the end of {IX} and beginning of the X century begins development and renaissance of the medicine called Arabic, and which main representatives were: Ali {at-Taberi,} Ahmed {at-Taberi,} {Ar-Razi} {(Rhazes),} Ali ibn {al-Abbas} {al-Magusi} {(Haly),} ibn {al-Baitar,} ibn {al-Qasim} {al-Zahrawi} {(Abulcasis),} ibn Sina {(Avicenna),} ibn {al-Haitam} {(Alhazen),} ibn Abi {al-Ala} Zuhr {(Avenzor),} ibn Rushd {(Averroes)} and ibn {al-Nafis.} Doctors Taberi, Magusi and Razi were born as Persians. Each of the listed great doctors of the Arab medicine in their own way made legacy to the medical science and profession, and left lasting impression in the history of medicine. Majority of them is well known in the West well and have their place in the text-books as donors of significant medical treasure, without which medicine would probably, especially the one at the Middle dark century, be pale and prosaic, insufficiently studied and misunderstood, etc. Abdullah ibn Sina {(Avicenna)} remained unsurpassed in the series of above listed. Close to him can only come Alauddin ibn {al-Nafis,} who will in {mid-XII} century rebut some of the theories made by Avicenna and all his predecessors, from which he collected material for his big {al-Kanun} fit-tibb {(Cannon} of medicine). Cannon will be commended for centuries and fulfilled with new knowledge. One of the numerous and perhaps the best {comments-Excerpts} is from {Nafis-Mugaz} {al-Quanun,} article published as a reprint in War Sarajevo under the siege during 1995 in Bosnian language, translated from Arabic by the professor Sacir Sikiric and chief physician Hamdija Karamehmedovic in 1961. Today, at least 740 years since professor from Cairo and director of the Hospital {A-Mansuri} in Cairo Alauddin ibn Nefis (1210-1288), in his paper about pulse described small (pulmonary) blood circulatory system and coronary circulation. At the most popular search engines very often we can find its name, especially in English language. Majority of quotes about {al-Nafis} are on Arabic or Turkish language, although Ibn Nafis discovery is of world wide importance. Author of this article is among rare ones who in some of the indexed magazines emphasized of that event, and on that debated also some authors from Great Britain and {USA} in the respectable magazine Annals of Internal medicine. Citations in majority mentioning other two describers" or "discoverers" of pulmonary blood circulation
Mason, D Wikipedia: A New Community of Practice? {ELECTRONIC} {LIBRARY} Volume 28 Pages 625--626 2010 [438]
{Mateos-Garcia}, Juan & Steinmueller, W. Edward Open, But How Much? Growth,Conflict, and Institutional Evolution in OpenSource Communities Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization Volume 1 Pages 254--283 2008 [439]
Mathis, T. & Galloway, S. Using Podcasts to Improve Safety Professional Safety Volume 55 Pages 2010 [440]
the authors believe podcasts can help to improve safety in several ways: 1. overcome logistical challenges
{McCrae}, J. & Collier, N. Synonym set extraction from the biomedical literature by lexical pattern discovery {BMC} bioinformatics Volume 9 Pages 2008 []
{McElligott}, T. Defining service management [data services] Telephony Volume 246 Pages 24--6 2005 []
A certain ill-defined slice of the operations support system portfolio has been in need of a Webster's fix since the first non-voice service was introduced onto the telecom network. Now that {IPTV,} the most complex data service to date, is about to hit the market, this field, known loosely as service management"
{McFedries}, Paul It's a Wiki, Wiki World. {IEEE} Spectrum Volume 43 Pages 2006 []
The article offers information on a method being used for easy access of information. Ward Cunningham first used the wiki-prefix in a software context back in the mid-'90s when he developed a site called {WikiWikiWeb.} It is noted that Wikipedia is by far the most known wiki, but there are thousands of others. Relative to this, {The} Los Angeles Times" launched the Wikitorial on June 19
{McFedries}, Paul Technically speaking: It's a wiki, wiki world {IEEE} Spectrum Volume 43 Pages 2006 [441]
Stephen Colbert of the {US} cable {TV} show, {The} Colbert Report" has coined new words that have to do with Wikipedia. In one of his programs
{McGrady}, R. Gaming against the greater good First Monday Volume 14 Pages 10 pp. 2009 []
Wikipedia has grown to be one of the most visited Web sites in the world. Despite its influence on popular culture and the way we think about knowledge production and consumption, the conversation about why and how it works -or whether it's credible at all - is ongoing. This paper began as an examination of whal the concept of authority" means in Wikipedia and what role rhetoric might play in manufacturing this authority. But Wikipedia's editors have functioned well as a community
{McKenna}, Brian Wikipedia just as [`]wiki' as ever, says Wales Infosecurity Today Volume 3 Pages NaN [442]
{McKibbin}, Ross Making History: The Changing Face of the Profession in Britain English Historical Review Pages 792--793 2010 [443]
{McKiernan}, G. WikimediaWorlds - Part 1: Wikipedia Library Hi Tech News Volume 22 Pages 46--54 2005 [444]
Purpose - This article of part 1 of a two part series on wikis. Part 1 focuses on wikipedia. Design/methodology/approach - The article is prepared by a library professional and provides a summary of the main features. Findings A wiki is a piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit web page content using any web browser. Wiki supports hyperlinks and has a simple text syntax for creating new pages and crosslinks between internal pages on the fly. Originality/value - This article is a useful summary of a development of interest to library and information management professionals
{McPherson}, Keith wikis and student writing Teacher Librarian Volume 34 Pages 2006 []
{McPherson} explores wikis and the possible contributions that they offer teacher-librarians in developing student writing. Current articles and research exploring the educational use of wikis in the classroom and school library have uncovered many positive possibilities for developing students' writing skills. One is that wikis provide students with a variety of authentic audiences. Knowing that real people will be reading and possibly responding to their writing is often the impetus to motivate students to write with much more enthusiasm than they would when composing traditional research essays, in which the classroom teacher or teacher-librarian is the only audience.
{McPherson}, Keith wikis and literacy development Teacher Librarian Volume 34 Pages 2006 []
Mcpherson explores the question on whether wikis be valuable resources for developing strong literacy links between the school library and the classroom. He finds that public wikis are valuable information sources that teacher-librarians can use to complement and further the width and breadth of literacy objectives developed in the classroom. Although readability and hardware issues create some limitations in using wikis as research and literacy development resources, many of these limitations can be overcome through creative solutions.
Medelyan, Olena; Milne, David; Legg, Catherine & Witten, Ian H. Mining meaning from Wikipedia International Journal of Human Computer Studies Volume 67 Pages 716--754 2009 [445]
Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, facts and descriptions found in Wikipedia, and organizes the work into four broad categories: applying Wikipedia to natural language processing; using it to facilitate information retrieval and information extraction; and as a resource for ontology building. The article addresses how Wikipedia is being used as is, how it is being improved and adapted, and how it is being combined with other structures to create entirely new resources. We identify the research groups and individuals involved, and how their work has developed in the last few years. We provide a comprehensive list of the open-source software they have produced. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehler, Alexander; Pustylnikov, Olga & Diewald, Nils Geography of social ontologies: Testing a variant of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis in the context of Wikipedia Pages 2010 [446]
In this article, we test a variant of the {Sapir-Whorf} Hypothesis in the area of complex network theory. This is done by analyzing social ontologies as a new resource for automatic language classification. Our method is to solely explore structural features of social ontologies in order to predict family resemblances of languages used by the corresponding communities to build these ontologies. This approach is based on a reformulation of the {Sapir-Whorf} Hypothesis in terms of distributed cognition. Starting from a corpus of 160 Wikipedia-based social ontologies, we test our variant of the {Sapir-Whorf} Hypothesis by several experiments, and find out that we outperform the corresponding baselines. All in all, the article develops an approach to classify linguistic networks of tens of thousands of vertices by exploring a small range of mathematically well-established topological indices. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehler, Andrew & Skiena, Steven Expanding network communities from representative examples {ACM} Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data Volume 3 Pages 2009 [447]
We present an approach to leverage a small subset of a coherent community within a social network into a much larger, more representative sample. Our problem becomes identifying a small conductance subgraph containing many (but not necessarily all) members of the given seed set. Starting with an initial seed set representing a sample of a community, we seek to discover as much of the full community as possible. We present a general method for network community expansion, demonstrating that our methods work well in expanding communities in real world networks starting from small given seed groups (20 to 400 members). Our approach is marked by incremental expansion from the seeds with retrospective analysis to determine the ultimate boundaries of our community. We demonstrate how to increase the robustness of the general approach through bootstrapping multiple random partitions of the input set into seed and evaluation groups. We go beyond statistical comparisons against gold standards to careful subjective evaluations of our expanded communities. This process explains the causes of most disagreement between our expanded communities and our gold-standards - arguing that our expansion methods provide more reliable communities than can be extracted from reference sources/gazetteers such as Wikipedia.
{Meishar-Tal}, H. & {Tal-Elhasid}, E. Measuring collaboration in educational wikis - a methodological discussion International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning Pages 46--9 2008 [448]
Measuring the collaboration in collaborative learning scenarios is important for assessment and research purposes. This paper describes the methodology developed in the Open University of Israel {(OUI)} to measure collaboration among students in wikis. It opens with an overview of the methods used to measure collaboration in Wikipedia, proceeds with explaining why these methods are not suitable enough for measuring collaboration in an educational wiki setting, and concludes by presenting a new method for measuring collaboration in educational wikis.
Mendoza, Hannah Rose The WikiID: An Alternative Approach to the Body of Knowledge. Journal of Interior Design Volume 34 Pages 1--18 2009 []
A discussion of the locus of design knowledge is currently underway as well as a search for clear boundaries defined by a formal Body of Knowledge {(BoK).} Most attempts to define a {BoK} involve the creation of jurisdictional boundaries of knowledge" that "allow those who possess this knowledge to claim authority over its application" {(Guerin} \& Thompson
Menzies, Tim & Hihn, Jairus Evidence-Based Cost Estimation for Better-Quality Software {IEEE} Software Volume 23 Pages 64 -- 66 2006 [449]
Evidence-based reasoning is becoming common in many fields. It's widely enshrined in the practice and teaching of medicine, law, and management, for example. Evidence-based approaches demand that, among other things, practitioners systematically track down the best evidence relating to some practice; critically appraise that evidence for validity, impact, and applicability; and carefully document it. One proponent of evidence-based software engineering is David Budgen of Durham University. In the Internet age, he argues, many sources of supposed {knowledge--Google,} Wikipedia,, and so on--surround us. At his keynote address at the 2006 Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Budgen asks, how should we train students to assess all that information and to separate the sense from the nonsense? In his view, before we can denounce some inaccuracy in, say, Wikipedia, we must first look to our own work and audit our own results.
Mercer, Jean WIKIPEDIA AND 'OPEN SOURCE' MENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice Volume 5 Pages 88--92 2007 []
The article examines the function of the free online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, as an online information source on topics related to mental health. It outlines some issues about Wikipedia's handling of mental health topics. It provides some suggestions for solving certain problems concerning Wikipedia information as well as the current level of truthfulness of the Wikipedia. It recommends useful Web sites dedicated to preventing misinformation, such as {QuackWatch.
Messner, Marcus & South, Jeff LEGITIMIZING WIKIPEDIA -- How US national newspapers frame and use the online encyclopedia in their coverage Journalism Practice Pages 2010 [450] {{hidden Within only a few years, the collaborative online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become one of the most popular websites in the world. At the same time, Wikipedia has become the subject of much controversy because of inaccuracies and hoaxes found in some of its entries. Journalists, therefore, have remained skeptical about the reliability and accuracy of Wikipedia's information, despite the fact that research has consistently shown an overall high level of accuracy compared to traditional encyclopedia. This study analyzed the framing of Wikipedia and its use as a news source by five {US} national newspapers over an eight-year period. A content analysis of 1486 Wikipedia references in {{\textless}i{\textgreater}The} New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, {USA} Today{\textless}/i{\textgreater} and {{\textless}i{\textgreater}The} Christian Science Monitor{\textless}/i{\textgreater} found that Wikipedia is framed predominantly neutral and positive, and that it is increasingly used as a news source. By framing Wikipedia as credible and accurate, the newspapers help legitimize the use of the online encyclopedia. By allowing Wikipedia to influence their news agendas as a source, the newspapers confirm the growing reliability of Wikipedia.}}
Meyer, M.; Rensing, C. & Steinmetz, R. Using community-generated contents as a substitute corpus for metadata generation International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication Volume 2 Pages 59--72 2008 [451]
Metadata is crucial for reuse of Learning Resources. However, in the area of {e-Learning,} suitable training corpora for automatic classification methods are hardly available. This paper proposes the use of community-generated substitute corpora for classification methods. As an example for such a substitute corpus, the free online Encyclopaedia Wikipedia is used as a training corpus for domain-independent classification and keyword extraction of Learning Resources.
Mika, P.; Ciaramita, M.; Zaragoza, H. & Atserias, J. Learning to tag and tagging to learn: a case study on Wikipedia {IEEE} Intelligent Systems Volume 23 Pages 26--33 2008 [452]
The problem of semantically annotating Wikipedia inspires a novel method for dealing with domain and task adaptation of semantic taggers in cases where parallel text and metadata are available.
Miller, Greg On the Origin of the Nervous System Science Volume 325 Pages 24--26 2009 [453]
Miller, Nora Wikipedia and the disappearing author"" {ETC.:} A Review of General Semantics Volume 62 Pages NaN [454]
Miller, Nora Wikipedia revisited {ETC.:} A Review of General Semantics Volume 64 Pages NaN [455]
Minol, Klaus; Spelsberg, Gerd; Schulte, Elisabeth & Morris, Nicholas Portals, blogs and co.: the role of the Internet as a medium of science communication Biotechnology Journal Volume 2 Pages 1129--1140 2007 [456]
While the use of the Internet for the exchange of scientific data was characterised by exclusivity during its pioneer era, the active employment of the medium today, by a broad social spectrum of users in the exchange of information, for dialogue and in the accumulation of knowledge, displays an almost unbounded inclusion. Blo and online encyclopaedias based on the {'Wikipedia'} model have contributed to the formation of a marketplace in which the free expression of opinions and the relaying of information occur. Counted among the ideas which have been popularised in the wake of this phenomenon, lay journalism" and the "wisdom of the masses" are seen to be integral to the new 'web 2.0'. Consequently
Moldwin, Mark B.; Gross, N. & Miller, T. Wikipedia's role in science education and outreach Eos Volume 88 Pages 134--135 2007 []
Monaci, Sara Quality assessment process in Wikipedia’s Vetrina: the role of the community’s policies and rules Observatorio {(OBS*)} Volume 3 Pages 2009 [457]
The increasing growth of Wikipedia poses many questions about its organizational model and its development as a free-open knowledge repository. Yochai Benkler describes Wikipedia as a {CBPP} (commons-based peer production) system: a platform which enables users to easily generate knowledge contents and to manage them collaboratively and on free-voluntary basis. Quality is one of the main concerns related to such a system. How would a {CBPP} environment guarantee at the same time the openness of its organization and a good level of accreditation? The paper offers an overview of the quality assessment processes in’s Vetrina section. It also suggests an explanation to quality assessment which questions Benkler’s hypothesis. Thanks to a qualitative analysis carried out through in-depth interviews to Wikipedia users and through a period of ethnographic observation, the paper outlines Vetrina’s organization and the factors related to the evaluation of quality contents.
Morell, Mayo Fuster Governance of online creation communities: Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons Pages 2010 [458]
and those of the private market are undergoing dramatic change. Additionally
Morgan, Sarah Kline TeenLibWiki: The Teen Librarian's Wikipedia. Young Adult Library Services Volume 5 Pages 2007 []
The article evaluates the web site {TeenLibWiki:} The Teen Librarian's Wikipedia available at\_wiki.
Morrison, Ian Wikipedia: A New Community of Practice? Australian Academic \& Research Libraries Volume 41 Pages 69--70 2010 []
The article reviews the book {Wikipedia:} A New Community of Practice?
Morse, G A conversation with Jimmy Wales {HARVARD} {BUSINESS} {REVIEW} Volume 86 Pages 26--+ 2008 [459]
The founder of Wikipedia analyzes why wikis are becoming popular tools for sharing knowledge in the workplace. He encourages managers to provide institutional support for these highly practical forums but to be judicious about direct participation.
Moy, {CL}; Locke, {JR}; Coppola, {BP} & {McNeil}, {AJ} Improving Science Education and Understanding through Editing Wikipedia {JOURNAL} {OF} {CHEMICAL} {EDUCATION} Volume 87 Pages 1159--1162 2010 [460]
Muchnik, Lev; Itzhack, Royi; Solomon, Sorin & Louzoun, Yoram Self-emergence of knowledge trees: Extraction of the Wikipedia hierarchies Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Volume 76 Pages 2007 [461]
The rapid accumulation of knowledge and the recent emergence of new dynamic and practically unmoderated information repositories have rendered the classical concept of the hierarchal knowledge structure irrelevant and impossible to impose manually. This led to modern methods of data location, such as browsing or searching, which conceal the underlying information structure. We here propose methods designed to automatically construct a hierarchy from a network of related terms. We apply these methods to Wikipedia and compare the hierarchy obtained from the article network to the complementary acyclic category layer of the Wikipedia and show an excellent fit. We verify our methods in two networks with no a priori hierarchy (the E. Coli genetic regulatory network and the C. Elegans neural network) and a network of function libraries of modern computer operating systems that are intrinsically hierarchical and reproduce a known functional order. 2007 The American Physical Society.
{Muller-Seitz}, Gordon & Reger, Guido 'Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia' as a role model? Lessons for open innovation from an exploratory examination of the supposedly democratic-anarchic nature of Wikipedia International Journal of Technology Management Volume 52 Pages 457--476 2010 [462]
Accounts of open source software {(OSS)} development projects frequently stress their democratic, sometimes even anarchic nature, in contrast to for-profit organisations. Given this observation, our research evaluates qualitative data from Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia whose development mechanism allegedly resembles that of {OSS} projects. Our research offers contributions to the field of open innovation research with three major findings. First, we shed light on Wikipedia as a phenomenon that has received scant attention from management scholars to date. Second, we show that {OSS-related} motivational mechanisms partially apply to Wikipedia participants. Third, our exploration of Wikipedia also reveals that its organisational mechanisms are often perceived as bureaucratic by contributors. This finding was unexpected since this type of problem is often associated with for-profit organisations. Such a situation risks attenuating the motivation of contributors and sheds a critical light on the nature of Wikipedia as a role model for open innovation processes. Copyright 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
{Muller-Seitz}, G. & Reger, G. Is open source software living up to its promises? Insights for open innovation management from two open source software-inspired projects R \& D Management Volume 39 Pages 372--81 2009 [463]
At present, several virtual initiatives claim to be acting according to the open source software {(OSS)} arena, which is often deemed a role model for open innovation. Against this background, this research focuses on a comparative case study of two non-profit project networks that attempt to operate in line with the {OSS} phenomenon: Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, and the development of an automobile, Open Source car. We show that many parallels to the {OSS} arena can be drawn in both cases. However, this analysis must be performed cautiously, as several factors limit the applicability of {OSS} principles to non-software-related arenas. We conclude with a discussion of implications for open innovation research and managerial practice.
Mulwad, V. T2LD - An automatic framework for extracting, interpreting and representing tables as Linked Data Pages 2010 [464]
Munk, Timme Bisgaard Why wikipedia: Self-efficacy and self-esteem in a knowledge-political battle for an egalitarian epistemology Observatorio {(OBS*)} Volume 3 Pages 2009 [465]
What makes people contribute voluntarily to Wikipedia? A new qualitative empirical study uncovers new motives, publication strategies and social dynamics in Wikipedia. In addition to the motives treated in the existing scientific literature such as status through status play, altruism through ideological identification, identity through community, the analysis uncovers three other motives through theoretical probability-making and empirical demonstration. Consequently, the following three motives must be added to the repertoire of possible motives for contributing voluntarily to Wikipedia. Firstly, the contributors experience a unique and cheap feeling of self-efficacy. They feel that they are efficient and able to handle the tasks that they take upon themselves. This feeling is caused by the fact that many types of contributions may be experienced as a successful contribution, from small text corrections to authoring of complete lexicon articles. Secondly, the contributors get a unique and cheap experience of self-esteem. A feeling that their modest input has a great impact because they are contributing to the creation of a global knowledge good. Thirdly, they are motivated by the ideology that all people have something to bring to Wikipedia. This may be called an egalitarian epistemology. These three motives in combination with the motives described in the literature provide a better and more balanced answer to the above question. The case is the Danish version of Wikipedia and the qualitative survey consists of six qualitative interviews with six contributors.
Murley, D. In defense of Wikipedia Law Library Journal Volume 100 Pages 593--9 2008 []
Ms. Murley explains how Wikipedia articles are created and edited and how to use Wikipedia's tools to evaluate articles. She argues that research instructors should teach students to use Wikipedia properly, rather than trying to convince them not to use it. Finally, she suggests ways in which Wikipedia can be used to help teach the importance of evaluating sources.
Murugeshan, Meenakshi Sundaram; Lakshmi, K. & Mukherjee, Saswati A negative category based approach for Wikipedia document classification International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining Volume 1 Pages 84--97 2010 M3 - doi:10.1504/IJKEDM.2010.032582""
Mühlhauser, Ingrid & Oser, Friederike Does WIKIPEDIA provide evidence-based health care information? A content analysis Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung Und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen Volume 102 Pages 441--448 2008 [466]
Patients and consumers are increasingly searching the Internet for medical and healthcare information. Using the criteria of evidence-based medicine the present study analyses the websites of Wikipedia and two major German statutory health insurances for content and presentation of patient information. 22 senior students of health sciences and education evaluated one topic each. In a first step, they identified the evidence for their specific question. Afterwards they used their results as reference for the evaluation of the three websites. Using a check list each student and a second researcher independently rated content and presentation of the information offered. All these websites failed to meet relevant criteria, and key information such as the presentation of probabilities of success on patient-relevant outcomes, probabilities of unwanted effects, and unbiased risk communication was missing. On average items related to the objectives of interventions, the natural course of disease and treatment options were only rated as partially fulfilled". Overall
{Müller-Birn}, Claudia; Meuthrath, Benedikt; Erber, Andreas; Burkhart, Sebastian; Baumgrass, Anne; Lehmann, Janette & Schmidl, Robert Seeing similarity in the face of difference: enabling comparison of online production systems Social Network Analysis and Mining Pages 2010 [467]
Nadamoto, Akiyo; Aramaki, Eiji; Abekawa, Takeshi & Murakami, Yohei Extracting content holes by comparing community-type content with Wikipedia International Journal of Web Information Systems Volume 6 Pages 248--260 2010 M3 - doi:10.1108/17440081011070178""
Nakayama, K.; Hara, T. & Nishio, S. Wikipedia mining to construct a thesaurus Transactions of the Information Processing Society of Japan Volume 47 Pages 2917--28 2006 []
Thesauri have been widely used in many applications such as information retrieval, natural language processing {(NLP),} and interactive agents. However, several problems, such as morphological analysis, treatment of synonymous and multisense words, still remain and degrade accuracy on traditional {NLP-based} thesaurus construction methods. In addition, adding latest/miner words is also a difficult issue on this research area. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a Web mining method to automatically construct a thesaurus by extracting relations between words from Wikipedia, a wiki-based huge encyclopedia on {WWW
Naslund, J. A. Towards School Library 2.0: An Introduction to Social Software Tools for Teacher Librarians Volume 14 Pages 55--67 2008 [468]
Neal, Lisa My life as a Wikipedian {eLearn} {eLearn} Homepage Volume 2007 Pages 2007 [469]
An abstract is not available.
{NealBaxter}, Robert New technologies and terminological pressure in lesser-used languages : The Breton Wikipedia, from terminology consumer to potential terminology provider Language problems \& language planning Volume 33 Pages 60--80 2009 []
Taking the impact of the Wikipedia on the Breton language as a case in point, whilst highlighting the huge potential benefits that new technologies have to offer to economically less viable languages as a whole, this article discusses the way internet-based systems can have an impact on the terminological pressure exerted on such languages in many specialised areas. The article goes on to analyse possible conflict resolution mechanisms for competing terminological strategies and the relative merits and shortcomings of each. While centred on the specific case of a European minority" or "lesser used" language
Nelson, Rolf New Media review. Visual Studies Volume 23 Pages 275--279 2008 []
The article reviews two online information resources including Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons.
Ng, Khar Thoe; Fong, Soon Fook & Soon, Seng Thah Design and Development of a Fluid Intelligence Instrument for a technology-enhanced PBL Programme Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 1047--1052 NaN [470]
Nielsen, {F.S.} Scientific citations in Wikipedia First Monday Volume 12 Pages 6 pp. 2007 []
The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited Web sites on the Internet, but critics have questioned the quality of entries. An empirical study of Wikipedia found errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the Wikipedia risks." This paper describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with citation patterns seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as a reliable information resource for science in general."
Nix, E. M Wikipedia: How it Works and How it Can Work for You Volume 43 Pages 259--64 2010 [471]
Nordin, Norhisham Mohamad; Klobas, Jane & Nordin, Norhisham Mohamad Wikis as collaborative learning tools for knowledge sharing: Shifting the education landscape Global Learn Asia Pacific Volume 2010 Pages 331--340 NaN [472]
Noruzi, A. Editorial-Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view Webology Volume 6 Pages NaN []
Notess, Greg R. Re-evaluating Web evaluation Online {(Wilton,} Connecticut) Volume 30 Pages 45--47 2006 []
The evaluation of content continues to be crucial, as the Web becomes increasingly prevalent as an information source and finding tool. Critical evaluation of information sources is important to the academic process and to any advanced information seeker. One of the problem in dealing with evaluation of online sources is that an increasing number of library resources are made available via the Web. The more typical evaluation criteria such as those listed in Texas Information Literacy Tutorial {(TILT)} work well to validate many sites. Wikipedia deserves credit for keeping track of the changes under the History tab so that specific versions of an article can be cited.
Nov, O Information Sharing and Social Computing: Why, What, and Where? {ADVANCES} {IN} {COMPUTERS} Pages NaN []
Why do people share content, metainformation, and programming knowledge with people they don't know, in return for no money? In a series of studies, the different drivers for information sharing in social computing systems are identified, and the effect of these drivers on actual levels of sharing is estimated, using a combination of survey and system data from Wikipedia, Flickr and a number of open source software projects. This way, we gain deeper understanding of why people share information, what types of information they share, and what are the venues used for the different types of sharing.
Nov, O. What motivates wikipedians? Communications of the {ACM} Volume 50 Pages 60--4 2007 []
In order to increase and enhance user-generated content contributions, it is important to understand the factors that lead people to freely share their time and knowledge with others. Wikipedia, the Web-based user-created encyclopedia, is a prominent example of a collaborative, user-generated content outlet based on the open source model, and a promising model for knowledge sharing. Given the changes in the restriction practices associated with information creation and use, and the growth of user-generated content, organizations and media outlets such as {YouTube,} Slashdot, or the {BBC,} who wish to draw on such content, must know what motivates contributors and which motivations are associated with increased contribution.
Nov, Oded & Kuk, George Open source content contributors' response to free-riding: The effect of personality and context Computers in Human Behavior Volume 24 Pages 2848--2861 2008 [473]
We address concerns about the sustainability of the open source content model by examining the effect of external appropriation, whereby the product of open source contributors' efforts is monetized by a party that did not contribute to the project, on intended effort withdrawal (reduction in contribution level). We examine both the personality of contributors and their contextual motivations to contribute, using a scenario-based survey of Wikipedia contributors. The findings suggest that perceived justice of the open source license terms, and intrinsic motivations are both negatively related with effort withdrawal intentions. Moreover, we find that the effect of the fairness personality trait on effort withdrawal is stronger for individuals who are low in perceived justice and weaker for individuals high in justice. The findings of factors predicting effort withdrawal contribute to the open source literature, which tends to focus on contribution and motivations, but not on what impacts changes in individual contribution levels. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noveck, {BS} Wikipedia and the future of legal education {JOURNAL} {OF} {LEGAL} {EDUCATION} Volume 57 Pages 3--9 2007 [474]
{O'Brien}, Katerine Drop everything and read American Printer Pages 41--42 2006 []
An overview of the major printing processes and some suggestions provided to opt for the best processes are discussed. The New Medium of Print offers concise descriptions of gravure, offset, screen, digital and other print processes. It provides an introduction to the underlying systems for the creation and distribution of print and an exploration of its contemporary uses. Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit and verify any material prior to sharing it with customers. offset printing provides a lucid description of the printing process. Some books on sales techniques are also being provided which include Little Red Book of Selling, The New Strategic Selling, Spin Selling and Price Doesn't Count.
{O'Neil}, M. Shirky and Sanger, or the costs of crowdsourcing {JCOM} Volume 9 Pages 2010 []
Oboler, Andre; Steinberg, Gerald & Stern, Rephael The Framing of Political NGOs in Wikipedia through Criticism Elimination Journal of Information Technology \& Politics Volume 7 Pages 284 -- 299 2010 [475]
This article introduces criticism elimination, a type of information removal leading to a framing effect that impairs Wikipedia's delivery of a neutral point of view {(NPOV)} and ultimately facilitates a new form of gatekeeping with political science and information technology implications. This article demonstrates a systematic use of criticism elimination and categorizes the editors responsible into four types. We show that some types use criticism elimination to dominate and manipulate articles to advocate political and ideological agendas. We suggest mitigation approaches to criticism elimination. The research is interdisciplinary and based on empirical analysis of the public edit histories.
Okoli, Chitu & Oh, Wonseok Investigating recognition-based performance in an open content community: A social capital perspective Information and Management Volume 44 Pages 240--252 2007 [476]
As the open source movement grows, it becomes important to understand the dynamics that affect the motivation of participants who contribute their time freely to such projects. One important motivation that has been identified is the desire for formal recognition in the open source community. We investigated the impact of social capital in participants' social networks on their recognition-based performance; i.e., the formal status they are accorded in the community. We used a sample of 465 active participants in the Wikipedia open content encyclopedia community to investigate the effects of two types of social capital and found that network closure, measured by direct and indirect ties, had a significant positive effect on increasing participants' recognition-based performance. Structural holes had mixed effects on participants' status, but were generally a source of social capital. 2007 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Oreg, Shaul & Nov, Oded Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values Computers in Human Behavior Volume 24 Pages 2055--2073 2008 [477]
Ormeling, F. Mapping out Map Libraries Liber Quarterly Volume 18 Pages 2008 []
Ortega, Felix Wikipedia. A quantitative analysis Pages 2009 [478]
In this doctoral thesis, we undertake a quantitative analysis of the top-ten language editions of Wikipedia, from different perspectives. Our main goal has been to trace the evolution in time of key descriptive and organizational parameters of Wikipedia and its community of authors. The analysis has focused on logged authors (those editors who created a personal account to participate in the project). Among the distinct metrics included, we can �nd the monthly evolution of general metrics (number of revisions, active editors, active pages); the distribution of pages and its length, the evolution of participation in discussion pages. We also present a detailed analysis of the inner social structure and strati�cation of the Wikipedia community of logged authors, �tting appropriate distributions to the most relevant metrics. We also examine the inequality level of contributions from logged authors, showing that there exists a core of very active authors who undertake most of the editorial work. Regarding articles, the inequality analysis also shows that there exists a reduced group of popular articles, though the distribution of revisions is not as skewed as in the previous case. The analysis continues with an in-depth demographic study of the community of authors, focusing on the evolution of the core of very active contributors (applying a statistical technique known as survival analysis). We also explore some basic metrics to analyze the quality of Wikipedia articles and the trustworthiness level of individual authors. This work concludes with an extended analysis of the evolution of the most influential parameters and metrics previously presented. Based on these metrics, we infer important conclusions about the future sustainability of Wikipedia. According to these results, the Wikipedia community of authors has ceased to grow, remaining stable since Summer 2006 until the end of 2007. As a result, the monthly number of revisions has remained stable over the same period, restricting the number of articles that can be reviewed by the community. On the other side, whilst the number of revisions in talk pages has stabilized over the same period, as well, the number of active talk pages follows a steady growing rate, for all versions. This suggests that the community of authors is shifting its focus to broaden the coverage of discussion pages, which has a direct impact in the �nal quality of content, as previous research works has shown. Regarding the inner social structure of the Wikipedia community of logged authors, we �nd Pareto-like distributions that �t all relevant metrics pertaining authors (number of revisions per author, number of different articles edited per author), while measurements on articles (number of revisions per article, number of different authors per article) follow lognormal shapes. The analysis of the inequality level of revisions performed by authors, and revisions received by arti- cles shows highly unequal distributions. The results of our survival analysis on Wikipedia authors presents very high mortality percentages on young authors, revealing an endemic problem of Wikipedias to keep young editors on collaborating with the project for a long period of time. In the same way, from our survival analysis we obtain that the mean lifetime of Wikipedia authors in the core (until they abandon the group of top editors) is situated between 200 and 400 days, for all versions, while the median value is lower than 120 days in all cases. Moreover the analysis of the monthly number of births and deaths in the community of logged authors reveals that the cause of the shift in the monthly trend of active authors is produced by a higher number of deaths from Summer 2006 in all versions, surpassing the monthly number of births from then on. The analysis of the inequality level of contributions over time, and the evolution of additional key features identi�ed in this thesis, reveals a worrying trend towards progressive increase of the effort spent by core authors, as time elapses. This trend may eventually cause that these authors will reach their upper limit in the number of revisions they can perform each month, thus starting a decreasing trend in the number of monthly revisions, and an overall recession of the content creation and reviewing process in Wikipedia. To prevent this probable future scenario, the number of monthly new editors should be improved again, perhaps through the adoption of speci�c policies and campaigns for attracting new editors to Wikipedia, and recover older top- contributors again. Finally, another important contribution for the research community is {WikiXRay,} the soft- ware tool we have developed to perform the statistical analyses included in this thesis. This tool completely automates the process of retrieving the database dumps from the Wikimedia public repositories, process them to obtain key metrics and descriptive parameters, and load them in a local database, ready to be used in empirical analyses. As far as we know, this is the �rst research work implementing a comparative analysis, from an quantitative point of view, of the top-ten language editions of Wikipedia, presenting results from many different scienti�c perspectives. Therefore, we expect that this contribution will help the scienti�c community to enhance their understanding of the rich, complex and fascinating work- ing mechanisms and behavioral patterns of the Wikipedia project and its community of authors. Likewise, we hope that {WikiXRay} will facilitate the hard task of developing empirical analyses on any language version of the encyclopedia, boosting in this way the number of comparative studies like this one in many other scienti�c disciplines.
Otto, P. & Simon, M. Dynamic perspectives on social characteristics and sustainability in online community networks System Dynamics Review Volume 24 Pages 321--47 2008 [479]
Online community networks can help organizations improve collaboration. However, in spite of their potential value, there has been little empirical research into two important network factors that determine their success: social characteristics of users and changes in operations that result from network evolution. Our research addresses these deficiencies by using a cultural framework. Derived from anthropology, it extends previous system dynamics research on online community networks. The framework acts as a lens, enabling a better understanding of the effects that changes in these factors bring to online community networks. Using data collected from Wikipedia for model calibration, our findings suggest that, contrary to conventional wisdom, removing policies that focus on building group commitment does not lower performance. The results also show that online networks need structural control, otherwise their attractiveness, credibility and, subsequently, content value might all decrease. To ensure sustainability the network must be monitored, especially during the early stages of its evolution, so that rules and regulations that ensure value and validity can be selectively employed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Overell, S. & Ruger, S. Using co-occurrence models for place name disambiguation International Journal of Geographical Information Science Volume 22 Pages 265--87 2008 [480]
This paper describes the generation of a model capturing information on how place names co-occur together. The advantages of the co-occurrence model over traditional gazetteers are discussed and the problem of place name disambiguation is presented as a case study. We begin by outlining the problem of ambiguous place names. We demonstrate how analysis of Wikipedia can be used in the generation of a co-occurrence model. The accuracy of our model is compared to a handcrafted ground truth; then we evaluate alternative methods of applying this model to the disambiguation of place names in free text (using the {GeoCLEF} evaluation forum). We conclude by showing how the inclusion of place names in both the text and geographic parts of a query provides the maximum mean average precision and outline the benefits of a co-occurrence model as a data source for the wider field of geographic information retrieval {(GIR).
Page, James CO-ORDINATING PEACE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA: A REPORT ON THE CANBERRA FORUM OF 2 MAY, 2008. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft Volume 55 Pages 303--306 2009 []
Information about several papers discussed during the Australian university teachers forum on peace and conflict studies in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory on May 2, 2008 is presented. The forum highlights the discussion on how to better organize and co-ordinate university-level peace education in Australia. It further features the issue concerning peace education through Wikipedia networking and innovative teaching methods.
Page, Roderic Wikipedia as an encyclopaedia of life. Organisms Diversity \& Evolution Volume 10 Pages 343--349 2010 []
In a 2003 essay E. O. Wilson outlined his vision for an “encyclopaedia of life� comprising “an electronic page for each species of organism on Earth�, each page containing “the scientific name of the species, a pictorial or genomic presentation of the primary type specimen on which its name is based, and a summary of its diagnostic traits.� Although biodiversity informatics has generated numerous online resources, including some directly inspired by Wilson’s essay (e.g., {iSpecies} and {EOL),} we are still some way from the goal of having available online all relevant information about a species, such as its taxonomy, evolutionary history, genomics, morphology, ecology, and behaviour. While the biodiversity community has been developing a plethora of databases, some with overlapping goals and duplicated content, Wikipedia has been slowly growing to the point where it now has over 100,000 pages on biological taxa. My goal in this essay is to explore the idea that, largely independent of the aims of biodiversity informatics and well-funded international efforts, Wikipedia has emerged as potentially the best platform for fulfilling E. O. Wilson’s vision. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Pak, Alexander N. & Chung, {Chin-Wan} A wikipedia matching approach to contextual advertising World Wide Web Volume 13 Pages 251--274 2010 [481]
Contextual advertising is an important part of today's Web. It provides benefits to all parties: Web site owners and an advertising platform share the revenue, advertisers receive new customers, and Web site visitors get useful reference links. The relevance of selected ads for a Web page is essential for the whole system to work. Problems such as homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords and context mismatch can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads. Therefore, a simple keyword matching technique gives a poor accuracy. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the relevance of contextual ads. We propose a novel {Wikipedia} matching" technique that uses Wikipedia articles as "reference points" for ads selection. We show how to combine our new method with existing solutions in order to increase the overall performance. An experimental evaluation based on a set of real ads and a set of pages from news Web sites is conducted. Test results show that our proposed method performs better than existing matching strategies and using the Wikipedia matching in combination with existing approaches provides up to 50\% lift in the average precision. {TREC} standard measure bpref-10 also confirms the positive effect of using Wikipedia matching for the effective ads selection. 2010 Springer {Science+Business} Media
Pamkowska, M. Autopoiesis in virtual organizations Informatica Economica Volume 12 Pages 33--9 2008 []
Virtual organizations continuously gain popularity because of the benefits created by them. Generally, they are defined as temporal adhocracies, project oriented, knowledge-based network organizations. The goal of this paper is to present the hypothesis that knowledge system developed by virtual organization is an autopoietic system. The term autopoiesis" was introduced by Maturana for self-productive systems. In this paper
Patch, P. Meeting Student Writers Where They Are: Using Wikipedia to Teach Responsible Scholarship Volume 37 Pages 278--85 2010 [482]
Pehcevski, J.; Thom, J.; Vercoustre, A. & Naumovski, V. Entity ranking in Wikipedia: utilising categories, links and topic difficulty prediction Information Retrieval Volume 13 Pages 2010 [483]
Pekárek, Martin & Pötzsch, Stefanie A comparison of privacy issues in collaborative workspaces and social networks Identity in the Information Society Volume 2 Pages 81--93 2009 [484]
{Pena-Bandalaria}, Melinda M. Dela & {Pena-Bandalaria}, Melinda M. Dela E-Learning in the Philippines: Trends, Directions, and Challenges International Journal on {E-Learning} Volume 8 Pages 495--510 NaN [485]
Pender, Michael P; Lasserre, Kaye E; Mar, Christopher Del; Kruesi, Lisa & Anuradha, Satyamurthy Is Wikipedia unsuitable as a clinical information resource for medical students? Medical Teacher Volume 31 Pages 1095--1096 2009 [486]
{Perea-Ortega}, Jose M.; {Montejo-Raez}, Arturo; {Martin-Valdivia}, {M.Teresa} & {Urena-Lopez}, {L.Alfonso} Using web sources for improving video categorization Pages 1--14 2010 [487]
In this paper, several experiments about video categorization using a supervised learning approach are presented. To this end, the {VideoCLEF} 2008 evaluation forum has been chosen as experimental framework. After an analysis of the {VideoCLEF} corpus, it was found that video transcriptions are not the best source of information in order to identify the thematic of video streams. Therefore, two web-based corpora have been generated in the aim of adding more informational sources by integrating documents from Wikipedia articles and Google searches. A number of supervised categorization experiments using the test data of {VideoCLEF} have been accomplished. Several machine learning algorithms have been proved to validate the effect of the corpus on the final results: Naive Bayes, K-nearest-neighbors {(KNN),} Support Vectors Machine {(SVM)} and the j48 decision tree. The results obtained show that web can be a useful source of information for generating classification models for video data. 2010 Springer {Science+Business} Media, {LLC.
Perona, P. Vision Of A Visipedia Proceedings of the {IEEE} Volume 98 Pages 1526--34 2010 [488]
The web is not perfect: while text is easily searched and organized, pictures (the vast majority of the bits that one can find online) are not. In order to see how one could improve the web and make pictures first-class citizens of the web, I explore the idea of Visipedia, a visual interface for Wikipedia that is able to answer visual queries and enables experts to contribute and organize visual knowledge. Five distinct groups of humans would interact through Visipedia: users, experts, editors, visual workers, and machine vision scientists. The latter would gradually build automata able to interpret images. I explore some of the technical challenges involved in making Visipedia happen. I argue that Visipedia will likely grow organically, combining state-of-the-art machine vision with human labor.
Perry, M. The appliance of science: Web 2.0 Information World Review Pages 37--8 2008 []
This paper shows that scientists uses Web 2.0 that serves as another outlet for them to discuss and to easily publish their scientific research. This also allowed people to share information and replicate what a university environment wold be like. Online encyclopedia Wikipedia and social networking sites such as {MySpace} and Facebook is transforming the dissemination of research.
Peter, Martina Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: Fairy Rings and the Wood-Wide Web New Phytologist Volume 171 Pages 685--687 2006 [489]
Petrilli, M. J Wikipedia or Wickedpedia? Assessing the online encyclopedia's impact on K-12 education Volume 8 Pages 2008 [490]
Pfeil, U; Zaphiris, P & Ang, {CS} Cultural differences in collaborative authoring of wikipedia {JOURNAL} {OF} {COMPUTER-MEDIATED} {COMMUNICATION} Volume 12 Pages 88--113 2006 [491]
This article explores the relationship between national culture and computer-mediated communication {(CMC)} in Wikipedia. The articles on the topic game from the French, German, Japanese, and Dutch Wikipedia websites were Studied using content analysis methods. Correlations were investigated between patterns of contributions and the four dimensions of cultural influences proposed by Hofstede {(Power} Distance, Collectivism versus Individualism, Femininity versus Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance). The analysis revealed cultural differences in the style of contributions across the cultures investigated, some of which are correlated with the dimensions identified by Hofstede. These findings suggest that cultural differences that are observed in the physical world also exist in the virtual world.
Pickering, B. Online news and reference services Information World Review Pages 32--7 2006 []
With blogs, bulletin boards, podcasts and Webcasts, the Internet is an ever-evolving source of information. The online information industry continues to evolve rapidly as information providers experiment with new models of content distribution on a global scale, and new technologies develop that allow people to distribute information (from blogs, podcasts and Webcasts for news suppliers to the Wikipedia, Project Citizendium and Digital Universe models on the reference side). A significant new development for news aggregators is the speed at which news dissemination is now happening on a global scale.
Plaza, Beatriz Google Analytics for measuring website performance Tourism Management Pages NaN []
Poderi, G. Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia First Monday Volume 14 Pages 9 pp. 2009 []
Collaboratively written by thousands of people, Wikipedia produces entries which are consistent with criteria agreed by Wikipedians and of high quality. This article focuses on Wikipedia's featured articles and shows that not every contribution can be considered as being of equal quality. Two groups of articles are analysed by focusing on the edits distribution and the main editors' contribution. The research shows how these aspects of the revision patterns can change dependent upon the category to which the articles belong.
Pollard, E. A Raising the Stakes: Writing about Witchcraft on Wikipedia Volume 42 Pages 9--24 2008 [492]
Polukarova, {N.A.} The concept of open editing from the copyright viewpoint Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics Volume 41 Pages 104--7 2007 [493]
The principles of open editing in wiki technology are described as illustrated by the example of Wikipedia, a popular free Web encyclopedia. Information is given about {GNU} software, Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act, licenses for free software and their corresponding free user manuals, as well as about legal issues arising in connection with the free documentation license.
Ponzetto, Simone Paolo & Strube, Michael Knowledge derived from wikipedia for computing semantic relatedness Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research Volume 30 Pages 181--212 2007 []
Wikipedia provides a semantic network for computing semantic relatedness in a more structured fashion than a search engine and with more coverage than {WordNet.} We present experiments on using Wikipedia for computing semantic relatedness and compare it to {WordNet} on various bench-marking datasets. Existing relatedness measures perform better using Wikipedia than a baseline given by Google counts, and we show that Wikipedia outperforms {WordNet} on some datasets. We also address the question whether and how Wikipedia can be integrated into {NLP} applications as a knowledge base. Including Wikipedia improves the performance of a machine learning based coreference resolution system, indicating that it represents a valuable resource for {NLP} applications. Finally, we show that our method can be easily used for languages other than English by computing semantic relatedness for a German dataset. 2007 {AI} Access Foundation. All rights reserved.
Potthast, Martin; {Barrón-Cedeño}, Alberto; Stein, Benno & Rosso, Paolo Cross-language plagiarism detection Language Resources and Evaluation Pages 1--18 2010 [494]
Poudat, C & Loiseau, S Representation and lexical characterization of sciences in Wikipedia {REVUE} {FRANCAISE} {DE} {LINGUISTIQUE} {APPLIQUEE} Volume 12 Pages 29--44 2007 [495]
The free and online encyclopaedia project Wikipedia has become in less than six years one of the most prominent commons-based peer production example. The way the project works and evolves is now at stake for academics eager to explore auto-organized structures. Although many studies have been led on the connections between contributors, the linguistic properties of Wikipedia productions remain almost unexplored. In this article, we focus on the way sciences are represented within the project and examine the general and epistemic lexical characteristics of the articles thanks to the comparison of a set of corpora extracted from Wikipedia's category system.
Powell, L. The Paradox of Wikipedia [from the editor's desk] Industry Applications Magazine, {IEEE} Volume 14 Pages 2008 []
Powell, Louie The Paradox fo Wikipedia {IEEE} Industry Applications Magazine Volume 14 Pages 2008 [496]
No abstract available
Poyntz, Nick Digital history: all contributions welcome. History Today Volume 60 Pages 2010 []
This article looks at the opportunities and potential perils for historians brought about by the enormous growth in user-generated content on the internet. Developments such as the wiki enable the sharing of information and resources in new ways, one example being the {YourArchives} site provided by the National Archives since 2007. In terms of both its size and the amount of controversy it generates, Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, surpasses all other secondary sources, and in using it historians need to be as cautious and as careful as they are when assessing the reliability of information contained in any primary source. Databases of photos and moving images such as Flickr and {YouTube} are certain to become essential tools for historians seeking sources on life in the early {21C} but effective use of them depends on accurate written descriptions provided with the images. The system known as Captcha, which ensures comments are not generated by computer programmes, is capable of digitising a huge volume of printed primary sources. {(Quotes} from original text)
Prasarnphanich, P & Wagner, C Explaining the Sustainability of Digital Ecosystems based on the Wiki Model through Critical Mass Theory Industrial Electronics, {IEEE} Transactions on Pages 2009 []
Prasarnphanich, P. & Wagner, C. The role of wiki technology and altruism in collaborative knowledge creation Journal of Computer Information Systems Volume 49 Pages 33--41 2009 []
Collaborative knowledge creation is presently being reshaped by the use of Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis. Wikipedia, arguably the most successful application of wiki technology, demonstrates the feasibility and success of this form of collaborative knowledge creation (in a broad sense) within selforganizing, open access community. The study seeks to understand the success of the public wiki model, with Wikipedia as the test case, assessing both technology and participant motivations. The study finds that, contrary to the motivation in open source software development, altruism is a prevalent driver for participation, although mixed motives clearly exist. In particular, while participants have both individualistic and collaborative motives, collaborative (altruistic) motives dominate. The success of the collaboration model embedded in Wikipedia thus appears to be related to wiki technology and the wiki way" (i.e.
Preece, Jennifer & Shneiderman, Ben The Reader-to-Leader Framework: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation {AIS} Transactions on {Human-Computer} Interaction Volume 1 Pages 13--32 2009 [497]
Billions of people participate in online social activities. Most users participate as readers of discussion boards, searchers of blog posts, or viewers of photos. A fraction of users become contributors of user-generated content by writing consumer product reviews, uploading travel photos, or expressing political opinions. Some users move beyond such individual efforts to become collaborators, forming tightly connected groups with lively discussions whose outcome might be a Wikipedia article or a carefully edited {YouTube} video. A small fraction of users becomes leaders, who participate in governance by setting and upholding policies, repairing vandalized materials, or mentoring novices. We analyze these activities and offer the {Reader-to-Leader} Framework with the goal of helping researchers, designers, and managers understand what motivates technology-mediated social participation. This will enable them to improve interface design and social support for their companies, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. These improvements could reduce the number of failed projects, while accelerating the application of social media for national priorities such as healthcare, energy sustainability, emergency response, economic development, education, and more.
Pressley, L. & {McCallum}, {C.J.} Putting the library in Wikipedia Online Volume 32 Pages 39--42 2008 []
Few online resources provoke as much controversy in the library community as Wikipedia. Some librarians hate it, arguing that since anyone can edit it, it can't be trusted. Others love it, because it is fast, easy to use, and a good starting point for research. In the {March/April} 2008 issue of online, William Badke wondered about, in his {InfoLit} Land column, {What} to Do With Wikipedia" {(} The column describes how this online encyclopedia is snubbed by academia but widely accepted by many others as a valid place to find information. He proposes that academia should participate in Wikipedia and makes several suggestions as to how professors and their students could improve Wikipedia by contributing new scholarly content
Priedhorsky, R. The value of geographic wikis Pages 2010 [498]
Purdy, J. Digital archives and the turn to design Pages 2006 [499]
Purdy, James P When the Tenets of Composition Go Public: A Study of Writing in Wikipedia College Composition and Communication Volume 61 Pages 2009 []
Based on a study of observable changes author-users made to three Wikipedia articles, this article contends that Wikipedia supports notions of revision, collaboration, and authority that writing studies purports to value, while also extending our understanding of the production of knowledge in public spaces. It argues that Wikipedia asks us to reexamine our expectations for the stability of research materials and who should participate in public knowledge making. {(Contains} 2 tables and 8 notes.)
Purdy, {J.P.} The Changing Space of Research: Web 2.0 and the Integration of Research and Writing Environments Computers and Composition Volume 27 Pages 48--58 2010 [500]
Web 2.0 challenges the artificial compartmentalization of research and writing that often characterizes instruction in composition classes. In Web 2.0, writing and researching activities are increasingly integrated both spatially and conceptually. This article contends that, with this integration, Web 2.0 technologies showcase how research and writing together participate in knowledge production. Through analyzing specific technologies that incorporate Web 2.0 features, including Wikipedia, {JSTOR,} {ARTstor,} and, this article argues that including Web 2.0 technologies in composition courses as objects of analysis and as writing and researching resources offers a means to bridge the gap between students' online proficiencies and academic writing tasks. {[All} rights reserved Elsevier].
Pöllä, Matti & Honkela, Timo Negative Selection of Written Language Using Character Multiset Statistics Journal of Computer Science and Technology Volume 25 Pages 1256--1266 2010 [501]
Rader, Heather they call me newbie"." Teacher Librarian Volume 34 Pages 70--71 2006 []
The article presents information on the term newbie. According to Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, a newbie is a newcomer to a particular field, the term being commonly used on the Internet, where it might refer to new, inexperienced, or ignorant users of a game, a newsgroup, an operating system, or the Internet itself. The terra is generally regarded as an insult, although in many cases, it is used in purposes of negative reinforcement by more experienced or knowledgeable people.
Radtke, Philip J. & Munsell, John F. Wikipedia as a tool for forestry outreach Journal of Forestry Volume 108 Pages 354--359 2010 []
The goals of this work were to examine how the online, collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia presents information related to forest management and the profession of forestry and to explore its potential as a vehicle for widespread public outreach, interaction, and communication regarding these topics. Issues concerning the accuracy of Wikipedia content were reviewed, and a survey of Wikipedia content related to forestry was performed, along with a project enlisting college students to generate content on Wikipedia related to forest measurements coursework. Forestry-related Wikipedia articles generated over one-half million page views during 1 month in 2008, with nearly 6,000 views of 25 studentgenerated pages. In the 18 months since they were first uploaded, student-generated articles were edited 784 times by 132 separate contributors. Developing new content, editing, and revision are essential parts of the Wikipedia collaborative model. As such, significant opportunities exist for individuals or groups of students, professionals, experts, and nonexperts alike to contribute collaboratively to forestry-related articles that will be viewed by relatively large audiences of the online public on Wikipedia. Copyright 2010 by the Society of American Foresters.
Rahman, M. An Analysis of Wikipedia {JITTA} : Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application Volume 9 Pages 2008 []
Wikipedia is defined by its founders as the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit." This property
Rahman, Mohammad M. Essays analyzing blogs and Wikipedia Pages 2006 [502]
we argue
Rahurkar, M.; Tsai, {S.-F.}; Dagli, C. & Huang, {T.S.} Image Interpretation Using Large Corpus: Wikipedia Proceedings of the {IEEE} Volume 98 Pages 1509--25 2010 [503]
Image is a powerful medium for expressing one's ideas and rightly confirms the adage, One picture is worth a thousand words. In this work, we explore the application of world knowledge in the form of Wikipedia to achieve this objective-literally. In the first part, we disambiguate and rank semantic concepts associated with ambiguous keywords by exploiting link structure of articles in Wikipedia. In the second part, we explore an image representation in terms of keywords which reflect the semantic content of an image. Our approach is inspired by the desire to augment low-level image representation with massive amounts of world knowledge, to facilitate computer vision tasks like image retrieval based on this information. We represent an image as a weighted mixture of a predetermined set of concrete concepts whose definition has been agreed upon by a wide variety of audience. To achieve this objective, we use concepts defined by Wikipedia articles, e.g., sky, building, or automobile. An important advantage of our approach is availability of vast amounts of highly organized human knowledge in Wikipedia. Wikipedia evolves rapidly steadily increasing its breadth and depth over time.
Rand, Angela Doucet Mediating at the Student-Wikipedia Intersection. Journal of Library Administration Volume 50 Pages 923--932 2010 []
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia. The encyclopedia is openly edited by registered users. Wikipedia editors can edit their own and others' entries, and some abuse of this editorial power has been unveiled. Content authors have also been criticized for publishing less than accurate content. Educators and students acknowledge casual use of Wikipedia in spite of its perceived inaccuracies. Use of the online encyclopedia as a reference resource in scholarly papers is still debated. The increasing popularity of Wikipedia has led to an influx of research articles analyzing the validity and content of the encyclopedia. This study provides an analysis of relevant articles on academic use of Wikipedia. This analysis attempts to summarize the status of Wikipedia in relation to the scope (breadth) and depth of its contents and looks at content validity issues that are of concern to the use of Wikipedia for higher education. The study seeks to establish a reference point from which educators can make informed decisions about scholarly use of Wikipedia as a reference resource. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Rask, M. The reach and richness of Wikipedia: is Wikinomics only for rich countries? First Monday Volume 13 Pages 10 pp. 2008 []
This study examined the impact of technological and economic factors on the global diffusion of Wikinomics among developed and developing countries. Examining different language editions of Wikipedia, this study found significant correlation between a variety of socio-economic factors and involvement in Wikipedia.
Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Fortunato, Santo; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo & Vespignani, Alessandro Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of online popularity Physical Review Letters Volume 105 Pages 2010 [504]
Online popularity has an enormous impact on opinions, culture, policy, and profits. We provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the dynamics of online content popularity in two massive model systems: the Wikipedia and an entire country's Web space. We find that the dynamics of popularity are characterized by bursts, displaying characteristic features of critical systems such as fat-tailed distributions of magnitude and interevent time. We propose a minimal model combining the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism with the occurrence of random popularity shifts due to exogenous factors. The model recovers the critical features observed in the empirical analysis of the systems analyzed here, highlighting the key factors needed in the description of popularity dynamics. 2010 The American Physical Society.
Ray, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Shailendra & Joshi, {B.P.} A semantic approach for question classification using WordNet and Wikipedia Pattern Recognition Letters Volume 31 Pages 1935--1943 2010 [505]
Question Answering Systems, unlike search engines, are providing answers to the users' questions in succinct form which requires the prior knowledge of the expectation of the user. Question classification module of a Question Answering System plays a very important role in determining the expectations of the user. In the literature, incorrect question classification has been cited as one of the major factors for the poor performance of the Question Answering Systems and this emphasizes on the importance of question classification module designing. In this article, we have proposed a question classification method that exploits the powerful semantic features of the {WordNet} and the vast knowledge repository of the Wikipedia to describe informative terms explicitly. We have trained our system over a standard set of 5500 questions (by {UIUC)} and then tested it over five {TREC} question collections. We have compared our results with some standard results reported in the literature and observed a significant improvement in the accuracy of question classification. The question classification accuracy suggests the effectiveness of the method which is promising in the field of open-domain question classification. Judging the correctness of the answer is an important issue in the field of question answering. In this article, we are extending question classification as one of the heuristics for answer validation. We are proposing a World Wide Web based solution for answer validation where answers returned by open-domain Question Answering Systems can be validated using online resources such as Wikipedia and Google. We have applied several heuristics for answer validation task and tested them against some popular web based open-domain Question Answering Systems over a collection of 500 questions collected from standard sources such as {TREC,} the Worldbook, and the Worldfactbook. The proposed method seems to be promising for automatic answer validation task. 2010 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Reagle, Joseph TIMELINES: Wikipedia: the happy accident interactions - Design Fiction Interactions Homepage Volume 16 Pages 42--45 2009 [506]
Joseph Reagle's work on Wikipedia and its predecessors opened my eyes to a fascinating history. I'm delighted he has provided this account of the origin of the most interesting digital object since the Web itself. {---Jonathan} Grudin
Reagle, Joseph Wikipedia: The happy accident Interactions Volume 16 Pages 42--45 2009 [507]
Some of the significant issues associated with the development and success of Wikipedia as an encyclopedia are discussed. Jimmy Wales Larry Sanger were the professionals who were involved in the initial development of Wikipedia, the wiki-based encyclopedia. One of the most significant features of the encyclopedia was that it was able to be edited by any user without any problem. Some of the challenges associated with the web needed to be understood to understand the success of Wikipedia as an effective encyclopedia. The two professionals in the development of the encyclopedia overcame several challenges to develop it and ensure its success.
Reagle, J. In good faith: Wikipedia collaboration and the pursuit of the universal encyclopedia Pages 2008 [508]
has caught the attention of the world. Discourse about the efficacy and legitimacy of this collaborative work abound, from the news pages of {The} New York Times" to the satire of {"The} Onion." So how might we understand Wikipedia collaboration? In part 1 I argue that Wikipedia is an heir to a twentieth century vision of universal access and goodwill; an idea advocated by H. G. Wells and Paul Otlet almost a century ago. This vision is inspired by technological innovation--microfilm and index cards then
Rebillard, Franck & Touboul, Annelise Promises unfulfilled? 'Journalism 2.0', user participation and editorial policy on newspaper websites. Media, Culture \& Society Volume 32 Pages 323--334 2010 []
In this article the authors contemplate on the ideology involving the Web 2.0 services for journalism. They present their analysis on the ideological assumptions regarding the effectiveness of journalism 2.0., especially on online interaction and social networking sites. They also explore the material concretization of these assumptions particularly on users of participatory websites like Wikipedia or {YouTube} links and newsmaking within a corpus of news media websites in Europe and America.
Rech, J.; Bogner, C. & Haas, V. Using Wikis to tackle reuse in software projects {IEEE} Software Volume 24 Pages 99--104 2007 []
Software projects in small-and medium-sized enterprises {(SMEs)} produce similar work products when building interactive software systems. For each project, software engineers create requirements, design specifications, source code, data schemes, and so forth, gain experience with these work products, and create associated products such as test cases for the source code or inspection plans for the requirements. All of this constitutes knowledge that the engineers can reuse in new variants of the software system.
Rectanus, Mark W. Performing Knowledge: Cultural Discourses, Knowledge Communities, and Youth Culture. Telos Pages 44--65 2010 []
The article discusses the destabilization of expert knowledge and the de-centering of the book in youth culture. The current fundamental shifts in the social construction of knowledge involves a number of interrelated topics such as the status of the book and scholarly publishing, the digitization and virtualization of libraries and the role of search engines, databases and books like Google Book Search, and the creation of encyclopedic projects like Wikipedia. It also explores the development of media culture in the {U.S.} and Germany.
Rector, {L.H.} Comparison of Wikipedia and other encyclopedias for accuracy, breadth, and depth in historical articles Reference Services Review Volume 36 Pages 7--22 2008 [509]
This paper seeks to provide reference librarians and faculty with evidence regarding the comprehensiveness and accuracy of Wikipedia articles compared with respected reference resources. This content analysis evaluated nine Wikipedia articles against comparable articles in Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Dictionary of American History and American National Biography Online in order to compare Wikipedia's comprehensiveness and accuracy. The researcher used a modification of a stratified random sampling and a purposive sampling to identify a variety of historical entries and compared each text in terms of depth, accuracy, and detail. The study did reveal inaccuracies in eight of the nine entries and exposed major flaws in at least two of the nine Wikipedia articles. Overall, Wikipedia's accuracy rate was 80 percent compared with 95-96 percent accuracy within the other sources. This study does support the claim that Wikipedia is less reliable than other reference resources. Furthermore, the research found at least five unattributed direct quotations and verbatim text from other sources with no citations. More research must be undertaken to analyze Wikipedia entries in other disciplines in order to judge the source's accuracy and overall quality. This paper also shows the need for analysis of Wikipedia articles' histories and editing process. This research provides a methodology for further content analysis of Wikipedia articles. Although generalizations cannot be made from this paper alone, the paper provides empirical data to support concerns regarding the accuracy and authoritativeness of Wikipedia.
Reiner, Laura & Smith, Allen REFERENCE SOURCES. Journal of Academic Librarianship Volume 32 Pages 2006 []
The article presents abstracts of academic librarianship. They include {Business} News Web Sites
Remy, Melanie Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia Online Information Review Volume 26 Pages 2002 []
Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia is reviewed.
Richey, D. [Sitting Bull] Volume 71 Pages 864--5 2009 [510]
Risinger, C. Frederick Wikipedia: Historical Thinking. Social Education Volume 72 Pages 2008 []
The article underscores the topic on history in the Wikipedia entitled {Historical} Thinking." It states that the article has links to The National Center for History in the Schools at {UCLA.} This also includes a five-part definition of historical thinking. These are chronological comprehension
Rizzo, Skip CyberSightings. {CyberPsychology} \& Behavior Volume 10 Pages 316--320 2007 []
The article presents a list of websites focusing on the topic of exergaming. Informations are given on the current status in Mental Health, Rehabilitation and Internet, Multimedia, Virtual Reality, and Technology arena. They include the wikipedia entry for exergaming, energy expenditure of sedentary screen time, and other sites.
Rodríguez, R. Liberating Epistemology: Wikipedia and the Social Construction of Knowledge Religious Studies and Theology Volume 26 Pages 2007 []
Rogers, Kenneth Positive Outcomes With Information Sharing. Athletic Therapy Today Volume 11 Pages 2006 []
The article discusses the importance of information sharing to the future of the National Athletic Trainer's Association {(NATA)} in the United States. The association is evaluating the use of Wikipedia, blogs, public/private access to collaborative work sites and more use of the {NATA} Web page. Sharing information can allow the association to better response on issues.
Rogers, Richard Internet Research: The Question of Method—A Keynote Address from the YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference Journal of Information Technology \& Politics Volume 7 Pages 241 -- 260 2010 [511]
Digital studies on culture may be distinguished from cultural studies of the digital, at least in terms of method. This lecture takes up the question of the distinctiveness of “digital methods� for researching Internet cultures. It asks, initially, should the methods of study change, however slightly or wholesale, given the specificity of the new medium? The larger digital methods project thereby engages with “virtual methods,� the current, dominant “e-science� approach to the study of the Internet, and the consequences for research of importing standard methods from the social sciences in particular. What kinds of contributions are made to digital media studies, and the Internet in particular, when traditional methods are imported from the social sciences and the humanities onto the medium? Which research opportunities are foreclosed? Second, I ask, what kinds of new approaches are worthwhile, given an emphasis on the “natively digital� as opposed to digitization? The goal is also to change the focus of humanities and humanities computing away from the opportunities afforded by transforming ink into bits. The effort is to develop the study of natively digital objects (the link, the tag, etc.) and devices (engines and other recommendation machines) that make use of them. After critically reviewing existing approaches to the study of the digital, which largely import method onto the medium, I subsequently propose research strategies that follow the medium. How can one learn from methods in the medium, and repurpose them for social and cultural research? The lecture launches a novel strand of study: digital methods.
Roggla, K Our Wikipedia world {THEATER} {HEUTE} Pages NaN []
Rosales, R. Eight Simple Ways to Embrace the Froom"" {EDUCAUSE} Quarterly Volume 32 Pages 2 pp. 2009 []
College students have become active participants in the learning process. The concept of collaboration, for example, is now considered central to their learning {DNA,} whether it's building an online wiki or doing multi-user editing using Google docs and other platforms. {(For} many insights into the learning styles of children and young adults, see the research series published by the {MacArthur} Foundation on Digital Media and Learning.) The new generation of college students could be considered a living manifestation of the Google Age. Nicholas Carr, citing major studies in his extensive piece titled {Is} Google Making Us Stupid?" in the The Atlantic {(July/August} 2008)
Rose, A. The Wikinews Ace Columbia Journalism Review Volume 47 Pages NaN []
Rose features David Miller, a Wikinews' star reporter. Miller's journalistic sideline began in 2005 after he dropped out of Fordham Law School. He couldn't afford the tuition for his final year because he missed a few credit-card payments and didn't qualify for loans. His older sister gave him a low-end digital camera for his birthday and he began snapping photos around the city, which he'd then upload to relevant Wikipedia articles that had no images. It was around this time he created his {pseudonym--David} Shankbone. Eventually, Miller got tired of just taking photos. He'd always considered himself a writer--he wrote about the war in Iraq and the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina for a student news blog at Fordham-- when a volunteer Wikipedia editor suggested he check out the fledgling Wikinews, Miller decided to broaden his journalistic repertoire.
Rosenzweig, Roy Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past. Journal of American History Volume 93 Pages 117--146 2006 []
The article presents information on Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia that contains articles about history. Wikipedia allows Internet users to freely read and use articles, thus, making it the most significant application of the principles of the free and open-source software movement to the world of cultural production. Astonishingly, Wikipedia has become widely read and cited, with more than a million people a day visiting the site. The article also offers information on other Web-based encyclopedias that were developed before Wikipedia.
Ross, Jeffrey & Shanty, Frank Editing Encyclopedias for Fun and Aggravation. Publishing Research Quarterly Volume 25 Pages 159--169 2009 []
This collaborative, retrospective autoethnography begins by offering an overview of the encyclopedias with which we have been involved, as both contributors and consulting editors, over the past decade. We then review our strategies for recruiting authors and maintaining their interest to ensure the highest quality entries; it also covers the mechanics of processing these entries. Next, we discuss the actual and perceived benefits of editing an encyclopedia, the most significant issues we encountered, and our solutions. Finally, we contextualize the previous information in light of recent changes in the scholarly publishing industry. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Roszkiewicz, R. Wikis that mean business Seybold Report Analyzing Publishing Technologies Volume 8 Pages 8--10 2008 []
Wikis might be one of the most misunderstood social networking technologies linked to Web 2.0. While {MySpace,} {YouTube} and {FaceBook} get the most visibility, the technology that has the greatest potential for transforming what we know as traditional publishing is wild technology. Wiki has an identity problem, however. The underlying technology is available as open source, and without a strong company-backed marketing effort to tell the wiki story over and over, it is apt to be misunderstood. Another problem is Wikipedia and its overwhelming popularity. The Wikipedia application has co-opted the wiki technology and is strongly identified with it. As a result, the technology is not getting the widespread traction it deserves. The original wiki (wiki is Hawaiian for quick, as in quickly developed Web sites) was created by Howard G. {(Ward)} Cunningham around 1994. The intent of what was then called {WikiWikiWeb} was to make communication among programmers more efficient. Cunningham is also known for developing the programming methodology known as extreme programming {(XP).
Roussinov, Dmitri & Turetken, Ozgur Exploring models for semantic category verification Information Systems Volume 34 Pages 673--685 2009 [512]
Many artificial intelligence tasks, such as automated question answering, reasoning, or heterogeneous database integration, involve verification of a semantic category (e.g. coffee" is a drink
Rowe, Sylvia & Alexander, Nick Getting It Right in the Coming Communications Twilight Zone. Nutrition Today Volume 43 Pages 217--220 2008 []
The article evaluates the evolution of technologies that affect consumer understanding of nutrition science, both by quickening the pace of research itself and by allowing communication. It also discusses the paradigm changes in science communications from traditional closed models to systems more likened to a Wikipedia model where Internet surfers themselves become the experts.
Royal, C. & Kapila, D. What's on Wikipedia, and what's not ... ? Assessing completeness of information Social Science Computer Review Volume 27 Pages 138--48 2009 [513]
The World Wide Web continues to grow closer to achieving the vision of becoming the repository of all human knowledge, as features and applications that support user-generated content become more prevalent. Wikipedia is fast becoming an important resource for news and information. It is an online information source that is increasingly used as the first, and sometimes only, stop for online encyclopedic information. Using a method employed by Tankard and Royal to judge completeness of Web content, completeness of information on Wikipedia is assessed. Some topics are covered more comprehensively than others, and the predictors of these biases include recency, importance, population, and financial wealth. Wikipedia is more a socially produced document than a value-free information source. It reflects the viewpoints, interests, and emphases of the people who use it.
Rubin, A. & Rubin, E. Informed Investors and the Internet Journal of Business Finance \& Accounting Volume 37 Pages 841--865 2010 [514]
Ruiz, Antonio Toral; Puşcaşu, Georgiana; Monteagudo, Lorenza Moreno; Beviá, Rubén Izquierdo & Boró, Estela Saquete University of Alicante at WiQA 2006 Evaluation of Multilingual and Multi-modal Information Retrieval Pages Springer--Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg ©2007 2007 [515]
This paper presents the participation of University of Alicante at the {WiQA} pilot task organized as part of the {CLEF} 2006 campaign. For a given set of topics, this task presupposes the discovery of important novel information distributed across different Wikipedia entries. The approach we adopted for solving this task uses Information Retrieval, query expansion by feedback, novelty re-ranking, as well as temporal ordering. Our system has participated both in the Spanish and English monolingual tasks. For each of the two participations the results are promising because, by employing a language independent approach, we obtain scores above the average. Moreover, in the case of Spanish, our result is very close to the best achieved score. Apart from introducing our system, the present paper also provides an in-depth result analysis, and proposes future lines of research, as well as follow-up {experiments.Categories} and Subject Descriptors: {H.3[Information} Storage and Retrieval]: H.3.1 Content Analysis and Indexing; H.3.3 Information Search and Retrieval; H.3.4 Systems and Software;
{Ruiz-Casado}, Maria; Alfonseca, Enrique & Castells, Pablo Automatising the learning of lexical patterns: An application to the enrichment of WordNet by extracting semantic relationships from Wikipedia Data and Knowledge Engineering Volume 61 Pages 484--499 2007 [516]
This paper describes an automatic approach to identify lexical patterns that represent semantic relationships between concepts in an on-line encyclopedia. Next, these patterns can be applied to extend existing ontologies or semantic networks with new relations. The experiments have been performed with the Simple English Wikipedia and {WordNet} 1.7. A new algorithm has been devised for automatically generalising the lexical patterns found in the encyclopedia entries. We have found general patterns for the hyperonymy, hyponymy, holonymy and meronymy relations and, using them, we have extracted more than 2600 new relationships that did not appear in {WordNet} originally. The precision of these relationships depends on the degree of generality chosen for the patterns and the type of relation, being around 60-70\% for the best combinations proposed. 2006 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved.
Rush, {EK} & Tracy, {SJ} Wikipedia as Public Scholarship: Communicating Our Impact Online {JOURNAL} {OF} {APPLIED} {COMMUNICATION} {RESEARCH} Volume 38 Pages 309--315 2010 [517]
To contribute to the forum asking {oHas} Communication Research Made a Difference?,o this essay examines whether communication scholarship makes a difference (a) to those who search for information online, (b) in the sense that a primary way our research can make a difference is through its accessibility, and (c) by using the criteria of its presence (or absence) on Wikipedia. In this essay, we reason that Wikipedia is a useful benchmark for online accessibility of public scholarship in that it provides immediate, freely available information to today's diverse global public seeking online answers to questions and relief from problems.
Sagy, Ornit & Hazzan, Orit Diversity in Excellence Fostering Programs: The Case of the Informatics Olympiad Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching Volume 26 Pages 233--253 NaN [518]
Saito, K.; Yamada, T. & Kazama, K. Extracting communities from complex networks by the k-dense method {IEICE} Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences Pages 3304--11 2008 [519]
To understand the structural and functional properties of large-scale complex networks, it is crucial to efficiently extract a set of cohesive subnetworks as communities. There have been proposed several such community extraction methods in the literature, including the classical k-core decomposition method and, more recently, the k-clique based community extraction method. The k-core method, although computationally efficient, is often not powerful enough for uncovering a detailed community structure and it produces only coarse-grained and loosely connected communities. The k-clique method, on the other hand, can extract fine-grained and tightly connected communities but requires a substantial amount of computational load for large-scale complex networks. In this paper, we present a new notion of a subnetwork called k-dense, and propose an efficient algorithm for extracting k-dense communities. We applied our method to the three different types of networks assembled from real data, namely, from blog trackbacks, word associations and Wikipedia references, and demonstrated that the k-dense method could extract communities almost as efficiently as the k-core method, while the qualities of the extracted communities are comparable to those obtained by the k-clique method.
Sampson, Fred Whither the web? Interactions Volume 13 Pages 12--13 2006 [520]
Some of the challenges and the opportunities for the web operators for an effective communication and the important role of Web 2.0 applications are discussed. The developing Web involves expanding collaboration, universal sharing, maleable identities, and ubiquitous connectivity. Internet use and technology development is driven by people, by sharing and collaborating. Wikipedia is being considered as a valuable resource among the users as it promotes sharing of information in near real time. Findability and delivery are an important feature from the perspective of an information developer. It is suggested that there is still a strong inclination for people to keep their creations under their control by posting to restricted Web sites or databases.
Sandars, John The e-learning site. Education for Primary Care Volume 19 Pages 654--655 2008 []
The article reports about e-learning. It focuses on the effectivity of educational wikis that could be accessed and edited by anyone who will want to do so. This paper highlights the use of {Wikipedia"} resource in medical education which provides collaborative protocols and various attachments available on the website."
Sanger, Lawrence M The Fate of Expertise after WIKIPEDIA Episteme - Edinburgh Volume 6 Pages 2009 []
Santana, Adele & Wood, Donna J. Transparency and social responsibility issues for Wikipedia Ethics and Information Technology Volume 11 Pages 133 -- 144 2009 [521]
Wikipedia is known as a free online encyclopedia. Wikipedia uses largely transparent writing and editing processes, which aim at providing the user with quality information through a democratic collaborative system. However, one aspect of these processes is not transparent--the identity of contributors, editors, and administrators. We argue that this particular lack of transparency jeopardizes the validity of the information being produced by Wikipedia. We analyze the social and ethical consequences of this lack of transparency in Wikipedia for all users, but especially students; we assess the corporate social performance issues involved, and we propose courses of action to compensate for the potential problems. We show that Wikipedia has the appearance, but not the reality, of responsible, transparent information production.
Santos, M. Toward another rhetoric: Web 2.0, Levinas, and taking responsibility for response ability Pages 2009 [522]
Sausner, R. Wouldn't wikis be wicked wonderful? [Web collaboration] {US} Banker Volume 117 Pages 22--3 2007 []
Wikis are an intriguing collaborative tool, and Wells Fargo is leading the charge in experimenting with them. But wikis use among financial institutions {(FIs)} may always be limited to internal use. Perhaps the most famous wiki on the Internet is Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia that hosts more than 1.7 million articles in English on topics from molecular electronics to the insurgency in Somalia. Bankers may have run across Investopedia, the ad-sponsored site that covers the financial markets
{SCHACKMAN}, {DANIEL} Exploring the new frontiers of collaborative community. New Media \& Society Volume 11 Pages 875--885 2009 []
The article reviews several books on collaborative structures in online communication, including {Coming} of Age in Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human
Schroer, J. & Hertel, G. Voluntary engagement in an open Web-based encyclopedia: Wikipedians and why they do it Media Psychology Volume 12 Pages 96--120 2009 []
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a highly successful “open content� project, written and maintained completely by volunteers. Little is known, however, about the motivation of these volunteers. Results from an online survey among 106 contributors to the German Wikipedia project are presented. Both motives derived from social sciences (perceived benefits, identification with Wikipedia, etc.) as well as perceived task characteristics (autonomy, skill variety, etc.) were assessed as potential predictors of contributors' satisfaction and self-reported engagement. Satisfaction ratings were particularly determined by perceived benefits, identification with the Wikipedia community, and task characteristics. Engagement was particularly determined by high tolerance for opportunity costs and by task characteristics, the latter effect being partially mediated by intrinsic motivation. Relevant task characteristics for contributors' engagement and satisfaction were perceived autonomy, task significance, skill variety, and feedback. Models from social sciences and work psychology complemented each other by suggesting that favorable task experiences might counter perceived opportunity costs in Wikipedia contributors. Moreover, additional data reported by Wikipedia authors indicate the importance of generativity motives.
Schweitzer, N. J. Wikipedia and Psychology: Coverage of Concepts and Its Use by Undergraduate Students. Teaching of Psychology Volume 35 Pages 81--85 2008 []
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a frequently referred-to source of information for Internet users. A series of 3 studies examined Wikipedia's coverage of psychology-related concepts, examined how accessible Wikipedia's psychology content is when using Internet search engines, and described how both first-year and senior undergraduates use Wikipedia. The results demonstrated that Wikipedia's coverage of psychological topics was comprehensive and prominently displayed on the major search engines. In addition, a majority of undergraduate students reported referring to Wikipedia for both personal and school-related activities; however, few students reported using Wikipedia as a formal reference in academic work. {[ABSTRACT} {FROM} {AUTHOR]
Service, Robert F. DuPont Scientist Accused of Stealing Company's Trade Secrets Science Volume 325 Pages 2009 [523]
Shachaf, P. The paradox of expertise: is the Wikipedia reference desk as good as your library? Journal of Documentation Volume 65 Pages 977--96 2009 [524]
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of answers on the Wikipedia reference desk, and to compare it with library reference services. It aims to examine whether Wikipedia volunteers outperform expert reference librarians and exemplify the paradox of expertise. Design/methodology/approach - The study applied content analysis to a sample of 434 messages (77 questions and 357 responses) from the Wikipedia reference desk and focused on three {SERVQUAL} quality variables: reliability (accuracy, completeness, verifiability), responsiveness, and assurance. Findings - The study reports that on all three {SERVQUAL} measures quality of answers produced by the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable with that of library reference services. Research limitations/implications - The collaborative social reference model matched or outperformed the dyadic reference interview and should be further examined theoretically and empirically. The generalizability of the findings to other similar sites is questionable. Practical implications - Librarians and library science educators should examine the implications of the social reference on the future role of reference services. Originality/value - The study is the first to: examine the quality of the Wikipedia Reference Desk; extend research on Wikipedia quality; use {SERVQUAL} measures in evaluating {QA} sites; and compare {QA} sites with traditional reference services.
Shachaf, Pnina & Hara, Noriko Beyond vandalism: Wikipedia trolls Journal of Information Science Volume 36 Pages 357--370 2010 [525]
Research on trolls is scarce, but their activities challenge online communities; one of the main challenges of the Wikipedia community is to fight against vandalism and trolls. This study identifies Wikipedia trolls behaviours and motivations, and compares and contrasts hackers with trolls; it extends our knowledge about this type of vandalism and concludes that Wikipedia trolls are one type of hacker. This study reports that boredom, attention seeking, and revenge motivate trolls; they regard Wikipedia as an entertainment venue, and find pleasure from causing damage to the community and other people. Findings also suggest that trolls behaviours are characterized as repetitive, intentional, and harmful actions that are undertaken in isolation and under hidden virtual identities, involving violations of Wikipedia policies, and consisting of destructive participation in the community. The Author(s), 2010.
Shao, Guosong Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: a uses and gratification perspective Internet Research Volume 19 Pages 7--25 2009 [526]
Purpose - User-generated media {(UGM)} like {YouTube,} {MySpace,} and Wikipedia have become tremendously popular over the last few years. The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical framework for explaining the appeal of {UGM.} Design/methodology/approach - This paper is mainly theoretical due to a relative lack of empirical evidence. After an introduction on the emergence of {UGM,} this paper investigates in detail how and why people use {UGM,} and what factors make {UGM} particularly appealing, through a uses and gratifications perspective. Finally, the key elements of this study are summarized and the future research directions about {UGM} are discussed. Findings - This paper argues that individuals take with {UGM} in different ways for different purposes: they consume contents for fulfilling their information, entertainment, and mood management needs; they participate through interacting with the content as well as with other users for enhancing social connections and virtual communities; and they produce their own contents for self-expression and self-actualization. These three usages are separate analytically but interdependent in reality. This paper proposes a model to describe such interdependence. Furthermore, it argues that two usability attributes of {UGM,} easy to use" and "let users control
Sharrow, Steven H. Natural Resource Management on the Other Side of the World: The Nagorno Karabakh Republic Rangelands Volume 29 Pages 11--16 2007 [527]
Shaw, Donna Citing Wikipedia. American Journalism Review Volume 30 Pages 2008 []
The article presents several several scenarios where the online encyclopedia Wikipedia was cited in a newspaper story. The author highlights the editors, the stories, and the editors' explanations as to why Wikipedia was cited as a source. John Leach of the {Arizona} Republic" states that a citation of Wikipedia led to the creation of rules governing its use. Lois Wilson of the {"Star-Gazette"} in Elmira
Shaw, Donna WIKIPEDIA IN THE NEWSROOM. American Journalism Review Volume 30 Pages 40--45 2008 []
The article discusses the use of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia by journalists. The author states that putting in print that one has used Wikipedia as a source is not up to professional journalism's standards. However, the author has found that some journalists are using it as a way to begin to gather information about a story. The author also presents a series of anecdotes form newspaper copy editors from around the United States about their use of Wikipedia. The author also discusses Wikipedia's own copy editing rules.
Shawkat, E. Wikipedia use. British Dental Journal Volume 206 Pages 2009 [] {{hidden A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article {Wikipedia} comes seconZH==
Gardner PP, Daub J, Tate J, Moore BL, Osuch IH, Griffiths-Jones S, Finn RD, Nawrocki EP, Kolbe DL, Eddy SR, Bateman A Rfam: Wikipedia, clans and the "decimal" release Nucleic Acids Research (Database issue):D141-5 2011 [528]
The Rfam database aims to catalogue non-coding RNAs through the use of sequence alignments and statistical profile models known as covariance models. In this contribution, we discuss the pros and cons of using the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, as a source of community-derived annotation. We discuss the addition of groupings of related RNA families into clans and new developments to the website. Rfam is available on the Web at
Sylvain Firer-Blaess Wikipedia : an Example for Electronic Democracy? Decision, Discipline and Discourse in the Collaborative Encyclopedia Studies In social and Political Thought, Volume 18 2010 [529]
Wikipédia and e-democracy projects have in common the establishment of a mass-scale decision process. The Wikipedian method to discuss and reach consensus is described in this article by Sylvain Firer-Blaess, using the theoretical frame of Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas. Can this method be applied to various e-democracy projects? In part, provided that building a free encyclopedia is not the same as living the life of the city.
Wikipedia ; Social Theory ; Organisation ; Discipline ; Discourse Ethics ; Foucault ; Habermas
Shu-Mei Tseng, Jiao-Sheng Huang The correlation between Wikipedia and knowledge sharing on job performance Expert Systems with Applications 2010 [530] Wikipedia; knowledge management; Knowledge sharing; Job performance
Brendan M. Thomas, MD, Michaël R. Laurent, MD, and Michael Martone Development of Dermatology Resources in Wikipedia Skin & Aging, Volume 18, Issue 9, September 2010 [531] Discusses the high rank wikipedia medicine related articles have on search engines and focuses on dermatology articles. Dermatology, wikipedia, collaborative editing, dermatology task force, article quality and accuracy.
Noriko Hara, Pnina Shachaf & Khe Foon Hew Cross-cultural analysis of the Wikipedia community Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 61, No. 10, 2097–2108 2010
Wikipedia, communities of practice, cross-cultural study
Sylvain Firer-Blaess Wikipedia : exemple pour une future démocratie électronique? Homo-numericus, septembre 2010 2010 organisation of Wikipedia
Dan Wielsch Governance of Massive Multiauthor Collaboration — Linux, Wikipedia, and Other Networks: Governed by Bilateral Contracts, Partnerships, or Something in Between? Jipitec, Volume 1, No. 2 (2010) 96 2010 [532]
Open collaborative projects are moving to the foreground of knowledge production. Some online user communities develop into longterm projects that generate a highly valuable and at the same time freely accessible output. Traditional copyright law that is organized around the idea of a single creative entity is not well equipped to accommodate the needs of these forms of collaboration. In order to enable a peculiar network-type of interaction participants instead draw on public licensing models that determine the freedoms to use individual contributions. With the help of these access rules the operational logic of the project can be implemented successfully. However, as the case of the Wikipedia GFDL-CC license transition demonstrates, the adaptation of access rules in networks to new circumstances raises collective action problems and suffers from pitfalls caused by the fact that public licensing is grounded in individual copyright. Legal governance of open collaboration projects is a largely unexplored field. The article argues that the license steward of a public license assumes the position of a fiduciary of the knowledge commons generated under the license regime. Ultimately, the governance of decentralized networks translates into a composite of organizational and contractual elements. It is concluded that the production of global knowledge commons relies on rules of transnational private law.
wikis as decentralized networks, Wikipedia licensing update
Alison J. Head, Michael B. Eisenberg. How today’s college students use Wikipedia for course-related research First Monday, Volume 15, No. 3 (March 2010) 2010 [533]
Findings are reported from student focus groups and a large-scale survey about how and why students (enrolled at six different U.S. colleges) use Wikipedia during the course-related research process. A majority of respondents frequently used Wikipedia for background information, but less often than they used other common resources, such as course readings and Google. Architecture, engineering, and science majors were more likely to use Wikipedia for course-related research than respondents in other majors. The findings suggest Wikipedia is used in combination with other information resources. Wikipedia meets the needs of college students because it offers a mixture of coverage, currency, convenience, and comprehensibility in a world where credibility is less of a given or an expectation from today’s students.
student use of Wikipedia,
Michael Zhang, Feng Zhu. Group Size and Incentives to Contribute: A Natural Experiment at Chinese Wikipedia American Economic Review forthcoming [534]
The literature on the private provision of public goods suggests an inverse relationship between incentives to contribute and group size. We find, however, that after an exogenous reduction of group size at Chinese Wikipedia, the nonblocked contributors decrease their contributions by 41.4% on average. We attribute the cause to social effects: Contributors receive social benefits that increase with both the amount of their contributions and group size, and the shrinking group size weakens these social benefits. Consistent with our explanation, we find that the more contributors value social benefits, the more they reduce their contributions after the block.
incentives to contribute, group size, public goods, social effects, Wikipedia, Internet censorship
Normann Witzleb Engaging with the World: Students of Comparative Law Write for Wikipedia Legal Education Review (2009) 9, 83-97 2009 [535]
Improving students’ computer literacy, instilling a critical approach to Internet resources and preparing them for collaborative work are important educational aims today. This practice article examines how a writing exercise in the style of a Wikipedia article can be used to develop these skills. Students in an elective unit in Comparative Law were asked to create, and review, a Wikipedia entry on an issue, concept or scholar in this field. This article will describe the rationale for adopting this writing task, how it was integrated into the teaching and assessment structure of the unit, and how students responded to the exercise. In addition to critically evaluating the potential of this novel teaching tool, the article aims to provide some practical guidance on when Wikipedia assignments might be usefully employed.
Wikipedia, eLarning, Student Use of Wikipedia, Comparative Law
Sook Lim How and why do college students use Wikipedia? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 60, No. 11, 2189-2202 2009 [536]
A web survey was used to collect data in the spring of 2008. The study sample consisted of students from an introductory undergraduate course at a large public u