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Timeline of psychoactive chemicals and psychedelia
- 1874 Louis Lewin publishes first study of morphine intoxication
- 1886 Louis Lewin publishes first methodical analysis of the Peyote cactus
- 1897 Arthur Heffter discovers mescaline is the active principle in the peyote cactus
- 1898 Bayer starts supplying heroin to the general public
- 1904 Bayer starts supplying Veronal (Barbital) to the general public
- 1912 Ecstasy (MDMA) first synthesized by Merck chemist Anton Köllisch
- 1922 Aleister Crowley publishes Diary of a Drug Fiend
- 1924 United States Congress bans the sale, import and manufacture of heroin
- 1928 Louis Lewin publishes his extensive survey of psychoactive plants, 'Phantastica'
- 1930 Witkacy publishes Insatiability and refers to the 'Murti-Bing' pill
- 1930 Aleister Crowley introduces Aldous Huxley to peyote
- 1932 Witkacy publishes 'Narcotics' on the use of hallucinogens by artists, particularly peyote
- 1932 Aldous Huxley publishes Brave New World and refers to the 'Soma' pill
- 1936 Robert J. Weitlaner researches Mexican magic mushrooms
- 1936 Reefer Madness produced in US
- 1938 LSD first synthesised by Albert Hoffman at Sandoz Laboratories, Switzerland
- 1939 Ololiuhqui research by Richard Evans Schultes
- 1939 Witkacy commits suicide with an overdose of Veronal (Barbital)
- 1943 'Bicycle Day'
- 1946 William Sargant publishes 'An Introduction to Somatic Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry'
- 1947 Delysid distributed by Sandoz for worldwide psychiatric research
- 1950 LSD psychotherapy used with epileptic children in Poland
- 1950 First article about LSD appears in the American Psychiatric Journal
- 1951 Sandoz agrees exclusive contract with US Government to deliver 100 grams of LSD a week, and not to supply communist countries
- 1951 Humphry Osmond moves his LSD psychotherapy research from London to a psychiatric hospital in Sasketchwan, Canada
- 1951 Alfred Hubbard takes LSD for the first time, starts to distribute it widely
- 1951 CIA starts mind control research into LSD in Project ARTICHOKE, the forerunner of Project MK-ULTRA
- 1951 Outbreak of mass psychosis at Pont-Saint-Esprit, France effects 500 people and causes 5 deaths 
- 1952 Ernst Junger publishes 'Visit to Godenholm' after taking LSD with Hoffman
- 1952 Ronald Sandison visits Hoffman at Sandoz and then starts LSD testing and psychotherapy with psychiatric patients at Powick Hospital, UK
- 1952 In Project ARTICHOKE George Hunter White begins administering LSD to unwitting U.S. citizens at a CIA brothel in Greenwich Village
- 1953 William S. Burroughs publishes Junkie
- 1953 Humphry Osmond supplies Aldous Huxley with his first dose of mescaline
- 1953 William Sargant starts LSD research for MI6 at Porton Down, and associates with Frank Olson, Donald Ewen Cameron and Project ARTICHOKE
- 1953 Frank Olson dies in Project ARTICHOKE, renamed Project MK-ULTRA
- 1953 Sidney Gottlieb becomes head of Project MK-ULTRA, with six percent of the CIA total budget, estimated $10 million per year without oversight or accounting
- 1954 Aldous Huxley publishes The Doors of Perception
- 1954 Project MK-ULTRA funds Lilly (the future producer of Prozac) to synthesizes LSD, ending US dependence on Sandoz 
- 1954 First article about LSD therapy in Time Magazine
- 1954 Oscar Janiger starts LSD testing on students at UCI
- 1955 Christopher Mayhew MP (a friend of Humphrey Osmond) is filmed in a mescaline test and writes of his experience in The Observer
- 1955 Time Magazine reports on psychiatrist Harold A. Abramson serving LSD at dinner parties in Manhattan 
- 1955 Alfred Hubbard supplies Aldous Huxley with his first dose of LSD
- 1955 10 October 'The Splintered Man' by M. E. Chaber (Kendell Foster Crossen) copyrighted 
- 1955 LSD first mentioned on film: US TV series 'Science Fiction Theatre' Season 1, Episode 26 "The Human Equation"
- 1956 Project MK-ULTRA opens Subproject 22 to use the 'Geschickter Fund for Medical Research' as cutout for research into morning glory
- 1956 LSD psychotherapy program starts in Prague, Czechoslovakia 
- 1957 Stephen Szara publishes 'The comparison of the psychotic effect of tryptamine derivatives with the effects of mescaline and LSD-25 in self-experiments.'
- 1957 William Sargant publishes 'Battle for the Mind: The Mechanics of Indoctrination, Brainwashing & Thought Control'
- 1957 Project MK-ULTRA starts funding Donald Ewen Cameron's research into psychic driving at Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University
- 1957 'The Splintered Man' by M. E. Chaber (Kendell Foster Crossen) published: first novel to mention LSD and LSD research in Project MK-ULTRA
- 1957 First article about Mexican magic mushrooms in Life Magazine by R. Gordon Wasson
- 1958 Inspired by R. Gordon Wasson's report, Albert Hoffman isolates psylocybin and Sandoz begins distribution
- 1958 Powick Hospital starts a dedicated LSD psychotherapy department
- 1958 Oscar Janiger starts testing the effect of LSD on writers, artists and composers
- 1958 Cary Grant starts taking LSD during psychotherapy
- 1958 Alfred Hitchcock's psychological thriller Vertigo includes an extended psychedelic sequence
- 1958 'Psychedelic Chemistry' published in 'Chemical Abstracts' 52, 11965c, with recipes for psychoactive drugs
- 1958 How to Speak Hip has lines 'Life is not without its acids, man. Know what I mean?' and 'It's uncool to let anyone know your uncle is a registered pharmacist'
- 1959 Ken Kesey participates in LSD testing at Stanford University as part of Project MK-ULTRA
- 1959 10th Josiah Macy Conference on LSD
- 1959 Allen Ginsberg first takes LSD
- 1960 Native Americans given statutory freedom of peyote use for religious reasons
- 1960 Timothy Leary follows R. Gordon Wasson's research into Mexican magic mushrooms, travels to Mexico and starts the Harvard Psylocybin Project
- 1960 Time Magazine reports on the use of LSD in Hollywood 
- 1961 Terry Taylor publishes 'Baron's Court, all change', first British novel to mention LSD
- 1961 Dick Dale and the Del-Tones release "Let's Go Trippin'"
- 1961 Humphrey Osmond publishes his report on psychedelic experiences at a Native American Church peyote ritual
- 1961 Michael Hollingshead introduces Timothy Leary to LSD
- 1962 Cary Grant endorses LSD psychotherapy in Time Magazine and says he has lectured on its benefits to students at UCLA
- 1962 The Gamblers release a track named LSD-25
- 1962 FDA makes first LSD bust
- 1962 Conrad Rooks attends Deep Sleep Therapy after 7 years of drug abuse including LSD
- 1962 Timothy Leary supplies LSD to John F. Kennedy's lover Mary Pinchot Meyer, ex-wife of CIA agent Cord Meyer  Meyer and Kennedy take LSD together 
- 1962 Zihuatanejo Project starts
- 1962 Marsh Chapel Experiment
- 1962 Ken Kesey publishes 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest', the success of which funds his 'Acid Tests'
- 1963 Timothy Leary is fired from Harvard
- 1963 John F. Kennedy is assassinated
- 1963 Aldous Huxley dies, his last request is a dose of LSD
- 1963 William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg publish The Yage Letters
- 1963 Sandoz patents on LSD expire
- 1963 Owsley Stanley drops out of University of California, Berkeley and starts producing home-made LSD
- 1964 Richard Blum publishes 'Utopiates: The Use & Users of LSD-25'
- 1964 Owsley's laboratory raided by police looking for methamphetamine but they cannot find anything illegal. Owsley moves to L.A. to concentrate on LSD production
- 1964 Psychiatrist Sidney Cohen publishes 'The Beyond Within: the LSD Story' and warns about 'beatnik microculture' threatening LSD research
- 1964 Timothy Leary publishes 'The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead' on set and setting; dedicated to Aldous Huxley
- 1964 Ken Kesey and The Merry Pranksters distribute LSD across the U.S. in 'Furthur', finally taking it to the World Fair in New York
- 1964 Mary Pinchot Meyer is assassinated
- 1965 Tom Wolfe publishes The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby
- 1965 In April and May Owsley Stanley produces 300,000 capsules of LSD (at 270 micrograms each) and returns to the San Francisco Bay Area to distribute them
- 1965 The Psychedelic Shop - the first of its kind - opens in San Francisco
- 1965 The Doors name themselves after Huxley's book. The Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jefferson Airplane also formed in California
- 1965 Sandoz cancels shipments of LSD to United States
- 1965 With 5000 doses of LSD and instructions from Leary, Michael Hollingshead opens the World Psychedelic Centre, London
- 1965 The Beatles take LSD in London with their dentist John Riley, supplied by Hollingshead. Then in California with The Byrds and Peter Fonda, refer to it in 'Help!'
- 1965 CIA's San Francisco brothels in the Operation Midnight Climax section of Project MK-ULTRA are closed
- 1965 Owsley becomes The Merry Pranksters' main supplier of LSD
- 1965 Merry Prankster 'Acid Tests' in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Palo Alto, Portland, San Francisco 
- 1965 Granny Takes a Trip boutique opens, London
- 1965 The Pretty Things produce a song entitled 'LSD'
- 1966 Chappaqua produced by Conrad Rooks in the US
- 1966 Hallucination Generation produced in the US
- 1966 Czechoslovakia starts producing its own LSD 
- 1966 The Trips Festival in Haight-Ashbury
- 1966 CIA's New York brothel in the Operation Midnight Climax section of Project MK-ULTRA is closed
- 1966 Owsley becomes The Grateful Dead's main supplier of LSD, and they recruit him as their sound man
- 1966 Watts Acid Test
- 1966 Life Magazine has LSD as its cover story 
- 1966 Owsley Stanley and Tim Scully produce purer LSD at a factory in Port Richmond, California
- 1966 Timothy Leary founds the League for Spiritual Discovery, a religion with LSD as its holy sacrament
- 1966 LSD is criminalized in California
- 1967 The Human Be-In at San Francisco's Golden Gate Park attended by 20,000-30,000 people. Illegal LSD named "White Lightning" supplied by Owsley Stanley
- 1967 Owsley Stanley arrested and sentenced to three years in jail
- 1967 The Beatles release Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and The Beach Boys cancel Smile
- 1967 On June 18, Paul McCartney tells a TV journalist he has taken LSD "about four times"
- 1967 Robert E. Brown publishes 'The Psychedelic Guide to Preparation of the Eucharist' with a recipe for LSD
- 1968 Tom Wolfe publishes The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
- 1968 Tim Scully and Nicholas Sand start start a new factory producing "Orange Sunshine", a mix of LSD and ALD-52
- 1969 Woodstock Festival attended by 400,000 people
- 1970 Timothy Leary convicted and jailed, but escapes 7 months later and flees to Afghanistan
- 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances criminalizes LSD worldwide
- 1972 LSD psychotherapy discontinued at Powick Hospital
- 1973 Indictment of Tim Scully and Nick Sand
- 1973 CIA Director Richard Helms orders all MK-ULTRA files destroyed
- 1974 LSD psychotherapy discontinued in Czechoslovakia
- 1974 The New York Times reports CIA conducted illegal LSD experiments in Project MK-ULTRA. Followed by Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission.
- 1977 U.S. Senate hearing on MKULTRA
- 2002 British government compensates former Powick Hospital patients who had undergone LSD therapy
- 2006 British government compensates 3 former servicemen who underwent William Sargant's LSD testing for MI6 at Porton Down from 1953
- 2007 The Lancet says LSD, MDMA and cannabis are less addictive and physically harmful than alcohol
- 2008 Amanda Feilding makes Albert Hoffman a deathbed pledge to ensure LSD is rehabilitated. Albert Hoffman dies. 
- 2009 BBC investigation into William Sargant's mind control experiments 
- 2010 The Financial Times reports that The Beckley Foundation is trying to rehabilitate LSD 
- 2010 French government requests US information on the 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit incident 
1. Lets strive for some balance on the Jedwabne pogrom. The collaboration of Polish Jews with the Soviets who occupied eastern Poland in 1939-1941 is well documented by Jewish scholars such as Nechama Tec, who writes that Polish Jews welcomed the Soviets with relief because it meant they hadn't fallen into the Nazi side of the Molotov-Ribbentrop line, whereas Polish Gentiles viewed Nazis and Soviets with equal suspicion. Tuvia Bielski himself, just 2 hours drive from Jedwabne, became an enthusiastic communist when the Soviets arrived - though that quickly changed as he felt Soviet anti-Semitism pretty soon. I think we outsiders, viewing this from the luxury of the 21st century, can see that Polish Jews and Polish Gentiles both had entirely reasonable responses to the Soviet invasion in 1939. One shouldn't leap to the assumption that talk of Jewish collaboration with the Soviets is an anti-Semitic slur. Nor should we say that Jedwabne was entirely a revenge attack on Jewish collaborators with the Soviet terror by Polish Gentile victims of the Soviet terror. In fact, any Polish Jews in the NKVD to 1941 left eastern Poland with the rest of the NKVD and the rest of the retreating Soviet forces at the start of Operation Barbarossa. The Jews that remained in Jedwabne were likely not NKVD but the unfortunate victims of guilt by association and scapegoats of small town bigotry. I agree we should delete the Katyn reference, as Katyn wasn't known about at the time - but I think that was an innocent mistake by an editor rather than an attempt to deflect Poles from any blame. We should include a link to Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946) instead, which were well known about and experienced first hand. Its also worth keeping the fact that Jedwabne was a murder of up to 1600 Polish Jews by Polish Gentiles in what was the most Jewish country in the world at the time - it is remarkable that there weren't 100s of Jedwabnes repeated all over the country when the Nazis arrived. Another point for balance, there were tens of thousands of Polish Gentiles who as communists signed up to the Soviet cause, enlisted in the Berling Army, or even the NKVD, and executed Polish Home Army troops and Polish Judeophiles like Witold Pilecki. Poles both Gentile and Jewish created the future Polish Communist state - collaboration with the Soviets wasn't an exclusively Jewish tendency.
There was anti-Semitic hatred and prejudice in Poland that preceded the Jedwabne pogrom - I'm one of the editors who've been involved with WP: History of the Jews in Poland. I'm inclined to add content from that article to the background section on Jedwabne. Lets keep constructive and add more content that may balance any bias.
On the Jedwabe pogrom the facts should include: (1) that unlike its neighbours Poland did not have a very strong tradition of mainstream anti-Semitic mass pogroms that might have inspired Jedwabne; (2) it had a very long history of friendship with the Jews, from the Statute of Kalisz to the pro-Jewish policies of Jozef Pilsudski; (3) that the 19th century pogroms were mostly prevalent in ethnic Ukraine, where Jews were often seen as the historical deputies of Polish imperialism, and in ethnic Russia; (4) that during the Soviet Union pogroms of the 1930s 150,000 Jews were slaughtered and many fled to Poland for sanctuary, leading to an immigration crisis, a new anti-assimilation trend within the Jewish minority, and Polish Gentile resentment that included tens of murders of Jews; (5) that from 1935, the Polish military government restricted Jews in universities and some professions and also cooperated very closely with the Zionist movement to encourage Jewish emigration to the British Mandate of Palestine; (6) that paradoxically during the Holocaust some Jews were blackmailed by Polish Gentiles or even turned in to the Nazis, while some Jews had their lives saved by Polish Gentiles; (7) that there weren't Polish regiments under German command like in Latvia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine; (8) there was no Polish collaborationist movement like there was in France, Italy, Belgium, Norway; (9) Jedwabne was a reprisal murder of innocents including children - the skeletons prove it; (10) it is likely that medieval 'blood libel' pretext was used; (11) some explanation as to why Jedwabne is unique and why there weren't many, many more incidents like Jedwabne during Nazi occupation; (12) that in 1939-1941 when the Soviets deported over over 1.2 million Polish Gentiles from places like Jedwabne in Kresy to the Gulags, they also deported up to 300,000 Polish Jews who like Menachem Begin were suspected of being pro-Polish or 'bourgeois' - thousands of these Polish Jewish soldiers joined the Anders Army, some later deserted to fight the British and Arabs in Israel, other Jews fought on, shoulder-to-shoulder with their Polish Gentile brothers at the Battle of Monte Cassino.
All those facts should be mentioned very briefly, but it should be mainly links to existing articles. I'll also dig up the citation for the fact that some 600 Jewish officers in the Polish Army (including the Chief Rabbi of the Polish Armed Forces) were executed by the Soviets at Katyn, and 130,000 Polish Jews were serving in the Polish army at the outbreak of hostilities in 1939. That would challenge the myth that Katyn was a massacre of the Polish Catholic elite alone, and it would also challenge the myth that the Polish Army was an ant-Semitic institution. We could include the Polish Muslim Lipka Tatars for good measure.
I believe Jan Gross' work omits context, includes sensationalism as well as new evidence, contains Anti-Polish sentiment and should be viewed with some scepticism. I also believe there is a Polish anti-Semitic stereotype of Jewish Bolshevism that should be viewed with equal scepticism. Looking at the evidence, I view Jedwabne as a lynching by a group of extremely nasty - indeed evil - Poles rather than something representative of the Polish state or nation. I'd like to find out whether or not a U.S. president has apologized for the lynching in the United States of 5,000 African Americans between 1860 and 1890. It is worth noting that the Polish state has thoroughly investigated Jedwabne and a Polish president has apologized for it - and in that sense Poland has stepped forward and claimed the moral responsibility for truth and reconciliation about Jedwabne. That is an important cultural and sociological issue in Polish-Jewish relations and race relations in general. I think prejudice is a very bad thing, and that Poles, Jews, Russians, Germans, Brits, Americans, etc, etc are equally fallible and we all need to watch out for our own prejudices, myself included. Even accusations of prejudice can be a form of prejudice itself.Chumchum7 (talk) 11:41, 3 October 2009 (UTC)
Firstly yes, I was the editor who removed the Katyn reference immediately - with the explanation that Katyn was uncovered 2 years after Jedwabne. Still, Soviet atrocities against Poles remain in the article, and rightly so, but that content should be balanced with more material as I have started to outline above. I've added links to Jewish Polish history during the 20th century etc for background of rising anti-Semitism in Poland that wasn't primarily caused by alleged Jewish collaboration with the Soviets. Secondly yes, in my point (12) I was using Gulags in an imprecise, generic sense as it is often employed in reference to Population transfer in the Soviet Union of Polish Gentiles and Jews to Siberia, Kamchatka and Kazakhstan etc, rather than a strict definition based on KGB documents. Thirdly, in my point (4) for the 150,000 figure I trusted a paragraph that has citation in Jewish Polish history during the 20th century. If you think those citations are bogus and we should not trust them, please alert us to that. Here is the paragraph in question:
"Jews were often not identified as Polish nationals; a problem caused in part by the reversal of assimilation shown in national censuses between 1921 and 1931 coupled with the influx of Russian Jews escaping persecution especially in Ukraine where up to 2,000 pogroms took place in which an estimated 150,000 Jews were massacred. A large number of Russian Jews emigrated to Poland, as they were entitled by a peace treaty in Riga to choose the country they preferred. Several hundred thousand joined the already numerous Jewish minority of the Polish Second Republic. An ever increasing proportion of Jews in interwar Poland lived separate lives from the Polish majority. In 1921, 74.2 percent of Polish Jews listed Yiddish or Hebrew as their native language, but the number has risen to 87 percent by 1931 already, resulting in growing tensions between Jews and the Polish majority."
THE STORY SO FAR
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Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944
The Jedwabne pogrom (or Jedwabne massacre) took place in German Nazi occupied Poland on July 10, 1941, when a mob of Polish Gentiles in the presence of German police[verification needed] killed at least 340 Polish Jews. The degree of Nazi German involvement and the extent to which the massacre was an anti-Soviet reprisal, remain subjects of debate.
Soon after the war ended, the communist authorities of the People's Republic of Poland arrested and interrogated a number of possible suspects from or around the town of Jedwabne and put them on trial. Out of twenty two defendants, twelve were convicted of treason against Poland. Responsibility for the massacre sensu largo, according to international law, has been given to the German occupiers; while the responsibility sensu stricto has been given to approximately forty Polish men.
The Jedwabne pogrom received widespread attention on its 60th anniversary in 2001, when the Polish president, on behalf of the people of Poland, apologized and sought forgiveness for the "fratricide" of the massacre. At the time, a study by Polish-American historian Jan T. Gross concluded that Germans were not present at the time of the crime and that the only perpetrators were Polish Gentiles. The Institute of National Remembrance then conducted it's own criminal investigation, which confirmed many of Gross's findings but established that the Germans were in fact present in Jedwabne at the time of the crime. There was insufficient evidence to find further suspects who had not already been prosecuted in the original trial. Gross has praised the IPN's findings.
The massacre contrasts with the rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust. According to some commentators, Poles were shocked by the details of the pogrom, which challenges popular beliefs regarding Polish–Jewish relations during World War II. The subject features in discussions about Polish-Jewish relations, responses to German Nazi and Soviet occupation, anti-Semitism and anti-Polish sentiment.
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The Jewish community in Jedwabne was established in the 18th century. According to the 1921 census, the town had a Jewish community consisting of 757 people, or 61.9 percent of its total population  It was a typical shtetl, a small town with a very significant Jewish community, one of many such towns in prewar Poland.
As the largest Jewish community in the world, Polish Jews did not represent a homogeneous group, and there were a vast array of Polish Jewish conditions, beliefs, desires, experiences, identities and relations with Gentile neighbours. While the Jewish community in Poland, or Polin, had enjoyed a 1000-year tradition of acceptance and partnership with Gentiles unparalleled anywhere in the world, Polish-Jewish divisions increased and relations deteriorated on several - but not all - fronts in the 20th century. Jews were sometimes not considered Polish nationals and some did not think of themselves as Polish nationals; an issue shown by the anti-assimilation trend in national censuses between 1921 and 1931, and the widening cultural divide between the two. According to some scholars, this was coupled with the influx of Ukrainian Jews escaping persecution in Petlyura's Ukraine during the period of the Russian Revolution and the Polish-Soviet War, when up to 2,000 Ukrainian pogroms took place and an estimated 150,000 Ukrainian Jews were killed; and in the aftermath of the Schwartzbard trial. In 1921, 74.2 percent of Polish Jews listed Yiddish or Hebrew as their native language, but the number rose to 87 percent by 1931, resulting in growing tensions between non-assimilated Jews and the Gentile majority. From the time of the Russian Revolution and the Polish-Soviet War, a racial slur of Zydokomuna stereotyped Jews as communist traitors. At the same time, some Polish Jews were attracted to movements such as Poale Zion, Labor Zionism, the Communist Bund and the General Jewish Labour Bund (the most popular Polish Jewish political party by 1939), that excluded Polish Gentiles and differed from the mainstream politics of interwar Poland. Left-wing Polish Jews and Gentiles also cooperated: the Communist Party of Poland had a Central Jewish Bureau. The communist movement attracted high-profile Polish Gentiles such Felix Dzerzhinsky and Józef Cyrankiewicz, as well as Polish Jews such as Rosa Luxemburg and Józef Różański.
Between 1933 and 1938, around 25,000 German Jews fled Nazi Germany to sanctuary in Poland, which did not have a fascist regime. Both Polish Jews and Polish Gentiles had nationalist movements of their own. Revisionist Zionism had a following among Polish Jews, who also experienced the revival of the Hebrew language and a growth of the idea of Aliyah. The Polish nationalist Endecja movement and the National Radical Camp were openly anti-Semitic despite being anti-Nazi. Some Polish politicians wanted Polish Jews to emigrate. Some Catholics expressed the opinion that the Jews were responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. Some Polish politicians helped the Zionist movement with its goal of creating the state of Israel, and armed and trained Polish Jews in paramilitary groups such as Haganah, Irgun and Lehi. Particularly after the death of Poland's anti-nationalist leader Józef Piłsudski in 1935, Jews faced discrimination in education and in some professions. From 1935 to 1937, 79 Jews were killed and 500 injured in anti-Semitic incidents. Still, according to some scholars, Jews preferred to live in relatively tolerant Poland rather in than the U.S.S.R., and continued to integrate, to marry into Polish Gentile families, to bring Polish Gentiles into their community through marriage, to feel Polish and to form an important part of Polish society. One indication of this is that at the 'decapitation' of the Polish elite in the Katyn massacre, the NKVD executed some 600 Jewish Polish Army officers, including Major Baruch Steinberg (Krzyż Niepodległości), Chief Rabbi of the Polish Army. Around 130,000 Polish Jews served in the Polish Army during the September Campaign, defending their country both against the Nazis and the Soviets. Unlike the Vichy French or the Norwegian Quisling regime, Poles did not form a pro-Nazi collaborationist government. Further, Poles did not form Nazi units such as the Latvian SS Volunteer Legion, the 27th SS Volunteer Division Langemarck or the 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS RONA (1st Russian). The wartime continuation of the Second Polish Republic, the Polish Government in Exile, included Polish Jewish representatives: Szmul Zygielbojm and Ignacy Schwarzbart. Poles established one of the largest anti-Nazi resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Armia Krajowa, and its Jewish units: the Jewish Military Union and the Jewish Combat Organization.
The start of World War II in Europe began with the Nazi German invasion of Poland. Likewise, on September 17, 1939, the Soviet Red Army invaded the eastern regions of Poland while in secret agreement with Germany. The area of Jedwabne was originally invaded by the Germans who crushed Polish resistance formed by local students of the Polish military schools. The town was transferred to the Soviets in accordance with the September 28, 1939, German–Soviet Boundary Treaty. In total, the Soviets took over 52.1% of territory of Poland (circa 200,000 km²), with over 13,700,000 inhabitants composed of 5,1 million ethnic Poles (ca. 38%), 37% Ukrainians, 14.5% Belarusians, 8.4% Jews, 0.9% Russians and 0.6% Germans. About 336,000 refugees arrived from areas of Poland occupied by Germany, including around 198,000 Polish Jews. At first, many Polish Jews were relieved to learn that the Soviets, rather than the Nazis, were to occupy their town, and publicly welcomed the Red Army as their protector. Belarusians also tended to publicly welcome the Soviets. However, soon the Red Army troops started requisitioning everything in sight, from foodstuffs to other goods, undercutting nearly everyone's material basis of existence. The Soviet secret police accompanying the Red Army routinely arrested and deported Polish citizens - both Gentile and Jewish - spreading terror throughout the region. Waves of arrests, expulsions and prison executions continued until June 20–21, 1941. One estimate puts the Polish death toll in the NKVD prisons at up to 30,000. There may be as many as 100,000 victims at the Soviets hands as they retreated. Another estimate puts the total at 120,000 prisoners killed before their flight from eastern Poland. Altogether, the Soviet NKVD was responsible for the mass deportation of up to 1.5 million Polish citizens including up to 300,000 Polish Jews to Siberia, in less than two years, with some local people collaborating with them. The Soviets conducted a policy of positive discrimination, and gave deportees' former jobs and property to people who might not hold particular allegiance to the Polish state, such as the working class, communists, non-Catholics and people who considered themselves non-Poles. There were instances of Jewish Communists denouncing ethnic Poles to the Soviet NKVD. As soon as the Soviets entered Jedwabne, Polish local government and power structures were dismantled. Administrative jobs were offered to Jews who declared Soviet allegiance, and who subsequently formed an armed militia overseeing deportations during which an armed Jewish militiaman was made to sit on every wagon onto which the deportees were loaded, in the third week of June 1941.
Circumstances surrounding the massacre
Following Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in June 22, 1941, German forces quickly overran the territory of Poland occupied by the Soviets since their joint invasion of Poland on account of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. A number of people collaborating with the Soviets before Operation Barbarossa were killed by local people in the Jedwabne area during the first days of German occupation. The small town of Wizna near Jedwabne saw several dozen Jewish men shot by the invading Germans under Hauptsturmfuehrer Schaper, as did other neighboring towns. The Nazis distributed propaganda in the area, revealing crimes committed by the Soviets in Eastern Poland and saying that Jews might have supported them. In parallel, the SS organized special Einsatzgruppen ("task forces") to murder Jews in these areas and a few massacres were carried out. The guidelines for such massacres were formulated by Reinhard Heydrich, who ordered his officers to induce anti-Jewish incidents on territories newly occupied by the German forces. Local communities were encouraged to commit anti-Jewish pogroms and robberies with total impunity.
Three weeks later, on the morning of July 10, 1941, by the order of the Polish-speaking German mayor Karolak and the town's German gendarmerie, a group of Polish men from around Jedwabne and neighboring settlements was assembled, which then rounded up the local Jews as well as those seeking refuge from nearby towns and villages such as Wizna and Kolno. The defenseless Jews were taken to the square in the centre of Jedwabne, where they were ordered to pluck grass, attacked and beaten. A group of Jewish men were forced to demolish a statue of Lenin that had been put up earlier by the Soviets and then carry it out of town while singing Soviet songs. The local rabbi was forced to lead this procession of about 40 people. The group was taken to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of the monument, while most of the remaining Jews, estimated at around 250 to 400, including many women and children, were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene from the former Soviet supplies (or German gasoline, by different accounts) in the presence of eight German gendarmes, who shot those who tried to escape. The remains of both groups were buried in two mass graves in the barn. Exhumations led to the discovery not only of the charred bodies of the victims in two mass graves, but also of the bust of Lenin (previously assumed to be buried at a Jewish cemetery) as well as bullets that according to a 2000 statement by Leon Kieres, the chief of the IPN, could have been fired from 1941 Walther P38 type pistols. Some sources claim that a movie made by Germans during the massacre was shown in cinemas in Warsaw to document the alleged spontaneous hatred of local people towards the Jews. No trace of such movie has been found.
In 1949 and 1950 a number of Poles were put on trial in Poland, accused of collaboration with the Nazis in committing the crime. One person was condemned to death (his sentence was commuted to imprisonment), nine were imprisoned and 12 were acquitted.
Records show that the use of extreme physical torture during pre-trial interrogations conducted by the Security Office (UB) resulted in some individuals admitting to made-up crimes, which were later renounced by them before the courts. Among those who (at trial) retracted their earlier statements given during prolonged beatings by the security service were Józef Chrzanowski, Marian Żyluk, Czesław Laudański, Wincenty Gościcki, Roman and Jan Zawadzki, Aleksander and Franciszek Łojewski, Eugeniusz Śliwecki, Stanisław Sielawa and several other local men pronounced innocent and released by the courts without recompense. Out of 22 indicted for the crime at the time, almost half were wrongfully accused.
The unlawful interrogation methods were confirmed by the Stalinist minister of public security Stanisław Radkiewicz, who admitted in an internal memo that the "fixing" of the investigation included beatings, the complete omission of circumstances and evidence, and the rephrasing of testimonies to aid prosecution in a way that did not reflect reality.
Controversy and investigation
Public awareness of the Jedwabne massacre was increased by two documentary films: Where is my older brother, Cain? by Agnieszka Arnold and Neighbours. They were followed by a detailed study of the events in the book Neighbors, by Polish-Jewish-American sociologist and historian Jan T. Gross, whose description of the massacre was based – for the most part – on the deposition of Shmuel Wasserstein (Szmul Waszerstajn, aka Stanisław Całka) drafted in April 1945 by a Polish Jewish office in Warsaw. Wasserstein, a Polish-Jewish resident of Radziłów who arrived in Jedwabne barely a day before the massacre, survived by hiding three kilometers away from the epicenter, at the house of Aleksander Wyrzykowski, Polish Righteous among the Nations. According to local sources, he learned only after the war about the alleged scenario of the events in Jedwabne from a Jewish woman connected to the NKVD. Gross concluded that, contrary to Stalinist proclamations, the Jews in Jedwabne had been rounded up and killed by mobs of their own Polish neighbors without any supervision or assistance from an Einsatzgruppe or other German force. He referred to the number of victims (1,600) presented on a memorial stone in Jedwabne erected by communist authorities, later removed and deposited in the Polish Army Museum in Białystok. In his book Gross stated that the massacre could have been a provocation, considering that two main local leaders inspiring the mob to murder, Zygmunt Laudański and Karol Bardoń, were the NKVD agents prior to German occupation.
The publication of Neighbors in Poland inspired widespread controversy upon its release in 2000. The accuracy of Gross's findings was put under scrutiny with regard to a number of controversial details. Questions about Gross's methodology were debated by Polish and Polish-American scholars, including Tomasz Strzembosz and Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski who questioned his conclusions. Also, the Jewish American political scientist Norman Finkelstein said: "Neighbors bears the unmistakable imprint of the Holocaust industry. By Holocaust industry, I mean those individuals and institutions exploiting the Jewish genocide during World War II for political and financial gain."
Following an intensive investigation, the Polish State Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Institute of National Remembrance, IPN) released a series of reports in 2002–2004 supporting Gross's accounts of Polish participation in the pogrom, although IPN estimated its final death toll at around 340 rather than the 1,600 suggested by Gross, while confirming the Nazi German presence. Since then, other unofficial estimates have been presented also, in the range of 200 to 1000.
There is a controversy related to the extent of German involvement in the massacre. The IPN study informed that there were 68 Gestapo as well as numerous German policemen present in Jedwabne arriving from different regional posts, as reported by witness Natalia Gąsiorowska, who was providing a meal. Some scholars noted that the German involvement is not certain; while many witnesses claim to have seen German soldiers that day in Jedwabne, not all had witnessed them at that time. As contemporary court records show, the active involvement of gentile Poles is certain, but the question of extent and nature of possible German participation has not been settled. The IPN concluded that the crime in a broader sense must be ascribed to the Germans, whilst in a stricter sense to gentile Poles, estimated at about 40 men from Jedwabne and nearby settlements. Jan T. Gross himself praised the conduct of the IPN investigation.
In 2001 the President of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, officially apologized to the Jewish people for the crime on behalf of Poland. This caused a certain amount of criticism, as some still believed Jedwabne to be solely a German crime, while others argued that the whole nation should not have to bear responsibility for the crimes performed by some. At the time of the apology the IPN investigation was not yet completed. The commemoration service on the 60th anniversary of the pogrom was overshadowed by the boycott of the service by the majority of the citizens of Jedwabne. When the service began, the priest of Jedwabne started to chime the church bells as a sign of protest. The mayor of Jedwabne at the time of the Jedwabne debate, Krzysztof Godlewski, emigrated to the USA due to these incidents.
Present day relevance
In 2009 the chairman of the European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament, Polish politician Michał Kamiński, has been accused of holding anti-Semitic attitudes in the British press and by some politicians, mainly on the grounds that he opposed the official 2001 Polish government apology for the Jedwabne massacre . Kaminski denied that he has anti-Semitic attitudes, and defended his opposition to the apology at the time, stemming from the belief that the former communist Aleksander Kwasniewski, the Polish president at the time, had no moral authority to make such an apology in the name of the whole nation..
A 2009 play Our Class by Polish playwright Tadeusz Słobodzianek, performed in Britain , deals with a massacre of Jews by Poles in a small down during the Holocaust and is based on the Jedwabne massacre, though it does not mention Jedwabne by name.
- Nina Burleigh, A Very Private Woman: The Life and Unsolved Murder of Presidential Mistress Mary Meyer, New York: Bantam Books, 1998, p. 212.
- Cite error: The named reference
spartwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Sharman Kadish, Bolsheviks and British Jews: The Anglo-Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution. Published by Routledge, pg. 87 
- Zvi Y. Gitelman, A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Pg. 70. 
- Ilya Prizel, National identity and foreign policy Published by Cambridge University Press. Page 65.
- A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003
- Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press - Publisher; page 67-68
- Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO - Publisher; page 366
- Alexander B. Rossino, Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003)
- Insert footnote text here
- Tomasz Strzembosz, "Inny obraz sąsiadów", Rzeczpospolita, article stored by the Internet Archive
- Marci Shore. Conversing with Ghosts: Jedwabne, Zydokomuna, and Totalitarianism. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, Volume 6, Number 2, Spring 2005:345-374
- Joanna Michlic. Coming to Terms with the "Dark Past": The Polish Debate about the Jedwabne Massacre. Jerusalem, SICSA, 2002. ACTA no. 22.
- Elżbieta Południk, Andrzej Kaczyński, Wyniki śledztwa w sprawie Jedwabnego - Jednak sąsiedzi, Rzeczpospolita, 10 June 2002
- Laurence Weinbaum, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Penitence and Prejudice: The Roman Catholic Church and Jedwabne Jewish Political Studies Review 14:3-4. Fall 2002.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Bibliographies. Poles: Introduction
- http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/Jedwabne/Yedwabne.html Jedwabne Yizkor book, published in Jerusalem in 1980.
- Jewish Historical Institute community database http://www.jhi.pl/en/gminy/miasto/137.html.
- Sharman Kadish, Bolsheviks and British Jews: The Anglo-Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution. Published by Routledge, pg. 87 
- Ilya Prizel, National identity and foreign policy Published by Cambridge University Press. Page 65.
- The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust by Martin Gilbert, pp.21. Relevant page viewable via Google book search
- Celia Stopnicka Heller. On the Edge of Destruction: Jews of Poland Between the Two World Wars. Wayne State University Press, 1993.
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The joint invasion of Poland was celebrated with a parade by the Wehrmacht and the Red Army in Brest Litovsk
- Raack, Richard (1995). Stalin's Drive to the West, 1938-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0804724156.
The generals of the two invading armies went over the details of the prearranged line that would mark the two zones of conquest for Germany and Soviet Russia, subsequently to be rearranged one more time in Moscow. The military parade that followed was recorded by Nazi cameras and celebrated in the German newsreel: German and Soviet generals cheek by jowl in military homage to each other's armies and victories.
- (in Polish) The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding.
- (in Polish) Elżbieta Trela-Mazur (1997). Włodzimierz Bonusiak, Stanisław Jan Ciesielski, Zygmunt Mańkowski, Mikołaj Iwanow, ed. Sowietyzacja oświaty w Małopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecką okupacją 1939-1941 (Sovietization of education in eastern Lesser Poland during the Soviet occupation 1939-1941). Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Jana Kochanowskiego. p. 294. ISBN 83-7133-100-2., also in Wrocławskie Studia Wschodnie, Wrocław, 1997
- Sanford, p. 23; (in Polish) Olszyna-Wilczyński Józef Konstanty, Encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 14 November 2006.
- Tadeusz Piotrowski Poland’s Holocaust', ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 Page 18
- Malcher, G.C. (1993) Blank Pages Pyrford ISBN 1 897984 00 6 Page 13
- Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996, ISBN 0313260079, Google Print, 538
- Prof. Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, "Jedwabne: The Politics of Apology", presented at the Panel Jedwabne – A Scientific Analysis, Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, Inc., June 8, 2002, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
- Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, page 261.
- Christopher R. Browning, Jurgen Matthaus, The Origins of the Final Solution, page 262 Publisher University of Nebraska Press, 2007. ISBN 0803259794
- Michael C. Steinlauf. Bondage to the Dead. Syracuse University Press, p. 30.
- Paweł Machcewicz, "Płomienie nienawiści", Polityka 43 (2373), October 26, 2002, p. 71-73 The Findings
- Joanna Michlic, Antony Polonsky, The Neighbors Respond. Princeton University Press – Publisher. Chapter Official Statements, page 135 and "Memories and Methodologies," page 334.
- Gross, Neighbours p. 17-18 (Polish edition)
- Michlic, Polonsky, ibidem. "Memories and Methodologies," page 306.
- Gross, "Neighbors ..."
- Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Research before conclusion: the problems of shock therapy in Jedwabne
- (in Polish) Stanisław Musiał, S.J, "Jedwabne, that's the new name of the Holocaust" (Jedwabne to nowe imię Holokaustu) by staff editor of "Tygodnik Powszechny", Rzeczpospolita 10.07.2001 Nr 159. Also in "The Debate about Neighbors by Jan T. Gross" by Princeton University Press. Institute for Historical Review; May/June 2001. Issue: Volume 20 number 3, page 41, ISSN: 0195-6752. Reprinted from The Journal of Historical Review, PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659, USA.
- The inscription on the memorial stone raised in the place of the barn at Jedwabne and removed in 2001 read: "Place of torture and execution of the Jewish population. The Gestapo and Nazi gendarmerie burned 1600 people alive on 10 July 1941." (Polish: Miejsce kaźni ludności żydowskiej. Gestapo i żandarmeria hitlerowska spaliła żywcem 1600 osób 10.VII.1941.).
- Gross, Neighbours p. 78-79 (Polish edition)
- Joshua D. Zimmerman. Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and its Aftermath. Rutgers University Press, 2003.
- The Politics of Apology and Contrition by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, 2002
- Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r. (A communiqué regarding the decision to stop investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941) from 30 June 2003
- Insight Into Tragedy. The Warsaw Voice, 17 July 2003.
- Joanna B. Michlic and Antony Polonsky. Letter to the Editor. History. January 2008, Vol. 93 Issue 309.
- Findings of Investigation S 1/00/Zn into the Murder of Polish Citizens of Jewish Origin in the Town of Jedwabne on 10 July 1941, pursuant to Article 1 Point 1 of the Decree of 31 August 1944. In: Antony Polonsky & Joanna B. Michlic, eds. The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland. Princeton University Press, 2003.
- Poland's Kwasniewski apologizes for Jedwabne pogrom.
- Stadt der Geister, Spiegel, 1 May 2006
- See for example The Guardian article from October 3, 2009 Rightwing pair reviled by David Miliband part of mainstream at home
- Accusing Euro-sceptics of anti-Semitism is the most shameful tactic yet by Daniel Hannan On Daily Telegraph website
- Our Class and the bloody history of Poland that refuses to die, review in The Times, September 11, 2009
- Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
- History of the Jews in Poland
- Holocaust in Poland
- Kaunas pogrom
- Katyn massacre
- Kielce pogrom
- List of events named massacres
- Lviv pogroms
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia
- Museum of the History of the Polish Jews
- Nazi invasion of Poland
- Nazi occupation of Poland
- Polish Righteous among the Nations
- Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
- Responsibility for the Holocaust
- Soviet invasion of Poland
- Tykocin pogrom
- Wąsosz pogrom
- Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan (2005). "The Massacre in Jedwabne, July 10, 1941: Before, During, After". Columbia University Press and East European Monographs. ISBN 0-88033-554-8.
- Gross, Jan Tomasz (2001). "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland". Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-14-200240-2.
- Gross, Jan Tomasz (2003). "Wokół Sąsiadów. Polemiki i wyjaśnienia" (in Polish). Sejny: Pogranicze. ISBN 8386872489.
- Polonsky, A., & Michlic, J. B. (2004). The neighbors respond: the controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11306-8
- Stola, Dariusz. (2003). Jedwabne: Revisiting the Evidence and Nature of the Crime. Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 17 (1):139–152.
- The Jedwabne Massacre of 1941 at Never Again!
- The Virtual Shtetl
- Jedwabne - the Findings of the Historians by Pawel Machcewicz from IPN
- The Jedwabne Tragedy
- The Tragic Events of the Holocaust in Radzilow and Jedwabne
- Joanna Michlic, The Polish Debate about the Jedwabne Massacre
- Adam Michnik, Poles and the Jews: How Deep the Guilt?, New York Times, 17 March 2001
- "Burning Alive" by Andrzej Kaczyński, published May 5, 2000 in the Polish newspaper "Rzeczpospolita"
- Yedwabne: History and Memorial Book. Museum of Jewish Heritage.