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|Queluz National Palace|
|Palácio Nacional de Queluz|
|Official site of the Palace of Queluz|
The National Palace of Queluz (Portuguese: Palácio Nacional de Queluz) is a Portuguese 18th-century palace located in the civil parish of Queluz, in the modern-day municipality of Sintra, in the district of Lisbon. One of the last great Rococo buildings to be designed in Europe, the palace was conceived as a summer retreat for Infante Peter of Braganza, later to become husband and then king consort to his niece, Queen Maria I. It served as a discreet place of incarceration for Queen Maria as her descent into madness continued, in the years following Peter's death in 1786. Following the destruction by fire of the Palace of Ajuda in 1794, Queluz became the official residence of the Portuguese prince regent, John VI and his family, and remained so, until the Royal Family fled to Brazil in 1807, following the French invasion of Portugal.
Work on the palace began in 1747 under the architect Mateus Vicente de Oliveira. Despite being far smaller, the palace is often referred to as the Portuguese Versailles. From 1826, the palace slowly fell from favour with the Portuguese monarchs, and in 1908, it became the property of the state. Following a serious fire in 1934, which gutted the interior, the palace was extensively restored, and was, later, opened to the public as a major tourist attraction.
In the 15th century, the properties of Queluz were owned by Silvestre Esteves, canon of the Lisbon Cathedral, who sold them to Mafamede Láparo, passing succesively to Isaque Abarbanel, Lopo de Figueiredo and later to D. Beatriz, mother of the future King Manuel. She acquired the lands and then sold them to D. Vasco Anes Corte Real for comparable greenspace along the Ribeira a Alfama. The nobleman had, in 1535, incorporated into his descendents inheritance, Manuel Corte Real, passed them on to his son Vasco Anes Corte Real. Vasco Anes, who died single, willed the lands in Queluz to his sister Margarida Corte Real, who, on marrying (in 1581) D. Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo.
When D. Manuel de Moura, 2nd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo inherited the lands in 1613, the spaces were little more than a few houses, orchards, orange trees, lemon trees and vineyards. During the 1630s, the grounds and building were transformed into a summer estate, with the construction of a small group that today corresponds to the location of the restaurant "Cozinha Velha".
Casa do Infantado
After the ruling Spanish were driven from Portugal in 1640, the House of Braganza, confiscated the possessions of Manuel de Moura, 2nd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo in 1642, for being a Spanish collaborator, during the Portuguese Restoration War. On 11 August 1654, by a decree of King John IV, the hunting lodge and estate were incorporated into the House of the Infantado, becoming a fiefdom of the second-born son of each reigning King.
John IV's second son, Infante Peter, used the estate as a summer residence, until he was invested as King of Portugal, following the death of his brother Afonso VI of Portugal. Ultimately, they were part of the inheritance of succesive Infantes Francis and Peter on the death of their siblings.
The first public works associated with Queluz occured when Infante Francis expanded the stables in 1735, a project completed by Manuel da Costa Negreiros. At the same time, the property was expanded, with the construction of a hermitage, tower (later demolished) and aqueduct. The possessions of the Marquesses of Castelo Rodrigo were returned, after payment was made to the Casa do Infantado, equivalent to 5000 cruzados annually, for their occupation.
Sometime during the 18th century, Nossa Senhora da Conceição, São Francisco de Paula and the prison of São Pedro e São Paulo were painted by André Gonçalves for the alters of the chapel.
Between 1747 and 1748, construction began on the residence, under the direction of Infante Peter, with opening of embankments and foundations of the structure. A painting from the epoch, permits a recreation of the estate at the time: it was totally encircled with orchards and agricultural plots in the west, with the main manor in the east, within a courtyard, encircled by a wine-cellar, wine-press building and stables. The manor was two-storys with loggia and was accessible from staircase to the first floor.
Following the fire in the Palace of Corte Real, in July 1751, Infante Peter, Lord of the Infantado, decided to intensify the work at the Estate of Queluz, in order to turn it into his principal residence. He gave this project to Mateus Vicente de Oliveira in 1752, who adapted and built the refined building towards the south, with a symmetrical body, or Central Wing, with Ceremonial facade. Mateus Vicente de Oliveira, had trained under João Frederico Ludovice and Jean Baptiste Robillon during the construction of the royal palace and convent of Mafra. The more sombre and massive classical palace at Mafra does not appear to have influenced the design for Queluz, which is in a lighter, more airy style.
Alternately, the Infante contracted Silvestre de Faria Lobo to construct a new retable and oratory in the chapel, while André Gonçalves was contracted to paint the temple, designing eight panels for the oratory and the main lateral retables, which included guilding and painting in the oratory that imitated stone, while José Gonçalves Soares was hired to paint the ceiling.
In 1753, the doors and panels were painted by Lourenço Ferreira. In order to support the expanded building, the water supply and plumbing were expanded between 1754 and 1758 by Manuel da Maia, who was also responsible for the construction of water tank and remodelling of the old aqueduct. Panels by Monsieur Oudry were painted in 1756, based on the tapestries of Arraz.
Work progressed rapidly until 1755, when it was interrupted by the Great Earthquake of 1755, after which the labourers were more urgently required for the reconstruction of the city. The earthquake proved to be a catalyst, because the urban rebuilding process stimulated the development of the arts in Portugal.
By 1757, though, the Estate of Queluz and the Palace of Corpo Santo were acquired by Gisberto Pio de Sabóia Moura Corte Real. The new proprietor continued to expand and elaborate the building, contracting the construction of the Sala dos Embaixadores (Ambassadors Hall), by frenchman Jean Baptiste Robillion, decoration by Jean François Cragnier, Pierre Larrie and Jacques Antoine Collin; and paintings by Giovanni Berardi and Francisco de Melo. Meanwhile Silvestre Faria Lobo worked on the construction of wardrobe in the antechamber.
Engineer Pedro Gualter da Fonseca took measurements to plan the diversion of water from the Pendão aqueduct to the palace in 1758, assisted by master contractor António João. It was in the same year that Jean Baptiste Robillion took-over the construction of the palace, with periodic inspections by Mateus Vicente. This was the year the stonework, such as Coimbra stone were installed in the balustrades and doorways, and several masonry elements in the western wing by masons Diogo Ferreira, Filipe da Costa and André Claro. Diogo Francisco executed a handrail in stone for the same area.
The Ambassador's Hall, Council Hall, Hall of D. Quixote, Queen's Hall and ceremonial facade to the gardens were contrated to mater Diogo Ferreira. While Pierre Larrie was responsible for the ceiling-tile, the decoration of the Ambassadors Hall was completed by Jacques Antoine Colin, Guillaumme Lautier (Ferreiro) and Jean François Cragnier, with the woodcarving completed by carpenter Bernardino, and painting by Bruno José do Vale, Francisco de Melo, Giovanni Berardi and José António Narciso.
In 1759, while the Music House was concluded, construction in the D. Quixote Hall was begun. At the same time, André Claro, Diogo Ferreira and Filipe da Costa worked on the capstones, balustrades and portico of the varanda, at the top of the staircase from the garden. Frenchman Jean François Cragnier was paid for the flags over the doors to the gallery.
In 1760, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, arranged the marriage of the Infante Peter and the future Queen Maria I, the king's unstable daughter Maria, the heiress to the throne, transforming the work at the estate into the construction of a royal palace. Pombal encouraged the couple to live with their children in the unfinished palace at Queluz, away from the seat of government. It had always been a favourite retreat of the couple and was their principal home before Maria's accession. Further enlargements were made to reflect the palace's elevation from country retreat to royal palace.
Carpenter Jean François Cragnier, with the collaboration of Jacque Antoine Colin, modeler Nicolau Albanese, and painter Jacinteo da Costa Freira, worked on the Sala das Talhas (Hall of Carvings) in this year, while Filipe da Costa executed a base-relief representation of Bacchaus for the Pavilhão Robillion. The work in the Sala das Talhas proceeded between 1761 and 1762, when it was covered in tile, and its ceilings painted by Bruno José do Value and Francisco de Melo, with the central panel completed by Giovanni Berardi.
The Music Hall was completed by the end of 1762, while the Sala do Trono (Throne Room) was begun, with the demolition of five smaller halls, where carvers Silvestre de Faria Lobo, Crispim Luís de Mendonça, Francisco António de Araújo and Manuel José Sequeira, along with painter João de Freitas Leitão, were completing their work. Yet, the project was reevaluated by Jerónimo Gomes Teixeira, who introduced new guilded columns to the design. Guilded work was also introduced into the ante-hall, guilded by José dos Santos Carvalho, while painter Manuel da Fonseca was responsible for the introduction of several paintings into the various parts of the building.
In 1763, the opera house was deconstructed by master Manuel Álvares (for 6$500 cruzados), while work on the west wing continued under the direction of contractor Bernardino de Sena, and the east and south wings, meanwhile, were assigned to contractor António João. A wooden table was built to serve as a stand for the organ, that came from Castile, by Pedro Caetano. While painters António Berardi, Manuel da Costa and Manuel do Nascimento completed work within the Pavilhão Robillion, Bernardino Rodrigues, Valentim Nunes and Pedro da Silva were responsible for ornamentation using Flemish foil.
A re-decoration of the ceremonial facade was advanced by Jean Baptiste Robillion between 1764 and 1767, beginning with installation of the stonework along the principal facade, by stone mason Francisco António; installation of tiles in the new quarters; ironwork for the doors that housed the silverware of the residence (completed by carpenter Pedro Caetano do Rego); execution of monochromatic azulejo for Corredor das Mangas (Mango Corridor), attributed to Manuel da Costa Rosado. In 1767, Silvestre de Faria Lobo carved the awnings for the curtains in the Sala dos Embaixadores, while José da Silva installed rosettas in the ceiling of the Sala das Merendas.
Satisfied with his work on the facade, the monarch contracted Robillion to execute the new Throne Room, beginning in 1767, which immediately involved the demolition of a few quarters for its construction. By 1770, the royal arms were completed on the exterior of the redesigned grand hall, involving the alteration to the Music Hall, with the substitution of plaster for carvings. This project would first see audiences in 1782, with arrival of Nuncio Vicente Ranuzi.
In 1771, the extension of the project to extend the aqueduct to the palace, and thereby allow direct water-supply, was compeleted by Manuel da Silva.
The elaboration of the Robillion pavilion occurred in 1774, with the work of masons Filipe da Costa, Agostinho José Gomes, João Ferreira Machado and Manuel António, while paintings were completed Jacinto dos Santos, Manuel da Costa João de Freitas, António Berardi, Manuel do Nascimento, José Dias, José Gonçalves, Joaquim José and religious sculptor João António. In the same year the new Opera House was constructured, with paintings by Inácio de Oliveira Bernardes and ironworks by Manuel de Avelar. This project persisted into 1778, with new decorations in silver and gold, directed by Inácio de Oliveira Bernardes and Italian Petronio Mazzoni, painted by José António Narciso, Simão and José Caetano, Apolinário de Almeida. João de Deus, Gaspar António and Guilherme Baptista, the Manuel António carpentry business and saw-miller António João, rounded-out the work on this project. The Opera House was finally inaugurated on 17 December 1778. Meanwhile, new windows were introduced into Robillion's Throne Room, by the Guilherme warehouse and craftsman João Stephens. There are also records of several payments maid in 1778 to Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho, to substitute the panel for São Francisco de Paula in the chapel.
On the accession to the throne of Peter's wife Maria in 1777, Marquis of Pombal was dismissed, and Peter and Maria ruled jointly in his place, using the partially completed Rococo palace at Queluz as a retreat from affairs of state in much the same way as Frederick the Great used Europe's other famed Rococo palace, Sanssouci. Maria, who was content with eliminating Pombal on her accession, ruled as monarch and did not have time to while away her hours in the country. D. Peter, who interfered little in affairs of state, preferred to spend his time on religious matters. In 1783, the stables were initiated by Joaquim Machado de Castro.
With the death of Robillion, in 1784, Mateus Vicente began directing the work in the Cavalariças Novas (New Stables), which began with the demolition of the old ring, and the fortification of the quarters above the spaces, which were then utilized for servants quartes. This year also saw several projects throughout the grounds: the execution of doors and windows in Brazilwood, by Vitoriano Gaspar; the construction of a room for the young Infante John, by Francisco António and Francisco João Pardal; new azulejo tile in the Corredor da Manga, by Francisco Jorge da Costa; and creation of earthenware pots by the Real Fábrica do Rato (with replicas later created in the 20th century by Fábrica Viúva Lamego). A southern pavilion, which extended from the Throne Room was also constructed, destined to accomodate the Prince Joseph, resulting in the demolition of the Opera House.
In 1785, the public works were handed-over to architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa, who built a second floor over the Sala dos Embaixadores, which extended to the Sala do Café (Coffee Hall/Salon), which was planned as residences for Prince John, and Carlota Joaquina, with quarters, an oratory annex, and room for the Infante Peter. Unfortunately, this lavish expansion also envolved the partial demolition of the 16th century work completed Manuel de Moura, for the housing of the servants.
A canopy was constructed and applied to the Throne Room in 1787. The following year, a redesigned oratory to the invocation of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was begun, with an alter designed by António Ângelo.
By the death of D. Peter in 1786, all the interior work was completed. This was fortunate, as from this period his widow's mental health began to deteriorate. The pavilion that was originally destined for the Infante José (who died in the interim), were transformed into Queen Maria's residence in 1789, becoming known as the Pavilhão da Rainha (the Queen's Pavilion). The painting of São Francisco de Paula, in the meantime, had deteriorated, and was substituted by refurbished artwork by José Caetano. José António Narciso completed the ceiling in the Sala do Conselho (Council Hall) in 1790.
With the fire that consumed the Real Barraca da Ajuda (in the site of the future Ajuda Palace) in 1794, Queluz began to function as the official residence of the Royal Family, with furniture by António Rodrigues Portugal introduced into many of the spaces. There, the now completely insane Queen could be hidden from the view of her subjects. Her eldest son, later King João VI, was appointed Regent and ruled from Lisbon and the great palace at Mafra.
In 1797, six images were contracted for the chapel, at a cost of 244$280 réis.
Continuing to transform the residence into their home, the Prince substituted the window cornice in the Throne Room, while the Music Hall was reused by Carlota Joaquina for her Audience Hall. The princess also ordered the flooring substituted for yellow carpeting (between 1799 and 1800), while paintings in the changing room were restored by João Valentim, under the direction of José Conrado Rosa, with the frames completed in golden plaster. Shortly after, she gave birth to the Infante Peter on 12 October 1798 at Queluz.
Etruscan-style vases were added to the balusters of the Robillion Pavilion, designed by the Italian José Francisco Gentoli Martelli and made by Agostinho José Gomes.
The Infante Miguel was born at the palace on 26 October 1802.
Peninsular to Liberal Wars
Following the intervention of French forces onto the peninsula, on 27 November 1807, the Royal Family abandoned Queluz and fled to Brazil, and the palace was placed under the guard of the local sheriff João Crisóstomo. Already in September, in order to protect its contents, many of the palace's furniture was removed to the Palace of Bemposta, which was justified with the installation of French Marshal Junot at this palace later that year. The French occupational forces took control of the palace, and their commander, Marshal Junot, made several alterations to the building. Junot contracted Manuel da Costa, meanwhile, to paint the Sala do Lanternim and other rooms, with thematic allegories. Various annexes and dependencies were demolished on the estate during his occupation, resulting in the fencing of the grounds with grade. On his departure, or sometime around July 1808, various serving sets of silverware left the palace grounds, which was typical of the favourable terms granted to the retreating French forces.
Although not completely victorious, the British were immobilized by logistical problems and administrative disputes, in September 1808: the palace served as a headquarters for the English forces at that time. Realizing the expenditure and decor changes at Queluz during his absence, the Prince ordered the termination of the work to the Sala do Lanternim in December 1809.
After a protracted conflict during the successive years, French forces were finally expelled and the British, under Marshall Beresford was retained by Crown after 1814 to lead's the Portuguese Army, while the King remained in Brazil. With Portuguese politics hinging on the project of a Luso-Brazilian United Kingdom, John IV of Portugal ordered the necessary arrangements at the Palace (in 1819) for his eventual return to Portugal. This included the installation of a "modern" clock to the tower, by José Rodrigues Leitão; work to the Ambassador's Hall (that included the installation of 12 pillars); quarters of King Peter, continguous with the chapel (directed by Manuel Joaquim de Sousa, with the collaboration of Manuel de Almeida, Francisco Roiz Coimbras and painter André Monteiro da Cruz. Yet, the King was late in returning, and the Liberal Revolution of 1820 eventually installed a new political faction, that gave rise to a constitutional monarchy. Work, meanwhile, continued unaltered at Queluz, and in June 1821, just after his return, new carpeting (ordered from Hugh and Charles Goodhair), as well as various pieces of furniture from the stores of Manuel Roiz Grilo, were added to Queluz.
The Royal Family had a tumultuous relationship, and owing to political factionalism and conspiratorial intrigue between the King and Queen. On the royal family's return from exile in 1821, the King preferred to live at Mafra, leaving his wife, the Spanish Queen Carlotta Joaquina, to occupy Queluz with her aunt Princess Maria Francisca Benedita (at one timed permenantely exiled to Queluz for her part in the 26 October 1824 rebellion). The King had visited Queluz infrequently, and ironically, it was on one of these rare visits that John VI died, in the circular-domed King's Bedroom in 1826.. Ultimately, the Infant Miguel would assume the signeurial title to the Casa do Infantado, while his brother would be proclaimed King, on John IV's death. As head of Queluz, Miguel would inhabit the Sala do Conselho as his private quarters, while his aunt, Princess Maria Francisca Benedita and the Queen would continue to live at the palace. In 1829, Princess Benedita died, which was a portent of Queen Carlotta's death the following year, on 7 January 1830. Carlotta Joaquina, sometimes described as sinister, is said to have been ambitious and violent, with reportedly ugly and short in stature. Whatever her shortcomings she lived in great style at Queluz, employing an orchestra which William Beckford described as the finest in Europe. The Queen also had a small private theatre in the gardens, of which nothing remains today. She died at the palace in 1830.
Following the death of Carlotta Joaquina, Queluz saw only intermittent use as a royal residence and was not again the primary residence of Portuguese royals. In 1930, there was a fire in the palacette's tower, on the edge of the chapel, requiring the space's reconstruction. This occurred after Miguel's usurpation of the crown from his niece, when atrocities were being staged by absolutists and liberals, on the eve of the Liberal Wars. King Miguel used the palace during the three-year civil war when he fought against his brother King Peter IV, With the defeat of the Miguelist faction, the Casa do Infantado was formerly extinguished, and the possessions and properties integrated into the Royal estates. While Miguel went into exile after the Concession of Evoramonte, his brother Peter did not survive long after his victory, and died of tuberculosis in theSala de D. Quixote in Queluz the same year.
End of the monarchy
Peter IV's daughter Maria II ruled until her death in 1853. During the middle of the 19th century, her husband, King Ferdinand II transfered much of the palace's furnishings to the properties of the Royal Family, and specifically to the Palace of Necessidades, Tapada da Ajuda and Alfeite. The redistribution of the monarchy's possessions was the beginning of another phase of abandon, with only intermittent activity at the site, as the reign of Royal Family moved officially to the Palace of Necessidades.
The Queen was succeeded by her son Peter V, who died in the cholera epidemic of 1861, and was suceeded to the throne by his brother Luís. In 1874, King Luís used the Sala do Conselho as his sleeping quarters. From this time the royal family lived chiefly at the rebuilt Ajuda National Palace in Lisbon.
By the beginning of the 20th century, although the Queen Amelia lived at Necessidades, she did order the construction of stables at Queluz, a function that, ironically, was a major part of the early activities at the palace. On 1 May 1901, the Conselho Superior de Monumentos Nacionais (Supereme Council for National Monuments) alerted the Royal Family to the state of the abandoned Queluz Palace. The Queen, for her part, supported public intervention at the palace in 1905. The young King Manuel II of Portugal, transferred the palace to the state in 1908, on the eve of the Republican Revolution.
After the installation of the Republic government, on 3 August 1911, the D. Maria pavilion began to be used for the Escola Agrícola de Pomicultura e Horticultura de Queluz (Queluz School of Pomiferous Agriculture and Horticulture), which continued until the middle of the 1930s, when it was moved to Paiã in the parish of Pontinha.
But, anticipating its reopening to the public as a museum, in 1912 the Republican government began work to restore the building, by José Emídio Maior. This restoration came from the first interventions by the DGEMN Direcção-Geral de Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais (Directorate-General for Buildings and National Monuments) which occurred in 1931, with the restoration of the Throne Room, Chapel and Robillion Pavilion, in addition to the ceiling structures and pillars in the D. Quioxte Room. New flooring was installed in the many of the annexes and rooms, while the wood carvings in the D. Quioxte Room were consolidated. The following year, the ceiling tiles were repaired in the same room, while work continued in the space with the modelling of three figures in plaster (from a group of five) and fifteen decorative figures, while corbels were created to decorate the entrance to the room.
In 1932, in a report written by Raul Lino, there was a criticism by the author of that substitution of decorative mortar with wood carvings in many of the rooms in the palace. This incident resulted in a formal report, elaborated by José de Figueiredo and Raul Lino, dated 28 December 1933, on the work necessary to Queluz. While this report was being intensely analyzed, there were already interventions in the Sala das Merendas, with the arrangement of new wooden corbels and the restoration of eight doors, as well as the moldings, walls and fabrics, while a new electrical system was installed. Many of the figures in the D. Quixote Room were also repaired, while guilding of the room and marbling of the surfaces were completed.
While Ubaldo Mardel de Araújo removed the panels in the Sala do Despacho in 1934, the Sala das Merendas, Sala do Conselhoand the Queen's Bedroom and Toucador was restored. In the second hall, the carpentry and stucco was completed; installation of electrical systems were begun; the restoration and painting of the ceiling was completed; and the substitution of mirrors and ironworks was undertaken, while two panels were completed in the corners of the ceiling of the D. Quixote Room.
But, on 4 October 1934, there was a violent file that partially destroyed the palace, resulting in the gutting of the second-floor quarters used by King John IV's servants, the Robillion pavilion, and the ceremonial facade of the palace. The fire, which partially destroyed the building, resulted in significant reconstruction and restoration beginning with the substitution of the stonework in the zones affected by the fire. A report issued in February 1935, described the the state of the property, that formally determined that the reconstruction of the second-floor spaces was impractical and financially unviable. In order to cope with the work necessary, the first conservator was employed in 1938: the painter António Ventura Porfírio.
At this time, in 1935, work on site was tentative and limited to reinforced pavement in the Robillion pavilion, but advanced the following year with the repair of the walls of the Ambassador's Hall and facade of the D. Quixote Room, as well as the Neptune Gardens. The successive years (1936-1940) brought several repairs and restorations to mitigate the damages caused by the fire: the execution of new paintings; the installation of saved artwork; re-decoration of rooms in plaster; construction of parquet and English flooring; installation of Belgium windows, to imitate the lost glass in the D. Quioxte wing; and the restoration of the Sala do Conselho by Fernando Mardel. One of the first consequences of the contract with António Ventura Portfíro, was the 1939 demolish of the remnants of the older buildings associated with the Moura residences on the estate.
In 1940, the palace was opened to the public as a museum, while throughout that decade the older wings associated with the residences of Manuel de Moura were reconstructed, under the direction of architect Rebelo de Andrade. The main body of this residence was adapted as the residence of the conservator, while he worked on the project.
In 1942, a sculpture of Queen Maria I of Portugal was installed in front of the Palace.
Between 1947 and 1950, the old kitchen and Tea Room was recuperated (including the installation of electrical system), with new Vista Alegre porcelain introduced in 1949, along with tables, chairs and two refrigerators. Meanwhile, furniture and furnishings from Cascais and Ajuda were transported to the Palace: the museum of Queluz began to house much of the former royal collection, including furniture, Arraiolos carpets, paintings, and Chinese and European ceramics and porcelain. The restoration of chapel annexes began in 1949, with the demolition of the existing divisions between the chapel and other dependencies, and progressed with the reinforcement of the ceilings in these spaces, and the installation of the fire prevention/detection system.
After the 1950s, the D. Maria I Pavilion began to be used to as the official residence of heads of state visiting Portugal, starting in 1957. But, these changes did not affect the move towards conserving and elaborating the Palace's image: on 2 July 1955, the Countess of Almeida Araújo ceded a small garden along the old kitchen; and in 1957, new furniture, rugs and accessories were acquired for the D. Maria I pavilion.
The property began to operate and be managed under the conservancy of the IPPAR Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico on 1 June 1992 (Decree 106F/92).
Owing to its historical association with monarch's stables, the Escola Portuguesa de Arte Equestre (Portuguese School of Equestrian Arts) began to operate at Queluz.
The palace is located on a semi-urban isolated zone, implanted on a plain and encircled by public accessways, that include: to the south, the IC19 motorway; to the east, a partially-paved basalt cobblestone pavement, with acess to the palace and the Clock Tower/Pousada D. Maria I; fronting to the west, a road access to the IC19, linking the site to Queluz; and, to the north, a large garden, below the level of the roadway, that includes various medium-size trees, benches and illuminated public spaces. The space continues to the roadway that connects the palace, in the east. In addition to the pousada, the palace fronts the Palacette Pombal, Fountain of Carranca and Queluz Garrison. In the square, is a parking area, paved by basalt cobblestones, while in the north, is a statue of Queen Maria I of Portugal, erected over cement base, encircled by grass and flowerbeds.
Queluz's architecture is representative of the final extravagant period of Portuguese culture that followed the discovery of Brazilian gold in 1690. From the beginning of the 18th century many foreign artists and architects were employed in Portugal to satisfy the needs of the newly enriched aristocracy; they brought with them classical ideas of architecture which derived from the Renaissance. In its design, Queluz is a revolt against the earlier, heavier, Italian-influenced Baroque which preceded the Rococo style throughout Europe.
Comparisons with the far larger and more Baroque Versailles are unwarranted: Versailles is referred to as having "an aura of majesty" and it was built and dedicated to exhibit in stone "all the glories of France," whereas the far smaller palace at Queluz has been described as "exquisite rather than magnificent" and looking like "a very expensive birthday cake". In its frivolity, the architecture of Queluz reflects the lifestyle led by the Portuguese royal family at the time of building: during the reign of D. Peter's brother, Joseph I, when Portugal was in practice governed by a valido or favourite, the Marquis of Pombal. Pombal encouraged the royal family to while away their days in the country and leave affairs of state to him. Thus the extravagant, almost whimsical architecture of Queluz, set apart from the capital city, exactly represents the politics and social events of Portugal during this era, and the carefree and flamboyant lives led by its occupants. Queluz's role as a haven for those without responsibility was, however, to be short-lived, especially after the ascension of Maria II of Portugal to the throne.
When work recommenced in 1758, after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the design was adapted for fear of another earthquake. Thus the later works take the form of low, long buildings, more structurally stable than a single high block: as a result, viewed from a distance the palace resembles long enfilades linked by higher pavilions rather than one single construction.
Queluz is famed for the glory of its gardens, which include a large topiary parterre laid out in the manner of Le Nôtre at the rear of the palace (see key 14). The Flemish influences, including the canals, in the garden are the work of the Dutch gardener Gerald van der Kolk, who assisted Robillon from 1760. Formal terraces and walkways are given extra interest by statuary and fountains. The dominant feature of the principal parterre is the "Portico dos Cavalinhos", a garden temple flanked by two allegorical equestrian statues depicting Fames, and two sphinxes (see final illustration) surreally dressed in 18th-century costume, combining the formal and the fantastic. This surreal theme continues elsewhere in the gardens where such motifs as the rape of the Sabines and the death of Abel alternate with statuary of donkeys dressed in human clothing. Deeper in the gardens is a grotto complete with a cascade. Later to be a popular feature in Portuguese gardens, the Queluz cascade was the first artificial waterfall to be constructed near Lisbon.
An avenue of huge magnolias forms the approach to the classical Robillon wing of the palace (see key 7), while from the wing adouble staircase leads to the canal. More than 100 metres (330 ft) long, thewalls of the canal are decorated with tiled panels depicting seascapes and associated scenes. This is the largest of a series of canals in the gardens bordered with chinoiserie-style azulejo tiles. Fed by a stream, the sluice gates to the canals are only opened in May. During the 18th century, the canals were the setting for fêtes champêtres during which fully rigged ships would sail in processions with figures aboard in allegorical costumes.
The gardens also contain a fountain with tritons and dolphins which has been attributed toBernini. There are further fountains and statuary in the lower gardens, set within tall hedges ofyew andcypress, and magnolia and mulberry trees planted by Marshal Junot during the French occupation in the Napoleonic wars.
The town square that the palace faces, "Largo do Palácio de Queluz", remains relatively unaltered since the 18th century. The large houses, once the homes of courtiers, and the former Royal Guard quarters with its campanile are still clustered around the palace. In latter years, the town of Queluz has expanded considerably to become one of the suburbs of Lisbon. The Palace of Queluz is one of Lisbon's many tourist attractions.
The public façade of the palace faces directly onto a town square and takes the form of two low, symmetrical, quadrant wings which flank the forward-reaching wings of a small central corps de logis, thus forming a semi-circular cour d'honneur (see key 1). The southern of the two quadrant wings is terminated by the onion-domed chapel, while the northern wing contained the kitchens and servants' quarters (see keys 2, 1 and 13). The only decoration comes from the simple classical pediments above the windows. This façade, that most readily seen from the town, presents a decorous and impassive public face with one of the most architecturally severe elevations of the palace (see illustration right).
Oliveira was directly responsible for the "Ceremonial Façade" of the "corps de logis", the rectangular block which forms the nucleus of the palace, and some of the interior courtyards. His former tutor, the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Robillon, was in charge of the gardens, many buildings, and the Rococo interiors. He in turn was assisted by Jean-Baptiste Pillement and other French and Portuguese artists. The "Ceremonial Façade" is the best-known view of the palace. With classical proportions, it is externally decorated by travertine rendering and delicately carved cartouches over the windows. It has been described as a "harmonious example of Portuguese Baroque". This façade with its single-storey flanking wings forms a three-sided courtyard containing the "Hanging Garden"—so called because like the Hanging Gardens of Babylon it is on a raised terrace (see key 5).
The second major part of the palace is the great western wing, known as the Robillon wing or Robillon Pavilion, which illustrates better than any other the excesses of Baroque and Rococo architecture (see key 9). Completed in 1779, it has a doric colonnade which runs the entire length of its western and southern façades, the roof of which provides a balustraded balcony accessible from the floor above (see key 10). Owing to the topography of the site, the eastern side appears as a single-storey building, with only the upper floor visible above the ground in the "Hanging Garden". The balustrade on the roof of the Robillon wing is broken by heavy segmental pediments adorned with reclining statuary figures; the balustrade itself is also adorned with flambeaux, statuary and heavy armorial trophies (see illustration below).
The Robillon wing contains an entrance to the palace reached by flights of ingeniously designed graduated steps. Their design creates an illusion of a longer and higher perspective, centred on a corner of a terrace because of exigencies of the site, and divided mid-flight so as not to lead the eye and footstep towards an angle of the colonnade beyond. The steps are adorned with elaborate statuary (see key 11). The bays of the façade are stuccoed rose-pink, contrasting with the motifs and pilasters in natural stone (see illustration).
The interior of the palace received no less attention to detail and design than the exterior. French artisans were employed to decorate the rooms, many of which are small, their walls and ceilings painted to depict allegorical and historical scenes. Polished red bricks were frequently used for the floors, for a rustic appearance as well as coolness in hot weather. The many tall pavilions which link the various lower wings of the palace allow for a series of long low rooms broken by higher and lighter rooms. A predominant feature of the interiors are theazulejos: polychrome glazed tiles, often in a chinoiserie style with tones of blues and yellows contrasting with muted reds. Materials for use on the interior included stone imported from Genoa and woods from Brazil, Denmark and Sweden, while coloured marbles were imported from Italy. Many of the palace's rooms were severely damaged by fire in 1934, and much was lost.
- Sala das Mangas
The Sala das Mangas (the only room in the state apartments to fully survive the 1934 fire) is a long gallery lined with tiled wall panels (illustrated below). The gallery leads to the enfilade of state rooms, all of which have been fully restored. The formal rooms of the palace consist of three large halls: The Hall of Ambassadors, The Music Room and the Ball Room. Other smaller rooms include the Gun Room (where hunting parties would assemble), which is a frescoed salon painted with trees and foliage by Pillement.
- Music Room
The Music Room (illustrated below) which follows the "Sala dos Embaixadores" is decorated with gilded and painted wood and was redesigned in 1768. Theceiling inset with painted cartouches is notable for the intricate ribbed scheme of its design, similar to that of the vestibule at Caserta. The Music Room is decorated in a more neoclassical style than the other state rooms, reflecting its redesign in the period following the Baroque Rococo in the final half of the 18th century. This room was the setting for the large concerts for which the palace was famous. The room still contains the Empiregrand piano decorated with gilt appliques. Above the piano hangs a Image:Sala de Música.jpg. Like many other rooms of the palace, the Music Room is lit by huge crystal chandeliers.
- Ball Room
The Ballroom, the last of the palace's three largest rooms, (illustrated below) was designed by Robillon in 1760. To create this oval room the architect combined five smaller rooms. The ormolu Rococo ornament takes the form of heavy gilding to the walls and ceiling, of such richness that it has been compared with that of François de Cuvilliés' Amalienburg at Schloss Nymphenburg. The walls and doors are mirrored and the painted and gilded, coffered ceiling is supported by golden caryatids.
- Hall of Ambassadors
The Hall of Ambassadors ("Sala dos Embaixadores"), sometimes called the throne room or the Hall of Mirrors, was designed by Robillon in 1757 and is one of the largest reception rooms in the palace. This long low room has a ceiling painted by Francisco de Melo which depicts the Portuguese royal family attending a concert during the reign of Queen Maria I. The room is extremely wide and light, spanning the full width of the palace, with tall windows on both sides. Between each window is a semi-circular gilt console table above which are pier glasses adorned with crystal sconces. The throne dais, set in an apse, is flanked by gilded and mirrored columns, and the floor is a chequer board pattern of black and white marble tiles.
During the occupancy of the palace by Dom Pedro and Maria I, the chapel was central to the daily routine of their court. It was no coincidence that the chapel was the first part of the palace to be completed and was consecrated as early as 1752. Religion was one of Dom Pedro's favourite interests. During the reign of his wife he attended to matters spiritual and she to matters temporal. The Queen's interest in religion was, however, no less fevered than that of her husband—the couple attended mass several times a day. Following Dom Pedro's death, the Queen abandoned all festivities at the palace, and state receptions assumed the air of religious ceremonies. Finally the Queen's instability and religious mania degenerated into complete insanity. Queluz and its chapel then became her permanent retreat from the world until she was forced to flee from the advancing French in 1807 to Brazil. She died there in Rio de Janeiro in 1816.
The chapel beneath its large onion dome is dark and cavernous and decorated with carved giltwood, the detailing highlighted in red, green, blue and pink, by the Portuguese sculptor Silvestre Faria Lobo. The upper level has galleries for the use of royal personages who would sit apart from the congregation. One of these galleries contains a small Rococo pipe organ. A feature of the chapel is the ornate portable font, its marble basin resting in an elaborate Rococo frame surmounted by a carved wood cover.
The private apartments
The private rooms of the palace are far smaller and more intimate than the formal state rooms and contain many royal mementos and curios which belonged to the rooms' former occupants. Amongst the more remarkable rooms in this suite are the Sala das Merendas, the Queen's Boudoir and the King's Bedroom.
- Sala das Merendas
This was the royal family's private dining room. The decoration continues the theme used in some of the more formal and public rooms, with tiled panels illustrating courtiers in sylvan poses. These panels, like much other work in the palace, were produced by João Valentim and José Conrado Rosa.
- Queen's Boudoir
This was one of the private rooms used by Maria I during her time at Queluz. It is designed in the form of a bower, with a trellis pattern on the ceiling which is reflected in the design of the marquetry floor (illustrated below), giving the impression of being in a pergola rather than an interior. The marquetry floors of the private rooms distinguish these smaller more intimate rooms from the larger state rooms where such delicate features would have been damaged by more frequent use. The walls of the boudoir are heavily mirrored and contain overdoor and mirror carouches by José Conrado Rosa. Next to the boudoir is the Queen's bedroom; it was from this light and airy room that the demented shrieks of the Queen were reported by William Beckford, who visited the palace in 1794.
- King's Bedroom
The King's Bedroom (illustrated below) has been described as one of the most "fantastic" rooms in the palace. Although actually square, It gives the illusion of being completely circular, with a domed ceiling supported by columns of mirrored glass. Between the columns arecartouches depicting scenes from the tales of Don Quixote. João VI died in this room in 1826. The room contains a large bust of the King showing his "pendulous jowls and unattractive face".
- Lowndes, p. 179.
- Fielding, p. 275.
- Dynes, p. 181.
- Before reverting to the Casa do Infantado the lands of Queluz passed between many hands: in the 15th century they were owned by Silvestre Esteves, canon of the Lisbon Cathedral, who sold them to Mafamede Láparo, passing succesively to Isaque Abarbanel, Lopo de Figueiredo and later to D. Beatriz, mother of the future King Manuel. She acquired the lands and then sold them to D. Vasco Anes Corte Real for comparable greenspace along the Ribeira a Alfama. The nobleman had, in 1535, incorporated into his descendents inheritance, Manuel Corte Real, passed them on to his son Vasco Anes Corte Real. Vasco Anes, who died single, willed the lands in Queluz to his sister Margarida Corte Real, who, on marrying (in 1581) D. Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Count of the Marquesses of Castelo Rodrigo. Their son, Manuel de Moura Corte Real, inherited the lands in 1613; around 1630, the spaces were little more than a few houses, orchards, orange trees, lemon trees and vineyards.
- Fielding, p. 276.
- Dynes, p. 178.
- Powell, pp. 95–101.
- Maria I of Portugal
- Fielding, p. 279.
- Fielding, p.279.
- Lowndes, p. 180.
- Lowndes, p. 181.
- Rey, p. 44.
- Fielding, p. 275
- Fielding, p.276.
- Dynes, p. 186.
- Fielding, p. 277.
- Fielding, p. 278.
- Lowndes, p. 185.
- Lowndes, p. 184.
- Lowndes, p. 175.
- Dynes, p. 182.
- Lowndes, p.179
- Wayne Dynes, p.182
- Wayne Dynes, p.183
- Lowndes. pp. 178–183
- Lowndes, p. 183.
- Lowndes, p. 178.
- Lowndes, p.185.
- Dynes, p. 184.
- Lowndes, p. 181
- Bos, J.N.W. "Maria I of Portugal". J.N.W. Bos. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
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