User:Cynwolfe/Roman Republican governors of Gaul

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The bulk of this article has now been moved into mainspace. Someday I might finish this incredibly tedious business.

Officers active in Gaul 43–40[edit]

The following tables list any officer, regardless of rank, known to be active in Gaul during this period. During the civil wars of the 40s, the ranking official often acted through subordinates to an unusual degree. Promagistracies in particular often coincide or overlap with disputed constitutionality.

43 BC[edit]
Theater Officer Title C.O.[1] Notes
Gaul[2] C. Asinius Pollio proconsul Antonius assigned to Hispania Ulterior, but later marched into Gaul with two legions and joined Antonius; reconciled Plancus with Antonius and Lepidus[3]
Cisalpina C. Julius Caesar Octavianus suffect consul the proverbial "loose cannon" held imperium pro praetore at the battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina and then remained inactive for three months[4]
Massilia Sextus Pompeius proconsul [5] remained militarily inactive for most of the year in Massilia with his army and fleet, building and making preparations; appointed Prefect of the Fleet and Maritime Coasts with imperium pro consule in April;[6] proscribed at end of year and began his campaign to occupy Sicily[7]
Cisalpina L. Marcius Censorinus praetor Antonius joined Antonius at Mutina and declared a public enemy along with his other supporters; returned to Rome during proscriptions and secured Cicero's house[8]
Transalpina L. Plotius Plancus praetor designate[9] Plancus acted as agent for the government in Rome to keep his brother L. Munatius Plancus loyal (see 44–43 above) and commanded his cavalry;[10] proscribed at end of year and put to death[11]
Cisalpina Extitius quaestor Antonius no other names known; brother or half-brother of T. Annius Cimber; at Mutina[12]
Cisalpina Manlius Torquatus quaestor Pansa prepared Pansa's camp at Forum Gallorum; received the consul's troops upon his death and then transferred them to Decimus Brutus;[13] arrested the physician Glyco on suspicion of poisoning Pansa[14]
Transalpina Cispius Laevus legate (envoy) Plancus sent to Rome with dispatches, accompanied by a Nerva[15]
Cisalpina Ser. Sulpicius Galba legate (envoy) D. Brutus sent with dispatches to the senate, along with Volumnius Flaccus[16]
Cisalpina Volumnius Flaccus legate (envoy) D. Brutus sent with dispatches to the senate, along with Galba (preceding)[17]
Cisalpina L. Antonius legate (military) Antonius No formal title is known for Lucius Antonius, who brought a legion to his brother Marcus at Mutina and was active there, holding command while M. Antonius fought at Forum Gallorum;[18] accused of misconduct at Parma;[19] during retreat led advance of cavalry and secured crossing to Forum Iulii[20]
Transalpina C. Furnius legate Plancus Sent on multiple occasions to report to the senate, to Cicero, and to Octavian[21]

Selected bibliography[edit]

  • A.L.F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis: Southern France in Roman Times (London, 1988), pp. 39–53
  • Charles Ebel, Transalpine Gaul: The Emergence of a Roman Province (Brill, 1976)
  • T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic
  • Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic
  • Unless otherwise noted, the sources for promagistracies in Gaul and their dates is T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (New York: American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vols. 1–3, abbreviated MRR1, MRR2 and MRR3.


  1. ^ Gaul was a political football during this period; the officers listed here acted on behalf of individual commanders such as Antonius while claiming various forms of legitimacy.
  2. ^ assigned to Hispania Ulterior.
  3. ^ Appian, Civil War 3.81 and 97; Velleius Paterculus 2.63.3–4; MRR2, p. 343.
  4. ^ Complex sources cited at MRR2, p. 345.
  5. ^ Sextus Pompeius acted on behalf of the senate during this period, with honors proposed for him by Cicero.
  6. ^ Praefectus Classis et Orae Maritimae: Velleius Paterculus 2.73.1–2; Appian, Civil War 4.84–85; Cassius Dio 46.40.3, 47.12.2, 48.17.1.
  7. ^ MRR2, p. 349.
  8. ^ Cicero, Philippics 11.11 and 36, 12.20, 13.2 and 6; Ad Brutum 1.3a and 5.1; Livy Periocha 119; Appian, Bellum Civile 3.63; Cassius Dio 46.39.3; Velleius Paterculus 2.14.3; MRR2, pp. 338–339.
  9. ^ Probably by appointment from Caesar.
  10. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 10.17.2 and 21a, 22.1.
  11. ^ Several ancient sources cited in MRR2, p. 339.
  12. ^ Cicero, Philippics 13.28; MRR2, p. 341.
  13. ^ Appian, Civil War 3.69 and 76
  14. ^ Cicero, Ad Brutum 1.6.2; Suetonius, Augustus 11.1; Tactius, Annales 1.10; MRR2, p. 341.
  15. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 10.18.1–2 and 21.3; MRR2, p. 351.
  16. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 11.18.1; MRR2, p. 351.
  17. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 11.18.1, 12.1. May be the senator L. Volumnius named by Varro, De re rustica 2.4.11 and Cicero, Ad familiares 7.32.1.
  18. ^ Cicero, Philippics 3.31; 10.21; 11.10; 12.14, 20, 26; 13.4, 26, 37; Cassius Dio 46.37.1; Zonaras 10.14.
  19. ^ Cicero, Philippics 14.8–9, Ad familiares 11.13b and 10.33.4.
  20. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 10.15.3, 33.4, 34.1.
  21. ^ Cicero, Ad familiares 10.6.1, 8.5, 10.1, 11.3, 21.1.

Category:Roman Republic

Category:Roman governors of Gaul

Category:Military history of ancient Gaul