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DW writers list[edit]

Writer Number of Stories First Story Last/Latest Story Number of episodes Notes
Russell T Davies 22 "Rose" "Planet of the Dead" 28 He wrote the first Doctor Who story of the new series in 2005. He wrote the seven minute 2005 Children in Need special, which serves as a prelude to "The Christmas Invasion" in lieu of a separate story. He also wrote the first and last stories to feature the Ninth Doctor as well as the first story to feature the Tenth Doctor. "Planet of the Dead" was co-written with Gareth Roberts.
Robert Holmes 18 The Krotons The Ultimate Foe 73 He co-wrote The Ark in Space with John Lucarotti. He also co-wrote The Talons of Weng Chiang with Robert Stewart Banks. He also wrote the first story to feature the Third Doctor and the last stories to feature the Fifth Doctor and the Sixth Doctor (the latter story was left unfinished by Holmes when he died in 1986 and it had to be completed by Pip and Jane Baker). He has stil written the most amount of episodes.
Terry Nation 11 The Daleks Destiny of the Daleks 62 He only wrote two stories (The Keys of Marinus and The Android Invasion) which did not feature the Daleks.
Bob Baker 9 The Claws of Axos Nightmare of Eden 36 He co-wrote all but one story (Nightmare of Eden) with Dave Martin, including The Three Doctors, which marked Doctor Who's Tenth Anniversary.
Eric Saward 4 The Visitation Revelation of the Daleks 12 Saward's name appears on the credits of only four stories. Two of these stories, Revelation and Resurrection of the Daleks were originally broadcast as two, 45-minute episodes. This means he received on-screen writer's credit on twelve episodes. Nevertheless, strong evidence exists that he wrote, but did not receive credit for, Attack of the Cybermen.[1] Most recently on the DVD release of Trial of a Time Lord, he also claims to have mostly written part 13 of that story, as well as several courtroom scenes for all four serials in the arc.
David Whitaker 8 The Edge of Destruction Ambassadors of Death 40 He wrote first story to feature the Second Doctor as played by Patrick Troughton.
Malcolm Hulke 8 The Faceless Ones Invasion of the Dinosaurs 54 He co-wrote the The Faceless Ones with David Ellis. He also co-wrote The War Games with Terrance Dicks, which was the last story to feature the Second Doctor.
Dave Martin 8 The Claws of Axos The Armageddon Factor 32
Terrance Dicks 7 The Seeds of Death The Five Doctors 36 He co-wrote The War Games with Malcolm Hulke, which was the last story to feature the Second Doctor. He also wrote the first story to feature the Fourth Doctor as played by Tom Baker. He also wrote the Five Doctors which marked Doctor Who‘s Twentieth Anniversary.
Kit Pedler 6 The War Machines The Invasion 30 He co-wrote last story to feature the First Doctor as well as the first story to feature the Cybermen.
Brian Hayles 6 The Celestial Toymaker The Monster of Peladon 30 Wrote every story featuring the Ice Warriors. He co-wrote The Celestial Toymaker with Donald Tosh.
Dennis Spooner 5 The Reign of Terror Power of the Daleks 30 His involvement with the programme ended after he wrote the debut story for the Second Doctor
David Fisher 5 The Stones of Blood The Leisure Hive 20 He co-wrote City of Death with Douglas Adams and Graham Williams under the name David Agnew.
John Lucarotti 4 Marco Polo The Ark in Space 19 He co-wrote The Ark in Space with Robert Holmes.
Louis Marks 4 Planet of Giants The Masque of Mandragora 15
Gerry Davis 4 The Tenth Planet Revenge of the Cybermen 12 He co-wrote last story to feature the First Doctor as well as the first story to feature the Cybermen with Kit Pedler.
Barry Letts 4 The Dæmons Planet of the Spiders 23 He co-wrote all of his stories with Robert Sloman. As producer of Doctor Who, Letts was not allowed to receive any on-screen credit as a writer. However, the The Dæmons is the only story where Sloman and Letts are credited as Guy Leopold. They also co-wrote Planet of the Spiders, which is the last story to feature the Third Doctor.
Robert Sloman 4 The Dæmons Planet of the Spiders 23 He co-wrote all of his stories with Barry Letts. The The Dæmons is the only story where Sloman and Letts are credited as Guy Leopold. They also co-wrote Planet of the Spiders, which is the last story to feature the Third Doctor.
Pip and Jane Baker 4 Mark of the Rani Time and the Rani 12 They created and co-own (along with the BBC) the character of The Rani. They also completed the last story to feature the Sixth Doctor (which was left unfinished by Holmes when he died in 1986) and they wrote the first story to feature the Seventh Doctor.
Steven Moffat 4 "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" "Silence in the Library" / "Forest of the Dead" 6 "Blink" was adapted from Moffat's own Ninth Doctor short story from the Doctor Who Annual 2006 called "What I Did on My Christmas Holidays by Sally Sparrow". He also scripted the 2007 Children in Need special "Time Crash". Moffat is to become Head Writer for Doctor Who and Executive producer as of 2010.
Ian Stuart Black 3 The Savages The Macra Terror 12
Mervyn Haisman 3 The Abominable Snowmen The Dominators 17 He co-wrote all of his stories with Henry Lincoln, including The Dominators which they were both credited as Norman Asbhy.
Henry Lincoln 3 The Abominable Snowmen The Dominators 17 He co-wrote all of his stories with Mervyn Haisman, including The Dominators which they were both credited as Norman Asbhy.
Robert Banks Stewart 3 Terror of the Zygons The Talons of Weng Chiang 16 He co-wrote The Talons of Weng Chiang with Robert Holmes.
Chris Boucher 3 The Face of Evil Image of the Fendahl 12
Douglas Adams 3 The Pirate Planet Shada 14 He co-wrote City of Death with David Fisher and Graham Williams under the name David Agnew. Additionally, the director of Destiny of the Daleks has claimed on the DVD commentary that wrote "98% of" that script.
Johnny Byrne 3 The Keeper of Traken Warriors of the Deep 12 He received royalties from Season 18 to Season 21 for the use of his character Nyssa of Traken in most of the stories of those seasons.
Christopher H. Bidmead 3 Logopolis Frontios 12 He wrote the last story to feature the Fourth Doctor as played by Tom Baker and the first story to feature Peter Davison as the Fifth Doctor.
Terence Dudley 3 Four to Doomsday The King's Demons 8
Peter Grimwade 3 Time-Flight Planet of Fire 12
Donald Cotton 2 The Myth Makers The Gunfighters 8
Donald Tosh 2 The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve The Celestial Toymaker 8 He co-wrote The Celestial Toymaker with Brian Hayles.
Derrick Sherwin 2 The Mind Robber The Invasion 13 He co-wrote The Mind Robber with Peter Ling and he co-wrote The Invasion with Kit Pedler. He is one of only two writers (Mark Gatiss being the other) to appear as a character in a Doctor Who story.
Don Houghton 2 Inferno The Mind of Evil 13
Anthony Read 1 The Horns of Nimon The Horns of Nimon 4 He also co-wrote Invasion of Time with Graham Williams under the name David Agnew.
Stephen Gallagher 2 Warriors' Gate Terminus 8
Christopher Bailey 2 Kinda Snakedance 8 He wrote an outline for a story called Manwatch. This story would have been the third installment in the Mara trilogy, however it was never produced.
Philip Martin 2 Vengeance on Varos Mindwarp 6 He introduced the character of Sil.
Stephen Wyatt 2 Paradise Towers The Greatest Show in the Galaxy 8
Ian Briggs 2 Dragonfire The Curse of Fenric 7
Ben Aaronovitch 2 Remembrance of the Daleks Battlefield 8
Mark Gatiss 2 "The Unquiet Dead" "The Idiot's Lantern" 2 He is one of only a select few writers (Derrick Sherwin and Victor Pemberton being among the others) to also have an acting credit in a Doctor Who story.
Paul Cornell 2 "Father's Day" "Human Nature"/ "The Family of Blood" 3 "Human Nature"/"The Family of Blood" was adapted from his 1995 Doctor Who novel Human Nature (co-plotted with Kate Orman).
Helen Raynor 2 "Daleks in Manhattan"/ "Evolution of the Daleks" "The Sontaran Stratagem"/ "The Poison Sky" 4
Stephen Greenhorn 2 "The Lazarus Experiment" "The Doctor's Daughter" 2
Gareth Roberts 3 "The Shakespeare Code" "Planet of the Dead" 3 "Planet of the Dead" was co-written with Russell T Davies. Roberts has written several episodes of The Sarah Jane Adventures.
Anthony Coburn 1 An Unearthly Child An Unearthly Child 4
Peter R. Newman 1 The Sensorites The Sensorites 6
Bill Strutton 1 The Web Planet The Web Planet 6
Glyn Jones 1 The Space Museum The Space Museum 4
Elwyn Jones 1 Galaxy 4 Galaxy 4 4
Paul Erickson 1 The Ark The Ark 4 Shares writing credit on this story with Lesley Scott.
Lesley Scott 1 The Ark The Ark 4 Shares writing credit on this story with Paul Erickson. She was the first woman to be credited as a writer on a Doctor Who story, although she did not actually write any portion of the script.
William Emms 1 The Highlanders The Highlanders 4 He co-wrote this story with Gerry Davis
Geoffrey Orme 1 The Underwater Menace The Underwater Menace 4
David Ellis 1 The Faceless Ones The Faceless Ones 6 He co-wrote this story with Malcolm Hulke.
Victor Pemberton 1 Fury from the Deep Fury from the Deep 6
Peter Ling 1 The Mind Robber The Mind Robber 5 Derrick Sherwin wrote episode 1 of this story and Ling wrote episodes 2-5. Only Ling is credited for all five episodes. Sherwin received no onscreen credit for episode 1.
Trevor Ray 1 The Ambassadors of Death The Ambassadors of Death 7 He co-wrote this story with Malcolm Hulke and David Whitaker.
Lewis Greifer 1 Pyramids of Mars Pyramids of Mars 4 Robert Holmes is the uncredited co-writer of this story.
John Flanagan 1 Meglos Meglos 4 He co-wrote Meglos with Andrew McCulloch.
Andrew McCulloch 1 Meglos Meglos 4 He co-wrote Meglos with John Flanagan.
Andrew Smith 1 Full Circle Full Circle 4 Smith remains the youngest writer ever for Doctor Who. He was 18 when Full Circle was produced.
Barbara Clegg 1 Enlightenment Enlightenment 4 Although Lesley Scott is the first woman to be credited as a writer on a Doctor Who story, Clegg is the first woman to actually write a story for the program.
Eric Pringle 1 The Awakening The Awakening 2
Anthony Steven 1 The Twin Dilemma The Twin Dilemma 4 He wrote the first story to feature the Sixth Doctor.
Paula Moore 1 Attack of the Cybermen Attack of the Cybermen 2 "Paula Moore" was a pseudonym for Paula Woolsey, the ex-girlfriend of Eric Saward. It's unclear to what extent she actually participated in the writing, which seems to have been done principally by Saward. Ian Levine has also alleged to have partially written this story.
Glen McCoy 1 Timelash Timelash 2
Malcolm Kohll 1 Delta and the Bannermen Delta and the Bannermen 3
Graeme Curry 1 The Happiness Patrol The Happiness Patrol 3
Kevin Clarke 1 Silver Nemesis Silver Nemesis 3
Marc Platt 1 Ghostlight Ghostlight 3 Platt wrote the final story produced in the original Doctor Who series. Marc Platt's audio drama, Spare Parts, was credited as the source of inspiration for Tom MacRae's Cybermen adventure, "Rise of the Cybermen"/"The Age of Steel".
Rona Munro 1 Survival Survival 3 Munro wrote the final story broadcast in the original Doctor Who series.
Matthew Jacobs 1 Doctor Who Doctor Who 1 Contrary to popular belief, the "American" version of Doctor Who was in fact written by a British scriptwriter. Jacobs' script was the last to feature the Seventh Doctor and the first (and as of 2009, the only) story to feature the Eighth Doctor. He is the only Doctor Who writer to also write for the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises.
Robert Shearman 1 "Dalek" "Dalek" 1 The basic premise as well as some scenes and dialogue from this story was adapted by Shearman from his audio drama Jubilee.
Toby Whithouse 1 "School Reunion" "School Reunion" 1
Tom MacRae 1 "Rise of the Cybermen" / "The Age of Steel" "Rise of the Cybermen" / "The Age of Steel" 2 MacRae was scheduled to write a new story for Series 4 in 2008 but it was replaced.
Matt Jones 1 "The Impossible Planet" / "The Satan Pit" "The Impossible Planet" / "The Satan Pit" 2
Matthew Graham 1 "Fear Her" "Fear Her" 1
Chris Chibnall 1 "42" "42" 1 Chibnall was the head writer for the first two series of Torchwood. His script for 42 was the first Doctor Who story written to reflect real time.
James Moran 1 "The Fires of Pompeii" "The Fires of Pompeii" 1 Moran has also written for Torchwood.
Keith Temple 1 "Planet of the Ood" "Planet of the Ood" 1

Maverick ep list[edit]

The following is an episode list for ABC's 1957 comedy-western television series, Maverick. Unusually for an American television program, Maverick's main cast varied episodically. As such, the starring cast members for each episode are listed below alongside other details.

First season (1957-1958)[edit]

James Garner (as Bret Maverick) is the sole star for the first seven episodes. With episode eight, he's joined by Jack Kelly as brother Bart Maverick. From that point on, the two alternate leads from week to week, sometimes teaming up for the occasional episode. Recurring characters include rival gamblers/operators Samantha Crawford, Dandy Jim Buckley and Big Mike McComb.

Episode Title Stars and Featured Recurring Characters
Bret Maverick Bart Maverick Dandy Jim Buckley Samantha Crawford Big Mike McComb
War of the Silver Kings Bret Big Mike
> Note: With Edmund Lowe. A Warners-owned property called "War of the Copper Kings" was selected by the studio as the basis for this episode's script in order to cheat Roy Huggins out of the series creator residuals.
Point Blank Bret
> Note: With Karen Steele. Huggins had written this episode as the pilot but Warner Brothers insisted on first airing an episode based on a property they previously owned. This was done in order to deny Huggins the residuals for creating the series, a typical gambit for the studio at that time. Huggins wasn't given credit as series creator by the studio until the movie version with Mel Gibson, Jodie Foster, and Garner almost forty years later.
According to Hoyle Bret Samantha Big Mike
> Note: Maverick debut of Samantha Crawford, in a high-stakes riverboat poker contest with Bret. Diane Brewster had played Crawford the previous year in an episode of Cheyenne called "Dark Rider."
Ghost Rider Bret
> Note: With Stacy Keach, Sr. as a sheriff, Joanna Barnes, and Edd Byrnes. Bret offers a strange beauty a ride home in a buckboard then later learns that she had died days before he met her.
The Long Hunt Bret
> Note: In the aftermath of a failed stagecoach robbery, a gunshot criminal tells Bret with his dying breaths that an innocent man remains trapped in prison for a crime that he didn't commit, leaving the gambler with the daunting responsibility of somehow straightening it out. A sweeping epic in which Maverick finds himself forced to intermittently become an amateur detective over a period of months.
Stage West Bret
> Note: Based on a Louis Lamour story. With Erin O'Brien, Edd Byrnes, and Chubby Johnson. O'Brien's name is listed at the beginning of the episode after Garner's, an honor only accorded a small handful of actors during the series (Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., Peggy King, Adam West, Troy Donahue, etc.). Ray Teal, later the sincere sheriff on Bonanza, performs one of his several Maverick turns as a vicious villain in this harrowingly suspenseful episode.
Relic of Fort Tejon Bret
> Note: Features Bret and an affectionate camel. Maverick quickly realizes that a saloon's poker game is rigged and finds himself facing down a professional killer. Intriguingly, the army did briefly experiment with using camels as transportation, which would have been ideal for the American Southwest.
Hostage! Bret Bart
> Note: Bart's first appearance occurs in this two-brother episode. Huggins wisely has Bart tied up and viciously beaten by a thug as an initiation into the series, to gain viewer sympathy. For his first several episodes, Jack Kelly as Bart wore a grey suit similar in color to his hat for greater contrast with Garner's standard black suit, but eventually switched to mainly a black suit himself while keeping the lighter colored hat, which remained his main costume through most of the run of the series. In his videotaped interview for the Archive of American Television, Roy Huggins noted that, unlike Garner's light touch, Kelly delivered a funny line as though he were "dropping a load of coal," and that Kelly was hilariously entertaining when he was "off camera." Critics noted how charismatic Kelly and Garner were as a team, however, and that Kelly did his finest work in his episodes with Garner.
Stampede Bret Dandy Jim
> Note: Dandy Jim Buckley's first of five memorable appearances. One of many episodes that begin on a Mississippi riverboat, a very frequent setting. "Stampede" is often cited by critics as one of the most entertaining installments, especially noting Zimbalist's humorous performance.
The Jeweled Gun Bret Bart
> Note: Bret appears only briefly; the first of flamboyantly seductive Kathleen Crowley's many roles in the series. Some of the plotline was later cannabilized for a unique Garner episode entitled "A Rage for Vengeance." The early part of The Jeweled Gun occurs in a Spanish-influenced town. Huggins noted in an interview that Garner was originally slated to play Kelly's role in this popular episode but the leads were switched at the last minute due to a scheduling conflict. Although Bart makes brief appearances in several Bret episodes, this is the only time Bret does so in a Bart episode. This is essentially Kelly's first solo episode.
The Wrecker Bret Bart
> Note: Based on a Robert Louis Stevenson ocean adventure. This is the only episode with substantial time accorded to both brothers in which Kelly's role is larger than Garner's, although Bret sets the operation up and appears noticeably more knowledgeable about the situation than Bart in their scenes together. The two-brother scripts designated the brothers as "Maverick 1" and "Maverick 2," with Garner choosing which role he wanted to play. All other scripts, except one, were originally written with Garner in mind and the character designated as "Bret," which would later be changed to "Bart" during filming if Kelly were cast instead. The only exception was "Passage to Fort Doom," which was written specifically for Kelly as a lark for the writers.
The Quick and the Dead Bret
> Note: With Gerald Mohr in a powerful performance as Doc Holliday and film noir queen Marie Windsor as a saloon owner. Written and directed by Douglas Heyes.
Naked Gallows Bart
> Note: With Mike Connors and Morris Ankrum.
The Comstock Conspiracy Bret
> Note: With Ruta Lee and Werner Klemperer.
The Third Rider Bart
> Note: With Dick Foran as a lawman thwarted by Bart.
Rage for Vengeance Bret
> Note: With Catherine McLeod and a villainous John Russell. The only episode in the series in which Bret openly falls in love (with McLeod in her only series appearance) and wants to actually get married, despite an unrelated glaring plot similarity to earlier episode The Jeweled Gun. It's intriguing to imagine Bret and Bart comparing notes later and each saying, "Yeah, the same thing happened to me."
Rope of Cards Bret
> Note: According to legend, practically every deck of cards in the United States sold out the day after this episode's first broadcast.
Diamond in the Rough Bart
> Note: Written by Marion Hargrove from a story by Roy Huggins.
Day of Reckoning Bret
> Note: Mayhem is the order of the day after a cowboy accuses Bret of cheating during a poker game and a blow to the head from the Marshall accidentally executes the complainant. With Jean Willes.
The Savage Hills Bart Samantha
> Note: Bart takes a turn with the glamorous Samantha Crawford on a riverboat adventure.
Trail West to Fury Bret Bart Dandy Jim
> Note: A flashback episode about the Maverick brothers returning from the Civil War, as told to Buckley while the three of them are trapped during a flood. The plotline involves the Maverick brothers having to avoid Texas after being falsely accused of murder there, with only a mysteriously disappeared "tall man" as a witness who could exonerate them if only they could locate him. Writer/producer Roy Huggins would eventually recycle this plot as the basis for his later television series The Fugitive, with Diane Brewster in a recurring cameo role as Richard Kimble's murdered wife.
The Burning Sky Bart
> Note: With a Mexican Gerald Mohr and Joanna Barnes. The ratings for Kelly's episodes were always minusculely higher in the first two seasons than Garner's. Roy Huggins mentioned in his videotaped Archive of American Television interview that he believed that this was a reflection of how well the audience liked Garner's episodes and the consequent word of mouth, so that viewers, marvelously entertained the previous week, would be at their sets for the following episode, which would usually feature Kelly instead. The rating jumps for Kelly's episodes were tiny enough that they fell within the margin of error, but were remarkable because of their consistency.
The Seventh Hand Bret Samantha
> Note: Samantha speculates about what it would be like if she and Bret were married. His response: "We couldn't afford it."
Plunder of Paradise Bart Big Mike
> Note: With Ruta Lee as a dance hall singer.
Black Fire Bret
> Note: Oddly, a glaringly unnecessary narration by Bart is tacked onto this episode featuring only Bret, probably to compensate for the fact that Garner had introduced Kelly's early solo episodes. This was one of only two Garner episodes not included in Columbia House's 1990s library of series videotapes (the other was "Holiday at Hollow Rock"). Hans Conreid plays a friend who recruits Bret to borrow his identity for a family reunion.
Burial Ground of the Gods Bart
> Note: With Claude Akins.
Seed of Deception Bret Bart
> Note: Bret and Bart are mistaken for Doc Holliday and Wyatt Earp in this two-brother episode. Huggins' wife Adele Mara plays a saloon dancer, and Bart is still wearing his grey suit.

Second season (1958-1959)[edit]

Garner and Kelly continue as alternating leads, with the odd 'team-up' episode. Semi-regulars Samatha Crawford and Dandy Jim Buckley exit partway through the season; new semi-regulars include Cindy Lou Brown and Gentleman Jack Darby. Big Mike McComb also returns from season 1.

Episode Title Stars and Featured Recurring Characters
Bret Maverick Bart Maverick Dandy Jim Buckley Samantha Crawford Big Mike McComb Cindy Lou Brown Gentleman Jack Darby
The Day They Hanged Bret Maverick Bret
> Note: Framed by a similar-looking robber, a desperate Maverick finds himself trapped in jail while the citizenry construct a gallows for him right outside the window. Bret recalls that he and his brother had flipped a coin earlier to decide which Maverick would travel in what direction, ruminating that if it had landed differently, Bart would be sitting in that cell instead. With Whitney Blake, Ray Teal, and Jay Novello.
Lonesome Reunion Bret
> Note: With John Russell and Joanna Barnes.
Alias Bart Maverick Bart Cindy Lou Jack
> Note: Debuts of Richard Long as Gentleman Jack Darby and Arlene Howell as Cindy Lou Brown.
The Belcastle Brand Bret
> Note: Garner's favorite episode. With Reginald Owen.
High Card Hangs Bart Dandy Jim
> Note: With Martin Landau. Notice how different Dandy Jim Buckley's friendship with Bart is from his basically adversarial relationship with Bret.
Escape to Tampico Bret
> Note: Set in Mexico, this unique episode featured Gerald Mohr as a variation of Humphrey Bogart's Casablanca character, shot on the original Casablanca set.
The Judas Mask Bart
> Note: Bart's chasing a ravishing Scandinavian dance hall girl who robbed him of $20,000, hoping to catch her before she vanishes into Mexico.
The Jail at Junction Flats Bret Dandy Jim
> Note: A memorable episode with Dandy Jim Buckley, a comical character created by Huggins as a version of Bret without the scruples. As noted earlier, Buckley's relationships with Bret and Bart are quite different. Dan Blocker briefly appears in flashback as a gunslinger, before getting the role of Hoss Cartwright in Bonanza.
The 39th Star Bart
Shady Deal at Sunny Acres Bret Bart Dandy Jim Samantha Big Mike Cindy Lou Jack
> Note: The only episode to feature all of the regular Maverick characters from the first three seasons, and the final episode for Samantha and Dandy Jim. This is arguably the single most talked-about episode of the series, and usually the one Garner mentions first in interviews.
Island in the Swamp Bret
> Note: With Edgar Buchanan, Erin O'Brien, and Arlene Howell. Note that Howell does not play Cindy Lou Brown here, despite having just played the character in the previous episode. Howell would return to the role of Cindy Lou Brown 12 episodes later, in Passage To Fort Doom. O'Brien was billed over Howell despite having a much smaller role in the episode.
Prey of the Cat Bart
> Note: With Wayne Morris.
Holiday at Hollow Rock Bret
> Note: Bret rides into town to bet on the annual horse race, stopwatch in hand. This was one of two Garner episodes (the other being Black Fire) not included in Columbia House's 1990s library of series videotapes. Saundra Edwards appears as this episode's leading lady a couple of years before her career ended after she killed her abusive boyfriend with a shotgun blast to his chest.
The Spanish Dancer Bart Jack
> Note: Featuring Huggins' wife Adele Mara as a dancer in a gold rush mining camp, and Slim Pickens in a small role.
Game of Chance Bret Bart
> Note: With Belgian-born gamine Roxane Berard in an episode according more or less equal time to Bret and Bart. Berard, an actress continuously compared with Audrey Hepburn, portrays a charming French countess.
Gun-Shy Bret
> Note: This is Maverick's famous Gunsmoke spoof, with Ben Gage as Marshal Mort Dooley (a comical version of Marshal Matt Dillon) and Reginald Owen as a con man.
Two Beggars on Horseback Bret Bart
> Note: Jack Kelly's favorite episode, featuring a desperate race between the brothers to cash a check. This is also the only time in the series in which Kelly's character wears a black hat; both brothers wear black hats in the opening sequences until Bart has to give his to a stable operator in order to secure a horse.
The Rivals Bret Bart
> Note: Features Roger Moore playing a non-Maverick character in a sophisticated drawing room comedy based on a play by Richard Brinsley Sheridan originally produced in 1775. Moore would later be a regular series lead as Beau Maverick in season 4. Bart appears only briefly in this episode. The physical resemblance between James Garner and Roger Moore in this episode is surprising, and the characters switch identities as part of the storyline. The episode's opening sequence includes a striking three-shot of Garner, Kelly, and Moore sitting in a train car, with Moore in the foreground and Garner and Kelly sitting behind him in deep focus playing cards.
Duel at Sundown Bret Bart
> Note: Features villainous gunfighter Clint Eastwood in an epic fistfight with Bret. Bart appears only briefly in this episode. Edgar Buchanan plays a close friend of Bret's while Abby Dalton portrays Buchanan's character's fetching daughter.
Yellow River Bart
> Note: With Tol Avery and Robert Conrad.
The Saga of Waco Williams Bret
> Note: This revered episode drew the largest viewership during the series' original run. Louise Fletcher, who won an Oscar as evil Nurse Ratched in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest eighteen years later, plays the glamorous young leading lady. Wayde Preston, starring (as a different character) at the same time in Colt .45, played Waco Williams, a character that writer-producer Stephen J. Cannell later proudly purloined as the prototype for "Lance White," Tom Selleck's recurring role on The Rockford Files.
The Brasada Spur Bart
> Note: With Julie Adams.
Passage to Fort Doom Bart Cindy Lou
> Note: Cindy Lou Brown's final appearance, although actress Arlene Howell would return to the series to play a different role in the fifth season "Bonanza" spoof. Diane McBain portrays the dazzling other woman and Paul Henreid directed the episode. A resonant wagon train adventure dealing with courage under fire. This was reportedly the only episode written with Jack Kelly in mind during the early seasons; the writers had previously been under orders from Huggins to always picture Garner as Maverick regardless of which actor would end up playing the part, but this one was written for Kelly just to see what that would be like.
Two Tickets to Ten Strike Bret
> Note: Features Connie Stevens and Adam West.
Betrayal Bart
> Note: With Pat Crowley and Ruta Lee as ravishing romantic rivals and Don "Red" Barry as an obstreperous sheriff. While being held up by masked bandits, Bart realizes that another stagecoach passenger recognizes the voice of one of the robbers.
The Strange Journey of Jenny Hill Bret Big Mike
> Note: Big Mike McComb's final appearance. Singer Jenny Hill (Peggy King) can't figure out why Bret keeps following her from town to town. Peggy King was billed at the beginning of the episode in the opening titles, after Garner, an extremely rare occurrence in the series. Others billed at the opening of other episodes include Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. in each appearance as Dandy Jim Buckley, Roger Moore in his non-Beau Maverick guest appearance in The Rivals, Adam West and Troy Donahue in Pappy, and Erin O'Brien in the Louis Lamour story Stage West.

Third season (1959-1960)[edit]

Writer/creator Roy Huggins leaves the show. Garner and Kelly are still the leads. Of the recurring characters, only Gentleman Jack Darby returns for season 3, and only for one episode.

Episode Title Stars and Featured Recurring Characters
Bret Maverick Bart Maverick Gentleman Jack Darby
Pappy Bret Bart
> Note: Features dual roles for series stars Garner and Kelly, as 'Pappy' Beaurgard Maverick, and Uncle Bentley Maverick, respectively (the previous generation of Maverick brothers, "Beau and Bent"). With Adam West, Troy Donahue, Henry Daniell, Kaye Elhardt, and Chubby Johnson.
Royal Four-Flush Bart
> Note: With Roxane Berard.
The Sheriff of Duck 'n' Shoot Bret Bart
> Note: Watch Bret's responses when he's offered the job of sheriff in an insanely rowdy town. With Chubby Johnson as a genial deputy.
You Can't Beat the Percentage Bart
> Note: With Gerald Mohr and Karen Steele in a tense noir suspense thriller.
The Cats of Paradise Bret
> Note: Bret faces Buddy Ebsen as a trigger-happy sheriff, Don "Red" Barry as a black-clad business-card carrying gunfighter modeled on Paladin, and Mona Freeman as a wild-eyed and murderously treacherous Modesty Blaine.
A Tale of Three Cities Bart
> Note: Ben Gage does his Marshal Matt Dillon parody again; also featuring Pat Crowley as a radiantly beautiful robber and Ray Teal as the sheriff of a neighboring town.
Full House Bret
> Note: With young Joel Grey as Billy the Kid, and Garner performing a bravura pistol-twirling exhibition as part of the plot. Jean Willes portrays an inconveniently amorous Belle Starr.
The Lass With the Poisonous Air Bart
> Note: With Stacy Keach, Sr.
The Ghost Soldiers Bret
> Note: A desperately beleaguered Bret must figure out some way to cope with an ocean of Native Americans laying siege to an almost-empty fort. Everyone inside is about to be killed, including him.
Easy Mark Bart
> Note: With Edgar Buchanan and Jack Buetel (who'd played Billy the Kid in the 1943 movie The Outlaw).
A Fellow's Brother Bret Bart
> Note: Bart appears only briefly in this episode. With Adam West.
Trooper Maverick Bart
> Note: An utterly miserable Bart finds himself stuck in the Army and can't get out.
Maverick Springs Bret Bart
> Note: With Kathleen Crowley as Mae West-like Melanie Blake and Tol Avery as the dulcet-toned villain. The 1970s episode of The Rockford Files entitled "The Great Blue Lake Land Development Company" was more or less a cross between this episode and the earlier "Shady Deal at Sunny Acres." Rockford writer Stephen J. Cannell generously and forthcomingly credits elements of some Maverick episodes as inspirations for many of The Rockford Files scripts.
The Goose-Drownder Bart Jack
> Note: Final appearance of Richard Long as Gentleman Jack Darby. During a downpour in a ghost town, one of Bart's lost loves (Fay Spain) turns up in a stagecoach. This is the only instance of one of the five recurring supporting characters from the "Shady Deal at Sunny Acres" episode appearing after writer/producer Roy Huggins' departure at the end of the second season.
A Cure for Johnny Rain Bret
> Note: Johnny and whiskey don't mix.
The Marquessa Bart
> Note: With Adele Mara; Bart wins a saloon and drinks are on the house.
The Cruise of the Cynthia B Bret Bart
> Note: Bart appears only briefly in this riverboat episode. With Mona Freeman as a mad Modesty Blaine, a role that would be played quite differently by Kathleen Crowley later in the series.
Maverick and Juliet Bret Bart
> Note: Bret and Bart run afoul of feuding hillbillies.
The White Widow Bart
> Note: With Julie Adams.
Guatemala City Bret
> Note: Bret searches for an ex-girlfriend in Guatemala and befriends a young female street urchin. With Patric Knowles.
The People's Friend Bart
> Note: Features Bart as a local politician, a role Jack Kelly would play for real later in life.
A Flock of Trouble Bret
> Note: Bret wins a herd of sheep in a poker game, thinking they're cattle.
The Iron Hand Bart
> Note: Features a plump and acne-scarred Robert Redford playing a supporting role in this spirited cattle drive adventure.
The Resurrection of Joe November Bret
> Note: A riverboat adventure set primarily in New Orleans during Mardi Gras, with Roxane Berard, Joanna Barnes, and Don 'Red' Barry.
The Misfortune Teller Bret
> Note: Another spoof of Gunsmoke's Marshal Matt Dillon with Ben Gage, this time also featuring Kathleen Crowley in her Mae West-like role of Melanie Blake, last seen in Maverick Springs, which she mentions.
Greenbacks, Unlimited Bret
> Note: With John Dehner in a wondrous comic turn as gang leader Big Ed Murphy, a role that Andrew Duggan would play in a subsequent season.

Fourth season (1960-1961)[edit]

Jack Kelly stays on as Bart Maverick, who now alternates the lead with Roger Moore as cousin Beau Maverick. Kelly and Moore are also featured in occasional two-cousin episodes. With the exception of a single episode held over from the third season, Garner is no longer a part of the show. Before the end of the season, Moore also leaves. At the very end of the season, Moore is briefly replaced by Robert Colbert's brother Brent Maverick.

Episode Title Starring
Bart Maverick Beau Maverick Bret Maverick Brent Maverick
The Bundle From Britain Bart Beau
> Note: Roger Moore's first appearance as Cousin Beau, met at the dock by Bart after crossing the Atlantic from England. An evenly balanced two-cousin episode according more or less equal time to each Maverick.
Hadley's Hunters Bart
> Note: This episode features several ten-second cameos from western leads in other Warner Brothers series, including Lawman, Bronco, Cheyenne, and Sugarfoot. Garner lookalike Robert Colbert also appeared as a key character, wearing a hat similar to Bret's, then was cast later in the season as a new Maverick brother named Brent. Edgar Buchanan plays a rogue sheriff and George Kennedy portrays his deputy.
The Town That Wasn't There Beau
> Note: How could a whole town simply disappear without a trace?
Arizona Black Maria Bart
> Note: With a pre-Gilligan Alan Hale, Jr. and Joanna Barnes.
Last Wire From Stop Gap Bart Beau
> Note: Bart and Beau discover a secret telegraph station hidden in a cave in this two-cousin episode. Notice that when the cousins enter a room, Kelly goes in front, just as Garner normally used to, and when they're standing or sitting together in scenes, Kelly is usually on the viewer's left, just as Garner most frequently was in two-brother episodes. Also, the Mavericks never appear in suits in this installment, both instead wearing their buckskin jackets throughout, as was the case with most episodes featuring Kelly and Moore together. With Tol Avery.
Mano Nera Bart
> Note: With Gerald Mohr in an episode set in New Orleans.
A Bullet For the Teacher Beau
> Note: With Kathleen Crowley and Max Baer, Jr.. Co-written by Leo Gordon, who scripted several episodes in addition to playing "Big Mike McComb" the first season.
The Witch of Hound Dog Bart
> Note: With Wayde Preston in an episode featuring a beautiful witch who appears to have magical powers.
Thunder From the North Beau
> Note: Beau finds himself embroiled with a nest of unscrupulous shopkeepers who've been methodically swindling the local Native American tribe.
The Maverick Line Bart Bret
> Note: Bret's last appearance for almost twenty years (until the 1978 TV-movie The New Maverick), in a memorable two-brother episode filmed the previous season with Buddy Ebsen as a comical highwayman and Chubby Johnson as a cantankerous stagecoach driver. This was originally slated to be the first episode of the season until Garner was granted his freedom from Warner Bros. by the courts and the studio realized that he wouldn't return to the series, whereupon The Bundle From Britain with Roger Moore became the season's first offering instead. Bret and Bart have more or less equal screen time in this comical episode, in which they unexpectedly inherit a stagecoach business they don't want.
Bolt From the Blue Beau
> Note: Written & directed by Robert Altman, with Sugarfoot's Will Hutchins playing a frontier lawyer.
Kiz Bart Beau
> Note: With Kathleen Crowley as eccentric millionairess Kiz, who tells Beau that a killer is after her, convincing him that she's crazy.
Dodge City or Bust Bart
> Note: With Howard McNear.
The Bold Fenian Men Beau
> Note: An Army colonel forces Beau to infiltrate a band of Irish revolutionaries.
Destination Devil's Flat Bart
> Note: With Peter Breck, Merry Anders, and Chubby Johnson.
A State of Siege Bart
> Note: With Slim Pickens.
Family Pride Beau
> Note: With Karl Swenson, Denver Pyle, and Stacy Keach, Sr..
The Cactus Switch Bart Beau
> Note: With Edgar Buchanan (later "Uncle Joe" on Petticoat Junction) as a ruthless villain, and Chubby Johnson.
Dutchman's Gold Beau
> Note: With Mala Powers.
The Ice Man Bart
> Note: With Andrew Duggan and a frozen corpse.
Diamond Flush Beau
> Note: With Roxane Berard. Co-written by actor/writer Leo Gordon.
Last Stop: Oblivion Bart
> Note: With a vicious Don 'Red' Barry and a murderous Buddy Ebsen.
Flood's Folly Beau
> Note: A rich woman's relatives are conspiring to have her declared insane.
Maverick At Law Bart
> Note: With Tol Avery.
Red Dog Beau
> Note: Beau's final episode. With John Carradine and Lee Van Cleef.
The Deadly Image Bart
> Note: This is the inevitable episode---a staple in almost every TV series---in which the lead character has an evil exact double played by the same actor, with the same voice. With Gerald Mohr. Co-written by actor/writer Leo Gordon.
Triple Indemnity Bart
> Note: With Peter Breck as Doc Holiday.
The Forbidden City Bart Brent
> Note: Strapping Garner lookalike Robert Colbert's debut as Brent Maverick, a character dressed exactly like Bret Maverick. Bart only appears rather briefly in the episode. When the studio told contract player Colbert that he'd have to play a role patterned so precisely after Garner's, he said, "Put me in a dress and call me Brenda, but don't do this to me."
Substitute Gun Bart
> Note: With Coleen Gray, the actress who played John Wayne's character's fiancee at the beginning of the 1948 movie Red River.
Benefit of the Doubt Brent
> Note: The second and last appearance of Brent Maverick, and his only solo episode. With Ellen Burstyn and Slim Pickens.
The Devil's Necklace (Parts I & II) Bart
> Note: The only two-part episode in the series, involving a fort in which everyone but Bart had been killed by Native Americans. With John Dehner, Steve Brodie, John Hoyt, and Chad Everett.

Fifth season (1961-1962)[edit]

Jack Kelly is now the sole star of new Maverick offerings. This season's episodes alternated with reruns of some of Garner's earlier shows (both solo and Garner/Kelly team-ups), but during Kelly's new installments, neither Bret, Beau, nor Brent are ever mentioned. However, Garner's name once again appears in the weekly series opening credits before all the newly produced shows, albeit now with second billing under Kelly.

Episode Title Starring Notes
Bart Maverick
Dade City Dodge Bart With Kathleen Crowley.
The Art Lovers Bart With Jack Cassidy; Bart is sentenced to being a butler after being cheated by an acquaintance.
The Golden Fleecing Bart With John Qualen; Bart becomes an impromptu stock broker, dealing in Chinatown.
Three Queens Full Bart Bonanza spoof with Jim Backus and Merry Anders, featuring the characters "Moose" and "Small Paul" Wheelwright. Amusingly, Backus (famous for providing the cartoon voice of "Mr. Magoo") plays the patriarch patterned after stentorian Lorne Greene's Bonanza role.
A Technical Error Bart With Peter Breck as Doc Holliday and Ben Gage as a sheriff, spoofing Marshal Matt Dillon and Gunsmoke, as he'd done on Maverick in "Gun-Shy", "A Tale of Three Cities," and "The Misfortune Teller." Bart wins a near-bankrupt bank.
Poker Face Bart With Tol Avery; while traveling by stagecoach, Bart strikes a bargain with a highwayman.
Mr. Muldoon's Partner Bart An Irish-themed leprechaun comedy with Mickey Rooney's lookalike son, Tim Rooney. The only episode in which Kelly wears his hat on the back of his head for long stretches the way Garner used to.
Epitaph for a Gambler Bart With film noir queen Marie Windsor; Bart wishes he hadn't won that casino after all.
The Maverick Report Bart With Peter Breck as Doc Holliday; Bart wins a newspaper that's about to be sued by a senator.
Marshall Maverick Bart With John Dehner, and Peter Breck as Doc Holliday
The Troubled Heir Bart With Kathleen Crowley and Alan Hale, Jr..
The Money Machine Bart With Andrew Duggan as Big Ed Murphy, a role played in Greenbacks, Unlimited during the third season by John Dehner.
One of Our Trains Is Missing Bart With Kathleen Crowley as Modesty Blaine, a role played in earlier episodes by Mona Freeman. Jack Kelly always maintained that no one from the studio called to tell him that the series had been canceled; he read about it in the newspaper.

Czech Timeline[edit]

Slovak Republic

Origins of Czechoslovakia
(until 1918)

Czechoslovak Republic

Sudetenland + other German territories

"Upper Hungary" territories of Hungary


Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR)

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR)
(19601990) Czech Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic

Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (ČSFR)
(19891992) Czech Republic
Slovak Republic

Czech Republic


(since 1993)

Czecho-Slovak Republic (ČSR) incl. autonomous Slovakia and Transcarpathian Ukraine


WWII Slovak Republic


(further) "Upper Hungary"

part of the Ukrainian SSR

Zakarpattia Oblast of Ukraine
(since 1991)

German occupation Communist era (part of the Eastern Bloc) 19481989

Overview of the modern Whoniverse[edit]

Despite the presence of many apparently supernatural elements, the universe of Doctor Who is fundamentally a rational one. Solutions to problems result from the application of science. Magic, in such a universe, doesn't exist; it's merely the result of a technological gap between the performer and the perceiver. Religion exists in many forms, but its specifics—such as why and how people worship the things they do—are also generally explained as having a scientific or factual basis.

As opposed to other science fictional universes, the Whoniverse's dominant conceit is that time travel is a conventional, rather than extraordinary, possibility for some of its inhabitants. More explicitly, time travel is the result of safe and relatively reliable technology, rather than happenstance or the application of previously-untested theories. Time travel has been around for thousands of years in the Whoniverse, and has been developed along several different paths. It is not the exclusive possession of a single individual or race. Nevertheless, the Time Lords of Gallifrey--of whom the Doctor is a member--are seen possess the safest, best developed method of time travel. However, these assertions are usually made by Time Lords themselves.

The Whoniverse is also a place teeming with life. An unknown, but ever-increasing, number of planets are shown to support life. Creatures of many types—reptileloids, insectoids, intelligent sea creatures, cybernetic creatures, non-coporeal beings and others—exist alongside humans. It has a more diverse biology than other science fictional universes, especially when compared to the more humanoid-centric view of the universe shown in Star Trek. Moreover, habitable planets are often shown to several intelligent species, often from very different paths of evolution.

Furhter, the Whoniverse is unusual for being literally a universe. Whereas the scope of most other science fiction "universes" is at most a single galaxy, inter-galactic travel is commonplace in the Whoniverse. In part this is due to the ease of such travel by the main character, but it has also been seen as an accomplishment of other inhabitants of the universe.

Main Inhabitants[edit]

Despite this broad canvas, certain creatures and planets have received greater definition than others.

Time Lords[edit]

As the Doctor's species, Time Lords occupy a pivotal role in the Whoniverse. They are seen as a technologically advanced, if staid, race. Tension exists between a minority of Time Lords who wish to use their technology to change history for subjectively beneficial purposes, and the majority, who prefer to observe. This has led to the creation of so-called "Laws of Time", which have a bearing in their decision-making process. Even the Doctor, a staunch member of the minority faction, feels some obligation to respect these Laws. Thus he and his companions are enjoined against changing their own personal timelines. This means that time travel is significantly muted in its power. It is not used as a means to "re-do" events that fail to conclude desirably for the time traveller. This inability to use time travel as an easy solution for death or imminent defeat has come to be explained by the shorthand phrase, "We're part of events now." The law is practically, but in no way officially, enforced by the presence of a race called the Reapers. Reapers feed off of the temporal paradoxes that result from breaking the Laws of Time, and thus threaten the lives of anyone attempting to do so.

While Time Lords. as the name suggests, shape the universe by introducing a source for time travel technology, they are also signficant for their work with dimensional transcendentalism. That is, they have the ability to make things bigger on the outside than not. The principal example of this are TARDISes, but other devices such as SIDRATs and the Genesis Ark, have occasionally appeared using this hallmark technology. Unlike time travel, dimensional transcendentalism has never been mastered by other races. Viewers thus know that when they see an object displaying this ability, it was made by Time Lords.

Time Lords are further unique in that they have the ability to regenerate.

Perhaps the most importatnt feature of the Time Lords to the modern Whoniverse, however, is that they are virtually extinct. This has changed the importance of Time Lords in the 2005 Whoniverse. They are now viewed as legendary or mythical by those societies that remember them at all. Their absence means that some things which were once possible in the Whoniverse, such as inter-dimensional travel and occasional violations of the Laws of Time, are now much more difficult. Now that they are gone, for example, they cannot hold back the Reapers if a temporal paradox occured.


Another time-travelling race is the Daleks. They are significant to the shape of the universe in that they are the Time Lords' greatest enemies. At several points in the timeline of the Whoniverse, they have been known to seemingly every race they encountered.


The planet Earth is the most frequent setting for stories which take place in the Whoniverse. But the Earth, and the humans which inhabit it, are different to the real Earth in a number of ways.

Perhaps most significantly, humans are not only sentient species on the planet. Other species have evolved on the planet, or have been long-term settlers. Indeed, the "Whoniverse Earth" was in fact formed around a spacecraft from another planet. Despite the relative abundance of non-human sentients on this earth, it is a central tenet of the Whoniverse that non-human residents of Earth are unknown to most humans. Non-human Earth residents reveal themselves to human society only occasionally.

Further, Earth is routinely visited by all manner of species. Average citizens of Earth are generally unaware or in denial of these visits. Nevertheless the "Whoniverse Earth" is possessed of official governmental responses to these incursions, most notably in the form of UNIT and Torchwood. Despite the number of alien visitors over the years, general public recognition of aliens is a recent phenomenon. It dates from Christmas 2007, when images of the Sycorax were carried, and never subsequently denied, by the worldwide press.

The "present year" on Earth in any given Whoniverse adventure is usually only apparently the same one in which the episode was first broadcast. Though there are cases of stories, such as An Unearthly Child, in which the "Whoniverse year" is explicitly stated as the same as the "audience year", there have been long periods of time in which the "present day" on Earth was in fact the audience's relative future. From Spearhead from Space to The Hand of Fear, audiences were seeing Earth of the 1980s, instead of the 1970s.

Early in the 2005 revival of Doctor Who, the Doctor failed to return Rose Tyler to her relative present. He missed by a full year. Because of the sanction against retconning a personal timeline, the Doctor was unable to correct this mistake. The subsequent narrative dependance of Torchwood and The Sarah Jane Adventures' on Doctor Who epsiodes involving Rose, this has had a long-lasting effect. The setting of the entire televised Whoniverse is thus now "one year later".

Time displacements such as these have forced writers to employ guesswork about the level of technology that humans had in the "present day". The Earth of the Whoniverse has been seen to have slightly more advanced technology than that which has actually obtained in the real world. In particular, the Britain of the Whoniverse was said to have its own manned space programme, and has been seen to operate unmanned space probes on its own, outside the aegis of the European Space Agency. Likewise, the wholly British organization, Torchwood, is routinely shown to be able to understand and operate complex alien technology.

Earth's past is also slightly different in the Whoniverse. Unexplained historical mysteries are frequently laid at the doorstep of alien incursion in the Whoniverse. Many cataclysmic evenets, such as the disappearance of the Marie Celeste, the starting of the Great London Fire, and William Shakespeare's unpublished play Loves Labours Wonne are said to be the result of alien intervention.

The future of humanity is largely a bright one. Humanity ultimately spreads to other galaxies, forming alliances and empires along the way. Though Earth itself explodes at some point, humans can be found trillions of years from the present day.


The Whoniverse is shaped by events, as much as people.

The Time War[edit]

One of the central tenets about the modern Whoniverse is the notion of the Time War. Because that war has never been depicted, its effects on the shape of the Whoniverse is unclear. All we do know is that it ended with the Daleks and Time Lords plucked from existence. Its most important outcome was its emotional impact on the Doctor, adding a sense of profound loneliness to his character in the wake of becoming the last of the Time Lords. However, its larger role may be to act as a rebooting mechanism for the 2005 Whoniverse.

A prme example is the destruction of the planet Earth. In The Ark, this event was said to occur a few thousand years from the 1960s. However, in the modern era, this date has been set at about the year 5 billion A.D. It is assumed that the reason for this is that the Time War, by taking away two of the three major species in the Whoniverse, completely changed the time line of Earth.

But this is just an assumption. No explanation has been given for the two vastly different dates. To this extent, the Time War acts as a narrative wildcard, allowing 21st century writers of Whoniverse stories to pick and choose which features of the Whoniverse they wish to keep, and which they wish to discard.

  1. ^ Sullivan, Shannon. "Profile of Attack of the Cybermen". Retrieved 2009-02-28.