User:Dan Pelleg/Sandbox

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Georges Henein[edit]

Georges Henein

Invisible Pink Unicorn.svg

Letters[edit]

Letter name Aramaic written using Letter Equivalent letter in IPA
Syriac script Imperial Aramaic script Phoenician alphabet Hebrew Arabic Brahmi Nabataean Kharosthi
Ālap Syriac Estrangela alap.svg Aleph.svg 𐡀 א 𐤀 ا Brahmi a.svg 01 aleph.svg Kharosthi a.svg /ʔ/; /aː/, /eː/
Bēth Syriac Estrangela bet.svg Beth.svg 𐡁 ב 𐤁 ب Brahmi b.svg 02 bet.svg Kharosthi b.svg /b/, /v/
Gāmal Syriac Estrangela gamal.svg Gimel.svg 𐡂 ג 𐤂 ج Brahmi g.svg 03 gimel.svg Kharosthi g.svg /ɡ/, /ɣ/
Dālath Syriac Estrangela dalat.svg Daleth.svg 𐡃 ד 𐤃 د،ذ Brahmi dh.svg 04 dal.svg Kharosthi dh.svg /ð/, /d/
Syriac Estrangela he.svg He0.svg 𐡄 ה 𐤄 ه ? 05 ha.svg ? /h/
Waw Syriac Estrangela waw.svg Waw.svg 𐡅 ו 𐤅 و Brahmi v.svg 06 waw.svg Kharosthi v.svg /w/; /oː/, /uː/
Zain Syriac Estrangela zayn.svg Zayin.svg 𐡆 ז 𐤆 ز ? 07 zayn.svg ? /z/
Ḥēth Syriac Estrangela het.svg Heth.svg 𐡇 ח 𐤇 ح،خ ? 08 ha.svg ? /ħ/ /χ~x/
Ṭēth Syriac Estrangela tet.svg Teth.svg 𐡈 ט 𐤈 ط،ظ Brahmi th.svg 09 taa.svg Kharosthi th.svg emphatic /tˤ/
Yodh Syriac Estrangela yod.svg Yod.svg 𐡉 י 𐤉 ي Brahmi y.svg 10 yaa.svg Kharosthi y.svg /j/; /iː/, /eː/
Kāp Syriac Estrangela kap.svg Kaph.svg 𐡊 כ ך 𐤊 ك Brahmi k.svg 11 kaf.svg Kharosthi k.svg /k/, /x/
Lāmadh Syriac Estrangela lamad.svg Lamed.svg 𐡋 ל 𐤋 ل Brahmi l.svg 12 lam.svg Kharosthi l.svg /l/
Mem Syriac Estrangela mim.svg Mem.svg 𐡌 מ ם 𐤌 م Brahmi m.svg 13 meem.svg Kharosthi m.svg /m/
Nun Syriac Estrangela nun.svg Nun.svg 𐡍 נ ן 𐤍 ن Brahmi n.svg 14 noon.svg Kharosthi n.svg /n/
Semkath Syriac Estrangela semkat.svg Samekh.svg 𐡎 ס 𐤎 س Brahmi sh.svg 15 sin.svg Kharosthi sh.svg /s/
ʿĒ Syriac Estrangela 'e.svg Ayin.svg 𐡏 ע 𐤏 ع، غ ? 16 ein.svg ? /ʕ/
Syriac Estrangela pe.svg Pe0.svg 𐡐 פ ף 𐤐 ف Brahmi p.svg 17 fa.svg Kharosthi p.svg /p/, /f/
Ṣādhē Syriac Estrangela sade.svg Sade 1.svg, Sade 2.svg 𐡑 צ ץ 𐤑 ص، ض Brahmi s.svg 18 sad.svg Kharosthi s.svg emphatic /sˤ/
Qop Syriac Estrangela qop.svg Qoph.svg 𐡒 ק 𐤒 ق Brahmi kh.svg 19 qaf.svg Kharosthi kh.svg /q/
Rēsh Syriac Estrangela res.svg Resh.svg 𐡓 ר 𐤓 ر Brahmi r.svg 20 ra.svg Kharosthi r.svg /r/
Shin Syriac Estrangela sin.svg Shin.svg 𐡔 ש 𐤔 ش Brahmi ss.svg 21 shin.svg Kharosthi ss.svg /ʃ/
Taw Syriac Estrangela taw.svg Taw.svg 𐡕 ת 𐤕 ت، ث Brahmi t.svg 22 ta.svg Kharosthi t.svg /t/, /θ/

Matres lectionis[edit]

Main article: Mater lectionis

In Aramaic writing, Waw and Yodh serve a double function. Originally, they represented only the consonants w and y, but they were later adopted to indicate the long vowels ū and ī respectively as well (often also ō and ē respectively). In the latter role, they are known as matres lectionis or "mothers of reading".

Ālap, likewise, has some of the characteristics of a mater lectionis because in initial positions, it indicates a glottal stop (followed by a vowel), but otherwise, it often also stands for the long vowels ā or ē. Among Jews, the influence of Hebrew often led to the use of Hē instead, at the end of a word.

The practice of using certain letters to hold vowel values spread to Aramaic-derived writing systems, such as in Arabic and Hebrew, which still follow the practice.

ab[edit]

This page is about the alphabet derived from the Aramaic alphabet. For the alphabet derived from the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, see Samaritan script. For Hebrew diacritical marks, see Hebrew diacritics.
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת •
Features: Abjad • Mater lectionis • Begadkefat
Variants: Cursive • Rashi • Braille
Numerals: Gematria • Numeration
Ancillaries: Diacritics • Punctuation • Cantillation
Translit.: Romanization of Hebrew • Hebraization of English • IPA • ISO
Computers: Keyboard • Unicode and HTML
Hebrew alphabet
Alefbet ivri.svg
Type
Languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic (see Jewish languages)
Time period
3rd century BCE to present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Nabataean
Syriac
Palmyrenean
Mandaic
Brāhmī
Pahlavi
Sogdian
Direction Right-to-left
ISO 15924 Hebr, 125
Unicode alias
Hebrew
U+0590 to U+05FF,
U+FB1D to U+FB4F

cd[edit]

This page is about the alphabet derived from the Aramaic alphabet. For the alphabet derived from the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, see Samaritan script. For Hebrew diacritical marks, see Hebrew diacritics.
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת  •  
אבגדהוזחטי
כךלמםנןסעפ
ףצץקרשת •
Features: Abjad • Mater lectionis • Begadkefat
Variants: Cursive • Rashi • Braille
Numerals: Gematria • Numeration
Ancillaries: Diacritics • Punctuation • Cantillation
Translit.: Romanization of Hebrew • Hebraization of English • IPA • ISO
Computers: Keyboard • Unicode and HTML
Hebrew alphabet
Alefbet ivri.svg
Type
Languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic (see Jewish languages)
Time period
3rd century BCE to present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Nabataean
Syriac
Palmyrenean
Mandaic
Brāhmī
Pahlavi
Sogdian
Direction Right-to-left
ISO 15924 Hebr, 125
Unicode alias
Hebrew
U+0590 to U+05FF,
U+FB1D to U+FB4F

sign[edit]


The Event (typographically stylized THEEVƎNT)


vowels[edit]

try1[edit]

 IPA vowel chart image 
  Front Central Back
Close
Mid
Open

try2[edit]

    Front Central Back
Close
Mid
Open
The vowel phonemes of Modern Israeli Hebrew

diphthong in ipa blink[edit]

{{IPAlink|ej}}

notes & refs[edit]

nested refs

1[edit]

This works:

text[nested_first 1] text.[nested_first 2]

Reflist, nested ref listed first
  1. ^ With nested reference[1]
  2. ^ With no nested reference
Nested refs
  1. ^ content of nested reference
text<ref name=n1 group=nested_first/>
text<ref name=n2 group=nested_first/>.

;Reflist, nested ref listed first:{{reflist|group=nested_first|refs=

→ {{#tag:ref|With nested reference<ref>content
of nested reference</ref>|name=n1|group=nested_first}}

→ <ref name=n2 group=nested_first>With no nested reference</ref>}}

;Nested refs:
{{reflist}}
This not:

text[nested_second 1] text.[nested_second 2]

Reflist, nested ref listed second
  1. ^ a b With no nested reference
  2. ^ With nested reference[1]

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "content_of_nested_reference" is not used in the content (see the help page).

Nested refs
text<ref name=n3 group=nested_second/>
text<ref name=n4 group=nested_second/>.

;Reflist, nested ref listed second:{{reflist|group=nested_second|refs=

→ <ref name=n3 group=nested_second>With no nested reference</ref>

→ {{#tag:ref|With nested reference<ref>content
of nested reference</ref>|name=n4|group=nested_second}}
}}

;Nested refs:
{{reflist}}

2[edit]

text with note note_init_omit.[note2 1]

text with note note_w.[note2 2]

text with note note_vav_dgusha.[note2 3]

Notes
  1. ^ content of note_init_omit.
  2. ^ Rarely... content of note_w with nested ref transliteration_rules.[1] Rest of text.
  3. ^ content of note_vav_dgusha.
Refs

3[edit]

ref1,2[1][2]) note1[Notes 1]), situated 16 kilometres (10 mi) ref5[5]

thing1[thINgas 1]), ohne1[ohne 1] mit1[mit 1]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ in-note1 ref3[3] ref4[4]
thINgas!s
  1. ^ in-thing1 ref6[6]
ohnes
  1. ^ in-ohne1
mits
  1. ^ in-mit1 ref7[7]
Citations
  1. ^ inref1
  2. ^ inref2
  3. ^ inref3
  4. ^ inref4
  5. ^ inref5.
  6. ^ inref6
  7. ^ inref7

fox[edit]

Flying bat with tree orig.JPG

listen[edit]

alarm

Motorsirene - Feuerwehralarm

Problems playing this file? See media help.

ǀ

dental click

Problems playing this file? See media help.

ǂ

palatoalveolar click

Problems playing this file? See media help.

ǁ

Alveolar lateral click

Problems playing this file? See media help.

o[edit]

another lede monster: YIVO:

YIVO, (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), established in 1925 in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania) as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט), or Jewish Scientific Institute[1] (ייִדישער yidisher = Jewish or Yiddish, depending on the context), is a source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. Though it was later renamed the Institute for Jewish Research, it is almost always known by its original initials, which, in Yiddish, form the acronym "ייווא", transliterated as "YIVO".

sonority[*]

Note
*^

An exception to this rule seems to be מְלאי

ו'יליאם[edit]

[1]


inline element[edit]

inline table[edit]

no blockquote, text before

Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg

 text after.

Colon blockquote, text before
Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg
 text after.
  • Asterisk blockquote, text before
    Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg
     text after.

inline div[edit]

no blockquote, text before

Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg

 text after.

Colon blockquote, text before
Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg
 text after.
  • Asterisk blockquote, text before
    Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg
     text after.

liason[edit]

[‿ a‿i]

Hebrew phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Below are the consonants of modern General Israeli Hebrew. For each sound, its Hebrew orthography, its phonemic transliteration and its pronunciation are displayed in the following format:

Hebrew orthography: שׁ
phonemic transliteration: /š/
pronunciation: [ʃ]

The letters which may receive the diacritic dagesh kal (ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ת) are listed with and without the dagesh as separate phonemes.[2]

Where two phonemic transliterations are possible, namely a generic vs. a strict tranliteration, the strict transliteration follows the generic one in parentheses:[3]

Hebrew orthography: ט
phonemic transliteration: /t/ (/ṭ/)
pronunciation: [t]

Where a Hebrew letter has an additional word-final form, it is displayed after (to the left of) its regular form, separated from it by a comma:

Hebrew orthography: מ,ם
phonemic transliteration: /m/
pronunciation: [m]

Table[edit]

  Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stops
פּ
/p/
[p]
בּ
/b/
[b]
 
ת
/t/ (/ṯ/)
[t]
תּ
/t/
[t]
ט
/t/ (/ṭ/)
[t]
   
כּ,ךּ
/k/
[k]
ק
/k/ (/q/)
[k]
גּ
/g/
[g]
ג
/g/ (/ḡ/)
[g]
 
א
/’/
[ʔ]
Affricates    
צ,ץ
/ts/ (/ẓ/)
[ʦ]
צ׳,ץ׳
?[4]
[ʧ]
ג׳
?[4]
[ʤ]
       
Fricatives  
פ,ף
/f/
[f]
ב
/v/
[v]
ו
/v/ (/w/)
[v]
ס
/s/
[s]
שׂ
/s/ (/ś/)
[s]
ז
/z/
[z]
שׁ
/sh/ (/š/)
[ʃ]
ז׳
/ž/[4]
[ʒ]
   
כ,ך
/kh/ (/ḵ/)
[χ]
ח
/ẖ/ (/ḥ/)
[χ]
ר
/r/
[ʁ][5]
ה
/h/
[h]
Nasals
מ,ם
/m/
[m]
   
נ,ן
/n/
[n]
       
Laterals    
ל
/l/
[l]
         
Approximants
ו
/v/ (/w/)
[w][4]
     
י
/y/
[j]
     
  1. ^ yivo
  2. ^ Note that Bet / Vet (ב / בּ), Kaf / Khaf (כ / כּ) and Pe / Fe (פ / פּ) still represent each two separate phonemes in modern Hebrew, whereas Gimel (ג / גּ), Daled (ד / דּ) and Taf (ת / תּ) each represent only one phoneme in modern Hebrew. The pairs (/b/, /v/), (/k/, /x/), (/p/, /f/), written respectively by the letters bet (ב), kaf (כ) and pe (פ) have historically been allophonic. In Modern Hebrew, however, all six sounds are phonemic, due to mergers involving formerly distinct sounds (/v/ merging with /w/, /k/ merging with /q/, /x/ merging with /ħ/), loss of consonant gemination (which formerly distinguished the stop members of the pairs from the fricatives when intervocalic), and the introduction of syllable-initial /f/ through foreign borrowings.
  3. ^ Some historically distinctive Hebrew phonemes have merged in modern Hebrew, such are historically distinctive /t/, /ṯ/, /ṭ/), written respectively by the letters Tav (תּ), av (ת) and et (ט), in modern Israeli Hebrew all pronounced [t]. For these cases, the Academy of the Hebrew Language suggests two tranliteration sets, a generic one, reflecting modern phonology, and a strict one, reflecting the orthographic distinctions, which are still in use, and the historical phonology. See transliteration rules set by the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
  4. ^ a b c d The Voiced labial-velar approximant [w] and postalveolar sounds (with the exception of [ʃ]) are not native to Hebrew, and only found in borrowings.
  5. ^ idiolectally sometimes a uvular trill [ʀ], common among non native speakers also as an alveolar trill [r] or tap [ɾ].

Notes[edit]

Further information: [[:Dagesh]]
  1. The phoneme /v/ is represented by two letters: vet (ב, unemphasized bet) and vav (ו). Although modern Hebrew pronunciation does not differentiate between the two, the latter is historically weaker due to its being a semi-vowel (/w/).
  2. The phoneme /k/ is represented by two letters: kaf (כ) and quf (ק). Although modern Israeli Hebrew pronunciation doesn't differentiate between the two, the latter is pronounced by some speakers as in Arabic /q/.
  3. The phoneme /t/ is represented by two letters: tet (ט) and tav (ת). The tet was historically pronounced with pharyngealization (as in Arabic) or as an ejective (often, but misleadingly, called "emphasis"). The letter tav, when intervocalic and non-doubled (i.e. without dagesh) represented a fricative [θ]. For example, what in Modern Hebrew is /bet ˈleχem/ (or /bejt ˈleχem/) was transcribed (through Greek, which is ill-equipped to represent /ħ/) into English from Old Hebrew as "Bethleem", also demonstrating note number 5. The traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation of tau without dagesh as "s" is a continuation of this former distinction.
  4. In old Hebrew the צ (/ʦ/) was, like ט, pharyngealized or ejective ("emphasis"). Currently, the only community of Hebrew-speakers which expresses this in speech are Yemenite Jews, whose Hebrew did not lose them, as other communities did under the influence of Yiddish and other European languages); however the emphasis led to several types of phonetic change that still exist. The exact nature of the emphatic feature is a matter of debate; the most commonly suggested possibilities are pharyngealization (as in Arabic) and glottalization (or the ejective mechanism) (as in the Ethiopian Semitic languages).
  5. In the speech of most modern Hebrew speakers, the phoneme /χ/ is represented by two letters: het (ח) and khaf (כ). Het is presumed to historically have been a voiceless pharyngeal fricative (like Arabic ح). The voiceless pharyngeal fricative pronunciation [ħ] is found in the speech of many Teimanim, Mizrachim and Sephardim, who, like Ashkenazim, pronounce khaf as /x/.

Vowels[edit]

The vowel phonemes of Modern Israeli Hebrew
Phoneme Pronunciation in
Modern Hebrew
Approximate pronunciation
in English
Orthographic representation
"Long" * "Short" * "Very short" / "interrupted" *
/a/ [ä] or [ɑ̈]
(between
[a] and [ɑ])
(as in "spa") kamats (ָ) patach (ַ) chataf patach (ֲ)

In Biblical Hebrew, each vowel had three forms: short, long and interrupted (khataf). However, there is no audible distinction between the three in modern Israeli Hebrew, except that tsere is often pronounced /eɪ/ as in Ashkenazi Hebrew.

cholam chaser[edit]

one two three אחת שתיים שלוש
one two three אחת שתיים שלוש
one two three אחת שתיים שלוש
one two three אחת שתיים שלוש

Tahitian Alphabet[edit]

The Tahitian language features 14 phonemes: five vowels and nine consonants.

letter name pronunciation
a ’ā /a/, /ɑː/
e ’ē /e/, /eː/
f /f/
h /h/
i ’ī /i/, /iː/
m /m/
n /n/
o ’ō /ɔ/, /oː/
p /p/
r /r/
t /t/
u ’ū /u/, /uː/
v /v/
’eta /ʔ/

The glottal stop or 'eta is a genuine consonant. This is typical of Polynesian languages (compare to the Hawaiian ʻokina and others).