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Golden-crowned snake
Cacophis squamulosus Berowra.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Elapidae
Genus: Cacophis
Species: C. squamulosus
Binomial name
Cacophis squamulosus
Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854[1][2]

The Golden-crowned snake (Cacophis squamulosus) is a small a mildly venomous species of snake native to Australia.

The snakes of medical importance model is the most useful method of classifying venomous species in any given area based on potential to cause death or serious injury frequently or infrequently. This model is not concerned with precise numbers of deaths a species causes, which is unknown in virtually every country The model classifies the snakes based on their venom toxicity (LD50), the time it takes for a bite victim to die, and the mortality rate among bite victims, whether treated or not. Class I includes species which may or may not cause a high number of bites throughout their range; envenomation by these species often results in severe envenomation with rapid or delayed progression of local and systemic symptoms and death times can range anywhere from a few minutes to 12 hours. Mortality rates in case of envenomation are extremely high (70-100%). Class II species may or may not cause a high number of bites where they occur; envenomation by these species often results in moderate to severe local or systemic symptoms and death time can range from 12 hours to 10 days. Mortality rates in cases of envenomation are moderate to high (10-60%). Class III species are those which may or may not cause a high number of bites, and although serious local or systemic effects are not common, some species within this class may cause moderate or even marked local effects (necrosis, disfigurement, etc) and moderate severity in systemic effects when treatment is either delayed or not procured. However, regardless of seriousness of envenomation, death is generally uncommon, even in untreated victims. Still, mortality rates in cases of envenomation are low (< 1-10%).[3]

Classification of threat level of venomous snakes worldwide
Class Species Envenomation
Class I Dendroaspis polylepis, Oxyuranus scutellatus, Oxyuranus microlepidotus, Bungarus multicinctus, Bungarus flaviceps, Bungarus caeruleus, Bungarus candidus, Naja oxiana, Naja melanoleuca, Naja philippinensis, Naja samarensis, Pseudonaja textilis, Acanthophis antarcticus, Notechis spp., Pseudohaje goldii Many of the Class I species are considered to be some of the world's most venomous snakes. Class O All Naja spp (except N. oxiana, N. melanoleuca, N. philippinensis, and N. samarensis), B. arietans, B. jararaca, B. asper, B. atrox, L. muta, P. australis, P. porphyriacus, P. collettii The Lion Magnanimous, dominant, ambitious, strong-willed, pompous, prideful, violent temper, overbearing, dogmatic, obstinate, patronizing Vulnarable to heart and blood disease, back pain, lung problems, major depression, narcissistic personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, drug addiction Napoleon Bonaparte, Bill Clinton, Benito Mussolini, Madonna, Sandra Bullock, Jennifer Lopez, Barack Obama, Cam Gigandet,
Sagittarius Fire/Mutable The Archer Optimistic, jovial, intelligent, honest, philosophical, superficial, tactless, selfish, careless, quick-tempered Vulnerable to ailments of the hips and thighs and are liable to sciatica and rheumatism. Also major depression, anxiety and panic attacks, antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder

Snakebite table[edit]

Various species' mice and human fatality count based on maximum venom dose by Zug et al. (1996)
Species LD50 SC[4] Dose Mice Humans
Black mamba 0.05 mg/kg 400 mg[5] 400,000 107
Coastal taipan 0.106 mg/kg 400 mg[6] 208,019 56
King cobra 1.09 mg/kg 1000 mg[7] 45,830 11
Forest cobra 0.225 mg/kg 1102 mg[8] 244,889 65
Inland taipan 0.01 mg/kg 110 mg[6] 1,085,000 289
Many-banded krait 0.09 mg/kg 18.4 mg[9] 10,222 3
Eastern brown snake 0.03 mg/kg 155 mg[8] 212,329 59
Gaboon viper 5 mg/kg 2400 mg[10] 24,000 6
Saw-scaled viper 0.151 mg/kg 72 mg[11] 23,841 6
Fer-de-lance 3.1 mg/kg 1530 mg[12] 24,380 6
Mainland tiger snake 0.19 mg/kg 336 mg[8] 138,000 31
Caspian cobra 0.21 mg/kg 590 mg[13] 135,556 27
Cape cobra 0.4 mg/kg 250 mg[14] 31,250 9
Jameson's mamba 0.42 mg/kg 120 mg[15] 12,709 4
Russell's viper 0.162 mg/kg 268 mg[10] 88,211 22

Proving of black mamba in homeopathic medicine[edit]

Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on the doctrine of like cures like, according to which a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure similar symptoms in sick people. The fundamental principle of homeopathy, which states the substances may be used treat disorders whose manifestations are similar to those that the same substance will induce in a healthy subject. The law of similars is also [16] A homeopathic proving is the method by which the profile of a homeopathic remedy is determined.[17]

A homeopathic proving of the venom of the black mamba was conducted by Dr. Rajan Sankaran. The venom is collected from black mambas and goes through a process of serial diution. Serial dilution is one of the core foundational practices of homeopathy, with "succussion", or shaking, occurring between each dilution. Eventually, a remedy is made to use against suffering illnesses that have similar traits and characteristics as the black mamba.

The black mamba as a species is described or associated with the following:

  • The world's most dangerous snake.
  • Uncertain tempers coupled with copious amounts of exceedingly potent neurotoxic venom.
  • Speed, agility, ferocity and deadliness.
  • The world's fastest snake, and indeed, it is extremely fast and difficult to control when spooked.
  • Antisocial-type animal.
  • Diurnal (active by day).
  • Shy and extremely nervous, taking flight at the first sign of human encroachmentand rarely allowing an approach of less than 23 m/75 ft. If cornered or an attempt to capture it is made, the black mamba will (when angered, which doesn't take much) give a threat display. They raise the front body and head well off the ground (1-1.2 m/3-4 ft in large specimens), spread a flat, narrow hood while shaking the head, gape the mouth, and show the purple-black interior. They also emit a long, hollow-sounding hiss that is thoroughly convincing.
  • When confronted with an angry mamba displaying their 'threat display, FREEZE!
  • Be forewarned. Unlike cobras or the king cobra, this snake doesn't bluff, and will not hesitate to attack. It usually delivers quick, multiple bites, while dashing for freedom past the victim.

The very large size attained by these snakes gives them the ability to strike from a long way out and bite the upper pa rt of the victim (1.2-1.8 m/4-6 ft away). With patience by the would be victi m, the mamba will slowly and cautiously retreat, allowing its escape. • Climbs quickly and gracefully. Very fast moving. It often moves with the head and neck raised high.

The main theme of the remedy is one of isolation of being alone. The proving of the black mamba was based on psychological disorders rather than physical ailments. Those afflicted with the black mamba condition types, suggested deviant behavioural problems, emotional dysregulation, and narcissistic and psychopathic traits. The proving seemed to suggest the remedy targeted what was seemingly described as antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and psychopathy. Sufferers were described as critical, malicious, aggressive, argumentative, and manipulative. They react violently and cruelly to any real or perceived attack, slight, or rejection, and act without any remorse. They were invariably impulsive and violent. Sexuality can be out of control, commonly with paraphilias. They described themselves as animal-like. The sufferers also displayed a frantic and paralyzing fear of loneliness; a state which they were constantly in. They feel that they are being cheated and act vindictively against anyone who they feel as cheated or betrayed them. They display incredible anxiety about the future and a fear that something will happen. They feel trapped and crushed. There is considerable hopelessness and despair. This is described as being enveloped in a black cloud or going into a tunnel that is getting narrower and narrower and darker and darker. Suicidal ideation was common, many stating they wish they could sleep and never wake up again. They display anger and hopelessness. Unfeeling, and aggressive behaviour. Quarrelsome. Uncivilised. Direct and rude. Harsh and abusive. Desire to hurt people, especially relatives, both physically and emotionally. Insensitive and uncaring about the people around them. Selfish and unfeeling about the misfortune of others.

Classes[edit]

The snakes of medical importance model is the most useful method of classifying venomous species in any given area based on potential to cause death or serious injury frequently or infrequently. This model is not concerned with precise numbers of deaths a species causes, which is unknown in virtually every country The model classifies the snakes based on their venom toxicity (LD50), the time it takes for a bite victim to die, and the mortality rate among bite victims, whether treated or not. Class I includes species which may or may not cause a high number of bites throughout their range; envenomation by these species often results in severe envenomation with rapid or delayed progression of local and systemic symptoms and death times can range anywhere from a few minutes to 12 hours. Mortality rates in case of envenomation are extremely high (70-100%). Class II species may or may not cause a high number of bites where they occur; envenomation by these species often results in moderate to severe local or systemic symptoms and death time can range from 12 hours to 10 days. Mortality rates in cases of envenomation are moderate to high (10-60%). Class III species are those which may or may not cause a high number of bites, and although serious local or systemic effects are not common, some species within this class may cause moderate or even marked local effects (necrosis, disfigurement, etc) and moderate severity in systemic effects when treatment is either delayed or not procured. However, regardless of seriousness of envenomation, death is generally uncommon, even in untreated victims. Still, mortality rates in cases of envenomation are low (< 1-10%).[3]

Classification of threat level of venomous snakes worldwide
Class Species Envenomation
Class I Dendroaspis sp. (jamesoni [C], polylepis [A], viridis [B]), Pseudohaje ssp. [C], Bitis sp. (gabonica [B], rhinoceros [B], Oxyuranus sp. [A], Bungarus sp. (caeruleus [C], candidus [B], ceylonicus [B], fasciatus [C], flaviceps [C], multicinctus [A], niger [C]), Ophiophagus hannah [B], Naja sp. (a. annulata [C], a. stormsi [C], christyi [C], melanoleuca [B], oxiana [B], philippinensis [C], samarensis [C]), Daboia sp. (palaestinae [C], russelli [B], siamensis [B]), Echis sp. (carinatus [C], coloratus [C], hughesi [C], jogeri [C], khosatskii [C], leucogaster [C], megalocephalus [C], multisquamatus [C], ocellatus [C], omanensis [C], pyramidum ssp. [C], sochureki [C]), Pseudonaja textilis [A], Acanthophis sp. (antarcticus [B], laevis [C], praelongus [B], pyrrhus [C], rugosus [C], wellsi [C]) Crotalus sp. (durissus cascavella [C], d. collilineatus [C], d. cumanensis [C], d. dryinas [C], d. marajoensis [C], d. ruruima [C], d. terrificus [B], d. trigonicus [C], simus culminatus [C], s. simus [C], s. tzabcan [C], totonacus [C]) Notechis spp. (ater ssp.[B], scutatus [B]) Many of the Class I species are considered to be some of the world's most venomous snakes, including at least five of those listed belong in the top ten according to an extensive toxinological study conducted by Ernst & Zug. According to Ernst & Zug 1996, the Subcutis murine LD50 for the Inland taipan was 0.01 mg/kg, the Eastern brown snake was 0.03 mg/kg, the Black mamba was 0.05 mg/kg, the Many-banded krait was 0.09 mg/kg, and the Coastal taipan was 0.106 mg/kg. Envenomation by any species within Class I is a serious life-threatening medical emergency. Mortality for untreated bites range from 75% for the Caspian cobra (N. oxiana)[18] to 100% for the black mamba (D. polylepis).[19][20] Some Class I species high mortality rate even with antivenom treatment. One such snake is the many-banded krait (B. multicinctus), which has a mortality rate of at least 50% even with antivenom treatment. Without antivenom, the mortality rate is over 80%.
Class II Bungarus spp. (andamanensis [A], bungaroides [A], lividus [A], magnimaculatus [A], sindanus [A], slowinskii [B], Naja spp. (anchietae [B], annulifera [B], atra [A], arabica [A], ashei [A], haje [A], kaouthia [A], katiensis [B], mandalayensis [B], mossambica [A], naja [A], nigricincta [B], n. woodi [B], nigricollis [B], nivea [A], nubiae [C], pallida [A], sagittifera [B], siamensis [A], sputatrix [B], sumatrana [A]), Crotalus spp. (adamanteus [A], atrox [A], basiliscus [A], c. cerastes [C], c. laterorepens [C], cerberus [B], durissus unicolor [C], durissus vegrandis [C], horridus [B], mitchellii angelensis [B], m. mitchellii [C], m. pyrrhus [C], m. stephensi [C], molossus estebanensis [B], m. molossus [A], m. nigrescens [B], m. oaxacus [B], oreganus abyssus [C], o. caliginis [C], o. concolor [C], o. helleri [A], o. lutosus [B], o. oreganus [A], polystictus [C], ruber lucasensis [B], r. ruber [A], scutulatus salvini [C], s. scutulatus [B], tigris [B], tortugensis [C], triseriatus armstrongi [C], t. triseriatus [C], viridis nuntius [C], v. viridis [A]) Dispholidus typus [A], Dendroaspis angusticeps [A], Bitis spp. (arietans [A], nasicornis [A], parviocula [A]) Class II species are may or may not be responsible for a significant amount of bites or fatalities, but all are capable of severely envenoming adult humans. Untreated mortality ranges anywhere from 6.5-20% for the Indian cobra (Naja naja)[21] to some Bungarus species, Cape cobra (Naja nivea) at 50%+.[21]
Class III Naja multifasciata [A], Crotalus spp. (aquilus [A], catalinensis [A], c. cercobombus [A], enyo [A], exsul [A], intermedius [A], lannomi [A], lepidus [A], mitchellii muertensis [A], pricei [A], pusillus [A], ravus [A], ruber lorenzoensis [A], stejnegeri [A], tancitarensis [A], transversus [A], willardi [A]) Bitis spp. (albanica [A], armata [A], atropos [A], caudalis [A], cornuta [A], heraldica [A], inornata [A], peringueyi [A], rubida [A], schneideri [A], worthingtoni [A], xeropaga [A]), Heterodon nasicus [C]

= enveomation[edit]

Highly dangerous[edit]

Species Rate of envenomation Untreated Mortality rate
Black mamba >95% 100%
Coastal taipan >80% 100%
Many-banded krait >80% 77-90%
Inland taipan >80% 80%
Caspian cobra >80% 75-80%
Indian cobra 45-50% 6.5-20%
Example Example
Example Example Example
Example Example Example
Example Example Example

Sig[edit]

Hello. --Dendro†NajaTalk to me! 18:01, 16 February 2014 (UTC)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cacophis squamulosus". ITIS Standard Report Page. ITIS.gov. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Cacophis squamulosus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)". Reptile Database. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Simpson, Ian D. (2008). "A2 Snakebite Management in Asia & Africa: A guide to snakebite in the key area for mortality and morbidity" (PDF). Indian Journal of Emergency Pediatrics, Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, & KFBG China Programme. Pakistan: Pakistan Medical Research Council. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
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  6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference inchem1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Pung, Yuh Fen (24). "Ohanin, a Novel Protein from King Cobra Venom, Induces Hypolocomotion and Hyperalgesia in Mice". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (13): 13137–13147. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414137200. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date=, |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  8. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Mir06 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Mal03 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Daniels,J. C. (2002) The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians, BNHS & Oxford University Press, Mumbai, pp 151-153. ISBN 0-19-566099-4
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  14. ^ Branch, Bill (1998). Field Guide Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. p. 108. ISBN 1868720403. 
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  16. ^ Hahnemann, Samuel (1833). The Homœopathic Medical Doctrine, or "Organon of the Healing Art". Dublin: W.F. Wakeman. pp. iii, 48–49. Observation, reflection, and experience have unfolded to me that the best and true method of cure is founded on the principle, similia similibus curentur. To cure in a mild, prompt, safe, and durable manner, it is necessary to choose in each case a medicine that will excite an affection similar (ὅμοιος πάθος) to that against which it is employed.  Translator: Charles H. Devrient, Esq.
  17. ^ Dantas F; Fisher P; Walach H; Wieland F; Rastogi D; Teixeira H; Koster D; Jansen J; Eizayaga J (2007), "A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic pathogenetic trials published from 1945 to 1995", Homeopathy, 96 (1): 4–16, doi:10.1016/j.homp.2006.11.005, PMID 17227742 
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference medsnakes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Davidson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Z11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ a b Brown, John H. (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, IL USA: Charles C. Thomas. p. 81. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.