User:Djflem/UC History

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http://www.hudsonreporter.com/view/full_story/14119342/article-Latinos-honored-in-Union-City-Celia-Cruz-Plaza-welcomes-three-new-stars-?instance=secondary_stories_left_column

Cheslow, Jerry (February 11, 2001). "Union City, N.J.; Manhattan Views At Blue-Collar Price". If You're Thinking of Living In/. New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-28.





History[edit]

Pre-settlement[edit]

At the time of European colonization, the area that would become Hudson County was the territory of the Hackensack tribe of the Lenape people.[1] Soon after the Henry Hudson's exploration of the Hudson River estuary, the Dutch began trading with them, mostly in pelts[2], and by the 1630s had established communities at Harsimus[3] and Communipaw[4] as part of New Netherland colony of Pavonia at today's Jersey City.[5]. These settlements were compromised in the Peach Tree War in 1655.[6]and in 1658, Peter Stuyvesant, then Director-General of New Netherland, renegotiated a new deed for the area east of the Hackensack River.[7] In 1660 he granted permission to establish the fortified semi-autonomous village of Bergen, located at today's Bergen Square and considered to be the first chartered municpality in what would became the state of New Jersey.[8][9] After the 1664 capitulation of Fort Amsterdam the entire colony came into the possession of the British, who established the Province of New Jersey. In 1682, the East Jersey legislature created Bergen County, consisting of all the land in the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers; that is, the eastern portions of what today is Bergen and Hudson Counties. In 1693, Bergen County was divided into two townships: Hackensack Township in the north, and Bergen Township, encompassing the Bergen Neck peninsula, in the south. The border between the two townships is the current Hudson-Bergen county line.[9] At the time Jersey City Heights and North Hudson was heavily forested, traversed by paths used by the indigenous and colonializing population and became known as Bergen Woods.

Early settlement[edit]

During the 17th and early part of the 18th century many lands were held in common, which led to much confusion and conflict. It was not until 1765 that Bergen Township was was completely surveyed and allloted, mostly to Dutch and British settlers and merchants. That year the Van Vorst family, early Dutch settlers to Pavonia acquired possession a tract.[10] in the area now encompassed by the city. Some holdings were part of estates on the river in Hoboken and Weehawken. The southeastern part of town was acquired by Colonel John Stevens when he bought at auction the estate of loyalist Nicolaas Bayard, member of the Bayard family,[10] which he bequethed to Hoboken Land and Improvement Company in 1838. The northern part of town included western parts of the riverfront estates of James Gore King and James Brown, a founder of Brown Bros. & Co.,[11] from whom the current street takes its named. The Paterson Plank Road and the Hackensack Plank Road were laid out over the palisades from the ferry landings at the waterfront to the towns for which they are named. Coach service connecting to the Hoboken ferry began in 1845 over the first, and in 1854 began travelling over the latter.[10][12]At the time there was only one north-south route though the town that would later become Kennedy Boulevard.[13],once called Weavertown Road for the small village located along it. The area that would one day be Union City, however, remained sparsely populated until the early 19th century, with farms interspersed with small clustered settlements. The subdivision of West Hoboken began in 1841.[14] Union Hill was earnesty marketed and developed starting in 1851 by a savings and loan association established on Manhattan's Lower East Side but a group of Germans, who sold lots by installment plan.

Subdivision of North Bergen[edit]

In 1838, Jersey City was re-incorporated as separate municipality[9], and in 1840, after a significant population increase in southern portion of Bergen County the previous decade,[15] Hudson County, comprising the city and Bergen Township, was created.[9][16] North Bergen Township was incorporated as on April 10, 1843, from the northern portion of Bergen Township, At the time, the town included everything east of the Hackensack River south of the county line, and north of what is now Jersey City.[17][18] Portions of the North Bergen were taken to form Hoboken Township (April 9, 1849, now the City of Hoboken), Hudson Town (April 12, 1852, later part of Hudson City), Hudson City (April 11, 1855, later merged with Jersey City), Guttenberg (formed within the township on March 9, 1859, and set off as an independent municipality on April 1, 1878), Weehawken (March 15, 1859), Union Township and West Hoboken Township (both created on February 28, 1861), Union Hill town (March 29, 1864) . Union Township, or simply Union,[19][20][21] was formed through the merger of a number of villages, such as Dalleytown, Buck’s Corners and Cox’s Corners. The largest of these villages, Union Hill, became the colloquial name for the merged town of Union itself.[22] The northern section of Union Township was later incorporated as West New York in 1898.[23] The name of one of the city's schools, Union Hill Middle School, recalls the former town.[24][25]

Early history and civic boundaries[edit]

The area of what is today Union City was originally inhabited by the Lenni Lenape. It became part of the European New Netherland settlement of Pavonia, later founded as Bergen. During the colonial era it was part of Bergen Township. Three years after the formation of Hudson County in 1840, North Bergen Township was created from the northern part of Bergen Township.[26] North Bergen later divided in various municipalities.[25] [23]:Hoboken in 1849, Weehawken and Guttenberg in 1859, and West Hoboken and Union Township in 1861. The southern portion of Union Township became Union Hill on March 29, 1864, and the remaining northern section was later incorporated as West New York in 1898. Secaucus was founded in 1900. Union City was incorporated on June 1, 1925 by merging the two towns of West Hoboken and Union Hill..[25] The name of one of the city's schools, Union Hill Middle School, recalls the former town.[27]

The area of what is today Union City was originally inhabited by the Lenni Lenape.[28][29][30][31] It became part of the European New Netherland settlement of Pavonia, later founded as Bergen. During the colonial era it was part of Bergen Township. Three years after the formation of Hudson County in 1840, North Bergen Township was established. It was later divided in various municipalities[25] which included Union Township and West Hoboken Township (both created on February 28, 1861), Union Hill town (March 29, 1864)[25] Union City was incorporated on June 1, 1925 by merging the two towns of West Hoboken and Union Hill.[25] The name of one of the city's schools, Union Hill Middle School, recalls the former town.[32]

Merger, incorporation, and street name changes[edit]

Union City was incorporated on June 1, 1925 by merging the two towns of West Hoboken and Union Hill.[25] On January 2, 1926 most of the street names were changed to reflect the new city boundaries. Most side streets that ran east-west were given numbers, while some north-south streets also were renamed. Many of the orginal names, such as Shippen, can be seen in neighboring Weehawken where they were not given numbers. Most of the north-south streets, now called avenues, were also renamed.[33] Some streets still bear the names of these early settlers,[23] including Sip Street,[34][35][36] Brown Street,[35][19] Golden Lane,[19] Tournade Street and Kerrigan Avenue,[20][20][37] [38]

Immigration and industry[edit]

Embroidery and lace exhibit at Union City's Park Performing Arts Center.

Later, German immigrants immigrated from Manhattan. Irish, Polish, Armenians, Syrians, eastern European Jews and Italians followed.[39] In 1851, Germans moved across the Hudson River from New York City in search of affordable land and open space. During the Civil War a military installation, Camp Yates, covered an area now bounded by Bergenline and Palisade Avenues from 22nd to 32nd Street. Germans began to settle what would become Union Hill in 1851,[23] and some descendants of the immigrants of this period live in the city today.[40] Although the area's diversity was represented by the more than nineteen nationalities that made their home in the Dardanelles (a five block area of Central Avenue from 23rd Street to 27th Street,[23] from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, German Americans and Dutch dominated the area. Along with Swiss and Austrian immigrants, they founded the European-style lace making industries for which they were famous. The introduction of Schiffli lace machines in North Hudson[41] made Union City the "embroidery capital of the United States". The trademark of that industry is on the Union City Seal.[37][42][43]

As immigration to the area progressed throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Belgian, Armenian, Greek, Chinese, Jewish and Russian people found a home in the area,[23] though its domination by Germans by the turn of the 20th century was reflected in the fact that the minutes of town meetings were recorded in German.[44] By this time, the area was witnessing a period of urbanization, as an extensive trolley system was developed by the North Hudson County Railway, spurred by both electrification in 1890 and the arrival of Irish and Italian immigrants, which dominated the city until the late 1960s. Successive waves of immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Near East and Latin America contributed to the embroidery industry in subsequent years. "The Cultural Thread"/"El Hilo", an exhibit highlighting this industry, is on display at Union City's Park Performing Arts Center.[45]

The town was also home to the rowdy Hudson Burlesque.[46] Vaudeville and burlesque were theatre staples in Union City, with performers such as Harry Houdini and Fred Astaire making appearances locally.[47] Union City was also for a time the home to the headquarters of sports publisher Joe Weider.[48]

The first Cubans immigrated to Union City in the 1940s, having been attracted to the city in search of work after hearing of its famed embroidery factories. A majority of these Cubans hailed from small towns or cities, particularly Villa Clara Province in central Cuba.[39][49] After World War II, veterans relocated to Bergen County, causing a short-lived decline in the population. In the late 1960s, a large migration of Cuban refugees fleeing Fidel Castro's regime came and settled in Union City, making Union City for many years the city with the largest Cuban population in the U.S. after Miami, hence its nickname, "Havana on the Hudson."[50] Following the Mariel boatlift in 1980, 10,000 Cubans settled in New Jersey, leading to a second wave of Cubans to Union City, which totaled 15,000 by 1994.[43][51][52] The city, as well as neighboring towns such as West New York, has experienced a profound cultural impact as a result of this, as seen in such aspects of local culture as its cuisine, fashion, music, entertainment and cigar-making.[53][54]

Development in the 21st Century[edit]

Since its inception in 2000 the Cuban Day Parade of New Jersey has become a major annual event in North Hudson, beginning in North Bergen and travelling south to its end in Union City.[55][56][57][58][59] Union City has historically been a family-oriented city predominantly made up of brownstones, two-family homes and locally owned businesses. Beginning approximately in 2003, it underwent a period of development of modestly-sized residences, spurred by similar development in neighboring Hoboken, and the city's attempt to attract developers to what had historically been a town unfriendly to them, according to Mayor Brian P. Stack. Through approval of varied construction projects to address the needs of residents of different incomes, improved rent control laws and community input on such issues,[60] this "Hobokenization" resulted in positive comparisons with the redeveloped Hoboken of the mid-to-late 1990s, with new restaurants, bars and art galleries cited as evidence of renewal. The city recorded $192 million in new construction in 2007, and 600 certificates of occupancy, with 500-700 projected for 2008–2009, compared with previous years, in which 50 certificates was considered a high amount.[61] This development continued for several years, reaching a milestone in 2008 with the completion of Union City's first high-rise condominium tower, The Thread, whose name evokes the city's historical association with the embroidery industry.[62][63][64][65] Other such towers have followed, such as the Altessa[64] and Park City Grand.[66]


Schuetzen Park is a privately-owned park in North Bergen, New Jersey, USA that has existed since 1874 and is located on the ridge of the Hudson Palisades at Kennedy Boulevard and Bergen Turnpike just north of the Marginal Highway. Its southern and western perimeters are shared with the Fritz Reuter Althenheim, a retirement community named for the German author, Fritz Reuter[67], and Columbia Park, a large shopping center.[68] The German-American Volksfest has taken place there annually since 1874.[69][70][71]

History[edit]

In 1864, nearby Union Hill was set apart from North Bergen as a separate municipality that had been originally settled by a group of German-Americans as early as 1851.[10] Schuetzen is a derivative of the German word Schütze, meaning "shooter" or "rifleman". Originally encompassing about 32 acres.[71], the park's location on the western cuesta of the Hudson Palisades was chosen so that bullets could be directed into the side of the hill. Target practice continued at the park until 1935.[72] In a 1911 ad for the park (in which it is called Schützen Park) proprietor Fred Hager claimed it as the "largest park of its kind in New Jersey", offering 600 x 200 feet rifle ranges, 10 modern bowling alleys, and three dancing pavilions,[73] which could accommodate roughly 50,000 people.[74] The park also contained a variety of attractions, such as vaudeville performances, parades, fireworks and tournaments.[75] The park was one of the venues in Hudson County that catered to the large German-speaking population.[72] Arbuster's Scheutzen Park[76] and Pohlmann's Hall, are among the many others. From 1945 to 1975, when the sports field was sold to a real estate developer, Schuetzen Park was the home of Hoboken FC 1912.

Modern use[edit]

The park is used for banquets, weddings, receptions,[72] and public sporting events such as boxing[77] and mixed martial arts matches.[78]The park, along with the retirement home, the Bergen Crest Mausoleum, the Garden State Crematory,[79] and the many cemeteries that characterize the area along the western slope - Flower Hill Cemetery, Grove Church Cemetery,[80] Hoboken Cemetery, Machpelah Cemetery and Weehawken Cemetery - constitute a string of green open spaces in North Hudson County.[81]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wright, Kevin W. "The Indigenous Population of Bergen County". Bergen County Historical Society. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
  2. ^ Sterling, Aladine, The Book of Englewood, Committee on the History of Englewood authorized by The Mayor and Council of City of Englewood, N.J.
  3. ^ Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "Harsimus Cove". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 2010-09-16. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  4. ^ Karnoutsos, Carmela; Shalhoub, Patrick (2007). "Communipaw". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  5. ^ Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "Pavonia". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  6. ^ "Peach Tree War". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
  7. ^ Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "350th Anniversary of the Dutch Settlement of Bergen Colonial Jersey City". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  8. ^ Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "Bergen". Jersey City Past and Present. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  9. ^ a b c d Grundy, J. Owen (1970). "Jersey City History of Forms of Government from Early Dutch Days to the Present Time". Jersey City Online. Retrieved 2011=02-04. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. ^ a b c d Feldra, Robert (1917). History of Hudson County Genealogies of Prominent Families. Michel and Rank.
  11. ^ "Brown Mansion, Clifton Park, New Jersey". Weehawken Time Machine. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
  12. ^ Twentieth Anniversary 1919 - 1939 West Hoboken Post No. 14 Union City, New Jersey; The American Legion; Department of New Jersey; Page 31
  13. ^ Barber, John W.; Howe, Henry, "Hudson County", Hudson County Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey, New York: S Tuttle
  14. ^ Feldra, Robert (1917). History of Hudson County Genealogies of Prominent Families. Michel and Rank.
  15. ^ <histcollect/>
  16. ^ Barber, John W.; Howe, Henry, "Hudson County", Hudson County Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey, New York: S Tuttle
  17. ^ Lang, Arnold. "Bergen County's Townships and Municipalities, Part 3 1836 to 1893". The Archivist. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
  18. ^ http://history.rays-place.com/nj/n-bergen-nj.htm
  19. ^ a b c Northern Part of the Town of Union, 1873, Gleason’s Old Maps; East Templeton, Massachusetts
  20. ^ a b c Business Directory Of North Hudson, North Hudson Hospital Association, Town of Union, N.J. 1905, Page 331
  21. ^ Rules and Regulations of the Police Department of the Town of Union, N.J. Adopted July 13, 1881. West Hoboken, A.E. Gregory, Printer, Palisade Avenue. 1881
  22. ^ Van Winkle, Daniel. History of the Municipalities of Hudson County, NJ 1630-1923, Lewis Historical Publishing Company Inc., New York & Chicago, 1924, Pages 463-464
  23. ^ a b c d e f Lucio Fernandez and Gerard Karabin. Union City in Pictures; 2010; Pages 11-13.
  24. ^ Union Hill Middle School's official website
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606–1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 145. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Story" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Story" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  26. ^ "Full text of "Bergen and Jersey City;"". Archive.org. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
  27. ^ Union Hill Middle School's official website
  28. ^ Day, Gordon M. “The Indian as an Ecological Factor in the Northeastern Forests.” Ecology, Vol. 34, #2 (April): 329-346. New England and New York areas 1580-1800. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey and the Massachuset tribe in Massachusetts used fire in ecosystems.1953
  29. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. “Vegetational Change in Northern New Jersey Since 1500 A.D.: A Palynological, Vegetational and Historical Synthesis.” Ph.D. dissertation. New Brunswick, PA: Rutgers University. Author notes on page 8 that Indians often augmented lightning fires. 1979
  30. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. "Indian Set Fires in the Forests of the Northeastern United States." Ecology, Vol. 64, #1 (Feb): 78 88. 1983a Author found no strong evidence that Indians purposely burned large areas, but they did burn small areas near their habitation sites. Noted that the Lenna Lenape Tribe used fire.
  31. ^ "A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherlands with the Places Thereunto Adjoining, Likewise a Brief Relation of the Customs of the Indians There." New York, NY: William Gowans. 1670. Reprinted in 1937 by the Facsimile Text Society, Columbia University Press, New York. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey used fire in ecosystems.
  32. ^ Union Hill Middle School's official website
  33. ^ "In New Jersey: West Hoboken + Union Hill = Union City". Street name changes. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  34. ^ Bergen: Town and Township Nov 1660-Sept 22, 1668, 1957 Genealogical Society of New Jersey
  35. ^ a b Harvey, Cornelius Burnham. Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New Jersey The New Jersey Genealogical Publishing Company, 1900, Page 20
  36. ^ Winfield, Charles H. History of the County of Hudson, New Jersey, Kennard & Hay Stationary, 1874, Page 525
  37. ^ a b Union City 2000 Calendar; 2000; culled from History of West Hoboken and Union Hill by Ella-Mary Ryman; 1965 and "The Historical Background of Union City" by Daniel A. Primont, William G. Fiedler and Fred Zuccaro; 1964
  38. ^ Barber, John W.; Howe, Henry, "North Bergen", Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey, New York: S. Tuttle
  39. ^ a b Perez-Stable, Marifeli. "That other Cuban community" The Miami Herald December 3, 2009]
  40. ^ Cite error: The named reference 350Years was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  41. ^ Schiffli Lace and Embroidery Manufacturers Association
  42. ^ Cunningham, John (2004). This is New Jersey 4th ed. Yonkers, NY: Rutgers University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-8135-2141-6. Unknown parameter |co-publisher= ignored (help)
  43. ^ a b "Little Havana (Miami) & Little Havana on the Hudson (Union City, New Jersey)" BarryPopkik.com; August 15, 2006
  44. ^ Keller, Susan Jo Keller "At Schuetzen Park, a Bit of Germany and a Tradition of Charity" The New York Times October 6, 1996
  45. ^ The Cultural Thread/El Hilo Cultural, Park Performing Art Center. Accessed June 25, 2007.
  46. ^ Romano, Jay. "Union City Journal; 2 Passion Plays Thrive On a 'Friendly Rivalry'" The New York Times March 5, 1989
  47. ^ Fernandez; 2010; Page 15.
  48. ^ IFBB.com's page for 2000 Hall of Fame inductees; Accessed October 26, 2010.
  49. ^ Cite error: The named reference TechPlans was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  50. ^ Hope, Bradley. "Havana on Hudson Reverberates After Castro's Operation", The New York Sun, August 2, 2006. Accessed June 25, 2007. "Several of the group's leaders sat in chairs around the union hall on a quiet street in Union City, N.J., a town minutes away from Manhattan that was once known as "Havana on the Hudson".
  51. ^ Evelyn Nieves. "Cubans' Kin Are Anxious In Union City" The New York Times August 29, 1994
  52. ^ Rosero, Jessica. "Most liquor licenses? Bumpiest town? Local municipalities hold unusual distinctions", Hudson Reporter, August 27, 2006. Accessed June 25, 2007. "At one time, Union City had its own claim to fame as being the second largest Cuban community in the nation, after Miami. During the wave of immigrant exiles of the 1960s, the Cuban population that did not settle in Miami's Little Havana found its way to the north in Union City. However, throughout the years, the growing Cuban community has spread out to other regions of North Hudson."
  53. ^ Martin, Lydia. "Cuban cool" The Star-Ledger; August 9, 1995; Pages 41 & 54.
  54. ^ Juri, Carmen. "Jersey's Cuban flavors" The Star-Ledger; August 9, 1995; Pages 41 & 54.
  55. ^ Rosero, Jessica (June 11, 2004). "Celebrating Cuba Pride: Fifth annual Cuban Day Parade draws residents and honored guest". Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  56. ^ Miller, Jonathon (May 31, 2007). "Judge Decides Against a Mayor Who Banned Cuban Parade". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  57. ^ Website Cuban Day Parade and Fesitval of New Jersey
  58. ^ Schmidt, Margaret (May 30, 2009). "Cuban Parade of New Jersey". Jersey Journal. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  59. ^ Rosero, Jessica (June 17, 2007). "The parade marches on: Eighth annual Cuban Day Parade of New Jersey keeps traditional route". Hudson Reporter. Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  60. ^ Martin, Antoinette. "Residential Up-and-Comer: Union City" The New York Times; October 2, 2005
  61. ^ Amoroso, Mary. "Now it's Union City's Turn" The Bergen Record/North Jersey.com, April 20, 2008
  62. ^ The Union City Reporter; March 28, 2008; Page 9
  63. ^ Carroll, Timothy J. "Housing in Hudson" The Hudson Reporter 2009; Accessed January 21, 2010.
  64. ^ a b Martin, Antoinette."Hoboken Comes to Union City" The New York Times March 9, 2008
  65. ^ Martin, Antoinette. "Defining the Buyer of the Future" The New York Times, February 6, 2009]
  66. ^ Wright, E. Assata. "Ups and downs in residential real estate" The Hudson Reporter Progress Report, March 7, 2010; Page 6
  67. ^ Fritz Reuter Altenheim's official site, accessed December 4, 2010.
  68. ^ Google Maps
  69. ^ Schuetzen Park in North Bergen, Germany in NYC, accessed November 28, 2010.
  70. ^ "End of the Volksfest". The New York Times. 1 September 1895.
  71. ^ a b "The Fritz Reuter Home". The New York Times. 01 September 1895. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  72. ^ a b c Keller, Susan Jo. "At Schuetzen Park, a Bit of Germany and a Tradition of Charity", The New York Times, October 6, 1996
  73. ^ 50th Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town of West Hoboken, N.J.; Datz Co. 1911; Page 50
  74. ^ National Association of Letter Carriers (U.S.) (1900). "The postal record". 13-14. National Association of Letter Carriers, AFL-CIO: 186. ISSN 0032-5376. OCLC 1762712.
  75. ^ "Bowling tourney this week". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 15 July 1900.
  76. ^ Arbuster's Scheutzen Park
  77. ^ Villanova, Patrick. "Boxing's back in North Bergen, and the crowd loves it", NJ.com/The Jersey Journal, August 2, 2008
  78. ^ Wilshe, Brett. "Pre-holiday Mixed Martial Arts bouts set", Hudson Dispatch Weekly, December 2, 2010, page 3
  79. ^ North Bergen Crematory, NJ.com, accessed May 10, 2010
  80. ^ Grove Church Cemetery
  81. ^ Hudson County New Jersey Street Map. Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2008. ISBN 0-88097-763-9.