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Articles Aphasia and Agnosia

Agnosia information[edit]

Auditory Agnosias[edit]

Auditory Agnosias
Name Description
Auditory agnosia Auditory agnosia has been recognized since 1877.[1][1] With Auditory Agnosia there is difficulty distinguishing environmental and non-verbal auditory cues including difficulty distinguishing speech from non-speech sounds even though hearing is usually normal. There are two types of auditory agnosia: semantic associative and discriminative agnosia. Semantic associative agnosia is associated with lesions to the left hemisphere, where as discriminative agnosia is associated with lesions to the right hemisphere.[2]
Phonagnosia Is the inability to recognize familiar voices, even though the hearer can understand the words used.[3]
Auditory verbal agnosia Also known as Pure Word Deafness or Verbal Auditory Agnosia [4]
cortical deafness cell
cell
cell cell
Sub Total 3

Visual Agnosias[edit]

Visual Agnosias
Name Description
Apperceptive visual agnosia Patients are unable to distinguish visual shapes and so have trouble recognizing, copying, or discriminating between different visual stimuli. Unlike patients suffering from associative agnosia, those with apperceptive agnosia are unable to copy images.[5]
Associative visual agnosia There are three types of associative visual agnosia; object, face and colour.[6] Patients can describe visual scenes and classes of objects but still fail to recognize them. They may, for example, know that a fork is something you eat with but may mistake it for a spoon. Patients suffering from an associative visual agnosia are still able to reproduce an image through copying.
Visual agnosia Is associated with lesions of the left occipital lobe and temporal lobes. Many types of visual agnosia involve the inability to recognize objects.[7]
Cerebral achromatopsia Also known as color agnosia involves having difficulty categorizing colours, as well as recognizing colours. Cerebral achromatopsia is usually caused by neurological damage.[8] There are two regions of the brain which specialize for color recognition, areas V4 and V8. If there is a unilateral lesion to area V4, a loss of color perception will result known as hemiachromatopsia.[9][9]
Prosopagnosia Also known as face blindness or facial agnosia: Patients cannot consciously recognize familiar faces, sometimes even including their own. This is often misperceived as an inability to remember names.
Integrative agnosia Usually a patient has a form of associative agnosia or appreceptive agnosia. However, in the case of integrative agnosia a patient falls in between a form of associative and appreceptive agnosia. This is where one has the ability to recognize elements of something but yet be unable to integrate these elements together into comprehensible perceptual wholes.
Akinetopsia Also known as Cerebral akinetopsia, is associated with the inability to perceive visual motion. One cause of cerebral akinetopsia is lesions outside the striate cortex.[10]
Topographical disorientation Also known as Topographical agnosia or Topographagnosia, this is a form of visual agnosia in which a person cannot rely on visual cues to guide them directionally due to the inability to recognize objects. Nevertheless, they may still have an excellent capacity to describe the visual layout of the same place. Patients with topographical agnosia have the ability to read maps, but become lost in familiar environments.[11]
cell cell
Sub Total 8

Somatosensory Agnosias[edit]

Somatosensory Agnosias
Name Description
Astereognosis Somatosensory agnosia is connected to tactile sense - that is, touch. Patient finds it difficult to recognize objects by touch based on its texture, size and weight. However, they may be able to describe it verbally or recognize same kind of objects from pictures or draw pictures of them. Thought to be connected to lesions or damage in somatosensory cortex.
Environmental Agnosia It is the inability to locate a specific room or building that one is familiar with, as well as the inability to provide directions for how to arrive at a particular location. These individuals experience difficulty with learning routes. This form of agnosia is often associated with lesions to the bilateral or right hemisphere posterior regions. It is also associated with prosopagnosia and Parkinson's disease.[9]
Analgesia Also know as Pain Agnosia, this is the difficulty perceiving and processing pain; thought to underpin some forms of self injury.
Tactile agnosia Impaired ability to recognize or identify objects by touch alone.
cell cell
Sub Total 4

Balints Syndrome[edit]

not an agnosia

Balint syndrome
Name Description
Simultanagnosia Patients can recognize objects or details in their visual field, but only one at a time. They cannot make out the scene they belong to or make out a whole image out of the details. They literally "cannot see the forest for the trees." Simultanagnosia is a common symptom of Balint's syndrome
Dorsal Simultanagnosia Simultanagnosia broadly refers to the inability recognize more than one object at once. For example a patient with dorsal simultanagnosia may report seeing only one of four objects that are lined up in front of them. Individuals with dorsal simultanagnosia often use parts of an object to make inferences about an object as a whole. These individuals also have difficulty with reading and counting because it involves more than one object at a time. Dorsal simultanagnosia is commonly caused by bilateral damage to the bilateral parieto-occipito region.
Ventral Simultanagnosia Individuals with ventral simultanagnosia are unable to identify more than one object at a time. However, they can see more than one object at a time. These individuals also experience difficulty reading and describing pictures with multiple features. Ventral simultanagnosia is commonly caused by damage to the left inferior tempero-occipital regions of the brain.
Sub Total 3
Optic Ataxia cell
Optic Apraxia cell

Not Agnosia[edit]

Not Agnosia
Name Description
Mirror agnosia One of the symptoms of Hemispatial neglect. Patients with Hemispatial neglect were placed so that an object was in their neglected visual field but a mirror reflecting that object was visible in their non-neglected field. Patients could not acknowledge the existence of objects in the neglected field and so attempted to reach into the mirror to grasp the object.[12] Commonly due to a right parietal lesion.[13]
cell cell
Sub Total 1

Ref[edit]

  1. ^ a b Goldstein, Marvin N. (1974). "Auditory agnosia for speech (“pure word-deafness”)". Brain and Language 1 (2): 195–204. doi:10.1016/0093-934X(74)90034-0. ISSN 0093-934X. 
  2. ^ Vignolo, L. A (1982). "Auditory Agnosia". Biological Sciences 298: 49–57. 
  3. ^ Van Lancker DR, Cummings JL, Kreiman J, Dobkin BH (June 1988). "Phonagnosia: a dissociation between familiar and unfamiliar voices". Cortex 24 (2): 195–209. PMID 3416603. 
  4. ^ Zhu RJ, Lv ZS, Shan CL, Xu MW, Luo BY (November 2010). "Pure word deafness associated with extrapontine myelinolysis". J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 11 (11): 842–7. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000200. PMC 2970893. PMID 21043052. 
  5. ^ Riddoch MJ, Humphreys GW (May 2003). "Visual agnosia". Neurol Clin 21 (2): 501–20. PMID 12916489. 
  6. ^ De Renzi E (2000). "Disorders of visual recognition". Semin Neurol 20 (4): 479–85. doi:10.1055/s-2000-13181. PMID 11149704. 
  7. ^ Greene JD (December 2005). "Apraxia, agnosias, and higher visual function abnormalities". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 76 Suppl 5: v25–34. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2005.081885. PMC 1765708. PMID 16291919. 
  8. ^ Woodward, T. S; M. J Dixon, K. T Mullen, K. M Christensen, D. N. Bub (1999). "Analysis of errors in color agnosia: A single case study". Neurocase 5: 95–108. 
  9. ^ a b c Burns MS (2004). "Clinical management of agnosia". Top Stroke Rehabil 11 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1310/N13K-YKYQ-3XX1-NFAV. PMID 14872395. 
  10. ^ Zeki, S (1991). "Cerebral akinetopsia (visual motion blindness)". Brain 114: 811–824. 
  11. ^ Mendez, Mario F; Cherrier, Monique M (NaN undefined NaN). "Agnosia for scenes in topographagnosia". Neuropsychologia 41 (10): 1387–1395. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(03)00041-1.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. ^ Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL, Hillyer S (May 1997). "Mirror agnosia". Proc. Biol. Sci. 264 (1382): 645–7. doi:10.1098/rspb.1997.0091. PMC 1688417. PMID 9178535. 
  13. ^ Ramachandran, V. S; Altschuler, E. L & Hillyer, S (1997). "Mirror Agnosia". Biological Sciences 264 (1382): 645–647. 

current section[edit]

Types[edit]

Name Description
Akinetopsia Also known as Cerebral akinetopsia is associated with the inability to perceive visual motion. One cause of cerebral akinetopsia is lesions outside the striate cortex.[1]
Anosognosia This is the inability to gain feedback about one's own condition and can be confused with lack of insight but is caused by problems in the feedback mechanisms in the brain. It is caused by neurological damage and can occur in connection with a range of neurological impairments but is most commonly referred to in cases of paralysis following stroke. Those with Anosognosia with multiple impairments may even be aware of some of their impairments but completely unable to perceive others.
Apperceptive agnosia Patients are unable to distinguish visual shapes and so have trouble recognizing, copying, or discriminating between different visual stimuli. Unlike patients suffering from associative agnosia, those with apperceptive agnosia are unable to copy images.[2]
Associative agnosia Patients can describe visual scenes and classes of objects but still fail to recognize them. They may, for example, know that a fork is something you eat with but may mistake it for a spoon. Patients suffering from associative agnosia are still able to reproduce an image through copying.
Astereognosis Also known as Somatosensory agnosia is connected to tactile sense - that is, touch. Patient finds it difficult to recognize objects by touch based on its texture, size and weight. However, they may be able to describe it verbally or recognize same kind of objects from pictures or draw pictures of them. Thought to be connected to lesions or damage in somatosensory cortex.
Auditory agnosia Auditory agnosia has been recognized since 1877.[3] With Auditory Agnosia there is difficulty distinguishing environmental and non-verbal auditory cues including difficulty distinguishing speech from non-speech sounds even though hearing is usually normal. There are two types of auditory agnosia: semantic associative and discriminative agnosia. Semantic associative agnosia is associated with lesions to the left hemisphere, where as discriminative agnosia is associated with lesions to the right hemisphere.[4]
Auditory verbal agnosia Also known as Pure Word Deafness (PWD) This presents as a form of meaning 'deafness' in which hearing is intact but there is significant difficulty recognising spoken words as semantically meaningful.
Autotopagnosia Is associated with the inability to orient parts of the body, and is often caused by a lesion in the parietal part of the posterior thalmic radiations.
Cerebral achromatopsia Also known as Color agnosia involves having difficulty categorizing colours, as well as recognizing colours. Cerebral achromatopsia is usually caused by neurological damage.[5][6] There are two regions of the brain which specialize for color recognition, areas V4 and V8. If there is a unilateral lesion to area V4, a loss of color perception will result known as hemiachromatopsia.[7]
Cortical deafness Refers to people who do not perceive any auditory information but whose hearing is intact.
Environmental Agnosia It is the inability to locate a specific room or building that one is familiar with, as well as the inability to provide directions for how to arrive at a particular location. These individuals experience difficulty with learning routes. This form of agnosia is often associated with lesions to the bilateral or right hemisphere posterior regions. It is also associated with prosopagnosia and Parkinson's disease.[7]
Finger agnosia Is the inability to distinguish the fingers on the hand. It is present in lesions of the dominant parietal lobe, and is a component of Gerstmann syndrome.
Form agnosia Patients perceive only parts of details, not the whole object.
Integrative agnosia Usually a patient has a form of associative agnosia or appreceptive agnosia. However, in the case of integrative agnosia a patient falls in between a form of associative and appreceptive agnosia. This is where one has the ability to recognize elements of something but yet be unable to integrate these elements together into comprehensible perceptual wholes.
Pain agnosia Also referred to as Analgesia, this is the difficulty perceiving and processing pain; thought to underpin some forms of self injury.
Phonagnosia Is the inability to recognize familiar voices, even though the hearer can understand the words used.[8]
Prosopagnosia Also known as faceblindness and facial agnosia: Patients cannot consciously recognize familiar faces, sometimes even including their own. This is often misperceived as an inability to remember names.
Pure alexia Inability to recognize text. Patients with Pure alexia often have damage to their corpus callosum, as well as damage to the left visual association areas.[7] Pure alexia involves not being able to read printed material, but these individuals still have the ability to write. Individuals with pure alexia usually read words letter by letter.[9] However, individuals with pure alexia show a frequency effect. They are able to read high frequency words better and faster than they can read low frequency words.[10]
Semantic agnosia Those with this form of agnosia are effectively 'object blind' until they use non-visual sensory systems to recognise the object. For example, feeling, tapping, smelling, rocking or flicking the object, may trigger realisation of its semantics (meaning).[11]
Social-Emotional Agnosia Sometimes referred to as Expressive Agnosia, this is a form of agnosia in which the person is unable to perceive facial expression, body language and intonation, rendering them unable to non-verbally perceive people's emotions and limiting that aspect of social interaction.
Tactile agnosia Impaired ability to recognize or identify objects by touch alone.[12]
Time agnosia Is the loss of comprehension of the succession and duration of events.
Topographagnosia or Topographical agnosia This is a form of visual agnosia in which a person cannot rely on visual cues to guide them directionally due to the inability to recognize objects. Nevertheless, they may still have an excellent capacity to describe the visual layout of the same place. Patients with topographical agnosia have the ability to read maps, but become lost in familiar environments.[13]
Visual agnosia Is associated with lesions of the left occipital lobe and temporal lobes. Many types of visual agnosia involve the inability to recognize objects.[14]

Total 24

Visual Agnosia[edit]

Visual agnosia is a broad category that refers to a deficiency in the ability to recognize visual objects. Visual agnosia can be further subdivided into two different subtypes: apperceptive agnosia and associative agnosia.[15] Individuals with apperceptive agnosia display the ability to see contours and outlines when shown an object, but they experience difficulty if asked to categorize objects. Apperceptive agnosia is associated with damage to one hemisphere, specifically damage to the posterior sections of the right hemisphere.[15] In contrast, individuals with associative agnosia experience difficulty when asked to name objects. Associative agnosia is associated with damage to both the right and left hemispheres at the occipitotemporal border.[15] A specific form of associative agnosia is known as prosopagnosia. Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognize faces. For example, these individuals have difficulty recognizing friends, family and coworkers.[15] However, individuals with prosopagnosia can recognize all other types of visual stimuli.[16][17]

Ref2[edit]

  1. ^ Zeki, S (1991). "Cerebral akinetopsia (visual motion blindness)". Brain 114: 811–824. 
  2. ^ Riddoch MJ, Humphreys GW (May 2003). "Visual agnosia". Neurol Clin 21 (2): 501–20. PMID 12916489. 
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Goldstein1974 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Vignolo, L. A (1982). "Auditory Agnosia". Biological Sciences 298: 49–57. 
  5. ^ Cowey A, Alexander I, Heywood C, Kentridge R (August 2008). "Pupillary responses to coloured and contourless displays in total cerebral achromatopsia". Brain 131 (Pt 8): 2153–60. doi:10.1093/brain/awn110. PMID 18550620. 
  6. ^ Woodward, T. S; M. J Dixon, K. T Mullen, K. M Christensen, D. N. Bub (1999). "Analysis of errors in color agnosia: A single case study". Neurocase 5: 95–108. 
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference M.S.Burns_.282004.29 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Van Lancker DR, Cummings JL, Kreiman J, Dobkin BH (June 1988). "Phonagnosia: a dissociation between familiar and unfamiliar voices". Cortex 24 (2): 195–209. PMID 3416603. 
  9. ^ Cherney LR (2004). "Aphasia, alexia, and oral reading". Top Stroke Rehabil 11 (1): 22–36. doi:10.1310/VUPX-WDX7-J1EU-00TB. PMID 14872397. 
  10. ^ Sakurai, Y (2004). "Varieties of alexia from fusiform, posterior inferior temporal and posterior occipital gyrus". Behavioural Neurology 15: 35–50. 
  11. ^ Magnié MN, Ferreira CT, Giusiano B, Poncet M (January 1999). "Category specificity in object agnosia: preservation of sensorimotor experiences related to objects". Neuropsychologia 37 (1): 67–74. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00045-1. PMID 9920472. 
  12. ^ Reed CL, Caselli RJ, Farah MJ (June 1996). "Tactile agnosia. Underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition". Brain 119 (3): 875–88. doi:10.1093/brain/119.3.875. PMID 8673499. 
  13. ^ Mendez, Mario F; Cherrier, Monique M (NaN undefined NaN). "Agnosia for scenes in topographagnosia". Neuropsychologia 41 (10): 1387–1395. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(03)00041-1.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. ^ Greene JD (December 2005). "Apraxia, agnosias, and higher visual function abnormalities". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 76 (Suppl 5): v25–34. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2005.081885. PMC 1765708. PMID 16291919. 
  15. ^ a b c d al.], Kathleen M. Galotti ... [et (2010). Cognitive psychology : in and out of the laboratory (1st Canadian ed. ed.). Canada: Nelson. ISBN 9780176440657. 
  16. ^ Silverman, Jay Friedenberg, Gordon. Cognitive science : an introduction to the study of mind (2nd ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE. ISBN 9781412977616. 
  17. ^ Gray J.A., Wedderburn A.A.I. (1960). "Grouping strategies with simultaneous stimuli". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 12 (3): 180–184. 

for temp error messages plus

Greene JD (December 2005). "Apraxia, agnosias, and higher visual function abnormalities". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 76 Suppl 5: v25–34. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2005.081885. PMC 1765708. PMID 16291919. 
Barton JJ (2011). "Disorders of higher visual processing". Handb Clin Neurol 102: 223–61. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-52903-9.00015-7. PMID 21601069.