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Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Current Issues in Dispute[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

see also: Israeli-Palestinian commerce

Since the beginning of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, the conflict has been about land[1] . When Israel became a state after the war in 1948, 77% of Palestine's land was used for the creation on the state. The majority of those living in Palestine at the time became refugees in other countries and this first land crisis became the root of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict [2]. Because the root of the conflict is with land, the disputes between Israel and Palestine are well-manifested in the agriculture of Palestine.

In Palestine, agriculture is a mainstay in the economy. The production of agricultural goods supports the population's sustenance needs and fuels Palestine's export economy [3]. According to the Council for European Palestinian Relations, the agricultural sector formally employs 13.4% of the population and informally employs 90% of the population[3]. Over the past 10 years, unemployment rates in Palestine have increased and the agricultural sector became the most impoverished sector in Palestine. Unemployment rates peaked in 2008 when they reached 41% in Gaza [4].

Along the borders of the West Bank and Gaza, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict left a physical mark on the agricultural land [5]. Three factors contribute to the physical destruction of Palestinian farmlands; Israeli attacks, the wall between Israel and Palestine, and the Israeli boycotts [6] [7].


Israeli Attacks[edit]

The first factor of the agricultural dispute is the physical attacks from Israeli soldiers [5]. Locals from the border areas reported that daily shooting from Israeli soldiers makes their lives difficult because they are unable to farm their lands without the risk of injury or death[5] . The frequent Israeli attacks leave wells destroyed, water contaminated, and farmland charred from fires and bombs[5]. The Israeli attacks range from fire, bulldozing, bombings, and gun fire [5]. Since 1967, over 800,000 olive trees have been uprooted by Israeli forces (see also: Brad's page). Around 80,000 families in Palestine are reliant on the olive tree's for their income loose around $12.3m each year because of the destruction[8] . For many of the farmers living in the borderlands, the cost of the destruction has totaled more than they are able to replace[5]. Sixty percent of the agricultural lands in Gaza were reported useless due to Israeli destruction in February of 2009[5].


The Wall[edit]

see also: Hannah's page (can't link until it goes live)


The second factor of agricultural loss is the wall constructed between Israel and Palestine[6]. In the areas of Palestine that sit next to the Separation barrier, anything from homes, farmlands, and water wells within 35 feet of the wall is subject to destruction by the Israeli Army [9]. The wall can in some places be 8 meters high, covered in barbed wire, with a surrounding 4-meter wide trench. A military zone also surrounds the wall and controls the entrances and exists through the wall [6]. This zone is called a "buffer" or "no-go" zone and is continuously increasing in side. As of 2009, one-third of the agricultural land in Gaza was included in this zone and restricted locals' access to it [5].

The wall between Israel and Palestine and an example of one of the Israeli-controlled checkpoints.

With the construction of the Separation barrier, the Israeli State promised free movement across regions. However, border closures, curfews, and checkpoints has significantly restricted Palestinian movement [10]. The number of checkpoints fixed check points reached 99 by 2012 and 310 flying checkpoints [11]. The border restrictions impacted the imports and exports in Palestine and weakened the industrial and agricultural sectors because of the constant Israeli control in the West Bank and Gaza [12]. In order for the Palestinian economy to be prosperous, the restrictions on Palestinian land must be removed [7]. According to The Guardian and a report for World Bank, the Palestinian economy lost $3.4bn (%35 of the annual GDP) to Israeli restrictions in the West Bank alone[8].

Boycotts[edit]

see also: economy of the Palestinian territories, Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions

In Gaza, the agricultural market suffers from economic boycotts and border closures and restrictions placed by Israel [13]. The PA's Minister of Agriculture estimates that around US $1.2 billion were lost in September of 2006 because of these security measures. There has also been a economic embargo initiated by the west on Hamas-led Palestine, which has decreased the amount of imports and exports from Palestine [13]. This embargo was brought on by Hamas' refusal to recognize Israel's right to statehood. As a result, the PA's 160,000 employees have not received their salaries in over one year [14].

Israeli-Palestinian Relations[edit]

Commerce[edit]

(existing entry)


Conflict[edit]

See also: Gaza blockade -> Will actually be linked to the section above


In 2006, the unity of the Palestinian economy was threatened when Israeli ties to the West bank were severed. The following war in 2008-2009 destroyed all economic infrastructure, leaving the Palestinian economy without any remaining activity and owing $1.4 billion [15]. The Oslo Accords in 1993 aimed to prevent this, but was unable to keep the Palestinian economy from fluctuating. Currently, the Palestinian economy lives on foreign aid and customs revenue between Israel and Palestine. However, Israeli restrictions fragmented the Palestinian economy and caused and increase in unemployment [16]. By 2008, 71% of the Gaza Strip's population was unemployed[17]. The import and export prosperity in Palestine was impacted by the border restrictions and constant Israeli control in the West Bank and Gaza, which also weakened the industrial and agricultural sectors [12]. In order for the Palestinian economy to be prosperous, the restrictions on Palestinian land must be removed [7]. In the West Bank, the Israeli restrictions caused the Palestinian economy to loose $3.4bn (%35 of the annual GDP), according to The Guardian and a report for World Bank[8].

Unemployment in Gaza and the West Bank[4]
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Percentage 12.5% 21% 32% 26% 27.5% 24.5% 23% 21.5% 26.5%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gelvin, James L. (2005). The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: 100 Years of War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Sa'id & Abu-Lughod, Ahmad & Lila (2007). Nakba: Palestine, 1948, and the Claims of Memory. New York: Columbia University Press.
  3. ^ a b "Agriculture in Palestine: a post-Oslo Analysis" (PDF). 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Poverty and the Labor Market: A Sheer Lack of Jobs?". Coping with Conflict: Poverty and Inclusion in the West Bank and Gaza (PDF). pp. 37–61. Archived from the original (PDF) on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Bartlett, Eva (22 May 2009). "Israel Destroying Gaza's Farmlands". The Electronic Intifada. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  6. ^ a b c "The Mayor of Qalqilya Explains the Impact of Israel's Apartheid Wall". The Electronic Intifada. 10 July 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  7. ^ a b c "Palestinians lose billions to Israeli land bans, says World Bank report". The National. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Chalabi, Mona (October 14 2013). "How Does Palestine's Economy Work?". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 April 2014. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ "The Mayor of Qalqilya Explains the Impact of Israel's Apartheid Wall". The Electronic Intifada. 10 July 2003. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  10. ^ Stein, Rebecca (2008). Itineraries in Conflict. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 9.
  11. ^ Davis, Rochelle (2013). Palestine and the Palestinians in the 21st century. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  12. ^ a b France-Presse, Agence (July 12, 2013). "Palestinian Economic Recovery Plan Takes Shape". The National. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  13. ^ a b "Palestinian agricultural losses top US $1 billion". The Electronic Intifada. 28 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  14. ^ Patience, Martin (June 19 2007). "Q&A: Palestinian Embargo". BBC Jerusalem. Retrieved 30 April 2014. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ Davis, Rochelle (2013). Palestine and the Palestinians in the 21st century. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  16. ^ Davis, Rochelle (2013). Palestine and the Palestinians in the 21st century. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  17. ^ Davis, Rochelle (2013). Palestine and the Palestinians in the 21st century. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.