|This is a Wikipedia user page.
This is not an encyclopedia article. If you find this page on any site other than Wikipedia, you are viewing a mirror site. Be aware that the page may be outdated and that the user to whom this page belongs may have no personal affiliation with any site other than Wikipedia itself. The original page is located at
RESOURCES AND WORKING DRAFTS ONLY
mercury in coal -> mercury in fish?
- 1 Evolution of fishes and tetrapods
- 2 Fins, limbs and wings
- 3 Flippers
- 4 Marine animal robotics
- 5 Humboldt Current
- 6 Walraversijde
- 7 Reef sharks
- 8 Reefs
- 9 Notes
- 10 Atlas of the Oceans
- 11 References
- 12 External links
- 13 Recreational
- 14 Freshwater Fishing
- 15 Saltwater fishing
- 16 See also
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 External links
- 20 Shad fishing
Evolution of fishes and tetrapods
Evolution of scales
- Fish Scales Earth Life Web. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
Evolution of jaws
"One of the great events in the history of vertebrates was the appearance of jaws. This was beneficial for many reasons including:
- New lines of adaptations
- New possibilities for evolutionary advancement
- Ability for territorial defence
The first jawed fishes were known as Placoderms and developed in the Devonian Period. The Placoderms had bony armour that covered the head and forepart of the body. In many, a movable joint between the head and body armour let the head rock back to open the mouth wide. The primitive jaws had jagged bony edges that served as teeth. The tail end usually lacked protection."
- The evolutionary steps of fish
- Stephenson, Frank (1995) When Fish Bite Research Magazine, Florida State University.
- Timeline of human evolution <-------------------------
- Timeline of evolutionary history of life
- Evolutionary history of life
- History of evolutionary thought
|530 Ma||Pikaia is an iconic ancestor of modern chordates and vertebrates. Other, earlier chordate predecessors include Myllokunmingia fengjiaoa, Haikouella lanceolata, and Haikouichthys ercaicunensis. Conodonts are a famous type of early (495 Mya and later) chordate fossil; they are the peculiar teeth of an eel-shaped animal characterized by large eyes, fins with fin rays, chevron-shaped muscles and a notochord. The animal is sometimes called a conodont, and sometimes a conodontophore (conodont-bearer) to avoid confusion.|
The first vertebrates appear: the ostracoderms, jawless fish related to present-day lampreys and hagfishes. Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia are examples of these jawless fish, or Agnatha. (See also prehistoric fish). They were jawless and their internal skeletons were cartilaginous. They lacked the paired (pectoral and pelvic) fins of more advanced fish. They were precursors to the Osteichthyes (bony fish).
The Placodermi were prehistoric fishes. Placoderms were the first of the jawed fishes, their jaws evolving from the first of their gill arches. Their head and thorax were covered by articulated armoured plates and the rest of the body was scaled or naked.
|410 Ma||The first coelacanth appears; this order of animals had been thought to have no extant members until living specimens were discovered in 1938. It is often referred to as a living fossil.|
Primitive tetrapods developed from a lobe-finned fish (an "osteolepid Sarcopterygian"), with a two-lobed brain in a flattened skull, a wide mouth and a short snout, whose upward-facing eyes show that it was a bottom-dweller, and which had already developed adaptations of fins with fleshy bases and bones. The "living fossil" coelacanth is a related lobe-finned fish without these shallow-water adaptations. These fishes used their fins as paddles in shallow-water habitats choked with plants and detritus. The universal tetrapod characteristics of front limbs that bend backward at the elbow and hind limbs that bend forward at the knee can plausibly be traced to early tetrapods living in shallow water.
Panderichthys is a 90–130 cm (35–50 in) long fish from the Late Devonian period (380 Mya). It has a large tetrapod-like head. Panderichthys exhibits features transitional between lobe-finned fishes and early tetrapods.
Trackway impressions made by something that resembles Ichthyostega's limbs were formed 390 Ma in Polish marine tidal sediments. This suggests tetrapod evolution is older than the dated fossils of Panderichthys through to Ichthyostega.
Acanthostega is an extinct amphibian, among the first animals to have recognizable limbs. It is a candidate for being one of the first vertebrates to be capable of coming onto land. It lacked wrists, and was generally poorly adapted for life on land. The limbs could not support the animal's weight. Acanthostega had both lungs and gills, also indicating it was a link between lobe-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates.
Ichthyostega is an early tetrapod. Being one of the first animals with legs, arms, and finger bones, Ichthyostega is seen as a hybrid between a fish and an amphibian. Ichthyostega had legs but its limbs probably weren't used for walking. They may have spent very brief periods out of water and would have used their legs to paw their way through the mud.
From amphibians came the first reptiles: Hylonomus is the earliest known reptile. It was 20 cm (8 in) long (including the tail) and probably would have looked rather similar to modern lizards. It had small sharp teeth and probably ate millipedes and early insects. It is a precursor of later Amniotes and mammal-like reptiles. Α-keratin first evolves here which is used in claws in modern lizards and birds, and hair in mammals.
Evolution of the amniotic egg gives rise to the Amniota, reptiles that can reproduce on land and lay eggs on dry land. They did not need to return to water for reproduction. This adaptation gave them the capability to colonize the uplands for the first time.
Reptiles have advanced nervous systems, compared to amphibians. They have twelve pairs of cranial nerves.
Fins, limbs and wings
fins --> legs --> wings --> flippers
- Zimmer, Carl (2006) A Fin is a Limb is a Wing: How Evolution Fashioned its Masterworks National Geographic, November 2006.
- Bird Evolution NOVA Evolution Library. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- The Evolution of Flight Canada Palaeontological Museum, March 1996.
"the same genetic tool kit can build structures both simple and complex."
The "same genetic mechanism controls the development of median fins, paired fins, limbs, and wings. Paired fins and limbs did not evolve from scratch, but emerged through the application of the molecular system that was already [in place]"
The streamlined body of the great hammerhead with the expanded cephalofoil is typical of the hammerhead sharks. Adult great hammerheads can be distinguished from the scalloped hammerhead and the smooth hammerhead by the shape of the cephalofoil, which has a nearly straight front margin (as opposed to arched), with prominent medial and lateral indentations. The width of the cephalofoil is 23–27% of the body length. The teeth are triangular and strongly serrated, becoming more oblique towards the corners of the mouth. There are 17 tooth rows on either side of the upper jaw with 2–3 teeth at the symphysis (the midline of the jaw), and 16–17 teeth on either side of the lower jaw and 1–3 at the symphysis.
Another function of the cephalofoil is suggested by an observation of a great hammerhead attacking a southern stingray (Dasyatis americana) in the Bahamas: the shark first knocked the ray to the sea bottom with a powerful blow from above, and then pinned it with its head while pivoting to take a large bite from each side of the ray's pectoral fin disc. This effectively crippled the stingray, which was then picked up in the jaws and sawed apart with rapid shakes of the head. A great hammerhead has also been seen attacking a spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) in open water by taking a massive bite out of one of its pectoral fins. The ray thus incapacitated, the shark once again used its head to pin it to the bottom and pivoted to take the ray in its jaws head-first. These observations suggest that the great hammerhead seeks to disable rays with the first bite, a strategy similar to that of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), and that its cephalofoil is an adaptation for prey handling.
- Evolution of reptiles
- Evolution of birds
- Michael Behe
- Irreducible complexity
- "Obviously vertebrates must have had ancestors living in the Cambrian, but they were assumed to be invertebrate forerunners of the true vertebrates — protochordates. Pikaia has been heavily promoted as the oldest fossil protochordate." Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale Page 289, ISBN 0-618-00583-8
- Shu, D. G.; Luo, H. L.; Conway Morris, S.; Zhang, X. L.; Hu, S. X.; Chen, L.; Han, J.; Zhu, M.; Li, Y.; Chen, L. Z. (1999). Nature 402 (6757): 42. Bibcode:1999Natur.402...42S. doi:10.1038/46965.
- Chen, J. Y.; Huang, D. Y.; Li, C. W. (1999). Nature 402 (6761): 518. Bibcode:1999Natur.402..518C. doi:10.1038/990080.
- Shu, D. G.; Morris, S. C.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z. F.; Yasui, K.; Janvier, P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, J. N.; Li, Y.; Liu, H. -Q. (Jan 2003), "Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys", Nature 421 (6922): 526–529, Bibcode:2003Natur.421..526S, doi:10.1038/nature01264, ISSN 0028-0836, PMID 12556891
- These first vertebrates lacked jaws, like the living hagfish and lampreys. Jawed vertebrates appeared 100 million years later, in the Silurian. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/vertintro.html Berkeley University
- "Bones of first gill arch became upper and lower jaws." (Image)
- A fossil coelacanth jaw found in a stratum datable 410 mya that was collected near Buchan in Victoria, Australia's East Gippsland, currently holds the record for oldest coelacanth; it was given the name Eoactinistia foreyi when it was published in September 2006. 
- "Lungfish are believed to be the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and share a number of important characteristics with them. Among these characters are tooth enamel, separation of pulmonary blood flow from body blood flow, arrangement of the skull bones, and the presence of four similarly sized limbs with the same position and structure as the four tetrapod legs." http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/sarco/dipnoi.html Berkeley University
- "the ancestor that amphibians share with reptiles and ourselves? " " These possibly transitional fossils have been much studied, among them Acanthostega, which seems to have been wholly aquatic, and Ichthyostega" Richard Dawkins 2004 The Ancestor's Tale page 250, ISBN 0-618-00583-8
- Eckhart L, Valle LD, Jaeger K, et al. (November 2008). "Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (47): 18419–23. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10518419E. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805154105. PMC 2587626. PMID 19001262.
- Castro, Peter and Michael E. Huber (2007) Marine Biology Page 80.
- Bester, Cathleen. Biological Profiles: Great Hammerhead. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on October 18, 2008.
- Strong, W.R., Snelson, Jr., F.F., and Gruber, S.H. (Sep. 19, 1990). "Hammerhead Shark Predation on Stingrays: An Observation of Prey Handling by Sphyrna mokarran". Copeia (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists) 1990 (3): 836–840. doi:10.2307/1446449. JSTOR 1446449.
- Chapman, D.D. and Gruber, S.H. (May 2002). "A further observation of the prey-handling behavior of the great hammerhead shark, Sphyrna mokarran: predation upon the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari". Bulletin of Marine Science 70 (3): 947–952.
Arctocephalus galapagoensis flipper
Flippers of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), on ice flow
Flipper of bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus
Tylosaurs had four flippers, one set just behind the head and another set about two-thirds of the way to the tail...
Pterodactylus restored as aquatic, with flippers instead of wings
Tiktaalik roseae, famous as one of the best candidates to the title as a missing link between lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods. Eyes too large <- !
Eogyrinus an early tetrapod from the Late Carboniferous of England
- earless seals
- fur seals
- sea lions
- robotic seal
- Clack, Jennifer A (2012) "From fins to feet" Chapter 6, pages 187–260, in: Gaining Ground, Second Edition: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods, Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253356758.
- external links
- Evolution of Pectoral Flippers
- homology Encyclopædia Britannica
- From Feet to Flippers
- Evolution: development
- Adaptive Evolution of 5′HoxD Genes in the Origin and Diversification of the Cetacean Flipper
- Story: Penguins
- "Comparative anatomy and evolution of the odontocete forelimb" 2009
- Fossil Offers Flipper Evolution Link 26 April 2009.
- Penguins: "one of the few flightless birds in the world... can't fly because it has flippers rather than wings... uses its strong flippers and streamlined body to torpedo through the water"
- Sea Lions: "massive marine mammals that can grow to 600 lbs... identified by four individual flippers and brownish coloring. Differs from seals... sea lions have "ears" and seals don't. The name "eared seal" is derived from this."
- Dolphins: "member of the whale family... closely related to the porpoise... identified by its long mouth. The porpoise does not have any distinct mouth in that it does not protrude out like a beak. It is much more like a whale's mouth. Dolphins found in nearly every major ocean and even in some major rivers around the world."
- Whales: "Whales are warm-blooded animals that come in all different sizes and varieties. Whales smaller than the killer whale include the sperm whale and the pilot whale. The largest animal in the world is the blue whale. Regardless of size, all whales use their flippers to move about the ocean. The only difference is how much weight those flippers have to move around."
- Humpback Breaching National Geographic. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Elephant Seal Flipper National Geographic. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Humpback Breaching National Geographic. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Lindgren J, MW Caldwell, T Konishi and LM Chiappe, (2010) "Convergent evolution in aquatic tetrapods: insights from an exceptional fossil mosasaur" PLoS ONE, 5 (8): e11998. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011998
- Transitional Forms of Whales: The Journey from Land to the Deep Sea International Wildlife Museum. Updated 22 April 2011.
- Whale Evolution
- Analogy: Jaws versus Flipper
- Davis, Lloyd Spencer Penguins: From wings to flippers Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Updated 24 September 2011.
- Body shape
"Penguins are found only in the southern hemisphere."
"As with all marine mammals, adaptation to the aquatic environment has influenced the body shape of seals. They have become streamlined, their limbs have become flippers (the term Pinnipedia means ‘feather foot’ or ‘wing foot’), and they have a layer of fat to help insulate them in the water and to act as an energy reserve.... Earless or phocid seals have no earflaps, which makes them more streamlined. They are unable to move their hind flippers under their bodies, so they move with a caterpillar motion on land. In water, they propel themselves with their hind flippers, and steer with their front flippers."
Most seal species spend 50% of their time on land and 50% in the water.
"Pinnipeds are further broken down into three families: Odobenidae, Otariidae, and Pocidae. The elephant seal is a member of the Phocid (pronounced "f-oh-sid") family. The Phocids are also known as "true seals" or "earless seals" and are thought to have evolved from an otter-like creature that returned to the sea about 25 million years ago.... Otariids are thought to have evolved from a bear-like animal, in other words, bears and sea lions may have a common ancestor... There's only one member of the Odobenid family, and that's the walrus."
"Whale flippers, frog forelimbs, and your own arms most likely evolved from the front flippers of an ancient jawless fish. Because they share a common evolutionary origin, these are examples of homologous structures."
"the bones in a bat's wing and whale's flipper are strikingly similar."
Marine animal robotics
- Alexander von Humboldt
- Ekman transport
- Sverdrup balance
- Climate change
- Peru-Chile Trench
- South Pacific Gyre
- Global conveyor belt
- Garbage Patch
From the German WP:
The Humboldt Current is a cold ocean current along the west coast of South America , named after the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt . It flows from the Antarctic parallel to the Andes to the north.
The low temperatures of Antarctic origin waters mean that the average water temperature is lower on the west coast of South America by 7-8 ° C than the temperature in the open ocean at the same latitude.
The cold sea water cools the air. The coastal area of the Humboldt current form therefore low rainfall desert areas , such as the Atacama desert in Chile .
With the onset of El Niño is weakening of the cold Humboldt Current off or disappears.
From the Peruvian WP:
This relatively slow and shallow stream is a wide 400 to 900 kilometers and its water levels is 10 to 20 million m³ / sec. Flow rate of 16-24 km / day to nearly 4 ° south latitude , where it turns west, Galapagos wraps from the southwest, and mixed with the southern equatorial current . The temperature of the water is about 6 ° C lower than the surrounding sea, on average reaches 18 ° C.
Current Peruvian waters are already at the place of a úživné , bringing you from the Southern Ocean plenty of mineral substances ( iron , phosphorus ) and nitrogen , plankton and krill , and are good oxygenation . Throughout the flow around the coast of Chile and Peru , where the tectonic continental shelf rather narrow and sharply falling into the depths, there is good mixing of ground water flow to the upper layers. This mixing of water is caused by turbulence in the flow around the continental slope, constantly blowing winds from the south and the Coriolis force . Because even the upper layer flow is relatively cold ( termoklina is only slightly below the surface) there is no reason to lift up the bottom, there arise strong output currents - upwelling . These are plotted in the surface layers of nutrients and clog the lower oxygenated water, Peruvian current is almost the entire length of the life-giving sea creatures.     
The above described it is evident that the Peruvian current is ideal for stormy reproduction of phytoplankton , zooplankton , krill, small fish and larger and larger " predators ". These include not only aquatic animals such as fish and cephalopods , but also marine mammals such as black porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis) and Chilean plískavice (Cephalorhynchus Eutropius) from pinnipeds pound sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the South American sea lion (Arctocephalus australis) from terrestrial predators coastal otter (Lontra FELINA) and birds Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus Humboldt) and Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus), Chilean Tern (Sterna lorata) and Tern Inca (Inca Larosterna) buřňáček small (Oceanites gracilis) and New Zealand Petrel (Procellaria westlandica ).
The greatest wealth is the Peruvian current, however, the smaller pelagic fish such as anchovy Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens), sardine dotted (Sardinops sagax) and mackerel mackerel California (Trachurus symmetricus) living in flocks in unimaginable numbers. It is estimated that out of its waters to fish out annually about 20 million tonnes, representing around 18 to 20% of world fish production, although its area is less than 1% of the world's oceans. Peruvian current is outside the Arctic and Antarctic waters "fertile" areas of the world's waters.
In years when the activity will increase dramatically El Niño is a periodic weakening of the winds and overheated waters of the western Pacific to move to the coast of South America in the opposite direction of the Peruvian current. Sea temperature rises to 7 ° C termoklina gets in depth, cease output currents, the upper water layers are no nutrients and are not poorly oxygenated bottom. Aquatic animals, starting with the smallest ones, do not have enough food, die. Similarly, on the other affiliated to them, such as aquatic mammals and birds. This situation brings great economic catastrophe that takes several years to drooping of the fish return to their original values, and fishing, there is the alpha and omega, is again profitable .
Peruvian current weather continental influences. Cools the adjacent coast of Chile by 5-6 ° C and Peru by 7 to 9 ° C against the ocean waters at the same latitude. Further causes low total rain precipitation on the coast (below 100 mm / year), the wind blowing into the interior is cold and binds little water vapor . There is one of the driest deserts of Atacama where rain for decades. Coastal vegetation usually live only from the strong fumes coming from the sea.     
1 ↑ a b McGinley, Mark. OF EARTH: Humboldt Current large marine ecosystem [online]. Encyclopedia of Earth, Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC, rev. 08.10.2008, [cit. 02.08.2011]. Available online (en)
2 ↑ a b Encyclopedia Britannica [online]. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.., Chicago, IL, [cit. 02.08.2011]. Available online (en)
3 ↑ a b Our Earth: Humboldt Current [online]. World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland, Switzerland, [cit. 02.08.2011]. Available online (en)
4 ↑ a b Sciece and the Sea: Humboldt Curren [online]. The University of Texas Marine Sciece Institute, Austin, TX, [cit. 02.08.2011]. Available online (en)
5 ↑ a b Brandl. Hydrolobiologie, Marine Habitat [online]. University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Czech Budejovice, rev. 19.05.2009, [cit. 02.08.2011]. Available online (cs)
The "Peruvean Humboldt Current" often just refers to the component of the Humboldt Current off the Peruvean coast, just as the "Chilean Humboldt Current" often just refers to the component of the Humboldt Current off the Chilean coast.
"A cold ocean current of the South Pacific, flowing north along the western coast of South America. Approximately every ten years complex weather conditions result in the disruption of the Humboldt Current, and nutrients from the ocean floor do not rise to the surface, and the fish starve, which phenomenon is known as El Niño. Also called Peru Current."
- Ekman transport
"The wind blowing over the ocean moves the surface layer but the Coriolis force deflects it to the right in the hemisphere north and to the left in the south. This deviation is propagated down by viscosity and gives a way to transport material off-axis surface winds. Ekman pumping is the upward transport of sea water as a result of surface winds from a depression . Under the effect of wind, water between the surface and the thermocline is moved and deflected by the Coriolis force to the outside of the depression by the Ekman transport. This description is a general circulation as described by Sverdrup. Another application of the Ekman pumping more local, is that of upwelling ("Upwelling") along the coast as the wind blows parallel to the latter and the Coriolis force is in the direction that the away from it. By pushing the surface water out to sea, it creates a vacuum that water up from the depths fill." (from French WP)
"The continental shelf is generally very narrow along the while west coast of South America because this the leading edge of a drifting continent."
- Strub PT, Mesias JM, Montecino V, Ruttlant J, Salinas S (1998) Coastal ocean circulation off western South America. In: Robin- son AR, Brink KH (eds) The sea: the global coastal ocean, region- al studies and syntheses. Wiley, New York
"The primary driver of the currents in the PCCS [Peru-Chile Current System] is the frictional force of the winds on the ocean's surface, the wind stress. As the wind field has a pronounced seasonal signal it is useful to contrast the situation for austral summer (January to March) and audtral winter (July to December)."
- The ecosystem
"The rich biological productivity of the PCCS depends primarly on the wind-driven coastal upwelling that brings colder and nutrient-rich subsurface waters into the euphotic zone. The upwelling is, in part, fed by water from the oxygen-minimum zone, located below the PCCS and the water has particularly high nutrient levels due to the remineralization of organic matter. When this nutrient-rich water is upwelled into the surface layer it is utilized by phytoplankton along with CO2 (carbon dioxide) and light energy from the Sun." [This productivity results in high chlorophyll concentrations at the surface, which can be demonstrated on satellite scans]"
- Ocampo JA (2006) Humboldt Current Global International Waters Assessment, Volume 64, United Nations Environment Programme. ISBN 9789211587104. Download
- Sachs, Aaron (2007) The Humboldt current: a European explorer and his American disciples Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199215195.
- Alheit and Bernal P (1993) "Effect of physical and biological changes on the biomass yield of the Humboldt current ecosystem" In: Sherman K, Alexander LM and Gold BD (Eds.) Large marine ecosystems: stress, mitigation, and sustainability, Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780871685063.
- Carra M-E and Kearns EJ (2003) "Production regimes in four Eastern Boundary Current systems" Deep-Sea Research II, 50 : 3199–3221.
- Ayón P, Swartzman G, Espinoza P and Bertrand A (2011) "Long-term changes in zooplankton size distribution in the Peruvian Humboldt Current System: conditions favouring sardine or anchovy" Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 422: 211–222. doi:10.3354/meps08918
- Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: Peru FAO, 2010. Rome.
- Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: Chile FAO, Rome. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- A review of eastern tropical Pacific oceanography, "Editorial Introduction" Progress in Oceanography, 69 (2006) 94–100.
- Ayón P, Swartzman G, Espinoza P and Bertrand A (2011) "Long-term changes in zooplankton size distribution in the Peruvian Humboldt Current System: conditions favouring sardine or anchovy" Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 422: 211–222. doi:10.3354/meps08918
Walraversijde was a medieval fishing village along the Flemish Coast. It was located in a dune area just west of the present Raversijde, a hamlet in the Belgian city of Ostend. Faithful reconstruction of the fishermen's houses Contents [Hide]
* 1 Geology * 2 First settlement * 3 Second settlement 4 * Renewed interest 5 * The houses of Walraversijde * 6 Fishing * 7 Reference Works * 8 See also * 9 External links
After the last ice age there were behind the beach and dunes of the Flemish coast in the course of time, according to a fickle and ever-changing pattern, a freshwater wetland. Through centuries of accumulation of decayed vegetation, these swamps were gradually transformed into a bog. With the rise in sea levels and frequent flooding by the sea there is formed tidal creeks, mudflats and salt marshes. In the last 2000 years sea level then gradually declined, so the fresh water gradually got the upper hand again and a thick peat layer could be formed.
The marshes increased gradually by deposition of silt and clay. This was also the saltmarsh vegetation gradually replaced by freshwater plants. During spring, these areas are still flooded. This arose, salt meadows. Salt was an important and popular product. Therefore it was in the Iron Age and Roman times mined, which traces were found in the current Leffinge. But in Raversijde one has found remains of a salt pan from Roman times. In 2005, excavations they found remains from first to third century of an old Roman dam twelve meters wide, thickened with peat. The discovery of terra sigilata (red lacquered ware from France) is a convincing evidence of human presence in Roman times. The Roman peat mining pits in Raversijde also point to the extraction of peat. Peat was a valuable fuel. With the decline of the Roman Empire fell back prosperity. Flemish coast in the early Middle Ages
By the daily tidal flooding along the channels was Testerep and a long salt marshes and mudflats formed. From the 8th century when this area was increasingly overwhelmed by the sea and tidal channels began to silt, Saxony settled on the higher parts of the area and built farms that would grow into towns like Leffinge and Ichtegem. They also kept sheep, because the salt marshes vegetation was very suitable for this purpose. The wool of these sheep was wanted and there was an industry in the Merovingian period around "Frisian cloth".
In the 10th century the Flemish Pagus Flandrensis their graves with many areas along the salt marshes and tidal channels of Testerep in Bredene and grinding. The name 'Broad' is also derived from Broad Ede, "which refers to the 'Ede North", another tidal channel. These areas were expanded to large areas of the count sheep. Several inner dikes, perpendicular to the shoreline, built to protect these areas against the sea. Around 1150 had started the final reclamation of the coastal plain. The current Mariakerke was named as early as 1115 Testerepsi parrochia. Brick houses with fishing well [Edit] First settlement
Already in the Neolithic and Bronze Age nomadic hunters and fishermen lived here. A small hamlet developed in the early middle behind a row of dunes. The inhabitants lived on fishing but also of piracy (as usual in those days) and sheep breeding in the marshes. Moreover, they also drove international trade, even in the north of Scotland. Their merchant vessels against piracy in the 14th century they went on to place primitive guns on board, but it was a perilous undertaking to shake off pirates.
In 1357 this village was first mentioned in a written document as "Hide Walravens. The word 'hide' appears in English as "Hith, hryther and Hythe ', as in the place Rotherhithe (the peninsula along the Thames from where the Mayflower with the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620 moved to Virginia) and Hythe (an English coastal town near Folkestone) and originated from Old Saxon suffix 'ijde', which also occurs in the towns and Koksijde Lombardsijde and means landing. "Walraf IJde" or "Hide Walravens 'means' the landing of a certain Walraf. Map of Walraversijde in the 15th century
The end of the 14th century were troubled times: the revolt in Ghent, led by Philip of Artevelde and economic decline prevented foreign trade. The dunes were neglected and undermined by the many rabbits corridors. The Storm of 22 January 1394 Vincent was made to break through the dunes and Testerep was inundated. This original location Walraversijde was hopelessly lost and was therefore abandoned. Bakery and smokehouse [Edit] Second settlement
In 1399 Duke John the Fearless gave orders to set up a new dike along the coast, called "Count Jansdijk ', which are still traces to be found. Behind the dam, at the place of the current site was becoming a new Walraversijde built and grew rapidly into a wealthy village of about 100 densely built brick houses, with a mill, a brewery and one between 1420 and 1430 built three-aisled church of John the Baptist. The low tower was built in Gothic style in the same way as the tower of the Onze-Lieve-Vrouw ter Duinen Mariakerke Church and had a flat roof, which was also used as a lookout and beacon for sailors. fishing net drying on rods
The highlight of Walraversijde was, as is clear from the excavations reached around 1465. This was also the heyday of Flanders and Flemish painting, called "15th Golden Age. This also applied to the fishermen, who usually own a boat and fishing gear owned. Found an eyeglass legs indicates that there were people who could read and write and therefore could keep the trading books. This points to a certain prosperity. The brick houses were slightly smaller than 100 m2 and a few were about 150 m2. However, they were all, to the standards of the time, cozy and comfortably furnished with brick wells, latrines and underground brick
At the end of the 15th century came a troubled time. For example, some times fierce battle to Ostend area. Ostend was looted and burned in July 1489 by followers of the German King Maximilian I of Austria, led by Daniel van Praet, Captain Newport. This heralded a period of depopulation and economic decline in. By 1510 were in Walraversijde though some houses and by 1534 had expired some parts of Walraversijde leave. In 1548 there were more devastation when Ostend was conquered by the British and the Dutch. Finally remained Walraversijde no longer than a few houses around the church and the mill. On the 'Great Map of the Liberty of Bruges' by Pieter Pourbus from 1571 (kept only as a copy by Pieter Claeissins) Walraversijde is still listed as a small hamlet with a church and mill, located along a tidal channel behind the dunes.
At the end of the 16th century, when the rise of Protestantism, raged in Flanders a lengthy battle between the Spanish rulers and the Flemish nobles. After the Battle of Newport on July 2, 1600, the army of the Prince has returned to Ostend. It was to cluster the army also pass along Walraversijde with devastating effect. Shortly thereafter began the Siege of Ostend (1601-1604), one of the bloodiest episodes of the 17th century. The few remaining houses from the Spanish cavalry Walraversijde were used as a shelter. This was probably the death knell for this once thriving community. A map from 1628 shows on this site only green fields. The church had fallen and was now used as a barn. However, the tower was also used as a beacon for shipping to their demolition in 1860. [Edit] Renewed interest foundations of some houses
At the end of the 20th century, there is an archeology of Walraversijde. There had been some research done around 1950 on the beach Raversijde. This was the first settlement (13th-14th century), which was swallowed by the sea. At low tide there was still one could see the ground plan of the foundations of some houses and cultivated peat layers. The construction of new breakwaters was all buried under the sand again.
In the spring of 1992 started a new systematic archaeological research, this time behind the dunes in the newly acquired province Raversijde Domain. This yielded a wealth of diverse and well-preserved details of daily life and fishing but also weaponry, such as cannon balls, parts of crossbows and daggers.
The numerous discoveries resulted in the development of the Provincial Museum Walraversijde. This also included some residences faithfully reconstructed with the original bricks found on the site. The interior and the contents of the houses was copied from the many illustrated manuscripts from that time. In this way one gets an impression of how people lived and worked Walraversijde. [Edit] The houses of Walraversijde
The Provincial Museum has four Walraversijde fishing houses from the period around 1465 faithfully rebuilt. These bricks were only used on site were excavated. The interior and layout of the houses was done by using replicas of excavated materials or images in paintings, miniatures and illustrated manuscripts from that era. Thus, this ambitious project could give a faithful evocation of the settlement and provide a good impression of how people lived and worked Walraversijde
These four houses are:
- The home of owner: a big house where the only gold coin so far been found. This gold coin bears the image of Conrad III von Dhaun, Archbishop of Mainz (1419-1434). The coin was beaten between 1411 and 1434. It therefore assumes that this house has belonged to an intermediary. This house had glass windows, therefore, a relatively expensive luxury product, and a richly decorated suitcase, and a Tresor dresser and furniture. Next to the dining table with pewter dishes, medieval glass and majolica plates, are two lordly seats. The tablet is on a polygonal table slap cheek, with an adjacent X-shaped 'prekestoel. Lie on some notebooks with washing tablets. The walls were provided with several wallcovering in a mixture of wool and linen. The four-poster bed with time belonged to the most expensive furniture in a house (this may be the only authentic copy in Europe).
Miniature from the manuscript Roman de la Rose (Oxford, Bodleian Library), portrait of Guillaume de Lorris, seated in lordly seat *
tablet on cheek folding table *
example of a medieval banquet (from 'Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c. 1415 *
the dining table with chairs in the lordly 'house of the owner " *
canopy bed - La teseida the Boccaccio-Maître des Jouvenel des Ursins *
the canopy in the 'house of the owner "
* The house of the fisherman's widow: you were the windows covered with lattice of willow twigs and wooden sliding shutters. Besides a simple table is a tonstoel. The table is covered with wooden bowls, wooden spoons, cutting boards round and red pottery, a knife with bone handle and a linen tablecloth. The single bed is under the stairs.
dining table with tonstoel *
single bed under the stairs *
pottery and dishes
* The house of visroker: the wall is covered with a dyed fabric tapestry imitations. Hethoge bed is built into an alcove. At its foot is a stepping stone, which served as storage space. Next to it stands a cot with ratchet.
draft-free bed in alcove *
* The smokehouse and bakery;
Walraversijde was a community of fishermen and traders. Fish in the Middle Ages played a major role in the diet. Moreover, meat and dairy products banned by the Church many days (Fridays, the fasting period, and other fast days or "fishing days").
There were about twenty Walraversijde fishing boats, each with a crew between thirteen and twenty. The captains had their own boats and nets. This points to a certain prosperity. The fishermen were dressed in waterproof suits (in striped linen fabric, rubbed with oil) and used nets with floats of cork or wood and lead, brick or stone weights and weighted lines with iron hooks. These nets had to be constantly repaired. They were made from wood and bone needles lost, many of them were found. Fishing nets with floats
The men fished mainly on herring boats in the North and Scotland to perform sometimes cod. The fishermen conducted a lively trade in jaw herring. This was, however, since the early 13th century, a monopoly of the Hanseatic League in Germany and southern Sweden (Schon Genocide jaw herring). In the early 15th century, around 1420, that changed and Flemish fishermen also could legally produce jaw herring. The jaws of herring herring could be kept much longer and thus domestically traded. This gave rise to a lively trade.
Jaw Herring was appropriate and brine in barrels. These barrels were made with wood from the Baltic region, mainly from the region around Gdansk (in present day Poland). So the barrels were originally used for importing Hanseatische gutted herring. Other storage methods for herring and herring were dry rack herring (herring sprinkled with salt in baskets). Corruption one cod, plaice and whiting and flatfish, like flounder, dab and plaice. Fish were also smoked, which not only taste better, but these fish could be kept longer.
Women looking for mussels and crabs along the waterline. Shrimp were caught in shallow water, possibly with nets drawn by horses, as it now appears as a tourist event in East Dunkirk. truss anchor
Walraversijde had no market. Fish was traded by intermediaries, 'wards' mentioned. Some skippers gave the fish itself and were broker. These were then quickly dominating the market. They were the financiers of local sailors, who then began to sail in their service.
Fishing was not the only source of income. The fishermen often sell their fish in England and returned back to commodities such as coal, grain, pewter, and English fabrics. Possibly there were some real cargo, which then Flemish goods exported and returned with foreign goods. So were various objects found on the site that came from far away, like a comb in African ivory, black pepper from South India, Rhenish stoneware salt glaze and lots of expensive gold luster majolica dishes from Spain. Probably they were imported from Bruges, who at that time a major port. Their presence on this site recalls a certain prosperity of the local population.
Another possibility is that these expensive goods, or part of the spoils of piracy or from wrecks. Piracy was at that time a common practice. Unknown ships were considered prey, especially if they were less heavily armed men on board had or less. The fishermen of this Walraversijde had a fairly bad reputation, as reflected in documents from that time. The winter storms and sandbanks off the coast ensure that regular shipwrecks found themselves on the beach Walraversijde. This resulted in most cases on a rich booty.
Fishermen Walraversijde occurred so often as pirates, but were often themselves the victims of piracy, such as around 1460 when many were slain by French pirates in Honfleur and Dieppe. Sometimes Walraversijde fishermen who happened to present in a foreign port, the victim of reprisals long incarceration and sometimes, when ships from that port had been attacked by other Walraversijde fishermen. Their action was definitely not without risks. It is therefore not surprising that the fishermen are so heavily armed as possible. It has been the site remains of crossbows and nierdolken found. Flemish coins (around 1375)
They palsy also involved in the war between the French king Louis XI and Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1465-1477 period). These were bad times for fishermen Walraversijde. They had to hand over ships and sailors for the protection of the Flemish fleet. Finally, they had even an expensive warship buy a small cannon. There could only be fished in convoy, protected by warships. After the war there followed a civil war in Flanders. Walraversijde was between Ostend and opponents and told them so in the blasts. This led to the decline of this thriving community.
In 1999 they made an extraordinary discovery: a coin deposit consisting of 211 silver paste or "great double" with a high silver content from the time of Louis of Male (1330-1384), Count of Flanders from 1346 to 1380. They were minted between 1373 and 1380. At that time there was turmoil in the county of Flanders, with a rebellion of Ghent and other cities, led by Philip of Artevelde, against the Count and his son, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. [Edit] Reference works
* Deseyne, A. (1993). Raversijde: History of the Royal Estate. Province of West Flanders * Kightly, Ch. et al (2003) - Walraversijde 1465 (from archaeological excavation to actual reconstruction) * Pieters, M. (1995). A 15th-century field of lost fishing village Raversijde (Ostend, prov. Ontario): Interim Report 1994 * Pieters, M. (2002). Raversijde 1992-2002: a balance after 10 years archaeological research [1992-2002 Raversijde * Pieters, M. et al (2002). medieval and later devotional and badges from Raversijde ==Biodiversity==
"Biological diversity is plummeting, mainly due to habitat degradation and loss, pollution, overexploitation, competition from alien species, disease, and changing climates."
Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific are dominated by whitetip, blacktip and grey reef shark. Coral reefs in the western Atlantic Ocean are dominated by the Caribbean reef shark. These sharks are all species of requiem shark, and all have the robust, streamlined bodies that are typical of the requiem shark. They are fast-swimming, agile predators that feed primarily on free-swimming bony fishes and cephalopods.
The whitetip reef shark is a small shark usually less than 1.6 m (5.2 ft) in length. It is associated almost exclusively with coral reefs where it can be encountered around coral heads and ledges with high vertical relief, or over sandy flats, in lagoons, or near drop-offs to deeper water. They prefer very clear water and rarely swim far from the bottom.
Whitetip reef sharks spend most of the daytime time resting inside caves. Unlike other requiem sharks, which usually rely on ram ventilation and must constantly swim to breathe, this shark can pump water over its gills and lie still on the bottom. They have slender, lithe body, which allows them to wriggle into crevices and holes and extract prey inaccessible to other reef sharks. On the other hand, they are rather clumsy when attempting to take food suspended in open water.
The whitetip reef shark does not frequent very shallow water like the blacktip reef shark, nor the outer reef like the grey reef shark. They generally remain within a highly localized area. Only rarely do they undertake long movements, wandering for a while before settling down somewhere new. An individual shark may rest inside the same cave for months to years. The daytime home range of a whitetip reef shark is limited to about 0.05 km2 (0.019 sq mi), and at night this range increases to 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi).
The whitetip reef shark is highly responsive to olfactory, acoustic, and electrical cues given off by potential prey. Its visual system is attuned more to movement and/or contrast than to object details. It is especially sensitive to natural and artificial low-frequency sounds in the 25–100 Hz range, which evoke struggling fish. They hunt primarily at night, when many fishes are asleep and easily taken. After dusk, a group of sharks may target the same prey item, covering every exit route from a particular coral head. Each shark hunts for itself and in competition with the others in its group. They feed mainly on bony fishes, including eels, squirrelfishes, snappers, damselfishes, parrotfishes, surgeonfishes, triggerfishes, and goatfishes, as well as octopus, spiny lobsters, and crabs. Important predators of the whitetip reef shark include tiger sharks and Galapagos sharks.
The blacktip reef shark is typically about 1.6 m (5.2 ft) long. It is usually found over reef ledges and sandy flats, though it can also enter brackish and freshwater environments. This species likes shallow water, while the whitetip and the grey reef shark are prefer deeper water. Younger sharks favour shallow sandy flats, and older sharks spend more time around reef ledges and near reef drop-offs. Blacktip reef sharks are strongly attached to their own area, where they may remain for up to several years. A tracking study off Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific has found that the blacktip reef shark had a home range of about 0.55 km2 (0.21 sq mi), among the smallest of any shark species. The size and location of the range does not change with time of day.
The blacktip reef shark may be encountered alone or in small groups. Large social aggregations have also been observed. They are active predators of small bony fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans, and also feed on sea snakes and seabirds. Blacktip reef sharks are preyed on by groupers, grey reef sharks, tiger sharks, and members of their own species. At Palmyra Atoll, adult blacktip reef sharks avoid patrolling tiger sharks by staying out of the central, deeper lagoon.
Grey reef sharks are fast-swimming, agile predators that feed primarily on free-swimming bony fishes and cephalopods. Their aggressive demeanor enables them to dominate many other shark species on the reef, despite their moderate size. Many grey reef sharks have a home range on a specific area of the reef, to which they continually return. However, they are social rather than territorial. During the day, these sharks often form groups of 5–20 individuals near coral reef drop-offs, splitting up in the evening as the sharks begin to hunt.
They are found over continental and insular shelves, preferring the leeward (away from the direction of the current) sides of coral reefs with clear water and rugged topography. They are frequently found near the drop-offs at the outer edges of the reef, and less commonly within lagoons. On occasion, this shark may venture several kilometers out into the open ocean.
Tthe Caribbean reef shark, at up to 3 metres (10 ft) in length, is one of the largest apex predators in the reef ecosystem. Like the whitetip reef shark, they have been documented resting motionless on the sea bottom or inside caves, unusual behaviour for requiem sharks. Caribbean reef shark play a major role in shaping Caribbean reef communities. They are more active at night, with no evidence of seasonal changes in activity or migration. Juveniles tend to remain in a localized area throughout the year, while adults range over a wider area. The Caribbean reef shark feeds on a wide variety of reef-dwelling bony fishes and cephalopods, as well as some elasmobranchs such as eagle rays and yellow stingrays . Young sharks feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. In turn, young sharks are preyed on by larger sharks such as the tiger shark and the bull shark.
The schooling Thalassoma bifasciatum has a schooling stripe
wrasse , Novaculichthys taeniourus cleaned by Rainbow cleaner wrasses, Labroides phthirophagus
Spanish mackerel, often found over grass beds and reefs;
Zebar shark (Stegostoma fasciatum)
Atlas of the Oceans
- Coral reefs - UN: Atlas of the Oceans
- Types of Habitats - UN: Atlas of the Oceans
- Destruction of Habitats - UN: Atlas of the Oceans
- UN: (2006) The Impacts of Fishing on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems Report of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly.
- IUCN: State of the World 2008 Brief Series]
- FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
- Garcia, S.M. (2005) Fisheries Issues: Destructive fishing practices FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture, Rome. Updated 27 May 2005. Cited 19 January 2009.
- UN: Marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction Prepared by the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, 2007.
- GENERAL ASSEMBLY WORKING GROUP TO STUDY CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE OF MARINE - United Nations Press Release, 2008
- Oceans and the Law of the Sea in the General Assembly of the United Nations
- Nevill, Jon (2007) Destructive fishing practices: definitions
- Destructive fishing practices: definitions - Conservation Science Institute
- NOAA: When Fishing is Destructive Retrieved 22 January 2009.
- UN: GENERAL ASSEMBLY CALLS FOR ‘IMMEDIATE ACTION’ TO SUSTAINABLY MANAGE FISH STOCKS, PROTECT DEEP SEA ECOSYSTEMS FROM HARMFUL FISHING PRACTICES 2006
- Destructive fishing practices - WWF
- McClellan, Kate (Lead Author) (2008) Coral degradation through destructive fishing practices Encyclopedia of Earth. Last revised August 24, 2008; Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- Destructive fishing practices - European Commission
- United Nations Urged To End Destructive Fishing Animal Welfare Institute.
- Questions and Answers on Destructive Fishing Practices - European Commission
- open letter to the U.N. by 400 scientists alerting governments and fisheries managers to the rapid decline of the Pacific leatherback sea turtle. 2003.
- Destructive fishing practices - The Fisheries Secretariat
- Destructive fishing practices - EUbusiness.com, 17 October 2007.
- UN review shows need to halt destructive fishing practice - EurekAlert 2006.
- Measures Sparse, Ineffective, Woefully Inadequate Deep Sea Conservation Coilition, 2006
- Destructive fishing practices - Spearfishing World
- [http://www.terangi.or.id/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=99999999 Terangi:Indonesian coral reef foundation.
- U.S. Supports Cessation of Destructive Fishing Practice October 9, 2006
- Call to ban destructive fishing - BBC, 4 October 2005
- Modelling the effects of destructive fishing practices on tropical coral reefs 1993
- ITMEMS '98: Case Studies - Destructive Fishing Practices and Collecting Methods 1998
- Destructive Fishing Practices Cause More Damage to Coral Reefs Than the December 2004 Tsunami Did 2006
- ECES - Ecosystem Destruction: Overfishing, Bycatch, and Destructive Fishing Practices
- Commission welcomes pioneering move to halt destructive fishing practices in Northwest Atlantic 2008
- Statement on Protection of Sustainable Fisheries - White House, 2006
- Destructive fishing practices in the high seas and the protection of vulnerable deep sea 2008
- Closing the net on illegal and destructive fishing - Greenpeace 2007
- Crisis Caused by Destructive Fishing 2003
- UN review shows need to halt destructive fishing practice
- U.S. vows to work against destructive fishing 2006
- Working Document of the Commission services Destructive Fishing Practices in the high seas 2006
- Destructive Fishing
Category:Environmental issues with fishing| ]] Category:Sustainability
- Study in Science reveals recreational fishing takes big bite of ocean catch
- Recreational fishing – beyond the hype
- Recreational Catch Down Slightly, Remains Second Highest Catch in Decade
- The Impact of United States Recreational Fisheries on Marine Fish Populations
In 2006, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimated that 30.0 million U.S. anglers, 16 years old and older took 403 million fishing trips, spending $42.0 billion in fishing related expenses. Of these, 25.4 million were freshwater anglers who took 337 million trips and spent $26.3 billion. Saltwater fishing attracted 7.7 million anglers who took 67 million trips and spent $8.9 billion.
|Recreational fishing expenditures in $US billion|
|Food and lodging||6.3|
|Other trip costs: land use fees, guide fees,
equipment rental, boating expenses, and bait...
|Fishing equipment: rods, reels, tackle boxes,
depth finders, and artificial lures and flies...
|Auxiliary equipment: camping equipment,
binoculars, and special fishing clothing...
|Special equipment: boats, vans, and cabins...||13.2|
|Membership dues and contributions||0.2|
|Land leasing and ownership||4.6|
|Licenses, stamps, tags, and permits||0.5|
Freshwater fishing was the most popular type of fishing. In 2006, 25.4 million anglers went freshwater fishing for 433 million days and 337 million trips. Their expenditures for trips and equipment totaled $26.3 billion for the year.
In 2006, 7.7 million anglers enjoyed saltwater fishing on 67 million trips totaling 86 million days. Overall, they spent $8.9 billion during the year on trips and equipment for saltwater fishing.tsk
- The Houghton Mifflin dictionary of geography, Houghton Mifflin, 1997. ISBN 9780395864487.
- Longhurst AR (2007) Ecological geography of the sea Academic Press, p. 409. ISBN 9780124555211.
- Karstensen J and Ulloa O (2009) "Peru-Chile Current System" In: JH Steele, SA Thorpe and KK Turekian (Eds.) Ocean Currents, Academic Press, p. 85–92. ISBN 9780080964867.
- Huggett, Richard J., Fundamentals of biogeography, "Conserving species and populations."
- Hobson, E.S. (1963). "Feeding Behavior in Three Species of Sharks". Pacific Science 17: 171–194.
- Randall, J.E. (1977). "Contribution to the Biology of the Whitetip Reef Shark (Triaenodon obesus)". Pacific Science 31 (2): 143–164.
- Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. pp. 459–461. ISBN 9251013845.
- Martin, R.A. Caribbean Reef Shark. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on February 14, 2009.
- Nelson, D.R. and R.H. Johnson. (1970). Acoustic studies on sharks: Rangiroa Atoll, July 1969. ONR Technical Report 2, No. N00014-68-C-0138.
- Yano, K., H. Mori, K. Minamikawa, S. Ueno, S. Uchida, K. Nagai, M. Toda and M. Masuda (June 2000). "Behavioral response of sharks to electric stimulation". Bulletin of Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute 78: 13–30.
- Papastamatiou, Y.P., J.E. Caselle, A.M. Friedlander and C.G. Lowe (September 16, 2009). "Distribution, size frequency, and sex ratios of blacktip reef sharks Carcharhinus melanopterus at Palmyra Atoll: a predator-dominated ecosystem". Journal of Fish Biology 75 (3): 647–654.
- Springer, S. (1967). "Social organization of shark populations". In Gilbert, P.W. and R.F. Mathewson and D.P. Rail. Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. pp. 149–174.
- Papastamatiou, Y.P., C.G. Lowe, J.E. Caselle and A.M. Friedlander (April 2009). "Scale-dependent effects of habitat on movements and path structure of reef sharks at a predator-dominated atoll". Ecology 90 (4): 996–1008.
- Papastamatiou, Y.P., Wetherbee, B.M., Lowe, C.G. and Crow, G.L. (2006). "Distribution and diet of four species of carcharhinid shark in the Hawaiian Islands: evidence for resource partitioning and competitive exclusion". Marine Ecology Progress Series 320: 239–251.
- Garla, R.C., Chapman, D.D., Wetherbee, B.M. and Shivji, M. (2006). "Movement patterns of young Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: the potential of marine protected areas for conservation of a nursery ground". Marine Biology 149: 189–199.
- Rosa, R.S., Mancini, P., Caldas, J.P. and Graham, R.T. (2006). Carcharhinus perezi. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- 2006 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
American shad are valued as a sport fish that exhibit complex and little-understood feeding behavior while spawning. Unlike salmon, shad retain the ability to digest and assimilate food during the anadromous migration. Like other fish, their feeding instinct can be triggered by a variety of factors such as turbidity and water temperature. Anglers use both spinning and fly fishing tackle to pursue shad. Spin fisherman use a shad dart or a flutter spoon. Typically a downrigger is used to place the artificial lure at the desired depth and location. This is usually in the channel, or deepest part of the river. Much of the shad's migration places them in the lower potion of the water column which makes this the typical depth of choice for fishing. In the north, April through June is when shad spawn in coastal rivers and estuaries once water temperatures have reached 58 degrees. Fishing conditions typically improve as water temperatures warm and flow decreases.
The male shad is an excellent game fish, showing multiple jumps and an occasional end-over-end; it has been called a "freshwater tarpon". The pregnant female does not fight much, but is often kept for the roe.
Shad fishing on the West Coast
- California: The Sacramento River provides the best-known shad water in the state, but it is ideally suited to spin fishing. The water is large, quite deep and is best accessed via boat. The wading fly angler will find smaller, more accessible water along the Sacramento's' tributaries. The Feather River has numerous good spots between the Oroville Dam and the Sacramento, the Shanghai bend downstream from Marysville being one of many. The Yuba, a tributary of the Feather, branches northeast along Route 20 from which there are numerous access points. The American River from Nimbus Dam to Sacramento has numerous parking areas just north of the American River Parkway. The numerous islands in this section can split the shad run, so depending on the water level, target runs and riffles where the whole run is concentrated. To the north, the Klamath, like the Sacramento, is big shad water. Its tributary, the Trinity River, is more accessible and follows Route 299 closely.
- Oregon: Most of Oregon's coastal rivers have shad runs, but there are some standouts. East of Portland, the Bonneville Dam poses a significant obstacle to the Columbia River's shad run. As a result, the most popular areas are just downstream from the dam, though shore fishing can be dicey depending on water levels. Some of the better shore access is found upriver from the dam on the Washington side of the river (see below.) Downstream from the dam, the Willamette River extending south of Portland and the Columbia River provides some shore access. The Umpqua River east of Reedsport along Routes 38 and 138 to Roseburg and beyond is a popular area. The Rogue, Coos, Siuslaw, Smith, Sandy and Coquille Rivers also have shad runs worth investigation.
- Washington: The Columbia River delineates the border with Oregon, so some of Washington's best shad fishing is to be had in the Bonneville Dam area. From Highway 14, two miles east of North Bonneville, transmission towers mark the entrance to an access road that will put you onto some good spots. The Chehalis and Skookumchuck Rivers in the vicinity of Centralia has good water. Route 6 west from this area follows the upper Chehalis and will bring you to another good shad river, the Willapa. American Shad are also fished commercially in the Columbia River. There is a small non-Indian commercial gillnet fishery several miles downstream from Bonneville Dam. There is also a tribal commercial fishery. The tribal fishery is composed of a dipnet/hoopnet fishery from platforms primarily in the Bonneville Dam pool and a live trap fishery at The Dalles Dam.
Shad fishing on the East Coast
- New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey: Look no further than the Delaware River. With a shad run exceeding 300 miles, this river offers many, many places to catch shad, though most of the better wading fly water is above Port Jervis, New York. The Delaware River recently hosted rock star Dean Ween for his fishing show Skunked during a premier episode fishing for shad. From there to Hancock, Route 97 follows the river affording access on and off for over seventy miles. There are numerous pull-offs and rapids on Route 97. To name just a few good tail outs: up and downstream from the Barryville Bridge; downstream from the Lackawaxen Bridge (parking on the Pennsylvania side); Cedar Rapids; Ten Mile River Access; and down from Kellams Bridge just north of Hankins. A good map of this area can be found at http://www.gonefishing-gs.com/RiverMap.htm.
- Connecticut: Unlike the Delaware, the shad on the Connecticut River have to pass a number of dams, each one thinning the numbers that push farther upstream. The river is pretty big to fish without a lead line and a boat, so waders pretty much have to look for confluences like that of the Farmington River near Windsor. The Hammonasset River around Clinton reportedly has some good fly water.
- Massachusetts and Vermont: Holyoke Dam — perhaps the state's most famous spot — is too crowded to be any fun, but it is where local Roofing and Siding Contractor Robert A. Thibodo (1937-2006) set the current World Record on May 19th 1986 (11 pounds 4 ounces). In the Springfield area, it would be better to try spots below the Willimanset Bridge or the confluence of the Chicopee River. But you'll have a more pastoral experience fishing up and down from the Rock Dam (not a dam at all, just rocks) access at Turners Falls. Some coastal rivers like the Palmer and the North are also reported to have less crowded conditions. Shad go all the way up into Vermont as far as Bellows Falls, though the Vernon dam has significantly decreased the run by this point.
- Maryland and Washington, D.C.: Here's where you start running into significant numbers of hickory shad, which though similar to American shad, are smaller cousins with a predilection for small bait fish imitations. Below the Conowingo Dam on the Susquehanna River is a popular spot, and in Washington D.C. try Fletchers Boathouse and below Chain Bridge on the Potomac River. These are not particularly wadeable spots, and can be busy, but they consistently offer good fishing. In addition, the Potomac is sufficiently narrow in places to afford shore fishing opportunities in the aforementioned stretch. Spinfishing has been the historical norm, but flyfishing has been very popular recently. Deer Creek is also a good spot, though only for Hickories.
- Virginia: The James River's tributaries offer a variety of opportunities, as do the York River tributaries like the Mattaponi south of Aylett and the Pamunkey. Other hot spots include the Chickahominy at Walkers Dam below Lexana and the Nottoway. But some of the best wading can be had on the Rappahannock around Old Mill Park in Fredericksburg (park on river road so you don’t get locked into the parking lot), and down from the Route 1 bridge where there are a couple parking places. Wading from the north side is recommended.
- North Carolina and South Carolina: Try Cape Fear River at the Lock & Dam No.1 and the Tar River upstream of Rocky Mount railway bridge. In low water, the Roanoke between US 158 and the Weldon Boat Ramp offers some access to shad. The Cashie River near the US 17 bridge is very wadeable, though this is primarily hickory shad territory. Also of note is the Pee Dee River below Blewett Fall dam. The most notable South Carolina runs occur in the Santee and Cooper Rivers. Bank and boat angling opportunities are available below St. Stephen Power House on the Santee Re-diversion canal. Boat, bank, and wade fishing opportunities occur below Lake Marion Dam. On the Cooper River, shad are angled primarily by boat below Pinopolis Dam, near Moncks Corner.
- Georgia: Shad rivers include the Ogeechee, Woodbine, Satilla, Altamaha and the Savannah River at Bluff Lock dams near Augusta.
- Florida: The St. Johns River meanders through swamps and savannas, a completely different shad river from the Delaware’s stony rapids and draws. And as if that weren’t enough, the season is from December through March. Some excellent fly water can be accessed from Route 46 between Sanford and Titusville – all this within easy reach of Orlando. Except in unusual conditions, the shad stays fairly deep, requiring weight on the line or fly. Many fly fishermen will use an unusual 1/64 oz. "micro-jig", that resembles a tiny casting bass jig, although it commonly has short nylon feathering to the rear.
Most shad in the St. Johns, however, are taken either by slow trolling or drift casting, i.e. casting upriver and letting the lure drift with the current. Most fishermen use a Y-shaped "shad rig", consisting of two lures spaced one to two feet apart, with a weight on a swiveled line between them or in front of them. The two lures are either two "shad darts" -- a very small bright jig (as small as 1/64 oz., but usually 1/4 oz. and about one inch long) -- or a shad dart in front and a spoon spinner in back. Sometimes a live grub is threaded onto the dart. The shad stay near the bottom unless the water is unusually high, so the rig is designed to keep the lure a foot off the bed. In times past, the St. Johns held an annual shad tournament in February, and an estimated 1,000 boats could be seen trolling the river north of Sanford. Today, there is a bag limit of 10.
- "Fish-nets on the Peedee River", from River Fisheries of the United States, Artist unknown, in the Nat. Oc. A.Assoc. NMFS collection. For a version of the entire aquatint, click the thumbnail.
- McPhee, John (2002) The Founding Fish Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374104443.
- Gerstell, Richard (1988) American shad in the Susquehanna River Basin: a three-hundred-year history Penn State Press. ISBN 9780271018065