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RESOURCES AND WORKING DRAFTS ONLY

Carcharhinus longimanus 1.jpg
Antennarius commerson 3.jpg
Biology databases
Image resources
Miscellaneous links


Cite web

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GRIN

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WoRMS

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Automatic Taxobox

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Draft articles.... not for citation
Boom and bust fisheries

Contents

Self-propelled particles[edit]

Recent models in theoretical physics predict that swarming animals share certain properties at the group level, regardless of the type of animals in the swarm.[1]

Overview[edit]

Collective behaviours of living systems occur on many different scales[2] including flocks of birds,[3] schools of fish,[4] swarms of insects or bacteria,[5][6] herds of quadrupleds,[7] stampedes of people,[8][9] robotic swarms[10] and molecular motors.[11][12] "It turns out that the collective properties of such systems seem to be quite robust and universal. Accordingly, this field attracted the interest of the statistical physics community with the challenge of introducing minimal models that could capture the emergence of collective behaviour."[13]

Examples[edit]

Locust swarming

"One key prediction is that as the density of animals in the group increases, a rapid transition occurs from disordered movement of individuals within the group to highly aligned collective motion. Understanding such a transition is crucial to the control of mobile swarming insect pests such as the desert locust. We confirmed the prediction of a rapid transition from disordered to ordered movement and identified a critical density for the onset of coordinated marching in locust nymphs. We also demonstrated a dynamic instability in motion at densities typical of locusts in the field, in which groups can switch direction without external perturbation, potentially facilitating the rapid transfer of directional information."[1]

Bird flocks
Flocks of birds make in sudden changes of course in unison and then unanimously decide to land

Bhattacharya and Vicsek (2010) used an SPP model to analyse what happens when a collective behaviour in a group of people or animals starts or stops. They found that flocks of birds make sudden simultaneous changes of course and also make unanimous decisions when to land. The decisions that are made depend on where the birds are in the flock.[14] According to Bhattacharya, "In the absence of a decision-making leader, the collective shift to land is heavily influenced by the perturbations that the individual birds are subject to, such as the bird's flying position within the flock."[15] The model could also be applied to a swarm of unmanned aeroplanes, to initiating a desired motion in a crowd of people, or to interpreting group patterns when stock market shares are brought or sold.[15]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Buhl J, Sumpter DJT, Couzin ID, JJ… (2006) "From disorder to order in marching locusts" Science, 312(5778): 1402–1406. doi:10.1126/science.1125142
  2. ^ Toner J, Tu Y and Ramaswamy S (2005) "Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks" Annals Of Physics, 318(170
  3. ^ Feare C (1984) The Starling, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192177056.
  4. ^ Hubbard S, Babak P, Sigurdsson S and Magnusson K (2004) "A model of the formation of fish schools and migrations of fish" Ecol. Model., 174: 359.
  5. ^ Rauch E, Millonas M and Chialvo D (1995) "Pattern formation and functionality in swarm models" Physics Letters A, 207: 185-193.
  6. ^ Ben-Jacob E, Cohen I, Shochet O, Czirok A and Vicsek T (1995) "Cooperative Formation of Chiral Patterns during Growth of Bacterial Colonies" Physical review letters, 75: 2899–2902.
  7. ^ Parrish JK and Hamner WM (eds) (1997) Animal Groups in Three Dimensions Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521460248.
  8. ^ Helbing D, Farkas I and Vicsek T (2000) "Simulating dynamical features of escape panic" Nature, 407: 487–490. doi:10.1038/35035023
  9. ^ Helbing D, Farkas IJ and Vicsek T (2000) "Freezing by heating in a driven mesoscopic system" Physical review letters, 84(6): 1240–1243. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1240
  10. ^ Sugawara K, Sano M and Watanabe T (2009) "Nature of the order-disorder transition in the Vicsek model for the collective motion of self-propelled particles" Phys. Rev. E, 80: 050103.1-4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.80.050103
  11. ^ Harada Y, Nugushi A, Kishino A and Yanagida T (1987) "Sliding movement of single actin filaments on one-headed myosin filaments" Nature, 326:805–808.
  12. ^ Badoual M, J ̈ulicher F and Prost J (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 99: 6696.
  13. ^ Bertin E, Droz M an Grégoire G (2009) "Hydrodynamic equations for self-propelled particles: microscopic derivation and stability analysis" J. Phys. A, 42(44): paper 445001. doi:10.1088/1751-8113/42/44/445001
  14. ^ Bhattacharya">Bhattacharya K and Vicsek T (2010) "Collective decision making in cohesive flocks"
  15. ^ a b Bird flock decision-making revealed 2010.

References[edit]

Safety in numbers[edit]

In nature[edit]

In the natural world, animals often gather together because there is some safety in numbers.

"Why do fish swim in schools? First and foremost, schools protect fish from enemies. It's the same rule our mothers taught us, always stay in a group because there is safety in numbers. Predators find it easier to chase down and gobble up a fish swimming all alone, than trying to cut out a single fish from a huge group. The same holds true in reverse. Fish can better defend their territory in a group. Bullies will think twice about facing an angry school of fifty fish."

It is a similar behaviour to animals that socialize in herds/birds that flock together.

Fr ́eon, P. and O.A. Misund, Dynamics of pelagic fish distribution and be- havior: e ects on fisheries and stock assessment. Fishing new books (1999).

In road traffic safety[edit]

"The current level of bicycling in a community also affects bicycling safety and the potential to further increase bicycling. Several studies have demonstrated the principle of “safety in numbers.” Using both time-series and cross-sectional data, the studies find that bicycling safety is greater in countries and cities with higher levels of bicycling, and that bicycling injury rates fall as levels of bicycling increase. As the number of cyclists grows, they become more visible to motorists, which is a crucial factor in bicycling safety. In addition, a higher percentage of motorists are likely to be bicyclists themselves, and thus more sensitive to the needs and rights of bicyclists. The presence of large numbers of bicyclists may also help underpin their legal use of roadways and intersection crossings and generate public and political support for more investment in bicycling infrastructure."([1][2][3])[4]

[5]

However, the noted cycling activist John Forester...

The term safety in numbers can be applied to any situation where there is an inverse relationship between the number of participants in some given activity and the individual danger encountered by those participants. In road safety, the classic example is Smeed's law, first demonstrated in 1949 by Smeed. According to this law, in any given geographical region there is an inverse relationship between the number of motorists on the road and the likely of an individual motorist being killed.

Danger in numbers[edit]

Situations where there are safety in numbers can be contrasted with situations where there can be dangers in numbers. For example:

fish that school for safety may be attacked by larger fish that school together so they can predate more efficiently.

Armies that mass to confront each other present a danger in numbers.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elvik, 2009; Jacobsen, 2003
  2. ^ Robinson, 2005)
  3. '^ Elvik R (2009) "The non-linearity of risk and the promotion of environmentally sustainable transport" Accid. Anal. Prev.]] ]]]41: 849–855.
  4. ^ Pucher J, Dill J and Handy S (2010) "Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review"] Preventive Medicine 50:S106–S125.
  5. ^ Bicycle Safety in Numbers

Feeding frenzy[edit]

... a form of collective animal behavior

"1. a phenomenon in which aquatic predators, esp sharks, become so excited when eating that they attack each other 2. a period of intense excitement over or interest in a person or thing: the media erupt into a feeding frenzy "[1]

": a frenzy of eating; also : the excited pursuit of something by a group"[2]

Swarming desert locusts in a feeding frenzy

A feeding frenzy refers to the highly aroused "pursuit of something by a group".[3] The term was first used in a book in 1958 by V.M. Coppleson in the context of frenzied sharks attacks.[4][5] However, sharks are not the only animals to trigger into feeding frenzies. Animals as various as lions, seabirds and alligators can go into frenzied states where they compete wildly for some food item.[6] Organisms that engage in feeding frenzies can be as large as humpback whales and as small as bacteria. By extension, the term "feeding frenzy" has come to be used "to describe everything from brides-to-be at a designer wedding dress sale to attack journalists hungry for a scandalous ratings-buster of a story".[7][8]

"A single locust or a single bird is hardly the basis for fear, but a feeding frenzy is horrifying–in history and in cinema. In an entomological version of Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds, which scared the bejeezus out of moviegoers a century later...."[9]

Feeding frenzies are widespread among marine animals.

"Marine animals of different kinds, preying on species occurring in swarms or schools, are thrown into a state of extreme excitation by catching one comparatively small prey. The feeding frenzy thus induced makes sharks snap at the most inappropriate objects, and the same response in tuna is exploited by commercial fishermen: after having snapped up a few pieces of bait, these fish will snap blindly at unbaited hooks."[10]

Marine animals[edit]

Sharks[edit]

External video
Caribbean Shark Feeding Frenzy Discovery Channel
Shark feeding frenzy Discovery
Tiger sharks in feeding frenzy Sky News

"A shark feeding frenzy occurs when a number of sharks fight for the same prey. Sharks are usually solitary diners, and a feeding frenzy indicates why that might be. To an observer, it looks like the sharks lose their mind biting at anything that's in their way in an uncontrollable rage. They thrash around, their snouts elevating and their backs arching, all signs that indicate an impending attack. Some accounts tell of sharks eating each other and of sharks continuing to feed even after they've been disemboweled by other sharks [sources: Encyclopedia Britannica, Martin]".[8]

causes

"But what causes these feeding frenzies? Some studies indicate that sharks will always be motivated to eat, no matter how full they are [source: Parker]. Does this mean that a feeding frenzy could happen at any moment? What causes them to get so crazed? And why can't they just share?"[8]

"Some scientists have observed feeding frenzies occurring naturally, particularly in shallow waters where seabirds, seals and sea lions congregate. However, they don't appear to be a common natural occurrence. Rather, it's more likely that feeding frenzies are rare events caused by a "supernormal stimulus," such as a high amount of stress in the water [source: Parker]."[8]

"Studies have shown that sharks can sense distressed prey; they respond to scents emitted by injured fish, and they can hear the sounds of a wounded person thrashing around in the water [source: Shark Trust]. Given the choice between healthy and injured prey, the shark will always pick the injured prey because it will take less energy to catch it. But things get crazy when more than one shark shows up to take advantage of the prey's misfortune."[8]

"It's important to note that many species retain a sense of order within a frenzy. The Caribbean reef shark, for example, still maintains a quasi pecking order during a feeding frenzy [source: Dehart]. The whitetip reef shark also behaves in a (somewhat) orderly fashion during what looks to be a chaotic bloodbath. If this buffet entices multiple sharks, sometimes they'll inadvertently bite each other [source: Dehart]."[8]

"Many feeding frenzies start near fishing boats, particularly when fishermen pull in a net of fish. These fish are thrashing against the net and perhaps have been injured in their capture, and the chemicals they give off attract the sharks. Sharks become aroused by the scent of blood and think they've happened upon an easy meal, but when more than one shark shows up, the scene gets competitive."[8]

"In the case of a shipwreck, sharks may be attracted to the panicking humans who are splashing around in the water. At the time of World Wars I and II, the oceanic whitetip shark was believed to have had many a feeding frenzy when boats were torpedoed and planes were shot down. This deep-water dwelling shark was often first on the scene of maritime disasters, such as the World War II sinking of the Nova Scotia steamship. Of the 1,000 men aboard, only 192 survived, with many fatalities ascribed to whitetip feeding frenzies [source: Bester]."[8]

"Humans aren't normally on the shark's menu. Shark attacks on humans might actually just be an error or an experimental bite to determine how they'd taste. But one practice that is increasingly causing feeding frenzies may lead sharks to associate humans with food even more. Shark feeding dives, an activity in which a group of caged divers descends to the deeps to get up close and personal with sharks, have become a huge draw in some parts of the world. To attract the sharks, diving companies use chum, or a mixture of blood and dead fish bits. Now, frenzies are seen most often when sharks are fed with artificial bait [source: Parker]."[8]

"Whether the attraction is to frantic prey or a frothy mix of blood and guts, the intense stress emitted by these items seems to cause the sharks to freak out and enter the frenzied state. The more sharks attracted to the scene, the more distressed the scene becomes, as the splashing increases. Scientists don't know yet how much of a feeding frenzy is actually about eating and how much of it is about establishing dominance in some ordered way that looks like chaos to us. Regardless, frenzies are one more thing that makes sharks both fearsome and fascinating."[8]

examples

"Although several great white sharks may be drawn to the smell of blood, they rarely, if ever, have a feeding frenzy."[6]

The oceanic whitetip shark is an aggressive but slow-moving fish dominates feeding frenzies, and is a danger to shipwreck or air crash survivors.[11] These sharks often form groups when individuals converge on a food source, whereupon a feeding frenzy may occur. This seems to be triggered not by blood in the water or by bloodlust, but by the species' highly strung and goal-directed nature (conserving energy between infrequent feeding opportunities when it is not slowly plying the open ocean). The oceanic whitetip is a competitive, opportunistic predator that exploits the resource at hand, rather than avoiding trouble in favor of a possibly easier future meal.[12]

Sharks usually swim alone. However, sometimes a group of sharks have a feeding frenzy, attacking and eating everything around them. Feeding frenzies usually start when sharks smell blood.

Excited Galapagos sharks are not easily deterred; driving one away physically only results in the shark circling back while inciting others to follow, whereas using weapons against them could trigger a feeding frenzy.[13]

Similar to the grey reef shark, the blacktip reef shark becomes more excited and "confident" in the presence of other individuals of its species, and in extreme situations can be roused into a feeding frenzy.[14] Unlike blacktip reef sharks and grey reef sharks, whitetip reef sharks do not become more excited when feeding in groups and are unlikely to be stirred into a feeding frenzy.[14] In the presence of a large quantity of food, grey reef sharks may be roused into a feeding frenzy; in one documented frenzy caused by an underwater explosion that killed several snappers, one of the sharks involved was attacked and consumed by the others.[15]

Like blacktip sharks, Spinner sharks congregate around shrimp trawlers to feed on the discarded bycatch, and may be incited into feeding frenzies.[13]


"Sharks circle their prey, disconcertingly appearing out of nowhere and frequently approaching from below. Feeding behaviour is stimulated by numbers and rapid swimming when three or more sharks appear in the presence of food; activity progresses from tight circling to rapid crisscross passes. Under strong feeding stimuli, excitement can intensify into a sensory overload that may result in cannibalistic feeding, or “shark frenzy,” in which injured sharks, regardless of size, are devoured."[16]

"Under strong feeding stimuli, the sharks’ excitement may intensify into what is termed a feeding frenzy, possibly the result of stimulatory overload, in which not only the prey but also injured members of the feeding pack are devoured."[17]

"Experiments on several species of large sharks indicate that they do discriminate food types—preferring tuna, for example, to other fish species. Under some conditions, however, they become less fastidious, going into a feeding frenzy in which they attack anything, including others of their own kind."[18]


"When a lot of food is suddenly available to a group of hungry sharks, such as when people dump garbage into the water, some species, particularly highly social requiem sharks, may become very excited and crowd around to eat. The action can become very hectic when there are lot of sharks competing for food. Sensory information–sound, sight, touch, and electrical sense–can build up and overwhelm the shark's normal inhibitions. The result is a feeding frenzy, during which the animals can seriously injure one another."[6]

From Oceanic whitetip shark:

"Groups often form when individuals converge on a food source, whereupon a feeding frenzy may occur. This seems to be triggered not by blood in the water or by bloodlust, but by the species' highly strung and goal-directed nature (conserving energy between infrequent feeding opportunities when it is not slowly plying the open ocean). The oceanic whitetip is a competitive, opportunistic predator that exploits the resource at hand, rather than avoiding trouble in favor of a possibly easier future meal.[12]"

From Spinner shark

"Like blacktip sharks, they congregate around shrimp trawlers to feed on the discarded bycatch, and may be incited into feeding frenzies.[13]


From Blacktip shark

"The excitability and sociability of blacktip sharks makes them prone to feeding frenzies when large quantities of food are suddenly available, such as when fishing vessels dump their refuse overboard.[13]"

shark links
  • Auerbach, Paul S Shark Attacks International Society of Travel Medicine, Newsletter, March-April 2002. DEAD
  • Dehart, Andy. Personal Correspondence. July 17, 2008.
  • Carrier, Jeffrey C. "Shark." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007. (May 12, 2008)

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552860/Shark.html DEAD

  • "Feeding frenzy: When sharks attack." BBC News E-cyclopedia. Jan. 30, 2001. (May 12, 2008)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1999/02/99/e-cyclopedia/ 1142956.stm

  • Leniuk, Darryl. "Front row at a feeding frenzy." The Globe and Mail. Nov. 12, 2005. (May 12, 2008)

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20051112.SHARK12 /TPStory/specialTravel

  • Martin, R. Aidan. "Do Sharks Feel Pain?" ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. (May 12, 2008)

http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/s_pain.htm

  • Parker, Steve and Jane. "The Encyclopedia of Sharks." Firefly Books. 2002.
  • Ritter, Erich K. "Shark attacks - an ever intriguing puzzle." Shark Info. (May 12, 2008)

http://www.sharkinfo.ch/SI2_98e/attacks1.html

  • "Senses of Sharks." Shark Trust. 2007. (May 14, 2008)

www.sharktrust.org/do_download.asp?did=27360 DEAD but other articles available

  • Shark Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.

Fish[edit]

External media
Images
Tarpon and Silversides, Grand Cayman
Video
Skipjack pole and line fishingBBC Two
Feeding Frenzy: Manta Rays in the Maldives
Bluefish Feeding Frenzy - Insane Blues

Chemical senses, such as smell and taste, can play an important role in the feeding behaviour of fishes. For centuries, fishermen have used bait fish and chumming techniques, such as tossing live sardines constrained in a net into the water, to arouse and attract fish. The chemical signals emitted from the bait fish can powerfully excite predator fishes, triggering in some a feeding frenzy.[19] Visual senses can also be important. Swarms of insects flying low over the water, such as mayflies, can trigger feeding frenzies in trout.[20][21] When a fish school goes into a feeding frenzy, the fish can strike pretty much anything thrown into their midst, and it can become very easy for fishermen to catch them. Live bait thrown into the water among skipjack tuna can cause the fish to go into a feeding frenzy where they bite anything, including barbless and baitless hooks from fishing poles (see the video on the right).

Similarly, forage fish can go into feeding frenzies when plenty of food is available. Filter feeders, like herrings and anchovies, which feed largely on larger plankton such as copepods, can go into feeding frenzies when they swim into a cloud of copepods, perhaps as "an adaptation to exploit as much as possible of a patch of large particles as quickly as possible". [22]

Each spring, some fishes such as herring and capelin deposit huge amounts of eggs in shallow water on the sea bottom. Such mass spawnings can trigger feeding frenzies in other species, lasting for days. Gulls and kittiwakes, seals and sea lions, and fishes and crabs gather to gorge and feast on the mass of eggs.[23]

Piranha[edit]

BBC: Jungle: Piranha Fish Feeding Frenzy!
Piranha Devours a Duck

Piranha have a fearsome, but not altogether deserved reputation for ferocious feeding frenzies.

"When Theodore Roosevelt went on a hunting expedition in Brazil in 1913, he got his money's worth. Standing on the bank of the Amazon River, he watched piranhas attack a cow with shocking ferocity. It was a classic scene: water boiling with frenzied piranhas and blood, and after about a minute or two, a skeleton floating to the suddenly calm surface."[24]

"Roosevelt was horrified, and he wrote quite a bit about the vicious creatures in his 1914 book, "Through the Brazilian Wilderness." He recounted the stories of townspeople who had been eaten alive, and others who'd lost body parts to piranhas while bathing in the river. "They are the most ferocious fish in the world," Roosevelt announced to the world. "[T]hey will snap a finger off a hand incautiously trailed in the water; they mutilate swimmers -- in every river town in Paraguay there are men who have been thus mutilated; they will rend and devour alive any wounded man or beast; for blood in the water excites th­em to madness" [source: ESPN]. The legend of the piranha had begun."[24]

"Hollywood picked it up from there with the 1978 horror flick "Piranha" ("When flesh-eating piranhas are accidentally released into a summer resort's rivers, the guests become their next meal"), 1981's "Piranha II: The Spawning," and a remake of the original B-movie due out sometime in 2008 [sources: IMDb, Movie Insider]. The killer piranha has transitioned to the 21st century with even more gore."[24]

"But is the vicious reputation deserved? Roosevelt witnessed the now-famous cow stripping incident in Brazil, where piranhas live in especially high numbers. Howev­er, they're native to and pretty common all along South America's Amazon River -- from Argentina to Colombia. So are South American bovines a regular meal for these ferocious fish? And why are there cows hanging out in the Amazon River?[24]

"Roosevelt explored the exotic Brazilian Amazon as an avid hunter, but he wasn't exactly the common tourist. He was a former U.S. president, and his guides wanted him to be very pleased with his trip. But what he saw was real: piranhas stripping a cow to the bone in a shockingly short period of time. Whether it was really under a minute, we'll never know. But we do know that this type of attack is feasible for piranhas. What Roosevelt witnessed had some special circumstances, which we'll get to later. Nonetheless, it was a disturbing sight, considering the size of these fish."[25]

"We're not talking monsters here. While piranhas top out at about 2 feet (60 cm), most are about 8 inches (20 cm) from head to tail and weigh just a few pounds. The most vicious of the roughly 20 species found in the Amazon River, the red-bellied piranha (Pigocentrus naterreri), is on the small end of the spectrum and usually weighs about 3 pounds (1.36 kg) [source: ESPN]. The next most aggressive species is the black piranha, (Serrasalmus rhombeus), which tends to be bigger than the red-bellies."[25]

"A piranha's teeth are only about a quarter-inch (4 mm) long, but they're like razors, and the whole jaw mechanism is designed for chomping efficiency. The teeth are spaced in an interlocking pattern, so when a piranha jaw snaps shut, the top teeth and the bottom teeth interlace like dozens of razor-sharp scissors. The jaws are incredible strong: Some people who have lost toes to piranhas have actually lost the entire toe, bone included."[25]

"The reason why piranhas can strip a large animal like a cow down to a skeleton so quickly is because of a few factors. First, piranhas don't chew. When they bite down, the big chunk of flesh they take out of the cow goes right into their bellies. They just keep snapping their jaws shut and filling themselves up. Next, that type of task is accomplished by hundreds of piranhas, not just the typical school size of 20, and piranhas are very efficient team eaters. In a feeding frenzy, they rotate continuously, so as each piranha takes a bite, it moves out of the way so the piranha behind it can get a bite, and so on. They take turns with incredible speed, which is where the boiling-water effect comes from. The piranhas are constantly changing position during a feeding frenzy."[25]

"Another important factor involved when piranhas eat a large animal in minutes has to do with the special circumstances surrounding what Roosevelt saw: Feeding frenzies happen when piranhas are starving. It's not an everyday occurrence. Roosevelt's guides in Brazil had set up the scene for their famous guest. They had set nets to close off a small part of the river and had tossed hundreds of piranhas into it, trapping them. By the time they threw that cow into the water, the piranhas had been starving for some time."[25]

Most piranhas, like this red-bellied piranha, just nip at other fish as they pass

| "Attacking a live animal isn't out of the question for piranhas, but it's not likely they could take down a healthy, full-grown human. They have, however, been known to attack sickly, old animals that come to drink from the river. When a cow lowers its head, they'll clamp onto its face. If the cow is too weak to fight back, the piranhas will drag it into the water and eat it. But live prey isn't the mainstay of their diet. Mostly, they're scavengers. The skeletons of animals and people found in the Amazon, apparently eaten by piranhas, weren't attacked alive. They were already dead when the piranhas got to them."[26]

"As with other fish, mammals are by no means a big part of the piranha's diet. They eat other fish, mostly, and sometimes other piranhas. An aquarium in Wales that had gone to considerable trouble to acquire a male and a female piranha (piranhas are illegal to import in most parts of the world, including Britain) in hopes the two would mate, were disappointed when the female ate her potential suitor [source: BBC News]. But piranhas aren't strict carnivores. They'll eat fruits and plants, too, especially when they're young."[26]

"Contrary to legend, most piranhas don't really attack anything. Twelve of the 20 species in the Amazon survive entirely on taking small bites out of the fins and scales of other fish as they pass by. The fish swim away only slightly disturbed, and their fins and scales grow back."[26]

"While piranhas aren't quite the vicious man-eaters of myth, attacks on humans have been increasing in frequency. In South America, people have been losing fingers and toes more often than they were just 10 years ago, and experts believe it might have something to do with an increase in the number of dams on the Amazon River. Dams slow the current, and piranhas like to breed in the slowest-moving waters. Creating more placid areas along the river is an invitation to piranhas to come set up camp in large numbers. Since placid areas also attract swimmers, humans and piranhas are coming into contact more and more."[26]

piranaha links
  • China orders piranhas destroyed. BBC News. December 24, 2002.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2603689.stm

  • Hungry piranha seeks good catch. BBC News. June 1, 2000.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/772802.stm

  • Piranha. Encyclopedia Britannica.

http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9060157

  • Piranha. Extreme Science.

http://www.extremescience.com/Piranha.htm

  • Piranha. HowStuffWorks.

http://animals.howstuffworks.com/fish/piranha-info.htm

  • Piranha increase "due to dams". BBC News. December 28, 2003.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3346301.stm

  • Piranhas. London Aquarium.

http://www.londonaquarium.co.uk/files/factsheets/Piranhas.pdf

  • Rumble in the jungle with Amazon's killer piranha. LA Times. November 22, 2005.

http://travel.latimes.com/articles/la-os-piranha22nov22

  • Sutton, Keith "Catfish." Out there: Piranha! ESPN.com.

http://sports.espn.go.com/outdoors/tv/columns/story?columnist=sutton_keith&page=g_col_sutton_piranha

  • The Truth About Piranha Attacks. Practical Fishkeeping.

http://www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/pfk/pages/item.php?news=1180

Bait balls[edit]

External video
Sharks and dolphins in feeding frenzy during South Africa sardine run Telegraph
Humpback whale feeding frenzy
HD: Bait Ball Feast - Nature's Great Events: The Great Feast - BBC One
Sea mammals feast on anchovies National Geographic
Sardine run's huge surprise
Epic journey of sardines - BBC wildlife
Humpback Whales' Feeding Frenzy National Geographic
Sardine feeding frenzy BBC

One of the world's great feeding frenzies occurs most years between May and June when millions of sardines spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and move northward along the east coast of South Africa. Their sheer numbers create a feeding frenzy along the coastline. The run, containing millions of individual sardines, occurs when a current of cold water heads north from the Agulhas Bank up to Mozambique where it then leaves the coastline and goes further east into the Indian Ocean.

From Sardine run:

"The sardine run of southern Africa occurs from May through July when billions of sardines – or more specifically the Southern African pilchard Sardinops sagax – spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and move northward along the east coast of South Africa. Their sheer numbers create a feeding frenzy along the coastline. The run, containing millions of individual sardines, occurs when a current of cold water heads north from the Agulhas Bank up to Mozambique where it then leaves the coastline and goes further east into the Indian Ocean."

From Bait ball

"Their sheer numbers create a feeding frenzy along the coastline . "

From Forage fish

"dolphins, tuna, sailfish, Cape fur seal s and even killer whales congregate and follow the shoals, creating a feeding frenzy along the coastline."

From Shoaling and schooling

"dolphins, tuna, sailfish, Cape fur seal s and even killer whales congregate and follow the shoals, creating a feeding frenzy along the coastline"

From The Blue Planet

"A feeding frenzy is shown, as striped marlin , tuna and a Sei whale pick off a shoal of sardines until all within it have been consumed. ... "

From Swarm behaviour

krill: "extremely vulnerable to predators Dense swarms may elicit a feeding frenzy among fish, birds and mammal predators, especially near the surface. ... "

Humboldt squid[edit]

The Fierce Humboldt Squid KQED Quest
Squid Invasion: Feeding Frenzy Discovery Channel

Humboldt squid are large carnivorous marine invertebrates that move in schools of up to 1,200 individuals. They swim at speeds of up to 24 kilometres per hour (15 mph (13 kn)*) propelled by water ejected through a siphon and by two triangular fins. Their tentacles bear suckers lined with sharp teeth with which they grasp prey and drag it towards a large, sharp beak. During the day the Humboldt squid are mesopelagic fish, living at depths of 200 to 700 m (660 to 2,300 ft). Electronic tagging has shown that they also undergo diel vertical migrations which bring them closer to the surface from dusk to dawn.[27] They hunt near the surface at night, taking advantage of the dark to use their keen vision to feed on more plentiful prey. The squid feed primarily on small fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and copepod, and hunt for their prey in a cooperative fashion, the first observation of such behaviour in invertebrates.[28] The Humboldt squid is also known to quickly devour larger prey when cooperatively hunting in groups. Humboldt squid are known for their speed in feasting on hooked fish, sharks, and squid, even from their own species and shoal,[29] and have been known to attack fishermen and divers.[30] Their colouring and aggressive reputation has earned them the nickname diablos rojos (red devils) from fishermen off the coast of Mexico as they flash red and white when struggling with the fishermen.[31]

Swarming krill

Krill[edit]

Most krill, small shrimp-like crustaceans, form large swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000–60,000 individual animals per cubic metre.[32][33][34] Swarming is a defensive mechanism, confusing smaller predators that would like to pick out single individuals. Krill typically follow a diurnal vertical migration. Until recently it has been assumed that they spend the day at greater depths and rise during the night toward the surface. It has been found that the deeper they go, the more they reduce their activity,[35] apparently to reduce encounters with predators and to conserve energy. Later work suggested that swimming activity in krill varied with stomach fullness. Satiated animals that had been feeding at the surface swim less actively and therefor sink below the mixed layer.[36] As they sink they produce faeces which may mean that they have an important role to play in the Antarctic carbon cycle. Krill with empty stomachs were found to swim more actively and thus head towards the surface. This implies that vertical migration may be a bi- or tri-daily occurrence. Some species form surface swarms during the day for feeding and reproductive purposes even though such behaviour is dangerous because it makes them extremely vulnerable to predators.[37] Dense swarms may elicit a feeding frenzy among fish, birds and mammal predators, especially near the surface. When disturbed, a swarm scatters, and some individuals have even been observed to moult instantaneously, leaving the exuvia behind as a decoy.[38]

Plankton[edit]

Plankton blooms...

"Diatom blooms in spring".[39]

"The little, ferociously abundant diatoms_marine algae with shells of silica_bloom in the spring just like plants on land. Traditionally this has marked the beginning of a spring feeding and breeding frenzy in the ocean." [40]

Other animals[edit]

Quadrupeds[edit]

Lions with a zebra
External video
Lion Feeding Frenzy Videos Discovery
Wolf feeding frenzy at Colchester Zoo YouTube
Alligator feeding frenzy YouTube

Quadrupeds, such as lions, wolves and alligators

Insects[edit]

Locusts[edit]
External video
Swarm Chasers Animal Planet

" A single locust or a single bird is hardly the basis for fear, but a feeding frenzy is horrifying– in history and in cinema. In an entomological version of Alfred Hitchcok's The Birds, which scared the bejeezus out ofmoviegoers a century later, Sully matter-of-factly reported, "....."[41]

Many insects also indulge in feeding frenzies. The term locust refers to the swarming phase of the short-horned grasshoppers of the family Acrididae. Normally grasshoppers ignore each other, but some species breed rapidly under suitable conditions and subsequently become gregarious and migratory. They form bands as nymphs and swarms as adults—both of which can travel great distances, rapidly stripping fields and greatly damaging crops. They eat flowers and other plants, as well as other insects including other locusts. The largest swarms can cover hundreds of square miles and contain billions of locusts. A locust can eat its own weight (about 2 grams) in plants every day. That means one million locusts can eat about one ton of food each day, and the largest swarms can consume over 100,000 tonnes each day.[42]

Swarming in locusts has been found to be associated with increased levels of serotonin which causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, become mutually attracted, and breed much more easily. Researchers propose that swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding and studies have shown that increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs or, in some species, simply encountering other individuals causes an increase in levels of serotonin. The transformation of the locust to the swarming variety can be induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.[43][44][45][46]

An individual locust's response to a loss of alignment in the group appears to increase the randomness of its motion, until an aligned state is again achieved. This noise-induced alignment appears to be an intrinsic characteristic of collective coherent motion.[47]

Bees[edit]

"“During the peak of the nectar flow, a good, strong colony can gain 10 to 20 pounds in one day,” he says. “In Maryland, that goes on for a few weeks in late spring, and then, suddenly, it’s over.” For the remainder of the year, the weight of the hive dwindles as bees sustain themselves on the honey and pollen they have stockpiled during their three-to-four-week feeding frenzy. "[48]

Birds[edit]

Gulls in a feeding frenzy

Alfred Hitchcock "The Birds"

http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=swJWsR5CFu0C&pg=PA13&dq=%22feeding+frenzy%22+locust&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rAmlT_WDLILKmQXVsuXhBA&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22feeding%20frenzy%22%20locust&f=false

Parasites[edit]

The "tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici, vectors viruses. [and] goes into a feeding frenzy called "solanum stimulation", where it feeds until it kills its own host."[49]

Microbial[edit]

algal blooms as feeding frenzy

feeding frenzy among fungi on dead wood at the end of the Permian [9]

"When a large amount of organic matter, such as manure, is introduced into a water body (eg,a direct discharge), the microbial population quickly responds with a “feeding frenzy.” This quickly degrades the organic matter and reduces dissolved oxygen content in the affected " [10]

"Compost forms in much the same way whether in the woods or in a processing facility. In the presence of enough carbon,nitrogen, and water, microorganisms will go into a feeding frenzy that generates..." [11]

"Short-term increases in microbial respiration can be fueled by a sudden change in soil water potential, which causes microbes to either accept a rapid influx of soil water (which can lead to cell wall collapse), or to release intracellular solutes to maintain osmotic pressure which, in extreme cases, can lead to complete cell lysis. The surviving soil microbes undergo a “feeding frenzy” by capitalizing on the greater substrat" [12]

"Short-term increases in microbial respiration can be fueled by a sudden change in soil water potential, which causes microbes to either accept a rapid influx of soil water (which can lead to cell wall collapse), or to release intracellular solutes to maintain osmotic pressure, which in extreme cases can lead to complete cell lysis. The surviving soil microbes undergo a ‘feeding frenzy’ by capitalizing on the greater resource supply. This activity takes place in the span of a few hours to 2 days" [13]

"The diverse heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Pyrrhophyta) include free-living estuarine species that demonstrate pro- nounced chemosensory “ambush-predator” behavior toward algal, protozoan, or fish prey (Spero and Moree 1981; Spero 1982; Ucko et al. 1989; Burkholder et al. 1995a,b, 1997~; Landsberg et al. 199.5).This behavioral pattern apparently is widespread; thus far, it has been reported from the Mediter- ranean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the western Atlantic. In each case the feeding activity has been strikingly similar: the dinoflagellates swarm up from benthic dormant cysts when they chemically detect the prey’s presence. They devour the prey-described in one case as being ripped apart in a “Feeding frenzy” (Spero and Moree 1981)-and then rapidly re-encyst. [14]

Yeast[edit]

Yeast, like all living things, needs fout things to survive–warmth, moisture, foos and oxygen. Warmth is provided in several ways. Warm liquid is often used to wake up, or activate, the yeast, and the mixing and kneading processes generate additional warmth. The final warmth, the oven's heat, results in a feeding frenzy–the last burst of e=nergy that propels the load upward (known as oven spring)."[50]

Bacteria[edit]
Microscopic view of some of the bacteria of which plaque is composed. Numbered ticks are 10 µm apart.

As nutrients like crop fertilisers drain into the sea, "the glut of nutrients pushes the phytoplankton into an orgy of eating and reproducing. There the mass of plant bodies supplies a second feeding frenzy, among the sea's bacteria, which produce vast quantities of methane, nitrous oxide, and sometimes, as oxygen is depleted, hydrogen sulfide as waste products. Most of the plankton generated methane remains in nthe water because the surface and the deeps of the sea are separated into layers that are hard to mix ... If the store of deep-sea methane should ever breach the surface–think mof a nasty belch–it would release a termedous amount of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a far more potent greenhouse gas the carbon dioxide.[40]

Microorganisms, such as bacteria, also engage in feeding frenzies. For example, "plaque contains bacteria which feed on carbohydrates in the mouth. As a result of their feeding frenzy, the bacteria produce acids which can attack the tooth enamel–the outermost layers of the tooth. If the plaque isn't removed, it continues to build, creating more acid that continues to damage the tooth enamel."[51]

In turn protozoa indulge in feeding frenzies on bacteria

In turn, bacteria can be the target of feeding frenzies by other organisms. For example, "environmental bacteria are an integral part of microbial food webs and, as such, are constantly confronted with a range of predators and parasites, such as protozoa and phages. Consumption by protozoa is considered to be a major source of bacterial mortality in most soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems [5]. Due to their mobility, small size and generally high abundance, protozoa can track down ‘hot spots’ of bacterial growth even in the sparse vastness of the oligotrophic ocean or the narrowest soil crevices, leaving bacteria few environments in which they do not face protozoan attack and consumption."[52]

Other[edit]

Black holes[edit]

"This high efficiency means that super- massive black holes in a feeding frenzy are the most powerful known sources of energy: They can literally outshine the entire galaxy in which they live."[53]

Money[edit]

From Money bag

"A money bag can be road debris after it falls out of an armored truck,[54] causing a traffic accident[55] or mass hysteria often compared to a feeding frenzy, as people rush to pick up "free" money.[56]"

Documentaries[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/feeding+frenzy
  2. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/feeding%20frenzy
  3. ^ Feeding frenzy Merriam-webster dictionary. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  4. ^ Coppleson VM (1958) Shark Attack, Angus and Robertson, ISBN 0207145156.
  5. ^ On Language William Safire New York Times. 4 September 1988.
  6. ^ a b c Levine, Marie C. (1998) [1] Great White Sharks Weigl Educational Publishers, ISBN 0919879950.
  7. ^ Sabato, Larry (1991) Feeding frenzy: How attack journalism has transformed American politics, Free Press, ISBN 0029276357.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j What causes a shark feeding frenzy? howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  9. ^ Lockwood JA (2005) Locust: The Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect That Shaped the American Frontier Page 13. Basic Books, ISBN 0465041671.
  10. ^ Lorenz, Konrad (1981) The foundations of ethology Page 265. Springer. ISBN 3211816232
  11. ^ Bass, A.J., J.D. D'Aubrey & N. Kistnasamy. 1973. "Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. 1. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae)." Invest. Rep. Oceanogr. Res. Inst., Durban, no. 33, 168 pp.
  12. ^ a b Leonard J. V. Compagno (1984). Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 484–86, 555–61, 588.
  13. ^ a b c d Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. pp. 473&ndash, 475. ISBN 9251013845. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "compagno" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  14. ^ a b Hobson, E.S. (1963). "Feeding behavior in three species of sharks". Pacific Science. 17: 171–193.
  15. ^ Halstead, B.W., Auerbach, Paul S. and Campbell, D.R. (1990). A Color Atlas of Dangerous Marine Animals. CRC Press. p. 11. ISBN 0849371392.
  16. ^ "shark". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 05 May. 2012 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/538851/shark/6602/Shark-behaviour.
  17. ^ "chondrichthian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 05 May. 2012 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114261/chondrichthian/63392/Danger-to-human-life.
  18. ^ "chondrichthian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 05 May. 2012 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114261/chondrichthian/63398/Senses.
  19. ^ Atema, Jelle (1980) "Chemical senses, chemical signals, and feeding behavior in fishes" pp. 57–101. In Bardach JE, Magnuson JJ, May RC and Reinhart JM (eds.) Fish behavior and its use in the capture and culture of fishes. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 5, WorldFish Center. ISBN 9710200038.
  20. ^ Ancient Species of Mayfly Had Short, Tragic Life ScienceDaily. 24 June 2011.
  21. ^ Fly fishing in Au Sable River FlyFishingConnection.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  22. ^ Valiela, Ivan (1995) Marine ecological processes Page 184. Springer, ISBN 0387943218
  23. ^ Mundy PR (Ed.) (2005) The Gulf of Alaska: Biology and oceanography] Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN:1-56612-090-x.
  24. ^ a b c d [2]
  25. ^ a b c d e [3]
  26. ^ a b c d [4]
  27. ^ Gilly, W.F., U. Markaida, C.H. Baxter, B.A. Block, A. Boustany, L. Zeidberg, K. Reisenbichler, B. Robison, G. Bazzino & C. Salinas 2006. "Vertical and horizontal migrations by the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas revealed by electronic tagging" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series 324: 1–17.
  28. ^ Behold the Humboldt squid. Tim Zimmermann, Outside Magazine, July 2006.
  29. ^ http://www.nwf.org/News-and-Magazines/National-Wildlife/Animals/Archives/2005/The-Curious-Case-of-the-Cannibal-Squid.aspx
  30. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2007/mar/26/sports/sp-squid26/2
  31. ^ http://www.livescience.com/animals/080613-bts-squid.html
  32. ^ Hamner, WM; Hamner, PP; Strand, SW; Gilmer, RW (1983). "Behavior of Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba: Chemoreception, Feeding, Schooling and Molting'". Science. 220 (4595): 433–5. doi:10.1126/science.220.4595.433. PMID 17831417.
  33. ^ U. Kils, P. Marshall (1995). "Der Krill, wie er schwimmt und frisst – neue Einsichten mit neuen Methoden ("The Antarctic krill – how it swims and feeds – new insights with new methods")". In I. Hempel, G. Hempel. Biologie der Polarmeere – Erlebnisse und Ergebnisse (Biology of the Polar Oceans Experiences and Results). Fischer Verlag. pp. 201–210. ISBN 3-334-60950-2.
  34. ^ R. Piper (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313339228.
  35. ^ J.S. Jaffe, M.D. Ohmann, A. de Robertis (1999). "Sonar estimates of daytime activity levels of Euphausia pacifica in Saanich Inlet" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 56: 2000–10. doi:10.1139/cjfas-56-11-2000.
  36. ^ Geraint A. Tarling & Magnus L. Johnson (2006). "Satiation gives krill that sinking feeling". Current Biology. 16 (3): 83–4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.01.044. PMID 16461267.
  37. ^ Howard, D.: "Krill", pp. 133–140 in Karl, H.A. et al. (eds): Beyond the Golden Gate – Oceanography, Geology, Biology, and Environmental Issues in the Gulf of the Farallones, USGS Circular 1198, 2001. URLs last accessed 2010-06-04.
  38. ^ D. Howard. "Krill in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary". NOAA. Retrieved 15 June 2005.
  39. ^ Edwards M and Richardson AJ (2004) "Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch" Nature, 430: 881-884.
  40. ^ a b Mitchell A (2009) Seasick: ocean change and the extinction of life on Earth Page 56. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226532585.
  41. ^ Lockwood JA (2005) Locust: The Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect That Shaped the American Frontier Basic Books. ISBN 9780465041671.
  42. ^ Locust Locustidae National Geographic. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  43. ^ BBC News | Locust swarms 'high' on serotonin
  44. ^ Rogers SM, Matheson T, Despland E, Dodgson T, Burrows M, Simpson SJ (November 2003). "Mechanosensory-induced behavioural gregarization in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria". J. Exp. Biol. 206 (Pt 22): 3991–4002. doi:10.1242/jeb.00648. PMID 14555739.
  45. ^ Stevenson, PA (2009). "The Key to Pandora's Box". Science. 323 (5914): 594–5. doi:10.1126/science.1169280. PMID 19179520.
  46. ^ Blocking 'happiness' chemical may prevent locust plagues, New scientist, 2009-01-29, accessed 2009-01-31
  47. ^ Yates, CA; Erban, R; Escudero, C; Couzin, ID; Buhl, J; Kevrekidis, IG; Maini, PK; Sumpter, DJ (2009). "Inherent noise can facilitate coherence in collective swarm motion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (14): 5464–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811195106. PMC 2667078. PMID 19336580.
  48. ^ Lindsey R (2007) Buzzing about climate change NASA Earth Observatory
  49. ^ McPartland JM, Clarke RC and Watson DP (2000) Hemp Diseases and Pests: Management and Biological Control CABI. ISBN 9780851994543.
  50. ^ La Table, Sur; and Mushet, Cindy (2008) The Art and Soul of Baking Andrews McMeel. ISBN 9780740773341.
  51. ^ Dental More Gentle with Painless 'Drillings' and Matching Fillings Page 5. FDA Consumer Magazine, May-June 1999.
  52. ^ Matza C and Kjelleberg S (2005) "Off the hook – how bacteria survive protozoan grazing" Trends in Microbiology, 13(7): 302-307.
  53. ^ Heckman TM and Kauffmann G (2011) "The Coevolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes: A Local Perspective" Science, 333: 182–185.
  54. ^ Italian lorry spills two million Euros in coins, motorists cash in, Tom Phillips, Metro, 7 July 2010 (retrieved 12 August 2010)
  55. ^ Money Bag Falls Out Of Armored Truck, Causing Minor Fender-Benders, WRAL-TV (Raleigh, North Carolina, US), December 7, 2000
  56. ^ Fallen money bag sparks Ohio cash grab, BBC News, 25 March 2010 (retrieved 10 January 2012)

Reef fisheries[edit]

Within the last 20 years, once prolific mangrove forests and seagrassbeds, which absorb massive amounts of nutrients and sediment, have been destroyed. The loss of wetlands, mangrove habitats and seagrassbeds affect the water quality of inshore reefs.[1]

Global losses of mangrove forests over the past few decades exceed 35 percent.[2]

Nurseries for juvenile coral reef fish are often found inhabiting mangroves.[3][4]emblages across an estuarine gradient", Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48, 701–723.

"The importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fishpopulations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing6. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves."[5]

Predators and Prey[edit]

Giant triton (snail) -> Crown-of-thorns starfish -> Hard coral

"One of the few predators of the crown-of-thorns starfish, the giant triton (Charonia tritonis) has evolved a tolerance to the starfish's toxins. Unfortunately, tritons can no longer keep starfish populations in check since they've been overharvested for their beautiful shells. With too few tritons on the reef, crown-of-thorns starfish populations can explode, jeopardizing the living coral that makes up reefs."[6]

"Covered with long, venomous spikes, the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is a voracious feeder that can eat living corals because of a unique adaptation: a wax-digesting enzyme system. Populations of the starfish were once kept low by a few key predators, namely the giant triton. Since humans decimated giant triton populations, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks periodically kill vast expanses of hard coral."[6]

"Hard corals have evolved to have large amounts of a wax (cetyl palmitate) in their tissues. Very few predators can digest the wax, which has allowed corals to flourish and produce massive reefs. Recently, epidemic populations of one predator -- the crown-of-thorns starfish -- have done extensive damage to many reef regions. Armies of grazing starfish leave a wake of destruction in their path, killing up to 95 percent of the hard corals in an area."[6]


Tiger shark -> Green sea turtle

"Lurking around the edges of reefs during the day, tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) have evolved as highly aggressive "top" predators that grow at least 25 feet long. They detect prey using an array of finely tuned senses, including electrical current detection. Rows of razor-sharp teeth and powerful jaws allow them to crack though even the thick carapace (shell) of full-grown sea turtles."[6]

"One common defense against predators is a protective covering, such as a shell. Another is to flee the predator. During its evolution, the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) sacrificed speed in favor of a thick, heavy shell (carapace). The carapace acts as armor, protecting the turtle's body from the sharp teeth of predators. But some, like the tiger shark, are powerful enough to bite right through the carapace and kill the turtle."[6]


Sea slug -> Sea sponge

"Many sea sponges, like anemones, use toxins to repel would-be predators. Some species of sea slugs, however, such as Platydoris scabra, have evolved immunity against the toxins of specific sponge families (in this case, Microcionidae). This adaptation benefits the slugs in two ways. First, they don't have to compete with many other organisms for the sponges. The sea slugs can also concentrate the sponge toxins to foil their own predators -- at least until the slugs' predators also evolve immunity to the toxins."[6]

"Sea sponges, such as those of the Microcionidae family, have escaped predation by all but a few species because they produce foul-tasting and sometimes toxic compounds. These compounds evolved as chemical weapons for use against other sponges, as well as against fouling organisms (creatures that grow on top of other creatures, thus decreasing their fitness) -- their defensive function was just a lucky side effect. But some predators, such as sea slugs, have evolved resistance to the toxins and even use those toxins against their own predators."[6]


Bluestriped fangblenny (fish) -> Reef lizardfish

"Many large fish, including the reef lizardfish (Synodus variegatus), regularly visit the bluestreak cleaner wrasse to have skin, mouth, and gill parasites removed. The two fish benefit by the association; a third fish, however, has evolved to take advantage of them both. Using a devious disguise and copycat behaviors to attract larger fish, the fanged ambush predator, called a fangblenny, rips living tissue from surprised prey."[6]

"In the world of predators and prey, the normal rule is that big creatures eat smaller creatures. But sometimes the tables are turned, as in the case of the bluestriped fangblenny (Plagiotremus rhinorhyncos), a small but sinister predatory fish. Evolved to perfectly mimic the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, the fangblenny falsely advertises cleaning services to larger fish, such as the reef lizardfish. Once the bigger fish moves in close, the fangblenny attacks and darts away with a mouthful of sushi."[6]


Cone shell (snail) -> Blueband goby (fish)

"Coneshells (Conus spp.) are gastropod mollusks, closely related to the more familiar and harmless land snails. With beautiful, ornately designed shells, coneshells are highly sought-after by shell collectors. These gastropods have evolved as deadly predators, however; a single puncture from their venomous radula (modified tooth) can rapidly paralyze and even kill a human. Of course, coneshells evolved not to defend themselves against collectors, but to efficiently kill prey, such as the blueband goby."[6]

"Gobies are the most diverse fish family on the reef, with more than 200 species described. With their generally small sizes and ability to adapt to a wide variety of specialized habitats, gobies have become the most diverse marine fish family in the world. This does not mean they are always successful at avoiding predators, though. For instance, the blueband goby (Valenciennia strigata) is eaten by a variety of predators, including the venomous coneshell."[6]

Silver gull -> Black noddy

"Coming ashore only to breed (as do most true seabirds), black noddies (Anous minutus) form immense colonies of up to 100,000 nesting pairs on larger reef islands. Noisily chattering as they work, mating pairs build nests of guano-cemented leaves and grasses in fig trees. But even in the shelter of the trees, chicks and eggs are often stolen and eaten by marauding silver gulls."[6]

"The common silver gull (Larus novaehollandiae), like most gulls, will eat just about anything it can get its heavy, hooked bill into. Often scavenging recently dead animals and even trash, silver gulls help keep shore areas clear of debris. But once the debris is gone, they turn to other easy pickings: eggs and chicks of other seabirds, such as the black noddy."[6]


Pacific Reef Heron -> Fish fry

"Pacific Reef Herons , unlike true seabirds, live onshore year-round. While seabirds hunt far out beyond the reef, reef herons fish along the cay and reef flat. They have evolved to hunt during low tide, allowing them to wade the shallows. With excellent eyesight and marksman-like aim, they expertly spear fish fry, adult fish, and crustacean prey from beneath the water's surface."[6]

"Silvery schools of many species of juvenile fish (called fish fry) find some refuge from the intense predation of outer reef zones by living near the shoreline. But they can't let down their guard completely. While feeding on benthic algae and floating microscopic communities of plants and animals, they are easily visible from above the water's surface and often fall prey to hunting reef herons."[6]

Competitors[edit]

"Humans have found many ways around the vicious game of biological competition. You didn't crawl out of the hospital nursery past hordes of hungry predators, and you probably didn't fight anyone for your breakfast this morning. But other species compete all their lives for limited resources of food, space, and mates. When resources are plentiful, competition weakens. But when resources are scarce, competition can become an all-out war for survival and reproduction. While competition seldom gets truly violent, the outcome often determines which of the competitors will get its genes into the next generation. The winners will pass on their genes -- and, thus, their winning traits -- to their offspring, while the losers' genes will disappear. Thus, each successive generation faces stiffer competition than the last, as individual competitors become better and better adapted ("fit") to their environments."[7]

Ghost crab <-> Hermit crab


Bottlenose dolphin <-> Bigeye trevally (fish)

"The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and other toothed whales are solitary predators who remotely detect prey by echolocation. Emitting a series of clicks and whistles, the dolphin then waits to analyze returning echoes. Echolocation is so precise that a dolphin can determine the size, direction, and distance of a school of prey fish, and even sizes of individual fish in the school. To feed, dolphins use a fast, surprise attack, and, unlike the hunting packs of trevallies, dolphins can successfully hunt alone."[7]

"Bigeye trevallies (Caranx sexfasciatus) prey on schools of small fish using a very different approach than do bottlenose dolphins. These trevallies have evolved to cooperate with each other, much like wolves in a pack, to surround, corner, confuse, and finally kill their prey. A single trevally would have a very difficult time attacking a school of prey fish, with its hundreds of pairs of watchful eyes and ability to move as a unit to avoid predators, so each trevally benefits from participating in the hunting party."[7]


Spanish dancer (slug) <-> Sea sponge

"Male Spanish dancers (Hexabranchus sanguineus) essentially enter dance competitions to win their mates. The judge is the desired female, who decides which writhing, scarlet red male wins the right to father her offspring. This process is an example of "sexual selection," in which a male "wows" a female into mating with him. Often, as in the case of Spanish dancers, the male risks his life to put on a winning show, since his mating behavior makes him more conspicuous to predators. Fortunately, Spanish dancers possess a potent toxin, which deters predators."[7]


"Sea sponges and other sessile (anchored) organisms compete fiercely with each other for space using physical and chemical warfare. Over millions of years of turf wars, sponges that evolved anti-sponge toxins, like the Microcionidae, were often victorious over non-toxic varieties. Thus, most sponges living today produce potent toxins, which provide a secondary benefit of discouraging all but the most highly adapted predators, such as the sea slugs."[7]



Bluestriped fangblenny (fish) <-> Bluestreak cleaner wrasse

"The bluestriped fangblenny (Plagiotremus rhinorhyncos) has evolved to look and act just like a bluestreak cleaner wrasse. Why? So it can take advantage of the bluestreak's symbiotic relationship with larger fish. The bluestreak gently nibbles away parasites from its customers, but the mimic blenny unveils fang-like teeth that quickly strip healthy flesh from unsuspecting victims."[7]


"The bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) advertises its station by darting back and forth. Many fish regularly visit the station to have parasites removed by the bluestreak. Unfortunately, the bluestriped fangblenny has evolved to look and act just like a bluestreak. Not only do fangblennies compete with bluestreaks for customers, they also attack them and may make fish less trusting of true bluestreaks."[7]


Cuttlefish <-> Cuttlefish

"Cuttlefish (Sepia spp.) are masters of disguise, changing appearance by opening and closing pores in their skin (called chromatophores) to reveal or hide underlying layers of different colors. Males competing for females put on their flashiest zebra-striped patterns, but the show isn't meant for the females at all. Instead, larger, dominant males seem to win breeding rights to females by intimidating their opponents with both size and more intense zebra patterns."[7]


Ghost crab <-> Hermit crab

"As animal carcasses wash up on the beach and bake in the sun, they become storehouses of bacteria that easily spread diseases to living animals. Fortunately, stalk-eyed ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.), which live in burrows beneath the sand, relish dead animals and have evolved excellent chemical senses that enable them to quickly locate a newly arrived food source. They have much competition, though, including hermit crabs, which lay claim to carcasses still in the water."[7]


"Hermit crabs (Dardanus megistos) are aquatic, near-shore scavengers that can grow to almost a foot across. Lugging a "borrowed" shell on their backs, they crawl across the sandy bottom searching for dead animals. Since their heavy shells prevent them from moving efficiently on land, stalk-eyed ghost crabs usually win the feast there. But underwater, carcasses swarm with hermit crabs, which quickly tear animals apart using their dexterous mouthparts."[7]

Partners[edit]

"Free rides and win-win situations: Commensals and Mutualists Between predator-prey and competitive relationships, it may seem that organisms are alone in the world, fighting to survive and reproduce. But many organisms have evolved cooperative strategies for survival and reproduction. In these species "partnerships," at least one partner benefits, and neither is harmed. If only one partner benefits, and the other is not much affected, the relationship is called commensalism. Consider barnacles that attach themselves to whales. The whales aren't harmed, but the filter-feeding hitchhikers get ferried around the ocean and may find more food than if they were stuck in one place. If both partners feel the effects of the other, their relationship is called mutualism. In this case, each species tends to evolve adaptations to the other (that is, they coevolve) in order to maximize benefits and minimize losses caused by their close association."[8]


Manta ray <-> Remora

"Among the largest living fishes, manta rays can reach 20 feet in width and weigh more than two tons. Like most marine behemoths, they are filter feeders. Using an unusual pair of "head flaps," they funnel tiny prey, such as small fish, crustaceans, and comb jellies, into their gaping mouths. Whatever morsels escape might be wasted, but are frequently caught and eaten by hitchhiking remoras."[8]

Fast-swimming predators, like the manta ray, are messy eaters who leave behind a trail of food scraps. Remoras, or "suckerfish," have evolved a highly specialized body that allows them to exploit that resource. Fast swimmers, they easily catch up with a host and attach from below, using a powerful suction disc -- which evolved from an ordinary dorsal fin -- on top of their heads. The remoras' streamlined shape allows them to hitchhike without slowing down their hosts."[8]

Hermatypic coral <-> Zooxanthellae

"It takes a lot of energy to secrete the calcium carbonate exoskeletons (hard outer structures) that make up coral reefs. Reef waters are typically very low in nutrients, so most coral animals can't filter out enough food to provide the extra energy they need. To make up for this deficiency, hermatypic corals shelter microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) within their tissues; in exchange, the algae supply the corals with carbohydrates so the corals have enough energy to build reefs."[8]

"Zooxanthellae (pronounced "zoe-zan-thelly") are microscopic algae that live within the tissues of host animals, including hermatypic coral animals. Like all plants, zooxanthellae make their own food by a process called photosynthesis. Using solar energy absorbed by special pigments, they transform carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. What they don't need themselves passes directly into the coral's gut cavity, providing the extra energy the coral needs to produce a calcium carbonate exoskeleton."[8]


Calcareous algae <-> Branching coral

"Some multicellular algae on the reef produce calcium carbonate (limestone) skeletons very similar to those made by hard corals. These calcareous algae play a major role in barrier reef construction, acting as a sort of living mortar that holds together individual coral colonies. Growing between corals and wrapping around the bases of branching corals, calcareous algae protect the corals from erosion, especially in high-energy areas.

"Individual coral colonies, especially branching corals, can easily be toppled in high-energy reef zones, such as the reef front and rock rim. Waves can easily scour away sediments from a colony's base, uprooting it and pushing it along like tumbleweed. So how do branching corals ever get a solid foothold in such zones? Calcareous algae grow between corals and around their bases, preventing erosion and stabilizing the reef structure."[8]

Clown anemonefish <-> Sea anemone

"Nestling among the venomous stinging tentacles of a sea anemone seems like a very bad survival strategy -- unless you and the anemone have some kind of an arrangement. Clown anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos) and sea anemones have evolved just such a relationship. As juveniles, clownfish perform a ritual of "anemone rubbing." Initially protected from stings by a thick mucus coat, the clownfish incorporates anemone mucus into its own coat until the anemone no longer stings it, apparently recognizing the fish as part of itself. From then on, they defend each other, and clownfish have even been seen dragging food to their host anemone.

"Reef animals are masters of disguise, and sea anemones are no exception. Attached to the reef by a suction disc, tentacles swaying with the current, they are the animals perhaps most often mistaken as plants. The illusion is further reinforced by the presence of two or more commensal clownfish among the tentacles. But the clownfish and anemone are a predatory team, working side by side and sharing food. In addition, the clownfish fight off intruders, such as anemone-eating butterflyfish, and the stinging cells (nematocysts) of the anemone deter potential clownfish predators."[8]

Sponge crab <-> Sea sponge

"Sponge crabs (Dromiidae family) avoid predators by carrying a disguise with them at all times. Their posterior legs are modified for grasping, and the crabs use them to carry live Halichondria sponges on their backs. Since the sponges are toxic to most potential predators, the undercover crab doesn't have to worry about being attacked and can concentrate on more important things, like finding food."[8]

"Many sea sponges have evolved chemical weaponry for use against other sessile organisms in the never-ending battle for space on the reef. Since the compounds tend to be distasteful and often toxic to predators, the sponges avoid most predation. Sponge crabs exploit this defense by carrying live sea sponges on their backs. And the sponges may benefit, too: By living atop a crab, they no longer have to battle for space."[8]

Giant clam <-> Zooxanthellae

"Myths about divers being caught and eaten by giant clams (Tridacna gigas) still abound. The clams, though immense (up to three feet across and weighing more than 200 pounds), are not man-eaters. In fact, they are filter feeders that strain tiny food particles from the water. They get whatever additional nutrition they need from symbiotic algae, such as zooxanthellae, similar to those found in reef-building corals."[8]

"Zooxanthellae are microscopic algae that live within the tissues of a variety of host animals, including giant clams. Like all plants, zooxanthellae use energy from sunlight to make their own food by a process called photosynthesis. Excess food leaks out of the algae and into the filter-feeding clam, which relies on the algae's extra energy to survive. Because zooxanthellae make food most efficiently in fairly shallow, well-lit waters, giant clams are most abundant there too."[8]

Upside-down jellyfish <-> Zooxanthellae

"Jellyfish are soft-bodied, free-swimming animals closely related to the corals. Most jellyfish are predators, using the tentacles that drape from their floating bell to ensnare and paralyze prey. A few species of so-called upside-down jellyfish (Casseiopea medusae), however, have literally "flipped their lids." They float upside-down, and their tentacles are blanketed with symbiotic zooxanthellae that use solar energy to make food for the jellyfish.

"Zooxanthellae are microscopic algae that live within the tissues of host animals, including hermatypic corals, giant clams, and upside-down jellyfish. The jellies may be the best hosts of all because they can swim to a depth where the zooxanthellae have optimal sunlight levels. The tiny plants cover the tentacles of the jellies, making food by photosynthesis and releasing whatever they don't need right into the jellyfish's tissues."[8]

Tern <-> Ghost crab

"Every living organism eventually dies, whether killed by a predator, a disease, or just "old age." Leftover pieces of prey and whole carcasses comprise a valuable source of food. Not surprisingly, a large group of organisms, called detritovores, have evolved in a way that lets them take advantage of this resource in every environment. For example, stalk-eyed ghost crabs eat carcasses, such as dead terns, that wash up on cay beaches. In turn, living terns (Sterna spp.) benefit by being spared carrion-associated diseases."[8]

"Ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) perform a great cleanup service as they get a meal. Quickly pinpointing the location of newly arrived carcasses, masses of crabs share in the feast while the carcass is still fresh. Living terns may even benefit from the crabs' work by being spared exposure to disease-causing bacteria that would otherwise build up on their rotting kin."[8]

Giant triton <-> Hermit crab

"When a giant triton dies, its tissues will likely be consumed by a group of detritovores, organisms evolved to eat dead and decaying organic matter. But the marvelous, and often enormous (up to 20 inches across), calcareous shell made by the living triton cannot be eaten. Instead, it will quickly be claimed by a hermit crab, which cannot make a shell of its own for protection."[8]

"Unlike other crabs, hermit crabs (such as Dardanus megistos) are unable to make a thick, protective shell (carapace) for its hind-end. While the head and legs are well protected from predators, the vulnerable back-end must be tucked inside a shell scavenged from the reef floor after its original owner dies. Each time the hermit crab outgrows its shell, it must find a larger one and then move in quickly to avoid being eaten."[8]

"Sometimes, hermit crabs carry other organisms, such as sea anemones, on their shells. These hitchhikers help camouflage the crabs. When a hermit crab changes shells, often the anemone will transfer to the new shell and continue along with its crab friend. Dardanus crabs often place sea anemones on their shells, which works well for both animals. The hermit crab gets a little extra protection from other sea creatures, because sea anemones are poisonous, which makes other creatures wary of them. The anemones get leftover food from the crab and a free ride. In places where discarded shells are hard to come by, hermit crabs may cover themselves with pieces of bamboo or coconut shell. Others hide among coral reefs."[9]


Adaptation and mitigation[edit]

One of the greatest barriers to achieving sustainability on any major scale right now is that corporations (and individuals) are able to treat the environment as an externality. Thus ecological costs are not calculated as part of true costs.

Natural resources have always been economically significant; this includes ecosystem services, such as the ability of the oceans to provide food and absorb waste, which have in the past tended to be regarded as unlimited or free.[10]


The economic importance of nature is indicated by the use of the expression ecosystem services to highlight the market relevance of an increasingly scarce natural world that can no longer be regarded as both unlimited and free.[11] In general as a commodity or service becomes more scarce the price increases and this acts as a restraint that encourages frugality, technical innovation and alternative products. However, this only applies when the product or service falls within the market system.[12] As ecosystem services are generally treated as economic externalities they are unpriced and therefore overused and degraded, a situation sometimes referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons.[11]

One approach to this dilemma has been the attempt to "internalise" these "externalities" by using market strategies like ecotaxes and incentives, tradeable permits for carbon, water and nitrogen use etc., and the encouragement of payment for ecosystem services.


Treating the environment as an externality may generate short-term profit at the expense of sustainability.[13] Sustainable business practices, on the other hand, integrate ecological concerns with social and economic ones (i.e., the triple bottom line).[14] Growth that depletes ecosystem services is sometimes termed "uneconomic growth" as it leads to a decline in quality of life.[15][16]

The Great Fish Market, painted by Jan Brueghel the Elder

Rather than treating the environment as an externality, by focussing on the triple bottom line, sustainable business practices attempt to integrate ecological concerns with social and economic ones. This approach views sustainability as a business opportunity. Waste in an industrial process is often a sign that inputs are being used inefficiently; waste itself can be seen as an "economic resource in the wrong place". The benefits of waste reduction include savings from disposal costs, fewer environmental penalties, and reduced liability insurance, in addition to increased market share due to an improved public image.[17] Energy efficiency can also increase profit margins through reducing costs. The concept of sustainability as a business opportunity has led to the formation of organizations such as the Society for Organizational Learning's Sustainability Consortium, oriented towards large corporations, as well as regional groups such as Entrepreneurs for Sustainability in the Greater Cleveland area which are oriented towards small and medium sized enterprises.[18] The idea of sustainability as a driver of job creation was pushed in the 2008 presidential election by Barack Obama through the rhetoric of Green-collar jobs.[19]

Economic opportunities are sometimes in conflict with uneconomic growth. In human development theory, welfare economics (the economics of social welfare), and some forms of ecological economics, is economic growth that reflects or creates a decline in the quality of life. The concept is attributed to the economist Herman Daly, though other theorists can also be credited for the incipient idea.[20][21]. Note that economic degrowth is different from uneconomic growth (or uneconomic degrowth), it is meant as a reduction of the size of the economy that would bring well-being and sustainability, see http://events.it-sudparis.eu/degrowthconference/en/.


"Practices destructive to coral reefs can be the result of externalities – the people who cause the damage benefit from unsustainable economic activities, but the costs are borne by others who depend in some way or other on coral reefs.


"Economists argue that this is often due to the absence of a well-functioning market for environmental goods and services. Hodgson and Dixon (1988) describe an externality situation in which logging causes sedimentation that results in reef degradation (affecting tourism) and fishery losses. For the logging company, these tourism and fishery losses are not part of their profit calculation. In the absence of government policy and/or public outcry, logging would continue even if the external costs to society were much higher than the net profits of the logging industry, as was the case in the example of Hodgson and Dixon."

"This example indicates two things. First, it shows the importance of a stakeholder analysis of who is gaining and who is losing from a situation and the potential for a possible intervention; and, second, it shows the importance of obtaining economic values for the various reef goods and services, e.g. a fishery value and a coastal protection value. Some of these goods and services involve concrete marketable products, such as shellfish, for which the value can be determined based on the demand, supply, price and costs. Other services depend on the possible future uses of yet unknown biodiversity on reefs for which, sometimes, markets can be created. The values of all these goods and services together form the total economic value (TEV) of reef ecosystems (e.g. Spurgeon 1992). This TEV can be calculated for a specific area or for other uses (e.g. preservation area, tourism area, multiple use area, etc.). Economic valuation can also be used to calculate the economic losses due to destruction of reef functions, as in blast fishing (Pet-Soede et al. 1999), coral mining (Berg et al. 1998) or bleaching (Westmacott et al. 2000c). The three case studies in this paper discuss each of these points. These case studies are briefly summarized here. "

Sustainable MBA[edit]

Sustainability in these programs is generally defined to include economic, environmental, and social sustainability, collectively known as the Triple Bottom Line. For each of these domains, sustainability means that it will be possible to continue through the foreseeable future, at least, without major breakdowns, such as

  • Economic: running out of oil or other natural resources and having nothing to replace them on the scale required
  • Environmental: loss of habitat, species, and whole ecologies; global warming
  • Social: overpopulation beyond the carrying capacity of the Earth; consequences of eliminating poverty within the current economic model; ensuring equity and social stability in development.

The environmental and social justice movements are sources for many of the issues, arguments, and research on sustainability, but the idea has firm roots in Classical Economics.

  • Externalities: Economically significant effects of manufacturing and trade on those who are not part of the industry or market in question. The classic example of a negative externality is pollution, while the largest current issue is Global Warming. The literature has identified many others, and many positive externalities, and has proposed many controversial measures to improve the balance.
  • Natural resources: Conventional accounting, including national accounts, treats extraction of finite natural resources as income, priced at the cost of extraction, and not as depletion of non-renewable Natural Capital. The resources of Nature come to us for free. They are of infinite value from the point of view of preserving and sustaining life, but may not be subject to trading in a market, as in the case of air for breathing, for agriculture, or for burning fuels.
  • The problem of value: Conventional economics can describe the process of setting prices in a marketplace through the interaction of supply and demand, but cannot adequately explain value. (Though not for lack of trying. See Labor Theory of Value and Util for examples.) The most economists generally agree on is that an individual purchaser in a Free Market will only buy something worth more to that individual than the price, and that the seller values the goods less than the price, so that both sides come out ahead.
  • Participation: The so-called Free Market is not free to those who have no access to it.

One of the themes of sustainable MBA education is the extent to which environmental and social sustainability can be achieved at a profit, a question by no means answered fully.


  • Sainsbury, J.C. 1996 "Commercial fishing methods: an introduction to vessels and gears." Fishing New Books 0-85238-217-0
Reference sites
marine photographers

IUCN Status[edit]

IUCN status is here. If you search for the species' name (scientific name is generally best) the species will show up, if it has been rated. Most mammals, birds and amphibians have been rated, but in remaining groups (notably fish, invertebrates and most groups of plants) a large percentage have not. Reptiles and a few groups of plants are more or less in between, but they're getting there. For a few species wikipedia use the Endangered Species Act instead, but then the status system (in the taxobox) is ESA rather than IUCN (under that system there are also different categories, e.g. Endangerd is just "E" rather than the "EN" used in IUCN).

Fish ancestors[edit]

Early fish eating humans[edit]

Carp[edit]

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/30877/history_of_koi_fish.html?cat=53 History of Koi Fish (blacklisted)

Gallery aa[edit]

Gallery a[edit]

Gallery b[edit]

Gallery c[edit]

Gallery d[edit]

Gallery 1[edit]


Gallery 2[edit]

Gallery 3[edit]


Gallery 4[edit]

Gallery 6[edit]



Gallery 7[edit]

Menhaden[edit]

"Atlantic menhaden help maintain water quality by feeding on plankton and decaying plants. [They] filter a volume of water equal to the entire bay in less than one day.

Menhaden are filter feeders vital to the health of our Bays and near shore waters….. they filter up to four gallons a minute. This process holds in check red and brown tide as well as other algal blooms".[22]

"But one company, Omega protein …. is annually catching billions of menhaden and converting them into cheap industrial commodities, such as pet food, hog feed, and oils used in paints, linoleum, and lipstick. Omega could wipe out this very important fish in a very short period of time leaving no natural element to deal with algal blooms.

Menhaden reduction is still practiced, mostly by the essentially monopolistic firm Omega Protein. It continues to take menhaden out, not just for fertilizer these days, but also for food pellets for chicken and farm-raised fish (you do eat menhaden, just not directly) and (as the name implies) for trendy fish oils."[23]


  • (Volume publication date November 2008)

(doi:10.1146/annurev.environ.33.020807.143204) First published online as a Review in Advance on August 1, 2008


predator birds

Red-breasted merganser


Predator fish[edit]

It helps predators to fish their prey

"The more prey, the more predators, says a time-worn ecological theory. However, this is not necessarily true. When there are few prey, the remaining prey grow more rapidly. This, in turn, can lead to more sexually mature individuals, which leads to more small prey, which the predator fish prefer. Paradoxically, a predator fish can therefore increase the amount of small prey fish by eating them. If there aren’t enough predatory fish, owing to increased harvesting, for instance, the reverse situation ensues. The number of prey that the predators live on will decline."

[24][25]

Heating eyes to track prey

"Large and powerful predators such as swordfishes, tunas, and many sharks are unique among fishes in that they possess physiological mechanisms that warm their eyes. A new investigation reported this week sheds important light on the purpose of warming the eyes and the advantage that "warm eyes" confer on ocean predators."[26]

Offshore predator fish[27]
Predator fish help coral reefs recover[28]
State of predator fish in the Great Lakes[29]


References[edit]

  • Burt, JR; Hardy,KJ and Whittle, M (editors) Pelagic Fish: The Resource and its Exploitation.
  • Freon, Pierre and Misund, Ole Arve (1998) Dynamics of Pelagic Fish Distribution and Behaviour. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN-13 978-0852382417

Tuna fishing in the Pacific[edit]

Radio presentation: "Sixty per cent of the world's tuna comes from the Pacific. The fishery is worth over $2 billion to outside nations who fish in the region and $400 million to the nations of the Pacific. But as demand increases, there is growing concern that the relentless pressure on tuna stocks is putting them in substantial danger. Philippa Tolley travels to Busan in South Korea, where those involved in the industry are gathering to discuss the way ahead. The agenda includes one proposal to reduce the catch of some tuna species by 30 per cent."

Aquaculture[edit]

Global consumption[edit]

What is the world fish catch – really![edit]

Wessel smedbager02.jpg

"Are we killing off world fisheries?

Canada knows this situation very well, after its five hundred year old cod fishery collapsed in 1990 - and hasn't come back. Is that an isolated incident?

To find out, the Paulian researchers gathered catch data collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the FAO. Along with other scientists, they soon realized that while specific FAO information was very valuable, the total catches being reported were larger than life. Pauly says that China has been exaggerating fish catch reports, as they exaggerate wheat harvests, and other production statistics, to reflect the success of the State. The FAO said the overall world catch was going up. Dr. Pauly, and a chorus of independent fisheries scientists, said the global ocean harvest is actually declining.

The catch is dropping despite bigger, faster boats going much further, burning more fuel that ever before. Even satellite and sonar gear cannot increase the catch. Europe has exhausted many species in the North Sea, and must now go down to the coast of Africa to feed the European diet of fish, including the mandatory Friday seafood meal sanctioned by the Church."[30]

Sustainable fisheries[edit]

"Fisheries have rarely been 'sustainable'. Rather, fishing has induced serial depletions, long masked by improved technology, geographic expansion and exploitation of previously spurned species lower in the food web. With global catches declining since the late 1980s, continuation of present trends will lead to supply shortfall, for which aquaculture cannot be expected to compensate, and may well exacerbate. Reducing fishing capacity to appropriate levels will require strong reductions of subsidies. Zoning the oceans into unfished marine reserves and areas with limited levels of fishing effort would allow sustainable fisheries, based on resources embedded in functional, diverse ecosystems."[31]

Sustainable eating[edit]

To do: Add section on personal responsibility (?) to overfishing

Collapsed fisheries[edit]


The following refs are from http://www.seabeforeus.pwias.ubc.ca/details.php:

  • Ainsworth, C. and Pitcher, T.J. (2008) Back to the Future in Northern British Columbia: Evaluating Historic Marine Ecosystems and Optimal Restorable Biomass as Restoration Goals for the Future. Pages 317-329 in Nielsen, J.L. et al. (eds) Reconciling fisheries with conservation. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 49, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 1946 pp.
  • Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J. and Rotinsulu, C. (2008) Evidence of fishery depletions and shifting cognitive baselines in Eastern Indonesia. Biological Conservation, 141(3): 848-859.
  • Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J., Heymans, J.J. and Vasconcellos, M. (2008) Historical Reconstruction of the Marine Ecosystem of Northern British Columbia from Pre-European Contact to the Present. Ecological Modeling 216: 354-368.
  • Bolster, W.J. and Alexander, K.E. (2008) Using Historic Records to Determine the Abundance of Cod on the Nova Scotian Shelf, 1852-1859: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Environmental History of the Northwest Atlantic. In Jackson, J.B.C., Sala, E. and. Alexander, K.E (eds) Marine Biodiversity: Using the Past to Inform the Future. University of Chicago Press.
  • Costanza, R., Graumlich, L., Steffen, W. et al. (2007) Sustainability or collapse: what can we learn from integrating the history of humans and the rest of nature? Ambio: 36: 522-527.
  • Dulvy, N.K., Sadovy, Y., Reynolds, J.D. (2003) Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4: 25-64.
  • Garcia, S.M. and Cochrane, K.L. (2005) Ecosystem approach to fisheries: a review of implementation guidelines. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 311-318.
  • Guénette, S., Heymans, S.J.J., Christensen, V. and Trites, A.W. (2006) Ecosystem models show combined effects of fishing, predation, competition, and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63: 2495-2517.
  • Lotze, H.K., Lenihan, H.S., Bourque, B.J. et al. (2006) Depletion, Degradation, and Recovery Potential of Estuaries and Coastal Seas. Science 312: 1806-1809.
  • Lotze, H,K,, Reise, K,, Worm, B. et al. (2005) Human transformations of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time: a synthesis. Helgoland Marine Research 59: 84-95.
  • Lozano-Montes, H., Pitcher, T.J. and Haggan, N. (2008) Shifting environmental and cognitive baselines in the upper Gulf of California (Mexico): Local Fisher’s Knowledge reveals a slow- motion disaster. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(2): 75-80.
  • Monte-Luna, P., Lluch-Belda, D., Serviere-Zaragoza, E., et al. (2007) Marine extinctions revisited. Fish and Fisheries 8: 107-122.
  • Pauly, D. (1995) Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 430.
  • Pauly, D., Pitcher, T.J. and Preikshot, D. (eds) (1998) Back to the Future: Reconstructing the Strait of Georgia Ecosystem. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 6(5): 99pp.

Pitcher, T.J. (1998) "Back to the Future": a Novel Methodology and Policy Goal in Fisheries. Pages 4-7 in Pauly, D., Pitcher, T.J. and Preikshot, D. (eds) Back to the Future: Reconstructing the Strait of Georgia Ecosystem. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 6(5): 99pp.

  • Pitcher, T.J. and Ainsworth, C. (2008) Back to the Future: A Candidate Ecosystem-Based Solution to the Fisheries Problem. Pages 365-383 in Nielsen, J.L., et al. (eds) Reconciling fisheries with conservation. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 49, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 1946 pp.
  • Pitcher, T.J., Kalikoski, D., Short, K., Varkey, D. and Pramod, G. (2008) An evaluation of progress in implementing ecosystem-based management of fisheries in 33 countries. Marine Policy doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2008.06.002.
  • Robinson, J. (2008) Being Undisciplined: Transgressions and Intersections in Academia and Beyond. 28pp.
  • Robinson, J. and Tansey, J. (2006) Co-production, Emergent Properties and Strong Interactive Social Research: The Georgia Basin Futures Project. Science and Public Policy 33(2): 151-160.
  • Smith, A.D.M., Fulton, E.J., Hobday, A.J., Smith, D.C., and Shoulder, P. (2007) Scientific tools to support the practical implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64:
  • Swart, R., Raskin, P., Robinson, J., Kates, R. and Clark, W.C. (2002) Critical Challenges for Sustainability. Science. Science 297: 1994-1995.
  • Tesfamichael, D. and Pitcher, T.J. (2006) Multidisciplinary Evaluation Of The Sustainability Of Red Sea Fisheries Using Rapfish. Fisheries Research 78: 227-235.
  • Turvey, S.T and Risley, C.L. (2006) Modelling the extinction of Steller’s sea cow. Biology Letters 2: 94–97.

Unreported fishing[edit]

SPC[edit]

Tim Adams
NOAO

From coast: Fisheries have lost much of their capacity to produce fish due to habitat degradation, and overfishing. Overharvesting, trawling, bycatch and climate change are among some of the major pressures on fisheries. Since the growth of the global fishing enterprise since the 1950’s, intensive fishing has gone from a few concentrated areas to encompass nearly all fisheries. Not only is over fishing a problem but the technology involved creates even greater destruction. Trawling, or bottom dragging, is used for catching shrimp and other bottom dwelling species. This scraping of the ocean floor is devastating to coral, sponges and other long-lived species that do not recover quickly. This destruction alters the functioning of the ecosystem and can permanently alter species composition and biodiversity. Bycatch is the result of capturing unintended species in the course of fishing. Of this unintended catch most is discarded back into the ocean and dies from injuries or exposure. Bycatch represents approximately ¼ of all marine catch. In the case of shrimp capture, the amount of bycatch is five times larger than the amount of shrimp caught.

Check these links periodically[edit]


Marine zones[edit]

OBIS[edit]

Scientists[edit]

Crab boats[edit]

Other images[edit]

Coquillier[edit]

Squid[edit]

behaviour

Migratory fish[edit]

FAO fishery reviews[edit]

Ransom A. Myers[edit]

Fish types[edit]

A fish is a cold-blooded, backboned, aquatic animal that lives in every region of the world. Fish are harvested for their highly nutritious meat and for the oil that is extracted and used as a food product or as an ingredient for a wide variety of commercially prepared products. There are numerous fresh water and salt-water fish species that are harvested throughout the world. Some of these species are shown below.

Fish live in water and breathe with gills. All fish have a backbone. All fish are cold-blooded, which means their internal body temperature changes as the surrounding temperature changes. Fish are very diverse.

1 Fish live and breathe in water. They use their gills to breathe, have fins and a streamlined body suitable for swimming, and have scales for protection. Fish are vertebrates - animals with a backbone. However, they are not the only animals with a backbone. Mammals (such as monkeys, horses, cats), reptiles (such as lizards, snakes), amphibians (such as frogs and toads), and birds also have a backbone, and they are all vertebrates.

2 There are over 25,000 different types of fish in the world - a count more than the combined total of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds! Fish can be found in almost every type of underwater environment. For example, the Antarctic icefish can survive in water below the freezing point (32 degrees Fahrenheit) because their blood contains special anti-freeze chemicals to prevent their body from freezing. Sharks, salmons, electric eels, and seahorses are other examples of fish.

Fish can be divided into three groups: jawless fish, cartilaginous (pronounced "KAR-ti-LAJ-i-nus") fish, and bony fish. Both cartilaginous and bony fish have jaws.


Saltwater fish

This category includes the following types of fish:

plaice 
Dover sole 
lemon sole 
turbot 
brill 
halibut. 

White flat fish have white flesh and are flat. Turbot, brill and halibut are very large flat fish, but are readily available from suppliers and popular in many fine restaurants. The cuts of flat fish are different to those of round fish. Figure 9.1 a Dover sole, b brill, c halibut, d turbot, e lemon sole,

  • White round fish

The following types of white round fish are included at NVQ Level 2:

cod 
haddock 
hake 
huss 
whiting 
monkfish. 

These fish are round and are relatively common in UK coastal waters. Like flat fish, their flesh is white but the cuts are different.


This category includes the following fish:

salmon 
trout 
mackerel 
tuna 
herring 
sardines 
anchovies. 

All oily fish are round and the flesh is darker than that of white fish. White fish contain oil, but only in their livers, whereas oily fish have oil throughout their bodies.







  • Types of shellfish

Crustaceans

prawns 
shrimp 
squid 
crab 
lobster 
crayfish 

Fish can be divided into three groups: jawless fish, cartilaginous (pronounced "KAR-ti-LAJ-i-nus") fish, and bony fish. Both cartilaginous and bony fish have jaws.

  • Freshwater Fish: Catfish, Grayling, Pickerel, pike, Rainbow Trout, sunfish, Tilapia (also saltwater), trout, Walleye Pike, whitefish, Zander
  • Migratory Fish: Eel, salmon (anadromous), shad (anadromous), smelt(anadromous), Striped Bass, Sturgeon (anadromous)
  • Saltwater Fish
  • Types of fish


Fisheries in New Zealand

In New Zealand, we have different types of fisheries. We have:

   * inshore fisheries 
   * deep-water and middle-depths fisheries 
   * fisheries for highly migratory species 
   * freshwater fisheries.

Inshore fisheries are found on our continental shelf – up to depths of 200 metres. These fisheries include paua, rock lobster, snapper, tarakihi, kahawai, and even some types of seaweed. Map showing New Zealand's EEZ and Territorial Sea. Deep-water and middle-depths fisheries are generally found in deeper waters – but still within our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). An EEZ is an area of sea that one country has the special right to explore and take marine resources from. Our EEZ extends 200 nautical miles, (which is 370 kilometres) out to sea from the coastline of New Zealand. The deep-water fisheries in our EEZ include six of our 10 most important commercial species of fish – squid, hoki, orange roughy, ling, hake, and jack mackerel.

Highly migratory species are the types of fish that travel great distances – through the EEZs of different countries and into the seas that don’t belong to anyone – the high seas. These fisheries include different kinds of tuna, marlin, swordfish, and some types of shark, including the blue shark and the mako shark.

Freshwater fisheries are found in rivers and lakes. The freshwater fisheries currently managed by the Ministry of Fisheries (MFish) include eel, catfish, different kinds of carp, freshwater shrimp, and even goldfish! Sharing our fisheries

All the fisheries in New Zealand are important to different types of fishers, including commercial fishers, Māori customary fishers, and recreational fishers.

When a fishery is important to more than one type of fisher, we call it a shared fishery. Most shared fisheries are found inshore. They are fisheries like snapper, blue cod, kahawai, rock lobster, and paua. But some offshore fisheries, such as swordfish, and freshwater fisheries, such as the eel fishery, are also shared fisheries.

MFish works with all those groups of fishers who are involved in a shared fishery. The goal is to try to make sure that everyone can catch enough fish for their needs while still leaving fish for the future. This can be a difficult task, as each group has different but equally important needs.

[32]

Ocean regions[edit]

Different groups, such as oceanographers, marine biologists, aquatic ecologists, fisheries scientists and navies, find it convenient to divide the sea into various coastal and oceanic zones. However the different groups can view these zones in somewhat different ways.

  • Oceanographers may look at the zones from the point of view of their physical attributes including temperature, salinity, mixing, chemistry movements and interactions, waves, internal waves, tides and currents.
  • marine biologists may think of the zones as
  • aquatic ecologists may view the zones as ecological habitats.
  • fisheries scientists might view the zones in the way they relate to particular fisheries..
  • Navies may look at the littoral zone from the point of view of littoral combat and at thermoclines from the point of view of masking submarines from sonar.

Because of these diverse ways of looking at the ocean, it is not surprising that different disciplines and interest groups can be more interested in certain zones and less interested in others, and can define the same ocean zones and regions in slightly different ways.

Regions[edit]

The major oceanic divisions

Oceans are divided into numerous regions depending on the physical and biological conditions The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be subdivided into further regions categorized by light abundance or depth.

Categorization by light abundance[edit]

Photic zone[edit]

The photic zone is defined as the water from the surface down to the point where the sunlight intensity has dropped to one percent of that at the surface. How far down this is depends on how clear the water is. In very murky waters, such as eutrophic lakes, light might penetrate only a few centimetres. In the open ocean the zone can extends to 200 metres or more. The depth of the photic zone is affected by seasonal turbidity.

This is the region where there is sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. It contains the largest biodiversity in the ocean. Since plants can only survive with photosynthesis, life lower than the photic zone must rely on material floating down from above (marine snow) or find another primary source, such as hydrothermal vents.

The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic.



The photic zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.


Aphotic zone[edit]

The aphotic zone is the water in an ocean or lake that is below the photic zone, that is, it is the depths beyond where the light intensity is leaa than one percent at the surface. Little ot no photosynthesis occurs here, and as you go deeper, bioluminescence is the only light normally found in this zone.

Unusual and unique creatures dwell in this expanse of pitch black water, such as the gulper eel, the giant squid, the anglerfish, and the vampire squid.

The aphotic zone is divided into two parts- the bathyal zone and the abyssal zone. The bathyal zone extends from 200 meters[citation needed] to 2000 meters. The abyssal zone extends from 2000 meters to the bottom. Creatures in this area must be able to live in complete darkness.



The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into regions that succeed each other vertically. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region, with its lowermost boundary at a thermocline of 12°C, which, in the tropics generally lies between 700 and 1,000 m. After that is the bathypelagic lying between 10°C and 4°C, or between 700 or 1,000 m and 2,000 or 4,000 m. Lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssalpelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 m. The final zone falls into the oceanic trenches, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000 m and 10,000 m and is the deepest oceanic zone.

Along with pelagic aphotics zones there are also benthic aphotic zones, these correspond to the three deepest zones. The bathyal zone covers the continental slope and the rise down to about 4,000 m. The abyssal zone covers the abyssal plains between 4,000 and 6,000 m. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone which is found in the oceanic trenches. The pelagic zone can also be split into two subregions, the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves, while the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water.

In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions. It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region.


Categorization by depth[edit]

Depth and layers

Depending on how deep the sea is, there can be up to five vertical layers in the ocean. From the top down, they are:

Demersal fish[edit]

Organisms in the deep sea are almost entirely reliant upon sinking living and dead organic matter which falls at approximately 100 metres per day.[33] In addition to this, only about 1-3% of the production from the surface reaches the sea bed mostly in the form of marine snow - as mentioned above. Larger food falls, such as whale carcasses, also occur and studies have shown that these may happen more often than currently believed. There are lots of scavengers that feed primarily or entirely upon large food falls and the distance between whale carcasses is estimated to only be 8 kilometres.[34] In addition, there are a number of filter feeders that feed upon organic particles using tentacles, such as Freyella elegans.[35]

In contrast, deep water benthic species, elopomorph ( halosaurs, spiny eels and cutthroat eels), and Paracanthopterygians (eg brotulids, cusk eels, cods, and grenadiers), are in orders that include many related shallow water fishes. "[36]

Pelagic fish[edit]

Pelagic fish are fish that live in the pelagic zone.

"Pelagic fish live in the water column, which distinguishes them from groundfish. They feed primarily in the surface layers or a short distance below the surface, and frequently travel in large schools, turning and manoevring in close formation.

"Fish that swim near the surface, compared with demersal fish, which live on the sea bottom. Pelagic fish are mostly of the oily type such as herring, mackerel, and pilchard, containing up to 20% oil.

  • Fish that live alone or in schools at or near the surface
  • Surface feeding or free swimming fish.
  • Fish that are normally caught at or near the sea surface or in the water column.

"schools of pelagic fish such as mackerels, kahawai, trevally, skipjack tuna, pilchards, and anchovies

"Small pelagic fish species such as herring, mackerel, horse mackerel, sardinella, blue whiting, sardine and silversmelt, swim together in shoals and often migrate over large distances in the sea

"The “pelagic zone” refers to the open waters of the ocean. Fish that live in pelagic zones are typically mobile and migratory species that are not closely associated with permanent structures such as coral reefs. This behaviour makes pelagic fish difficult to study and understand because it is often impossible to observe them using Scuba gear typically employed by marine biologists. Therefore, it is useful to combine a variety of methods, including the vast knowledge of experienced fishermen, to learn about these important oceanic fish".[37]

"Some of the largest and most commercially important species are pelagic fishes, including billfish, tunas, dorado, and many sharks. Most of the favorite sport fish in the Gulf of California are pelagic fishes, including billfish, [tuna]], jacks and dolphinfish".[38]

  • McLintock, A H (Ed) Te Ara - The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand:

Fish, Marine Updated 18-Sep-2007

  • Carl Walrond. Encyclopedia of New Zealand: Oceanic fish] Updated 21-Sep-2007


content structure[edit]

note no agriculture or fisheries and fishing.

History of fishing boats[edit]

world biomass[edit]

Copy of google answer...[39]

"What percentage does the human race make up in compare to animal life, vegatation and insect on earth

Answer Thanks for an interesting question.

We humans like to think of ourselves as the powers-that-be on planet Earth, and perhpas we're justified in that.

But in terms of biomass, we're just small potatoes. In fact, although potatoes don't necessarily outweigh us, the total mass of agricultural crops amounts to about 9-10 times more weight than the biomass of humans.

There is twice the biomass of krill as that of humans. Bacteria in the ocean -- at least 150 times the biomass of we mere human beings.

Overall the combined weight of biological material -- animals, plants, insects, crops, bacteria, and so on -- has been estimated in one source at about 75 billion tons. Of this:

--humans comprise about 250 million tons (0.33%)

--krill, about 500 million tons (0.67%)

--farm animals, 700 million tons (almost 1%)

--crops, 2 billion tons (2.7%)

Although these numbers are intriguing, they should be taken with a very large grain of salt. Although there is a pretty good inventory of the world's number of people and crops -- hence reasonable estimates of their total biomass -- this is not the case with most other biological materials. Hence, the numbers are only educated guesses (and in some cases, not-so-educated guesses).

Other problems arise with the way people 'measure' biomass -- sometime total organism weight is used, sometimes only dry weight, which ignores the part of the organism made up of water. As you can imagine, that would make for some wildly divergent numbers.

Smaller problems arise with imprecise use of units -- sites are not always clear when they are using English 'tons' or metric 'tonnes', although the difference between the two can reasonably be ignored for such large, imprecise numbers anyway.

In fact, at least one site quotes a total biomass far higher than the number I used above:

http://www.regensw.co.uk/technology/biomass-faq.asp

Q. How much biomass exists? A. Worldwide, total biomass is a huge resource estimated as 1,250 billion tonnes of dry plant matter...


Another source puts the amount of oceanic cyanobacteria at 44 billion tons, a huge chunk of the earth's total living matter.


The best single 'big picture' overview of the world's biomass that I found comes from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass

Some other tidbits from around the web:

http://www.perceptions.couk.com/superants.html

Scientists say that about 15 percent of the Earth's total biomass _ the combined weight of all living things _ is composed of ants. Another 17 percent is taken up by termites

http://www.uwyo.edu/AgCollege/Strategic_Issues_files/Microbiology_plan.htm

Microbes...include the bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoan and metazoan parasites, algae, and sub-cellular entities like viruses, viroids, and prions...are estimated to comprise over 50% of the total biomass on planet earth.

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e54/54c.htm

More than 90 percent of the total biomass of the earth is made up by plants

http://www.delta-green.com/comint/dgml/v04/04-113.txt

Even quite conservative estimates suggest that the inclusion of all the microbes that are likely to be present beneath seafloor hydrothermal systems could double estimates of the total biomass on Earth

http://www.astrobio.net/news/article307.html

Dive deep beneath the sea; dig even deeper, hundreds of meters below the sea floor, and you'll find a hidden world of microscopic beings so numerous that they may make up a third of Earth's total biomass - as many as a billion cells per cubic centimeter of sediment.

http://www.szgdocent.org/resource/ff/f-rain1.htm

Rainforests account for half the world's total biomass!

The takeaway message here is that there's a huge tonnage of plants, bacteria, ants, termites and krill on this planet, and a piddling weight of human beings (though I'm the first to admit I could stand to lose a few pounds!).

search strategy -- Google searches on: "world's OR earth's OR planet's total biomass"

"total biomass * earth"

"total biomass" insects billion

"total biomass" insects

"total biomass" "1..1000 billion tons OR tonnes"

"world's OR earth's OR planet's total biomass"

also "global biomass" (17,000 hit)

mother ship[edit]

whaling
fishing
submarines

midgit submarines, submarine tenders (cf supply and replenishment ships)

fairmiles
pirates

A mother ship, or mothership, is a larger vessel that looks after one or more smaller vessels. Some mother ships can also carry their "offspring".

The term originated in the early days of whaling and fishing,.

Lobsterpots[edit]


Lobster fishing[edit]

MBED[edit]

Using animals for fishing[edit]

Subsets of populations (of bottlenose dolphinss) in Mauritania are known to engage in interspecific cooperative fishing with human fishermen. The dolphins drive a school of fish towards the shore where humans await with their nets. In the confusion of casting nets, the dolphins catch a large number of fish as well. Intraspecific cooperative foraging techniques have also been observed, and some propose that these behaviours are transmitted through cultural means. Rendell & Whitehead have proposed a structure for the study of culture in cetaceans,[40] although this view has been controversial (e.g. see Premack & Hauser).

Other fishing techniques[edit]

Fishing assessment- 2 May 08[edit]

Fishing articles Importance Top High Mid Low None Total Quality A 1 1 2 Good article GA 1 1 B 2 5 3 3 13 Start 6 10 4 2 22 Stub 4 9 10 4 27 Assessed 3 16 23 14 9 65 Unassessed 4 3 165 172 Total 3 20 23 17 174 237

Fishing discussion topics[edit]

Ratio of "importance: What percent topics should be "top", "low" etc.

Opotiki Harbour Development[edit]



Steve O'Shea[edit]

pelagic zone[edit]

Paddy Ryan. Deep-sea creatures. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 21-Sep-2007 ++this is brilliant++



continued...[edit]


Bongo nets[edit]

External images
Bongo net 1
Bongo net 2]
Bongo net 3]
Bongo net 4]
Bongo net 5]

Kite fishing[edit]

External images
kite fishing rig
dropline kite fishing rig

Kite fishing is presumed to have been first invented in China. It was, and is, also used by the people of New Guinea and other Pacific Islands - either by cultural diffusion from China or independent invention.

Kites can provide the boatless fishermen access to waters that would otherwise be available only to boats. Similarly, for boat owners, kites provide a way to fish in areas where it is not safe to navigate such as shallows or coral reefs where fish may be plentiful. Kites can also be used for trolling a lure through the water.

Suitable kites may be of very simple construction. Those of Tobi Island are a large leaf stiffened by the ribs of the fronds of the coconut palm. The fishing line may be made from coconut fibre and the lure made from spiders webs.[41]

Modern kitefishing is popular in New Zealand, where large delta kites of synthetic materials are used to fish from beaches[42], taking a line and hooks far out past the breakers. Kite fishing is also emerging in Melbourne where sled kites are becoming popular, both off beaches and off boats and in freshwater areas. The disabled community are increasingly using the kites for fishing as they allow mobility impaired people to cast the bait further out than they would otherwise be able to.

History

"Kite fishing is an old Oceanic method of troll fishing. The English traveller, Sir Henry Middleton, is said to be the first European to see kite fishing in the South Seas during his visit there from 1604 to 1606, and he introduced the kite in sports fishing in 1616. For this purpose kite flying astern of a moving boat were used, especially for tuna and other big game fish. The flying fish bait was securely tied to the hook. The fishing line lead from the rod to the kite and then back to the water. Thus the hook skipped realistically over the top of the waves. When a fish struck the bait, the line broke away from the kite and the fisherman was free to play the catch."[43]

Kite towed longline

"The basic idea is very simple. When the wind id blowing offshore, a kite is used to tow out a line to which baited hooks have been attached.

"Kite fishing can be a lot of hard work. Sometimes you can get 25 fish on 25 hooks, and hauling them in takes a bit of muscle power.

"Can also use Kon Tiki rafts with square sails. Or, if the wind is strong enough, can use large, heavy weight plastic bags. Inflate by holding them intoi the wind. Then tie the open end with string and fasten the bag to a longline.

"But kites beat any other method hands down. A quality delta wind fishing kite has tremendous pulling poer, even in lighter winds. A kite can also be made to tack at an angle to the wind without much loss of pulling power. But it is important the kite is a quality one. Lesser kits will keep crashing into the sea, or as wind conditions fluctuate, they will not provide sufficient pulling power.

"Nowdays you can buy a battery powered torpedo shaped drone to use for towing your longline out to sea. These have the advantage that they do not depend on wind conditions".[44]

"Quality contemporary kites are made from rip-stop nylon sail cloth. The spars are fibreglass and the overall finish and stitchings must be first rate". [45]

Modern Fishing Kites
Kites for commercial fishing

Net-spreading underwater kites and kite vanes aid the control of large fishing nets. * Remotely-controllable paravane Robert A. Kirby et al

Kites for recreational, sport, and subsistence fishing

Kite applications#Kites for recreational, sport, and subsistence fishing

"There are several ways kites are used in recreatonal and sport fishing. Lofting drop lines is one, but things don't stop there. Net-spreading underwater kites, soil kites (kiting achors), kiting bait, control-kite trolling of bait, recreational kiting during fishing sessions, aerial photography of fishing environment using kites, and out and back cycles of trolling bait using a kite. Recreational fishing, commercial fishing, and scientific and military uses of depressors of tow lines use water kiting to accomplish the effects wanted."[46]

George Webster wrote comprehensively on kite fishing.[47][48]

A plan view of a Solomon islander's leaf fishing kite is shown in a photograph held by the Pitt-Rivers Museum is viewable at Natural History Magazine online; Pick from the Past, Natural History, April 1957: "Go Fly a Kite". [49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Government Productivity Commission (2003). "Industries, Land Use and Water Quality in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment - Key Points". Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  2. ^ Valiela I, Bowen JL and York JK (2001) "Mangrove forests: One of the world’s threatened major tropical environments Bioscience 51, 807–815.
  3. ^ Rooker JR and Dennis GD (1991) "Diel, lunar and seasonal changes in a mangrove fish assemblage off southwestern Puerto Rico", Bull. Mar. Sci. 49, 684–698.
  4. ^ Ley JA, McIvor CC and Montague CL (1999) "Fishes in mangrove prop-root habitats of northeastern Florida bay: distinct ass
  5. ^ Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Arias-Gonzalez JE, Lindeman KC, Blackwell PG, Gall A, Gorczynska MI, Harborne AR, Pescod CL, Renken H, Wabnitz CCC, Llewellyn G (2004) http://projects.exeter.ac.uk/msel/papers/mumbyetal2004.pdf "Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean"] Nature 427:533-536
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cite error: The named reference PBS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Coral Reef Connections: Competitors US Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Coral Reef Connections: Partners US Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  9. ^ Hermit Crab HowStuffWorks.
  10. ^ Hardin, G. [5] The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162(3859) (December 13, 1968), pp. 1243-1248. Also available here and here.
  11. ^ a b Hardin, G. (December 1968). "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162(3859), 1243–1248. Retrieved on: 2009-03-17.
  12. ^ Nemetz, P.N. (2003). "Basic Concepts of Sustainable Development for Business Students." Journal of International Business Education 1(1).
  13. ^ Kinsley, M. (1977). "Sustainable development: Prosperity without growth." Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, Colorado, USA. Retrieved on: 2009-06-17
  14. ^ Kinsley, M. and Lovins, L.H. (September 1997). "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development." Retrieved on: 2009-06-15.
  15. ^ Daly, H. (2007). Ecological economics: the concept of scale and its relation to allocation, distribution, and uneconomic growth. pp. 82–103. In H. Daly. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development: Selected Essays of Herman Daly. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  16. ^ Daly, H. (1999). Uneconomic growth and the built environment: in theory and in fact. In C.J. Kibert (ed.). Reshaping the Built Environment: Ecology, Ethics, and Economics. Washington DC: Island Press.
  17. ^ Tim Jackson, Roland Clift, "Where's the Profit in lndustrial Ecology?", Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 3-5, Feb. 8th, 2008.
  18. ^ Zhexembayeva, N. (May 2007). "Becoming Sustainable: Tools and Resources for Successful Organizational Transformation." Case Western University, Center for Business as an Agent of World Benefit, Vol. III, Issue II.
  19. ^ Leo Hickman, "The future of work is green", The Guardian, Feb. 12th, 2009.
  20. ^ Daly, H. 2007. Ecological economics: the concept of scale and its relation to allocation, distribution, and uneconomic growth. Pp. 82-103 in H. Daly. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development: Selected Essays of Herman Daly. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  21. ^ Daly, H. 1999. Uneconomic growth and the built environment: in theory and in fact. In C.J. Kibert (ed.). Reshaping the Built Environment: Ecology, Ethics, and Economics. Washington DC: Island Press.
  22. ^ Franklin, H. Bruce (2007) The Most Important Fish in the Sea: Menhaden and America Island Press. ISBN 9781597261241
  23. ^ See Amazon reviews
  24. ^ Harvesting prey to boost predator fish
  25. ^ Predator fish populations recover with fishing away its prey
  26. ^ Predator fish heat their eyes to track prey
  27. ^ Bannerot, Scott and Bannerot, Wendy (2003) The Cruiser's Handbook of Fishing McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071427883
  28. ^ Predator Fish Help Coral Reefs Rebound
  29. ^ What is the state of Great Lakes top predator fish?
  30. ^ OCEAN FISHERIES: Gloom & Doom - Daniel Pauly
  31. ^ Pauly D., V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T.J. Pitcher, U.R. Sumaila, C.J. Walters, R. Watson, D. Zeller (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries Nature 418: 689-695
  32. ^ What Is a Fishery?
  33. ^ [6]
  34. ^ R. N. Gibson, Harold (CON) Barnes, R. J. A. Atkinson, Oceanography and Marine Biology, An Annual Review. 2007. Volume 41: An Annual Review: Volume 41. Published by CRC Press, 2004 ISBN 0415254639, 9780415254632
  35. ^ http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/earth/oceans/deep-ocean/session3/index.html
  36. ^ Cite error: The named reference Moyle586 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  37. ^ Pelagic Fish Research Group Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  38. ^ Pelagic Fish Research Group Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  39. ^ http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=567966 google answer
  40. ^ Rendell, L. (2001). "Culture in whales and dolphins". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24 (2): 309–382. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0100396X. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  41. ^ KiteLines Fall 1977 (Vol. 1 No. 3) Articles on Kite Fishing.
  42. ^ Big Dropper Rigs
  43. ^ Gabriel & von Brandt, Page 149
  44. ^ Burgess, Page 123-4
  45. ^ Burgess, Page 125
  46. ^ The Use of Kites for Fishing
  47. ^ Jetty/Pier Fishing.
  48. ^ Paravanes for Sportfishing.
  49. ^ Kite Fishing in Palau/

References[edit]

External links[edit]

sport fishing as a fishing industry[edit]

Fishing collapse[edit]

Fishing safety[edit]

Fishing Industry Safety and Health Conference]

General[edit]