From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search


  • Essential Developmental Biology, 1993 (as co-editor)
  • The Evolution of Developmental Mechanisms, 1994 (as joint editor)
  • Swifter than the Arrow: Wilfred Bartrop, football and war, 2009[1]
  • The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction, 2011[2]. Also published in Japanese under the title 動物たちの世界六億年の進化をたどる (The world of animals: tracing 600 million years of evolution), 2014

Paralogy regions are chromosomal regions sharing gene content similarity to other chromosomal regions within the same genome [3] . They are well characterised in the human genome, where they have been used as evidence to support the 2R hypothesis. Sets of duplicated, triplicated and quadruplicated genes, with the related genes on different chromosomes, are deduced to be remnants from genome or chromosomal duplications. A set of paralogy regions is together called a paralogon[4]. Well-studied sets of paralogy regions include regions of human chromosome 2, 7, 12 and 17 containing Hox gene clusters, collagen genes, keratin genes and other duplicated genes[5], regions of human chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10 containing neuropeptide receptor genes, NK class homeobox genes and many more gene families[6][7][8], and parts of human chromosomes 13, 4, 5 and X containing the ParaHox genes and their neighbors[9]. The MHC complex on human chromosome 6 has paralogy regions on chromosomes 1, 9 and 19[10]. Much of the human genome seems to be assignable to paralogy regions[11].


  1. ^ Holland, Peter (10 December 2008). Swifter Than the Arrow: Wilfred Bartrop, Football and War. Matador. ISBN 9781848760684. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Holland, Peter (24 November 2011). The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199593217. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  3. ^ Lundin, LG (1993 Apr). "Evolution of the vertebrate genome as reflected in paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse.". Genomics. 16 (1): 1–19. PMID 8486346.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ Coulier, F (2000 Dec 15). "MetaHox gene clusters.". The Journal of experimental zoology. 288 (4): 345–51. PMID 11144283.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ Ruddle, FH (1994). "Gene loss and gain in the evolution of the vertebrates.". Development (Cambridge, England). Supplement: 155–61. PMID 7579516.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  6. ^ Pébusque, MJ (1998 Sep). "Ancient large-scale genome duplications: phylogenetic and linkage analyses shed light on chordate genome evolution.". Molecular biology and evolution. 15 (9): 1145–59. PMID 9729879.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ Larsson, TA (2008 Jun 25). "Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions.". BMC evolutionary biology. 8: 184. PMID 18578868.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ Pollard, Sophie L. (2000). "Evidence for 14 homeobox gene clusters in human genome ancestry". Current Biology. 10 (17): 1059–1062. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00676-X.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  9. ^ Mulley, JF (2006 Jul 5). "Breakup of a homeobox cluster after genome duplication in teleosts.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (27): 10369–72. PMID 16801555.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ Flajnik, Martin F. (2001). "Comparative Genomics of the MHC". Immunity. 15 (3): 351–362. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(01)00198-4.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  11. ^ McLysaght, Aoife (2002). "Extensive genomic duplication during early chordate evolution". Nature Genetics. 31 (2): 200–204. doi:10.1038/ng884.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)

Category:Molecular evolution Category:Molecular genetics Category:Genomics