User:G PViB/sandbox3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of Russian inventions.

Ancient inventions[edit]

Inventions which originated on the territory of the Russian Plain, Northern Russia, North Caucasus and Siberia from Mesolithic to the Bronze Age.

Chariot Sintashta‑Petrovka [1]
Domestication of the horse Sredny Stog culture
Wheel Maikop culture [2]
Oldest known:
Composite bow North Asia [3][4]
Distaff Russian Plain [5][additional citation needed]
Trousers Siberia [6][7]
Wooden bridge Russian Plain 5,500 BCE [8][Note 1]
Wooden sculpture Middle Urals Shigir Idol 7,500 BCE [9]

Agriculture and biotechnology[edit]

[10][11] 1814. By Petro Prokopovych

Beehive frame

[12][13] 1881–88. The credit is due to Fyodor Blinov

Caterpillar farm tractor

[14] 1924. Raphanobrassica. The credit is due to Georgy Karpechenko

Fertile hybrid

[15][16] 1868. By Andrei Famintsyn

Grow light

[17] 1951–54. The credit is due to (Терентий Мальцев) Terenty Maltsev

Nonmoldboard soil cultivation
Безотвальная обработка почвы

A type of ard (plough)


[18][19] 1829–30s. By (Даниил Бокарев) Daniil Bokarev

Sunflower oil industry

The credit is due to Sergei Vinogradsky

Vinogradsky column

External image
Rabbage, the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding

Arts and music[edit]

The credit is due to Vasily Kandinsky

Pure abstract art

[20] 1937–58. By Yevgeny Murzin

ANS synthesizer

[additional citation needed][21]

Birch bark art


Bone watch



1931. Rhythmicon. The credit is due to Lev Termen

Drum machine


Kuleshov Effect

The credit is due to Lev Kuleshov


[24][25] 1801. By Yegor Kuznetsov

Musical carriage

[26] 1916–24. By Vladimir Baranov-Rossine

Optophonic Piano


Socialist realism

1911–16. By Konstantin Stanislavsky

Stanislavsky's system

1918–20. By Lev Termen



Welded sculpture

[22][28] 1837. By Semyon Bronnikov

Wooden watch

Chemistry and metallurgy[edit]

[29] 1859–65. The credit is due to Nikolai Beketov



BARS apparatus

1838. Modern rediscovery. By (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Bulat steel

1900. The credit is due to Mikhail Tsvet


1902. The credit is due to Aleksandr Loran

Fire fighting foam

[30] 1831. The credit is due to (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Metallographic microscopy

BN-350 reactor

Nuclear desalination

1869. By Dmitry Mendeleyev

Current periodic table

[31] By Pyotr Sobolevsky and Vasily Lyubarsky, simultaneously with William Wollaston

Modern powder metallurgy

[32][33] 1913. The credit is due to Grigory Petrov

Synthetic detergent

[34][35] 1910. The first commercially viable form of production. The credit is due to Sergei Lebedev

Synthetic rubberPolybutadiene

By Aleksandr Butlerov

Theory of chemical structure

The credit is due to Igor Gorynin

Weldable titanium alloys


[36][37] 1907–11. The credit is due to Boris Rozing and Vladimir Zvorykin

CRT television

[38][39] 1923. By Oleg Losev


1925. The credit is due to Lev Termen

Interlaced video

[Note 2][40] 1794. By Ivan Kulibin

Optical telegraph

[41][42] 1958. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Pocket phone

[41][43] 1957. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Early portable mobile phone device

[44] 7 May 1895. The first practical device. The credit is due to Aleksandr Popov

Radio receiver

By Lev Termen

Thing (listening device)

External image
Kupriyanovich's 1958 mobile phone. More info (in Russian)

Computing and information technology[edit]

1999. The credit is due to Igor Pavlov


Russian Wikipedia article


1967. By (Михаил Карцев) Mikhail Kartsev

Computer for operations with functions

[Note 3] MIR

Desktop workstation

[45] By Mikhail Bonch-Bruyevich, independently from William Eccles & Frank Jordan

Flip-flop (electronics)

1880. By Bruno Abakanowicz, independently from Charles Boys


1832. The first application in informatics. The credit is due to Semyon Korsakov

Punched card

2009. Chatroulette. The credit is due to Andrei Ternovsky

Randomized webcam chat room

1993. The credit is due to Yevgeny Roshal



Russian abacus

1962. AVL tree. The credit is due to Yevgeny Landis and Georgy Adelson-Velsky

Self-balancing binary search tree

1956–59. Setun. The credit is due to Sergei Sobolev and Nikolai Brusentsov

Modern ternary computer

Was proposed in 1997 by Aleksei Kitayev

Topological quantum computer

1946–56. The credit is due to Genrikh Altshuller



[46] 1932. The credit is due to (Алексей Бахмутский) Aleksei Bakhmutsky

Cutting-loading machineCoal cutter-loader
Горный комбайнКомбайн очистной

1969. Severnoye Siyaniye barge. The credit is due to (Николай Кухто) Nikolai Kukhto

Floating power station

[47] 1926. Ramzin boiler. The credit is due to Leonid Ramzin

Flow-through boiler

[48] 1970s?. The credit is due to Aleksandr Kalina

Kalina cycle

[49] 1958. The credit is due to Aleksandr Klimenko

Klimenko cycle

1888–91. The cell based on the outer photoelectric effect. The credit is due to Aleksandr Stoletov

Solar cell

[50] 1888. The synthesis through electrolysis. The credit is due to Dmitry Lachinov

Synthesis of hydrogen and oxygen

[49] 1934–39. The credit is due to Pyotr Kapitsa

Current turboexpander

Oil and gas[edit]

1878–83. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Cylindric oil depot

[51] 1914. The credit is due to Mikhail Tikhvinsky

Gas lift

[52] 1846. By Nikolai Voskoboinikov and Vasily Semyonov

Modern oil well

Was proposed in 1863 by Dmitry Mendeleyev

Pipeline transport

1891. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thermal cracking

[53][54] 1922. The credit is due to Matvei Kapelyushnikov


Nuclear energy[edit]

Russian Wikipedia article

BREST reactor


Fast-neutron reactor

[55] International cooperation

GT-MHR reactor


Lead-cooled fast reactor


Nuclear power plant


Nuclear power station barge


RBMK reactor


Traveling wave reactor


VVER reactor

Everyday life[edit]

[56] 1876. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

AC transformer

1372. The first written Uralic language (after Hungarian)

Anbur script



1704. The Russian ruble

Decimal currency

1878. Yablochkov candle. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

Electric street lights

[Note 4][58] 1927. By Oleg Losev

Light-emitting diode

[59] 1802. The credit is due to Osip Krichevsky

Modern powdered milk


[citation needed]

Water-based central heating

1795. By Nikolai Lvov

Early HVAC system



[Note 5][60] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk

Lightning rod


Russian oven

[62] 1795. By Ivan Kulibin

Screw drive elevator




Bochka roof




Multidomed church

1164. The earliest depiction. Dobrila Evangeliary

Onion dome


Tented roof masonry





Native styles[edit]




Early Russian architecture






Late Muscovite


Russian Revival


Stalinist Empire

Russian Wikipedia article

Siberian Baroque


Middle Muscovite


Naryshkin Baroque




North Caucasus architecture

Russian Wikipedia article

Russian wooden architecture

Structural engineering[edit]

[60] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk


Russian Wikipedia article

Foamed concrete

1896. Shukhov Rotunda. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov


1896. Shukhov tower in Polibino. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Hyperboloid structure

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Tensile structure

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thin-shell structure

See also[edit]


  1. ^ It is unclear yet whether the discovery was a bridge or a docking pier.
  2. ^ With searchlight as medium, by Ivan Kulibin. The invention allowed the use of semaphore at night and during light fog, and extended the range between intermediate stations.
  3. ^ The Soviet MIR had the most functions among all early precursors of a modern personal computer. It was created for use in engineering and scientific applications, employed a user-friendly interface and was capable of a high-level programming language.
  4. ^ No application was found at the time of the invention.
  5. ^ The first lightning conductor in the modern era might have been used intentionally in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk. However, it remains unknown if it was created as a grounding measure.


  1. ^ Kuznetsov, Pavel (2006). "The emergence of Bronze Age chariots in eastern Europe". Antiquity. UK: The Antiquity Trust. 80 (309): 638–645. ISSN 0003-598X. 
  2. ^ Резепкин, Алексей (2005). "Проблема происхождения колёсного транспорта и его появления на Северном Кавказе". Тезисы и доклады. 4-ая Кубанская археологическая конференция. 
  3. ^ Insulander, Ragnar (2002). "The Two-Wood Bow" (PDF). Acta Borealia. UK: Taylor & Francis: Routledge. 19 (2002–1): 49–73. ISSN 1503-111X. 
  4. ^ Шахов, Олег. "Скифский лук". Пехота. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  5. ^ БСЭ: «Лён».
  6. ^ Nelson, Sarah (2004). Gender in archaeology: analyzing power and prestige. Gender and archaeology. 9. USA: Rowman & Littlefield: AltaMira Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7591-0496-9. 
  7. ^ Подольный, Роман; Бромлей, Юлиан (1984). Создано человечеством. М.: Политиздат. pp. 100–101. 
  8. ^ Омельницкий, Пётр. "Чудеса России: Мост возле Закубежья". Национальная Медия Группа: Известия, ВГТРК: Россия. 
  9. ^ Понизовкин, Андрей (September 2003). "Куда шагал Шигирский идол?" (PDF). Наука Урала (2003–20 [848]). Уральское отделение Российской академии наук. 
  10. ^ "Petro Prokopovych (1775–1850)". Beekeeping in Ukraine. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  11. ^ Демиденко, Надія (2009). "Життєвий і творчий шлях П. І. Прокоповича (1775–1850) – патріарха вітчизняної бджільницької науки" (PDF). Історія науки і біографістика. Національна академія аграрних наук України (2009–2). 
  12. ^ Деревянченко, Анатолий; Чулков, Алексей (1990). Волжский самородок: Страницы жизни Ф. А. Блинова. Их имена в истории края. Саратов: Приволжское книжное издательство. 
  13. ^ Стародубцев, В. М.; Шаповалов, Ю. С. "Первый Российский гусеничный трактор Ф. А. Блинова". Политехнический музей. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Griffiths, Anthony; Gelbart, William; Miller, Jeffrey; Lewontin, Richard (1999). "Chapter 8. Chromosome Mutations". Modern Genetic Analysis. EU: Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group: USA: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-3118-5. 
  15. ^ GSE: "Plant Cultivation Under Artificial Illumination".
  16. ^ Сенченкова, Е. М. (1960). "Андрей Сергеевич Фаминцын (К 40-летию со дня смерти)". Ботанический журнал. Л.: Наука. 45 (2). ISSN 0006-8136. 
  17. ^ GSE: "Nonmoldboard Soil Cultivation".
  18. ^ Кряженков, Анатолий (2003). "Сметливые на все руки". Подъём. No. 2003–6. 
  19. ^ Кондратьева, И., ed. (1994). "Алексеевка". Города России: энциклопедия. М.: Большая российская энциклопедия. pp. 17–18. ISBN 5-85270-026-6. 
  20. ^ Kreichi, Stanislav (10 November 1997). "The ANS Synthesizer: Composing on a Photoelectronic Instrument". Theremin Center. Retrieved 13 December 2005. 
  21. ^ Фёдорова, Наталья (2008). "Традиции народного искусства Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа". Наше Наследие. No. 87. 
  22. ^ a b Crom, Theodore (December 2001). "The Bronnikov Dynasty" (PDF). NAWCC bulletin. Vol. 43 no. 335. USA: National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors. pp. 746–754. ISSN 1527-1609. 
  23. ^ "Watch built from Bone! Wood you believe?". Watchismo Times. 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  24. ^ ББЭ: «Кузнецов, Егор Григорьевич».
  25. ^ Смирнов, Александр (10 August 1995). "Егор Григорьевич Кузнецов (Жепинский) (1725–1805 гг.)". Тагильский рабочий. 
  26. ^ "The Optophonic Piano (1916)". The Audio Playground Synthesizer Museum. Archived from the original on 27 November 2001. 
  27. ^ Эрлихман, Вадим (January–February 2006). "Сварено с огоньком". Энергия промышленного роста. No. 2006–1-2 [3]. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  28. ^ Фокина, Т. А. "Часы вятских умельцев Бронниковых". Политехнический музей. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  29. ^ Morachevsky, Aleksei (1 May 2002). "70th Anniversary of the Foundation of Russia's Aluminum Industry". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. EU: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 75 (5): 856–860. ISSN 1608-3296. doi:10.1023/A:1020399621412. 
  30. ^ Корниенко, Аина. "Металлография". Исследовательский центр Модификатор. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  31. ^ Ramakrishnan, P. (1983). "History of powder metallurgy" (PDF). Indian Journal of History Science. 18 (1): 109–114. 
  32. ^ "ПЕТРОВ Григорий Семёнович". Виртуальный музей истории профсоюза работников нефтяной, газовой отраслей промышленности и строительства России. Нефтегазстройпрофсоюз России. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  33. ^ Ружинский, С. Р.; Портик, А. А.; Савиных, А. В. (2006). Всё о пенобетоне (2 ed.). Строй Бетон. p. 88. ISBN 5-903197-01-9. 
  34. ^ Vernadsky, Georgy (1969). "Rise of Science in Russia 1700–1917". The Russian Review. USA: Blackwell Publishing. 28 (1): 37–52. ISSN 0036-0341. 
  35. ^ Morton, Maurice (1999) [1987]. Rubber Technology (3 ed.). EU: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 236. ISBN 0-412-53950-0. 
  36. ^ Bellis, Mary. "History of the Cathode Ray Tube". Inventors. USA: The New York Times Company. Retrieved 4 October 2009. 
  37. ^ Burns, R. W. (1998). Television: An International History of the Formative Years. UK: Institution of Electrical Engineers. p. 119. ISBN 0-85296-914-7. 
  38. ^ "The Crystodyne Principle". Radio News. USA: Experimenter Publishing. September 1924. pp. 294–295, 431. 
  39. ^ Morris, Peter (1990). A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. History of Technology. UK: Institution of Electrical Engineers. p. 15. ISBN 0-86341-227-0. 
  40. ^ Альманах "Великая Россия. Личности. Год 2003–й.". 2. М.: АСМО-пресс. 2004. 
  41. ^ a b Измеров, Олег. "Отечественные мобильники 50-х". Окно в прошлое. Сенсации, преданные забвению. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  42. ^ "Карманный радиотелефон". Наука и жизнь. No. 1958–10. М.: Правда. p. 66. ISSN 0028-1263. 
  43. ^ Куприянович, Леонид (1957). "РАДИОТЕЛЕФОН". Наука и жизнь. No. 1957–8. М.: Правда. p. 49. ISSN 0028-1263. 
  44. ^ Vonderheid, Erica (6 May 2005). "Early Radio Transmission Recognized as Milestone". USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. 
  45. ^ "Страницы истории". Виртуальный музей информатики. Институт прикладной математики им. М. В. Келдыша РАН. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  46. ^ GSE: "Cutting-Loading Machine"
  47. ^ Soviet Union Patent Application No. 9924
  48. ^ (in Russian)
  49. ^ a b (in English)
  50. ^ (in Russian)
  51. ^ (in Russian)
  52. ^ Смелянский, Василий (6 November 2005). "К вопросу о первой в мире нефтяной скважине". нефтеГАЗета. 
  53. ^ Matveichuk, Aleksandr (2011). "The Turbodrill of Engineer Kapelyushnikov". Oil of Russia. No. 2011–1. LUKOIL-Inform. 
  54. ^ Прозоров, Ю. И. "Турбобур М. А. Капелюшникова". Политехнический музей. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  55. ^ "High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR)". OKBM Afrikantov. Rosatom. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  56. ^ "Stanley Transformer". Museum of Electricity and Magnetism. USA: Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 9 January 2009. 
  57. ^ Aaland, Mikkel (1998). "The Russian Bania. History of the Great Russian Bath". Cyber-Bohemia. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  58. ^ Zheludev, Nikolai (April 2007). "The life and times of the LED: a 100-year history" (PDF). Nature Photonics. EU: Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group: UK: Macmillan Publishers: Nature Publishing Group. 1 (4): 189–192. Bibcode:2007NaPho...1..189Z. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2007.34. 
  59. ^ "В Рязани производят кошерное сухое молоко". Наша Рязань. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  60. ^ a b Кривошеев, Степан (22 October 2002). "Офис первого русского олигарха". Итоги. No. 42 (332). 
  61. ^ Школьник, А. Е. (1988). "Русская печь XX века". Наука и жизнь. No. 1988–1. М.: Правда. p. 97. ISSN 0028-1263. 
  62. ^ (in English)
  63. ^ Слёзкин, А. В. (2008). "Церковь Покрова в Пархомовке и её влияние на храмостроение неорусского стиля". Архитектурное наследство. Российская академия архитектуры и строительных наук. 49: 274–290. 
  64. ^ Хан-Магомедов, Селим. Архитектура Дагестана. 1–6. М.: Ладья, Архитектура-С. ISBN 5-7068-0105-3.