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This is a list of Russian inventions.

Ancient inventions[edit]

Inventions which originated on the territory of the Russian Plain, Northern Russia, North Caucasus and Siberia from Mesolithic to the Bronze Age.

Chariot Sintashta‑Petrovka [1]
Domestication of the horse Sredny Stog culture
Wheel Maikop culture [2]
Oldest known:
Composite bow North Asia [3][4]
Distaff Russian Plain [5][additional citation needed]
Trousers Siberia [6][7]
Wooden bridge Russian Plain 5,500 BCE [8][Note 1]
Wooden sculpture Middle Urals Shigir Idol 7,500 BCE [9]

Agriculture and biotechnology[edit]

[10][11] 1814. By Petro Prokopovych

Beehive frame

[12][13] 1881–88. The credit is due to Fyodor Blinov

Caterpillar farm tractor

[14] 1924. Raphanobrassica. The credit is due to Georgy Karpechenko

Fertile hybrid

[15][16] 1868. By Andrei Famintsyn

Grow light

[17] 1951–54. The credit is due to (Терентий Мальцев) Terenty Maltsev

Nonmoldboard soil cultivation
Безотвальная обработка почвы

A type of ard (plough)

Sokha

[18][19] 1829–30s. By (Даниил Бокарев) Daniil Bokarev

Sunflower oil industry

The credit is due to Sergei Vinogradsky

Vinogradsky column

External image
Rabbage, the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding

Arts and music[edit]

The credit is due to Vasily Kandinsky

Pure abstract art

[20] 1937–58. By Yevgeny Murzin

ANS synthesizer

[additional citation needed][21]

Birch bark art

[22][23]

Bone watch

...

Constructivism

1931. Rhythmicon. The credit is due to Lev Termen

Drum machine

...

Kuleshov Effect

The credit is due to Lev Kuleshov

Montage

[24][25] 1801. By Yegor Kuznetsov

Musical carriage

[26] 1916–24. By Vladimir Baranov-Rossine

Optophonic Piano

...

Socialist realism

1911–16. By Konstantin Stanislavsky

Stanislavsky's system

1918–20. By Lev Termen

Theremin

[27]

Welded sculpture

[22][28] 1837. By Semyon Bronnikov

Wooden watch

Chemistry and metallurgy[edit]

[29] 1859–65. The credit is due to Nikolai Beketov

Aluminothermy

1989–91.

BARS apparatus

1838. Modern rediscovery. By (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Bulat steel

1900. The credit is due to Mikhail Tsvet

Chromatography

1902. The credit is due to Aleksandr Loran

Fire fighting foam

[30] 1831. The credit is due to (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Metallographic microscopy

BN-350 reactor

Nuclear desalination

1869. By Dmitry Mendeleyev

Current periodic table

[31] By Pyotr Sobolevsky and Vasily Lyubarsky, simultaneously with William Wollaston

Modern powder metallurgy

[32][33] 1913. The credit is due to Grigory Petrov

Synthetic detergent

[34][35] 1910. The first commercially viable form of production. The credit is due to Sergei Lebedev

Synthetic rubberPolybutadiene

By Aleksandr Butlerov

Theory of chemical structure

The credit is due to Igor Gorynin

Weldable titanium alloys

Communications[edit]

[36][37] 1907–11. The credit is due to Boris Rozing and Vladimir Zvorykin

CRT television

[38][39] 1923. By Oleg Losev

Crystodine

1925. The credit is due to Lev Termen

Interlaced video

[Note 2][40] 1794. By Ivan Kulibin

Optical telegraph

[41][42] 1958. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Pocket phone

[41][43] 1957. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Early portable mobile phone device

[44] 7 May 1895. The first practical device. The credit is due to Aleksandr Popov

Radio receiver

By Lev Termen

Thing (listening device)

External image
Kupriyanovich's 1958 mobile phone. More info (in Russian)

Computing and information technology[edit]

1999. The credit is due to Igor Pavlov

7z

Russian Wikipedia article

Acmeology

1967. By (Михаил Карцев) Mikhail Kartsev

Computer for operations with functions

[Note 3] MIR

Desktop workstation

[45] By Mikhail Bonch-Bruyevich, independently from William Eccles & Frank Jordan

Flip-flop (electronics)

1880. By Bruno Abakanowicz, independently from Charles Boys

Integraph

1832. The first application in informatics. The credit is due to Semyon Korsakov

Punched card

2009. Chatroulette. The credit is due to Andrei Ternovsky

Randomized webcam chat room

1993. The credit is due to Yevgeny Roshal

RAR

...

Russian abacus

1962. AVL tree. The credit is due to Yevgeny Landis and Georgy Adelson-Velsky

Self-balancing binary search tree

1956–59. Setun. The credit is due to Sergei Sobolev and Nikolai Brusentsov

Modern ternary computer

Was proposed in 1997 by Aleksei Kitayev

Topological quantum computer

1946–56. The credit is due to Genrikh Altshuller

TRIZ

Energy[edit]

[46] 1932. The credit is due to (Алексей Бахмутский) Aleksei Bakhmutsky

Cutting-loading machineCoal cutter-loader
Горный комбайнКомбайн очистной

1969. Severnoye Siyaniye barge. The credit is due to (Николай Кухто) Nikolai Kukhto

Floating power station

[47] 1926. Ramzin boiler. The credit is due to Leonid Ramzin

Flow-through boiler

[48] 1970s?. The credit is due to Aleksandr Kalina

Kalina cycle

[49] 1958. The credit is due to Aleksandr Klimenko

Klimenko cycle

1888–91. The cell based on the outer photoelectric effect. The credit is due to Aleksandr Stoletov

Solar cell

[50] 1888. The synthesis through electrolysis. The credit is due to Dmitry Lachinov

Synthesis of hydrogen and oxygen

[49] 1934–39. The credit is due to Pyotr Kapitsa

Current turboexpander

Oil and gas[edit]

1878–83. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Cylindric oil depot

[51] 1914. The credit is due to Mikhail Tikhvinsky

Gas lift

[52] 1846. By Nikolai Voskoboinikov and Vasily Semyonov

Modern oil well

Was proposed in 1863 by Dmitry Mendeleyev

Pipeline transport

1891. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thermal cracking

[53][54] 1922. The credit is due to Matvei Kapelyushnikov

Turbodrill

Nuclear energy[edit]

Russian Wikipedia article

BREST reactor

...

Fast-neutron reactor

[55] International cooperation

GT-MHR reactor

...

Lead-cooled fast reactor

...

Nuclear power plant

Mass-produced

Nuclear power station barge

...

RBMK reactor

...

Traveling wave reactor

...

VVER reactor

Everyday life[edit]

[56] 1876. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

AC transformer

1372. The first written Uralic language (after Hungarian)

Anbur script

[57]

Banya

1704. The Russian ruble

Decimal currency

1878. Yablochkov candle. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

Electric street lights

[Note 4][58] 1927. By Oleg Losev

Light-emitting diode

[59] 1802. The credit is due to Osip Krichevsky

Modern powdered milk

Housing[edit]

[citation needed]

Water-based central heating

1795. By Nikolai Lvov

Early HVAC system

...

Izba

[Note 5][60] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk

Lightning rod

[61]

Russian oven

[62] 1795. By Ivan Kulibin

Screw drive elevator

Architecture[edit]

Forms[edit]

...

Bochka roof

...

Kokoshnik

...

Multidomed church

1164. The earliest depiction. Dobrila Evangeliary

Onion dome

...

Tented roof masonry

...

Vysotka

...

Zvonnitsa

Native styles[edit]

...

Constructivism

...

Early Russian architecture

[63]

Neo-Russian

Developed

Neo-Byzantine

...

Late Muscovite

...

Russian Revival

...

Stalinist Empire

Russian Wikipedia article

Siberian Baroque

...

Middle Muscovite

...

Naryshkin Baroque

...

Postconstructivism

[64]

North Caucasus architecture

Russian Wikipedia article

Russian wooden architecture

Structural engineering[edit]

[60] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk

Rebar

Russian Wikipedia article

Foamed concrete

1896. Shukhov Rotunda. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Gridshell

1896. Shukhov tower in Polibino. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Hyperboloid structure

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Tensile structure

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thin-shell structure

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ It is unclear yet whether the discovery was a bridge or a docking pier.
  2. ^ With searchlight as medium, by Ivan Kulibin. The invention allowed the use of semaphore at night and during light fog, and extended the range between intermediate stations.
  3. ^ The Soviet MIR had the most functions among all early precursors of a modern personal computer. It was created for use in engineering and scientific applications, employed a user-friendly interface and was capable of a high-level programming language.
  4. ^ No application was found at the time of the invention.
  5. ^ The first lightning conductor in the modern era might have been used intentionally in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk. However, it remains unknown if it was created as a grounding measure.

References[edit]

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