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Battery Chemistry[edit]

WORKING

The chemistry of classic batteries (Alkaline / Carbon-Zinc) had 1.5 volts, high energy density, low rate of self discharge, and low to moderate surge power rates.

Some chemistries are unsuitable for some applications

For instance a NiMH battery is unsuitable for a remote control because it's high rate of self discharge will deplete it in just a few months.

NiCd batteries are still used extensively in power tools and remote control vehicles, because of their high surge rate, and ability to deep discharge.

The terminal voltage of a battery depends on the chemicals it uses. For example, primary (non-rechargable) alkaline batteries have a nominal voltage of 1.5 Volts representing one individual electrochemical cell. Rechargeable NiCd (Nickel Cadmium) and NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) typically output 1.25 Volts per cell. Devices intended for use with pirmary batteries may not operate properly with these cells, given the 16% reduction in voltage.

The battery designation in some cases also identifies the not only the size, shape and terminal layout of the battery but also the voltage and chemistry. For example, a CR123 battery is always LiMnO2 ('Lithium') chemistry, in addition to its unique size.

The follow tables give the common battery chemistries for the current common sizes of batteries. See Battery Chemistries for a list.

Older batteries were mostly based on primary (non-rechargable) alkaline chemistries, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 Volts representing one individual electrochemical cell. Rechargeable NiCd (Nickel Cadmium) and NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) have strained the older naming conventions because both typically output 1.25 Volts per cell. Some devices may not operate properly with these cells, given the 16% reduction in voltage, but most modern devices handle them well.

New common, but specialized, batteries have also altered older naming conventions by refering not only to the size, shape and terminal layout of the battery but also the voltage and chemistry. For example, a CR123 battery is always LiMnO2 ('Lithium') chemistry, in addition to it's unique size.

The follow tables give the common battery chemistries for the current common 'sizes' of batteries. See Battery Chemistries for a more obscure and complete list.


Name Type Volts Comments
Alkaline
(Zinc Manganese Dioxide)
Primary 1.50 The most common type of battery
Carbon–Zinc
(Carbon Zinc Chloride)
Primary 1.50 Inexpensive
Often called "General Purpose" or "Heavy Duty"
Lithium
LiFeS2
(Lithium Iron DiSulfide)
Primary 1.50 Expensive
Often called "Plus" or "Extra"
Lithium
LiMn02
(Lithium Manganese DiOxide)
Primary 3.00 Expensive
Often used in high drain devices like cameras
"Lithium" alone refers to this type
Silver-Oxide
AgO
Primary 1.55 Very Expensive
Only used commercially in button cells
NiCd
(Nickel Cadmium)
Secondary 1.20 Inexpensive
Suitable for high drain devices
Moderate/Low Energy Density
Moderate rate of self discharge
Rare in Europe because of heavy metal concerns
NiMH
(Nickel Metal Hydride)
Secondary 1.20 Inexpensive
Not suitable for high drain devices
Moderate/High energy density
High rate of self discharge
Li-Ion Secondary 3.70 Very expensive
Very high energy density
Low rate of self discharge
Not usually available in "common" battery sizes (but see RCR-V3 for a counter-example)
Very common in laptop computers, moderate to high-end digital cameras, camcorders, and cellphones

Table (3 Rows)[edit]

Most
Common
Name
Other
Names
Nominal Voltage
(Volts)
Comments
IEC
Name
Capacity
(mAh)
ANSI / NEDA
Name
Shape
Dimensions
Layout
AAA Micro
Microlight
Type 286
1.5 (Alkaline)
1.5 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
1.2 (NiCd)
1.2 (NiMH)
LR03 (Alkaline)
R03 (C-Zn)
FR03 (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
1200 (Alkaline)
540 (C-Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
800–1000 (NiMH)
24A (Alkaline)
24D (C-Zn)
24LF (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
Cylinder
L 44.5 mm
D 10.5 mm
+ Nub Cylinder End
- Flat Opposite End

Table Template (3 Rows)[edit]

| colspan = "4" | |- | rowspan = "3" | | | | rowspan = "3" | |- | | |- | | |-

Table (2 Rows)[edit]

Most
Common
Name
Other
Names
IEC
Name
Capacity
(mAh)
Shape /
Dimensions
Comments
ANSI / NEDA
Name
Nominal Voltage
(Volts)
Terminal Layout
AAA Micro
Microlight
Type 286
LR03 (Alkaline)
R03 (C-Zn)
FR03 (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
1200 (Alkaline) 540 (C-Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
800–1000 (NiMH)
Cylinder
L 44.5 mm
D 10.5 mm
24A (Alkaline)
24D (Carbon–Zinc)
24LF (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
1.5 (Alkaline)
1.5 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
1.2 (NiCd)
1.2 (NiMH)
+ Nub Cylinder End
- Flat Opposite End
AA Penlight
Mignon
Type 316
LR6 (Alkaline)
R6 (C–Zn)
FR6 (LiFeS2)
KR157/51 (NiCd)
HR6 (NiMH)
2700 (Alkaline)
1100 (C–Zn)
3000 (LiFeS2)
600–1000 (NiCd)
1700–2900 (NiMH)
Cylinder
L 50.5 mm
D 14.5 mm
15A (Alkaline)
15D (C–Zn)
15LF (LiFeS2)
10015 (NiCd)
1.2H2 (NiMH)
1.5 (Alkaline)
1.5 (C–Zn)
1.5 (LiFeS2)
1.2 (NiCd)
1.2 (NiMH)
+ Nub Cylinder End
- Flat Opposite End
C Type 343 LR14 (Alkaline)
R14 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
KR27/50 (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
8000 (Alkaline)
3800 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
4500–6000 (NiMH)
Cylinder
L 50.5 mm
D 26.2 mm
14A (Alkaline)
14D (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
1.5 (Alkaline)
1.5 (C–Zn)
1.5 (LiFeS2)
1.2 (NiCd)
1.2 (NiMH)
+ Nub Cylinder End
- Flat Opposite End
D Flashlight-
Mono
Type 373
LR20 (Alkaline)
R20 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
12000 (Alkaline)
8000 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
12000 (NiMH)
Cylinder
L 61.5 mm
D 34.2 mm
13A (Alkaline)
13D (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
1.5 (Alkaline)
1.5 (C–Zn)
1.5 (LiFeS2)
1.2 (NiCd)
1.2 (NiMH)
+ Nub Cylinder End
- Flat Opposite End
9-Volt PP3
Radio-
Square-
Krona
6LR61 (Alkaline)
6F22 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
1200 (Lithium)
6KR61 (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
 ? (Li-Ion)
 ? (Li-Poly)
565 (Alkaline)
400 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (Lithium)
120 (NiCd)
175 (NiMH)
 ? (Li-Ion)
500 (Li-Poly)
Rectangular
H 48.5 mm
L 26.5 mm
W 17.5 mm
1604A (Alkaline)
1604D (C–Zn)
1604LC (LiFeS2)
 ? (Lithium)
11604 (NiCd)
7.2H5 (NiMH)
 ? (Li-Ion)
 ? (Li-Poly)
9 (Alkaline)
9 (C–Zn)
9 (LiFeS2)
 ? (Lithium)
7.2-8.4 (NiCd)
7.2-8.4 (NiMH)
 ? (Li-Ion)
 ? (Li-Poly)
Both Small End
+ Male Clasp
- Female Clasp
Lantern 6-Volt
Spring Top
996
PJ996
4R25Y (Alkaline)
4R25 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
26000 (Alkaline)
10500 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
Square
H 115 mm
L 68.2 mm
W 68.2 mm
Older devices used a similar battery (see below) with screws on top for use with ring terminated wires. Springs on this newer version can hold ring terminated wires in low vibration environments.
908A (Alkaline)
908D (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
6 (Alkaline)
6 (C–Zn)
 ? (LiFeS2)
 ? (NiCd)
 ? (NiMH)
Springs Top
+ Corner
- Center

TABLE TEMPLATE (2 Rows)[edit]

| colspan = "6" | |- | rowspan = "2" | <!--- NAME ---> | rowspan = "2" | <!--- OTHER_NAMES ---> | <!--- IEC_NAME ---> | <!--- CAPACITY ---> | <!--- SHAPE / SIZE ---> | rowspan = "2" | <!--- COMMENTS ---> |- | <!--- ANSI_NAME---> | <!--- VOLTAGE ---> | <!--- LAYOUT ---> |-

Chemistries[edit]

 (Alkaline)
 (Carbon–Zinc)
 (LiFeS2)
 (Lithium)
 (Silver-Oxide)
 (NiCd)
 (NiMH)
 (Li-Ion)
 (Li-Poly)