User:HIS324 Qianlong Project

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This page is created as part of a school project for HIS324, intended to be a personal rewrite of the Wikipedia page on Qianlong. Note that all pages linked on this page, whether they are other Wikipedia articles or external links, are not extensions of my own work on this page, but are there because this project is a simulation of what a replacement Qianlong entry would look like. If you would like to comment, please use the Discussion page and sign your comments with four tildas (~), which would automatically place your signature and timestamp.


Qianlong Emperor
Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg 6th Qing Emperor of China
Reign 8 October 1735 - 9 February 1796 (60 years, 124 days)
Predecessor Yongzheng Emperor
Successor Jiaqing Emperor
Regency 23 August 1735 – 3 January 1799 (63 years, 133 days)
Burial Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua
Empress Empress Xiao Xian Chun
The Step Empress, Ulanara
Empress Xiao Yi Chun
Imperial
Noble
Consort
Hui Xian
Chun Hui
Qing Gong
Ji Wen
Shu Jia
Issue
among others...
Yonghuang, Prince Ding
Yonglian, Crown Prince
Princess He Jing Ku Lun
Yongzhang, Prince Xun
Yongcheng, Prince Lu
Yongqi, Prince Rong
Yongrong, Prince Zhi
Princess He Jia Heshuo
Yongzhong, Crown Prince
Yongxuan, Prince Yi
Yongxing, Prince Cheng
Yongji, Beile
Prince Yongjing
Princess He Jing Ku Lun
Prince Yonglu
Princess Heke Heshuo
Yong Yan, Jiaqing Emperor
Yonglin, Prince Qing
Princess He Xiao Ku Lun
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Hongli 愛新覺羅弘曆
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro Hung Li
Posthumous name
Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun
法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神聖純皇帝
Temple name
Qing Gaozong
清高宗
House House of Aisin-Gioro(爱新觉罗)
Father Yongzheng Emperor
Mother Empress Xiao Sheng Xian

The Qianlong Emperor (Chinese: 乾隆帝; pinyin: Qiánlóngdì; Wade–Giles: Ch'ien-lung Ti; Mongolian: Tengeriin Tetgesen Khaan, Manchu: Abkai Wehiyehe, Tibetan: lha skyong rgyal po, born Hongli (Chinese: 弘曆), 25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth of the Qing emperors to rule over China from Beijing.[1] He was the fourth son of his predecessor, the Yongzheng Emperor, and reigned officially from 11 October 1736 to 7 February 1795. On 8 February 1795, he abdicated in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor - a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the respected Kangxi Emperor.[2] Despite being officially retired, however, he still remained unofficially in power until his death in 1799. His long reign was characterized by territorial expansion, continued prosperity, and a golden age of Qing rule, while his later years marked the beginning of the slow decline in Qing fortunes leading into the 19th century.

Biography[edit]

Early Years[edit]

During the first year of reign

Hongli was born to Princess Niuhuru and the Yongzheng Emperor in 1711. At a young age he became the favorite grandson of Emperor Kangxi, a reciprocal relationship he would later emphasize and elaborate to demonstrate his filial piety. Historian Mark Elliott suggests that Yongzheng's choice of Hongli as successor was strongly influenced by the favor Kangxi showed towards him.[3] From an early age Hongli demonstrated ability in the martial arts and frequently accompanied Kangxi during imperial hunting trips.

Hongli took the title of Prince Bao (宝亲王) upon his father's ascension as the Yongzheng Emperor. Yongzheng never formally appointed a Crown Prince, the usual heir apparent title, in an effort to avoid rivalry and succession controversy after his death. Instead, he had the name of his designated successor written in a sealed box placed behind the plaque above the throne in the Imperial Palace, which was to be revealed in the event of his death. When Yongzheng died unexpectedly in 1735, Hongli became the next Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

Reign[edit]

Hongli took the reign name Qianlong (乾隆) meaning "heavenly prosperity". During his reign, the Qing empire was involved in a number of conflicts which resulted in territorial expansion and consolidation of Chinese borders. Some were internal uprisings that needed to be put down, others were border disputes and wars of conquest. During his reign Qianlong was an avid collector of art and an accomplished calligrapher and amateur poet himself, and employed Jesuits, notably Giuseppe Castiglione in his workshops.

Ruins of the Yuanying Guan (Immense Ocean Observatory) part of the "Western style" Xiyanglou complex.

Emperor Qianlong's contributions in the literary world was primarily in the form of the User:HIS324 Qianlong Project#Siku Quanshu, an encyclopedic compilation of all known literary works, excepting the ones censored and deemed anti-Manchu. His reign saw a period of literary inquisition where the inclusion of one offending word deemed to be subversive towards the regime could be grounds for execution of not just the author but all the members of the author's family. Qianlong also expanded the Old Summer Palace imperial complex, including the construction of Western style Rococo-era buildings designed by Castiglione, Michel Benoist, and Jean Denis Attiret under his employ.

Towards the end of his reign, Qianlong's administration became increasingly complacent and corrupt. Manchu armies performed terribly against the White Lotus Rebellion, an event which destabilized and weakened the regime. In 1795 Qianlong abdicated his throne to his son the Jiaqing Emperor to take on the title of Emperor Emeritus in order to not surpass the reign of his respected grandfather Kangxi in length. However, he continued to hold on to the reigns of power until his death in 1799.

Qing Under Qianlong[edit]

Administration[edit]

Qianlong ruled over a large multi-ethnic empire with an population that doubled in size from around 150 million to 300 million over the course of his reign.[4] Administration depended on government officials who had to pass the state-mandated Civil Service Exams and granted public office.

Qianlong undertook a number of national tours, notably several to the economically important trade nexus known as Jiangnan. There were a total of six of these "Southern Tours", each more extravagant than the last, with the purpose of reconnecting with his subjects, inspecting the state of provincial affairs, escaping temporarily from the bureaucratic mechanism in the capital, though there were critics who saw the tours as wasteful of imperial resources.[5]

Diplomacy[edit]

Lord Macartney's embassy, 1793.

In 1793, a British representative, George Macartney, was dispatched to China to seek trade concessions and the right to establish permanent diplomatic relations via a residential ambassador in the capital. He arrived to attend an 80th birthday celebration for Qianlong and was granted an audience with the Emperor. The mission experienced a number of mishaps, including a disagreement of ritual regarding the kowtow, and ultimately left Macartney to return to England empty-handed.[6] Though an insignificant incident from the Chinese point of view, the Macartney mission can be viewed with hindsight as an important collison of two different worldviews regarding the conduct of international diplomacy, a problem which would become apparent later in the 19th century.

Military[edit]

The military under Qianlong consisted of the traditional Manchu Bannermen and the Han Chinese Green Standard Army. The effectiveness of the Qing military varied from very successful in the Turkestan Campaigns to ineffective during the jungle campaigns of Burma.

Achievements[edit]

Ten Perfect Campaigns[edit]

Qing general Agui, involved a many of the Ten Great Campaigns.

Qianlong named his military exploits the Ten Great Campaigns (十全武功), although the conduct of some of the campaigns were anything but perfect. The campaigns were fought on the periphery of the empire, and were regarded as proof of Manchu might. However, several were in reality unsuccessful wars and the Ten Great Campaigns as a whole drained much of the imperial treasury. The ten enumerated are:

  • Two Pacifications of Jinchuan (两平金川)
  • Two Pacifications of Dzungars (两平准部)
  • Pacification of Hui (平回部)
  • Pacification of Burma (平缅甸)
  • Pacification of Vietnam (平安南)
  • Pacification of Taiwan (平台湾) or Pacification of Lin Shuang Wen Insurrection (平林爽文起义)
  • Two Pacifications of Nepal (两平廓尔喀)

Jinchuan Rebellions[edit]

Capture of a rebel stronghold during the Jinchuan campaigns.

The Jinchuan (Chinese:金川, literally "golden stream") area of northwestern Sichuan along the Tibetan borderlands were inhabited by tribal hill dwellers led by hereditary chieftains whose tenuous relationship with Beijing consists of Manchu attempts to mediate their frequent internecine fighting.[7] The first of the Jinchuan pacifications happened between 1747-1749, when one chieftain began to successfully confederate a number of tribes and gain enough local power to challenge Qing authority, causing Qianlong to send in imperial troops.[8] Fought in the mountainous hinterlands, the war proved to be logistically difficult and more costly than expected, but after two executions of high generals[9] and a change of strategy towards attrition, it became obvious to the Jinchuan tribesmen that they could not possibly win against the overwhelming material superiority of the Qing.[10] The negotiated peace lasted until the mid 1770s, when the need to pacify them again led to a very protracted war, the most expensive of all the Ten Great Campaigns.[11] The fighting occurred along steep mountain ridges and Qing armies were limited by terrain and the hundreds of stone mountain forts characteristic of the region, which were gradually worn down as the Manchu generals discovered that light gunpowder artillery cast by Jesuits were effective in reducing the forts.[12] After the conclusion of the second phase of the Jinchuan pacification (1771-1776), the most destructive and costly by far, the depopulated region was settled by people more cooperative towards the imperial regime.

Acquisition of Xinjiang[edit]

Surrender of the Khan of Badakhsan.

Of the military exploits undertaken during Qianlong's reign, the conquest and subsequent annexation of the Central Asian territory known as Chinese Turkestan is the most significant in terms of territorial acquisition, short-term consequences for the Qing empire, and long-term effects for the Chinese nation centuries thereafter. For the Qing empire it established the Western frontier and became the basis of 20th century Chinese claims to East Turkestan. The reorganization of Kashgaria and Dzungaria into the new province of Xinjiang meant that the Qing invested resources to govern the region as a direct part of the empire, abandoning previous dynasties' policies of tributary vassalage.[13] After the conquest, Xinjiang also became the destination for penal exile, serving a function similar to Siberia during Tsarist Russia.

The two pacifications of the Western Regions was sparked by a succession conflict within the Dzungar Khanate. A Khoit chief named Amursana sought Qing assistance against rival Davachi and in 1754 offered his allegiance to the Qing, prompting Qianlong to send a two-pronged expedition into Dzungaria with the goal of placing Amursana on the throne.[14] Following their success and subsequent withdrawal of Manchu troops, however, Amursana became dissatisfied with his reward and revolted against the Qing, surrounding and annihilating the small Qing garrison left behind in Ili.[15] This prompted Qianlong to send a second punitive expedition, this time with an aim to solve the Dzungaria problem for good. After conquering Ili, the Manchu armies turned south to the Tarim Basin where two White Mountain Khoja brothers declared independence from both the Dzungars and the Qing. The khojas were defeated and fled to Badakhsan, where the local sultan executed them and sent their heads to the Manchus.[16]

What befell the Dzungars at the hands of the Manchus was a demographic and cultural catastrophe that ensured no Dzungar state would ever exist again. A combination of massacre, starvation, and smallpox decimated an estimated 80% of the 800,000 to 1 million Dzungars living in the region, resulting in a depopulation of the territory.[17] Emperor Qianlong ordered the massacre of all young and able Dzungar men and the taking of their women as booty, which historian Peter Perdue characterized as a deliberate effort "in order to destroy the Zunghars as a people."[18] Mark Levene, a historian who specializes in the study of genocide, has claimed that the campaign of extermination against the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence"[19]

Sino-Burmese War[edit]

The war against Burma between 1765-1769 was the least successful of the Ten Great Campaigns, resulting in massive loss of life for the Qing for little gain. Originally a border dispute arising from Burmese incursions into Shan states that had been annexed by the Qing, the conflict escalated into a series of four invasions of Burma, all of which were turned back, resulting in the deaths of over 70,000 Chinese soldiers[20] When the first two invasions involving Han Green Standard troops and Taishan militias were repulsed as the invaders suffered from tropical disease and loss of supply routes, Qianlong decided to send veteran general Mingrui in command of Manchu Bannermen to defeat Burma once and for all.[21] The army succeeded in penetrating deep into Burma and almost captured the capital but once again suffered from tropical diseases, overstretching of supply routes, and encirclement and was annihilated. Qianlong, expecting a quick and easy victory, had even begun thinking about how to administer a new addition to his empire when the news of defeat reached him.[22] The fourth and final invasion began during the start of the rainy season and was again a disaster, with the Chinese army avoiding complete annihilation when the commanders of the two sides signed a truce to end the war.[23] The conclusion of the Sino-Burmese war marked the last attempt of the Qing in trying to conquer Burma.

A scene from the Vietnam campaign.

Vietnam Campaign[edit]

The Qing expedition to Vietnam 1786-1789 was fought to restore Chiêu Thống, the last monarch of the Le dynasty, as the Emperor of Vietnam. When the Nguyen family usurped the throne, Chiêu Thống fled to China and asked for Manchu assistance, and Qianlong dispatched an army which captured Hanoi and restored Chiêu Thống. However, Nguyen forces counterattacked in 1789 while Chinese forces were celebrating the Lunar New Year in Hanoi, forcing their retreat back to Guangxi, at which point Qianlong acknowledged the Nguyen as the legitimate successor.[24]

Pacification of Taiwan[edit]

Assault on Douliumen during the Taiwan campaign.

Taiwan had been settled by waves of Chinese emigrants from Fujian and other mainland coastal areas for centuries, but during the rule of Qianlong remained an imperial backwater. It was not a prestigious post for government officials, so the administrators sent there from the mainland were rarely of high caliber.[25] Poor administration, compounded with ethnic and clan strife, particularly between Hakka and Fujian settlers meant that violence frequently erupted on this island. Local officials worsened the situation by playing on community divisions when recruiting Hakka militia to suppress Fujianese uprisings.[26] In 1786 a Lin Shuang Wen (Chinese: 林爽文) started a rebellion in Dali originally directed against corrupt local officials and fueled by vestigial Ming loyalties but soon fed on ethnic hatred, with rebel forces pillaging Hakka villages and seizing Fujianese settlements.[27] Eventually, the Imperial court sent Fu Kang'an (Chinese: 福康安) to lead a pacification campaign while Hakka, Ch'uan-chou Fujianese, and aborigines volunteered with government troops to put down the rebellion.[28]

Gurkha Campaign[edit]

Capture of Magaer during the Gurkha campaign.

The first Gurkha campaign started in 1788, when the Gurkha rulers of Nepal invaded southern Tibet, pillaging Shigatse and attacking Lhasa. By the time Qing forces from Sichuan arrived in Tibet, the Gurkhas have already withdrawn. The second campaign started with the return of the Gurkha army in 1791 and the Qing response, led by Fu Kang'an, who had previously put down the revolt in Taiwan. The Manchu army drove the Gurkhas over the Nepalese border and signed a peace treaty. [29]

Siku Quanshu[edit]

The Siku Quanshu (Chinese: 四库全书, literally Complete Library of the Four Treasuries) was a literary project undertaken by Emperor Qianlong to collect, organize, edit, and reproduce all known works of Chinese literature into a single collection. Originally intended to replace the Yongle Encyclopedia, the idea for the Siku Quanshu started as a book collecting project from the Kangxi reign which was revived by Qianlong in the 1740s, but nothing came of it.[30] In 1771 the Emperor made a second attempt to organize the book-collecting project by issuing an edict instructing provincial administrators to send books that were publicly sold or in private collections towards Beijing, where copies would be made at government expense.[31] In the end, the Siku Quanshu comprised of 3,461 edited titles bound in 36,381 volumes with more than 79,000 chapters, totaling 2.3 million pages, and approximately 800 million Chinese characters.[32] Four copies for the emperor were placed in specially constructed libraries in the Forbidden City, Old Summer Palace, Mukden, and Wenjin Chamber in Jehol. Three additional copies for the public were deposited in libraries in the economically important Yangtze delta region: Hangzhou, Zhenjiang, and Yangzhou.

The Siku Quanshu project also facilitated to a Literary inquisition where books deemed anti-Manchu were destroyed and their authors subject to punishment such as death. The inquisition had started before the Siku Quanshu project had taken off; the literary project only made it easier to collect and ban offending material.[33] One interesting effect on Chinese scholarship resulting from the Siku Quanshu project was the development of early Chinese philology as scholars used pre-modern linquistic techniques to analyze older works of Chinese literature, setting the foundation for historical linguistic studies of Middle and Old Chinese.[34]

Contributions to Manchu Identity[edit]

One of the concerns Qianlong had was the assimilation of the Manchu people into Chinese culture and thus blurring the line between the conquered and the conqueror. He feared that daily contact with decadent Chinese lifestyles would cause the Manchus to become acculturated and forget their nomadic and warlike roots.[35] Qianlong sponsored the production of Manchu language dictionaries and the translation of several ancient Chinese texts into Manchu, as well as commissioning the compliation of Researches on Manchu Origins (Manzhou yuanliu kao), completed in 1783 intended to formalize the Manchu tradition.[36] According to Susan Naquin, Qianlong standardized the Manchu written script, sought to correct the Manchu in memorials, and published Manchu genealogies, and thus "responsible for strengthening the foundations of Manchu identity at a time when Manchus were in danger of forgetting their roots."[37] In a sense, Manchu identity was as much created and reinforced during the Qianlong reign as it had existed prior, since Manchu group identity is mainly grounded on the institutional foundation of the Eight Banner system rather than on solid ethnic divisions.

Qianlong in popular culture[edit]

The Qianlong Emperor in Armor on Horseback, by Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione(Long shining)(1688-1766 AD).

Qianlong is the source of a number of rumors and legends regarding his lineage and whether he had any illegitimate children. Because he is such an important figure in Chinese history, Qianlong is often a source of contention.

Family[edit]

  • Father: the Yong Zheng Emperor (of whom he was the 4th son)
  • Mother: Empress Xiao Sheng Xian (1692–1777) of the Niuhuru Clan (Chinese: 孝聖憲皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu)
"Empress Xiao Xian Chun", Qianlong's first empress

Consorts[edit]

Sons[edit]

  • Eldest son: Prince Yong Huang (5 July 1728–21 April 1750), son of Imperial Noble Consort Che Min
  • 2nd: Prince Yong Lian [永璉] (26 June 1730–21 September 1738), 1st Crown Prince, son of Empress Xiao Xian Chun
  • 3rd: Prince Yongzhang [永璋] (25 May 1735-26 July 1760), son of Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui, bore the title Prince Xun of the Second Rank (循郡王)
  • 4th: Prince Yongcheng [永珹] (1739-1777), son of Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia, bore the title Prince Lu of the First Rank (履端親王)
  • 5th: Prince Yong Qi [永琪] (23 March 1741 - 16 April 1766), son of Noble Consort Yu, bore the title Prince Rong of the Blood (榮親王)
  • 6th: Prince Yongrong [永瑢] (14 December 1743-1790), son of Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui, bore the title Prince Zhi of the First Rank (質莊親王)
  • 7th: Prince Yong Zhong [永琮] (8 April 1746–29 December 1748), 2nd Crown Prince, initially bore the title Prince Zhe of the First Rank (哲親王), son of Empress Xiao Xian Chun
  • 8th: Prince Yong Xuan [永璇] (15 July 1746-7 August 1832), son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia, bore the title Prince Yi of the First Rank (儀慎親王)
  • 9th: Prince ? (2 August 1748-11 June 1749), son of Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia
  • 10th: Prince ? (12 June 1751-7 July 1753), son of Consort Shu
  • 11th: Prince Yong Xing [永瑆] (2 February 1752-30 March 1823), son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia, bore the title Prince Cheng of the First Rank (成哲親王)
  • 12th: Prince Yong Ji [永璂] (25 April 1752-1776), son of Demoted Empress Ulanara, the Step Empress
  • 13th: Prince Yongjing [永璟] (21 December 1755-24 July 1757), son of Demoted Empress Ulanara, the Step Empress
  • 14th: Prince Yonglu [永璐] (17 July 1757 - 8 March 1760), son of Empress Xiao Yi Chun
  • 15th: Prince Yong Yan [永琰] (13 November 1760 - 2 September 1820), son of Empress Xiao Yi Chun. created Prince Jia of the First Rank (嘉親王) in 1789, ascended the throne on 9 February 1796 as the Jiaqing Emperor
  • 16th: Prince ? (13 January 1763 - 6 May 1765), son of Empress Xiao Yi Chun
  • 17th: Prince Yong Lin [永璘] (11 May 1766 - 13 March 1820), son of Empress Xiao Yi Chun, created a beile in 1789, elevated to Prince Qing of the Second Rank (慶郡王) in 1799, elevated to Prince Qing of the First Rank (慶親王) in 1820 but died that same year. His grandson was Yikuang, Prince Qing.
  • Famous general Fu Kang'an (福康安) was rumored to be an illegitimate son of Qianlong but this has never been proven, however, he was the most favoured general in the Qianlong's reign

Daughters[edit]

Adopted daughter[edit]

  • Princess He Wan [和硕和婉公主] (24 June 1734-17 March 1760), originally the eldest daughter of Hongzhou, Prince He, the fifth son of the Yongzheng Emperor and therefore Qianlong's niece. Her biological mother was Lady Ujaku (乌札库氏), Hongzhou's principal wife.

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Qing Emperors referred their state as China in international treaties.
  2. ^ Jacobs, Andrew. "Dusting Off a Serene Jewel Box," New York Times. 31 December 2008.
  3. ^ Elliott, Mark. Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World Longman, 2009
  4. ^ Available data: Official population figures [www.iisg.nl/research/labourcollab/china.pdf ]
  5. ^ Elliott, Mark C. Emperor Qianlong: son of heaven, man of the world. Longman, 2009. P. 81-83
  6. ^ Eliott, 134-139
  7. ^ Lorge, Peter Allan. War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 1900-1795. Routledge, 2005, p. 166.
  8. ^ Lorge, p. 166.
  9. ^ Waley-Cohen, Joanna. The culture of war in China: empire and the military under the Qing Dynasty I.B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2006, p. 20.
  10. ^ Lorge, p. 166.
  11. ^ Mote, Frederick W. Imperial China 900-1800 I.B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2006, p. 937.
  12. ^ Mote, 937.
  13. ^ Rahman, Anwar. Sinicization beyond the Great Wall: China's Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Troubador Publishing Ltd, 2005. p. 31
  14. ^ Bai Cuiqin. "The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks), and the peoples of southern Siberia". Published in History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2003. p. 158
  15. ^ Li, Gertraude Roth. Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents (Second Edition) National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2010. p. 326
  16. ^ Li, p. 326
  17. ^ Michael Edmund Clarke, In the Eye of Power (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37
  18. ^ Perdue, Peter C. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005, 283
  19. ^ Levene, Mark. "Empires, Native Peoples, and Genocide" in Empire, colony, genocide: conquest, occupation, and subaltern resistance in world history, edited by A. Dirk Moses. Berghahn Books, 2008
  20. ^ Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian borderlands: the transformation of Qing China's Yunnan frontier. Harvard University Press,2006. p. 101
  21. ^ Lorge, Peter Allan. War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 1900-1795. Routledge, 2005, p. 167
  22. ^ Myint-U, Thant. The river of lost footsteps: histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. p. 103
  23. ^ Lorge, p. 168
  24. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. The search for modern China. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1990. p. 111
  25. ^ Roy, Denny. Taiwan: A Political History. Cornell University, 2003, p. 22.
  26. ^ Rubinstein, Murray A. Taiwan: A New History. East Gate, 1999, p. 129.
  27. ^ Roy, p. 23.
  28. ^ Roy, p. 23.
  29. ^ Mote, F.W. Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press, 1999. 937
  30. ^ Guy, Kent. The emperor's four treasuries: scholars and the state in the late Chʻien-lung Era. Harvard University Asia Center, 1987. p. 27.
  31. ^ Guy, 37
  32. ^ Chinese literature, essays, articles, reviews , Volumes 22-24. Coda Press, 2000. p. 101
  33. ^ Goodrich, Luther Carrington. The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien-Lung Waverly Press, Inc., 1935. p. 25
  34. ^ Elman, Benjamin A. From philosophy to philology: intellectual and social aspects of change in late Imperial China. UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series, 2001. p. 28
  35. ^ Elliott, Mark C. Emperor Qianlong:son of heaven, man of the world. Longman, 2009
  36. ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle. A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press, 2002.p. 299
  37. ^ Naquin, Susan and Evelyn Sakakida Rawski. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. Yale University Press, 1989. p. 18
HIS324 Qianlong Project
Born: 25 September 1711 Died: 7 February 1799
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Yongzheng Emperor
Emperor of China
1735-1796
Succeeded by
The Jiaqing Emperor


Category:1711 births Category:1799 deaths Category:Qing Dynasty emperors Category:18th-century Chinese monarchs Category:Monarchs who abdicated