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Wikibombing refers to the perceived usage of standard Wikipedia processes to increase a particular article's ranking in search engine results so as to present a biased view of the keyword for the article.
The term was coined as a portmanteau between Wiki and google bomb in response to the significant increase in size and improvement in terms of Wikipedia policies of the article named Campaign for "santorum" neologism.
Creating or expanding articles, linking them with templates, and nominating them for DYK are standard Wikipedia practices. As Wikipedia has become a semi-authoritative source for information, search engines have prioritized it near the top for appropriate keywords. In the case of controversial topics these actions could be construed to improve Wikipedia's ranking for this subject.
For the Article Improvers
Such actions, undertaken unilaterally, may leave the community unsure of your motivations. It's natural to want to link to articles that you've been working hard on, and editors may fall into the trap of promotion without realizing it. As you work on the article, be aware of community concerns about the article and work with and toward consensus one of the Five Pillars of Wikipedia.
For opposition to the Article
When encountering the apparent promotion of a topic by another editor or editors, it is important to assume good faith. When dealing with a WikiBomb, discuss the apparent promotion with the involved editors and, if necessary, seek broad input on talk pages, noticeboards and WikiProjects.