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Harlech Castle

Edwardian castles were a range of fortifications built or improved during the reign of Edward I across Great Britain, Ireland and Gascony.


Growth of castles, approximate numbers etc.


Early reign[edit]

Reconstruction of Tower of London after Edward's work

Edward I became the king of England in 1272. Edward had extensive experience of warfare and sieges, having fought in Wales in 1257, led the six-month siege of Kenilworth Castle in 1266 and joined the crusade to North Africa in 1270.[1] He had seen numerous European fortifications, including the planned walled town and castle design at Aigues-Mortes.[2] On assuming the throne, one of Edward's first actions was to renovate and extend the royal fortress of the Tower of London.[2] Edward was also responsible for building a sequence of planned, usually walled, towns called bastides across Gascony as part of his attempt to strengthen his authority in the region.[3] Edward also authorised new planned towns to be built across England.[3]

Background. Use of castles. Previous civil war. Edward's role in seizing castles in Walesin 1264, the siege at Gloucester, and at Kenilworth.[4] Royal authority.

Work on the Tower of London. Gatehouses, etc.

One of Edward's first projects was the Tower of London, the traditional seat of royal power in the city.[5] Edward's father, Henry III, had begun work on improving the castle but this had ground to a halt, leaving the castle in considerable disrepair.[6] Edward began work in May 1275, building a huge moat, two new gatehouses and completing the concentric defences begun by his father.[7]

Leeds Castle (Emery, gloriette etc.)

Invasion of Wales[edit]

Harlech gatehouse

Invasion of Wales. Edward had been involved in Wales since 1254; he had acquired the earldom of Chester by marriage, and revolt followed in 1256.[8] The 1260s saw the Welsh princes take advantage of the English civil war to make territorial gains, ratified by the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267.[9] Tensions grew between Edward and Llywelyn the Last after 1274 and in 1277 Edward intervened in North Wales.[10] Terms were agreed by the end of the year.[11] By 1282, tensions had grown once again and at Easter 1282, Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd ap Gruffydd attacked Hawarden Castle, beginning a new war.[12] Edward mobilised a huge army and invaded again, this time crushing the Welsh princes and establishing English rule across the region.[13] A rebellion followed between 1294-95, which was again put down by force.[14]

Castles formed a key part of Edward's strategy in North Wales: during 1277 he built or refortified Aberystwyth and Builth in mid-Wales and Flint and Rhuddlan in North Wales; 1282-83 saw the foundation of Caernarfon, Conwy and Harlech, with Beaumaris following in response to the 1294 revolt.[15] In comparison to the existing castles built by the Welsh princes, they were mostly huge, complex fortifications and had several functions. They had military value, being hard to attack without substantial siege equipment and resources; almost all could be supplied by sea, adding to their ability to resist long Welsh sieges.[16] Edward's castles from 1282 onwards were also part of his attempt to colonise North Wales with English settlers; a number of new, planned towns were established, and the new castles were typically designed to be used alongside the fortified town walls as part of an integrated defence.[17] Many of the new castles were also highly symbolic, using their locations and architecture to send a clear message about Edward's rule over the region.[18] But they were also often intended as royal residences for use when Edward was visiting, including lavish quarters, lawns and gardens.[19]

The cost of the wars in Scotland meant that further work on the Welsh castles slowed to a crawl.[20] Several left unfinished as a result.

Marcher lords. Caerphilly.

Scottish campaigns[edit]

Kildrummy Castle, possibly with Edwardian origins

The latter part of Edward's reign was dominated by his invasion of Scotland and his subsequent attempts to pacify the country.[21] Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, followed by his young daughter Margaret in 1290, creating a succession crisis.[22] Edward backed John Balliol as the new king and used this relationship. to increase his own influence in Scotland.[23] The Scottish parliament responded by deposing John and allying themselves with France.[24] Edward intervened militarily in Scotland in 1296, but the invasion, despite its initial success, met with increasing resistance and more campaigns followed in 1298, 1300-04 and 1306-07.[25]

These wars were both expensive - costing up to £80,000 a year - and challenging operationally, with Edward having successes in the lowlands and summer months, but finding it hard to force his enemies to battle and keeping his gains during the winter seasons.[26] Edward built some new stone castles in Scotland during the war, commencing work on castles at Polmaise, Stirling and Tullibody, although it is uncertain if they were ever completed.[27] It is possible that he also carried out work in stone at Kildrummy Castle.[28]

The huge costs of the war, however, meant that Edward focused instead on constructing peles around existing Scottish castles.[29] Peles were earthwork and timber fortifications, often quite substantial, providing addition space around an older castle; peles were built at Edinburgh, Stirling, Linlithgow, Dumfries Castle and many others.[30] At Lochmaben, the pele was in an entirely new location, however, on the other side of the lake from the existing castle.[31] Some of the castles were captured by the Scots during the war. Selkirk Castle and its new pele, for example, was retaken in 1303; in other cases, such as at the Lochmaben pele, attacks were successfully resisted in 1301.[32]

Other possessions[edit]

Earl's chamber of Chepstow castle

Ireland was relatively peaceful during Edward's reign.[33] The collapse of two of the largest Anglo-Norman lordships, Meath and Leinster, meant that there were few local rivals to royal power.[34] Ireland remained closely connected to England however, through baronial marriages, influxes of royal administrators and travelling stone masons.[35] A paucity of resources and a lack of royal investment, however, meant that relatively few new castles were built.[36]

Edward also ruled Gascony as the Duke of Aquitaine, in the south of France.[37] Edward first visited in 1255, in 1273-74 and in 1286-89.[38] In 1279 convinced Philip III to transfer Agenais on the eastern borders of Gascony, and in 1286 the southern Saintonge.[39] Number of castles scattered across the territory, but the duchy lacked funding to improve them significantly.[40] Edward purchased Talmont and Tontoulon for around £330 and £500 respectively, and bought shares - an arrangmenet called paréage - in Senders and Torrebren.[41] From 1274, Edward also gave his seneschal free reign to built new bastides across the territory.[42] Invested significantly in Bonnegarde, an old motte and bailey castle, building new chambers and facilities for his stay in 1288-89.[43] The only new castle to be be built by Edward was Sauveterre-la-Lémance, in the east, built some time after 1279, probably in the late 1280s.[44]


Military design[edit]

Concentric design, Beamuaris

Edwardian castles, particularly those in North Wales, have been highly regarded by military historians. The castles varied in design but were typically characterised by powerful mural towers along the castle walls, with multiple, over-lapping firing points and large and extremely well defended barbicans.[45] Variation. Edward - on crusade, 1270-74.[46]

Concentric approach. "scientific fortifications". the concentric approach, involving exterior walls guarded with towers, and potentially supported by further, concentric layered defenses. Concentric approach at the Tower of London, including new towers, such as Beauchamp Tower, and innovative brick cores to the walls.[47] The North Wales sites included concentric defences, in which inner castle walls were completely enclosed within outer defences, with the height and angles calculated to allow both rings of walls to fire on external attackers, as seen at Harlech and Beaumaris.[48]

Narrow sites such as Conwy were instead built on tall rock formations, making any attack difficult.[49] Arrowslits and barbicans were incorporated into the defences, with multiple firing platforms built into the walls to allow the massed use of archers.[50] These were further defended in some cases by gatehouses with characteristic twin towers, which replaced the older keeps as a stronghold for defence.[51] The result at castles such as Framlingham often dispensed with a central keep altogther. Military factors may well have driven this development: R. Brown, for example, suggests that designs with a separate keep and bailey system inherently lacked a co-ordinated and combined defensive system, and that once bailey walls were sufficiently sophisticated a keep became militarily unnecessary.[52]

As a consequence, for much of the 20th century, historians regarded these sites as the evolutionary pinnacle of scientific military architecture. D. J. Cathcart King described them as the "zenith of English castle-building", and Sidney Toy considered them to be "some of the most powerful castles of any age or country".[53] Historian R. Allen Brown has described these as "amongst the finest achievements of medieval military architecture [in England and Wales]".[54]

Despite these strengths, the castles and town walls are now recognised to have also had military flaws. The castles were much larger than they needed to be in order to protect against Welsh attack, but the sheer scale of them meant that the Crown could not afford to maintain or garrison them properly.[55] The fortifications were in some regards simply too big, and as historian Michael Prestwich notes, smaller projects might actually have been more effective.[55] Rather than the sites being scientifically designed, historian Richard Morris suggested that "the impression is firmly given of an elite group of men-of-war, long-standing comrades in arms of the king, indulging in an orgy of military architectural expression on an almost unlimited budget".[56]

Architectural features[edit]

Chepstow Castle (Marten's Tower, with "ear turret" and sculpture.

When built, the castles would have been more colourful than today, in keeping with the fashions of the 13th century.[57] At Conwy, for example, the walls were white-washed with a lime render, and the putlog holes in the walls may have been used to display painted shields called targes from the walls.[58]

Ear-turrets. Sculpture on battlements.

Edwardian castles often featured substantial gatehouses, variously termed Tonbridge-style gatehouses, or gatehouse keeps.[59] The gatehouses had their origin in Henry III's work at the Tower of London, picked up and adapted by the powerful de Clare family at Tonbridge and Caerphilly during the 1250s and 1260s, and highly popular by Edward's reign.[60] These gatehouses were characterised by large, twin towers flanking each side of a large, arched entrance, usually with multiple portcullises, and potentially designed to be defended from both attacks within and without the main castle.[61] At Tower of London, the new land gate had two of these, built to a regular design; the new water gate was a back-to-front Tonbridge design.[62] The gatehouse at Kildrummy Castle may have been built by Master James, and closely resembles that at Harlech.[63]

Barbicans. As at Tower of London's land gate.[64] Goodrich castle.


Reconstruction of Conwy castle and town walls

The Edwardian castles in North Wales have strong architectural links to castles and town walls built in the kingdom of Savoy in North Italy during the same period.[65] Similarities include the semi-circular door arches, window styles, corbelled towers, the positioning of putlog holes, tall circular towers and crenellations with pinnacles found in Edward's works in North Wales; in Savoy these can be seen in constructions such as the defences of Saillon, La Bâtiaz and Chillon Castles.[66] Many of these similarities have been considered to be the result of the influence of the Savoy architect Master James of St George, employed by Edward I, and who brought other Savoyard architects with him to North Wales.[67] Early 21st-century research, however, suggested that Master James' role, and Savoyard influence more generally, may have been overstated and that the similarity in architectural details may be the result of the wider role played by Savoy craftsmen and engineers on the projects, rather than that of a single individual.[68]

Castles in Scotland

Gascon castles much more basic, largely unimproved older fortifications: "archaic and underwhelming affairs", to quote historian Marc Moris.[69] When Miramont-Sensacq was refortified, for example, the work was done in wood rather than stone.[70]

Political symbolism[edit]

Imperial banding

In addition to any military function, many Edwardian castles were designed to make sophisticated symbolic statements about their owners. In North Wales, Edward's castles made a clear, imperial statement about the king's intentions to rule the region on a permanent basis.[71] The castles were typically located on sites that had been associated with the former Welsh princes and in some cases reused parts of their former residences in the new English constructions.[72] Caernarfon, in particular, stands out for its use of banded, coloured stone in the walls, statues of eagles and its polygonal, rather than round, towers. There has been extensive academic debate over the interpretation of these features.[73] Historian Arnold Taylor argued that the design of the castle was a representation of the Walls of Constantinople. The conscious use of imagery from the Byzantine Roman Empire was therefore an assertion of authority by Edward I. Recent work by historian Abigail Wheatley suggests that the design of Caernarfon was indeed an assertion of Edward's authority, but that it drew on imagery from Roman sites in Britain with the intent of creating an allusion of Arthurian legitimacy for the king.[74][nb 1]

Earl of Cornwall, Restormel and circular motte designs

Symbolism was present in more modest properties as well. English castles in the late 13th century were prestigious buildings, closely linked to the ruling elite. During Edward's reign, their architectural features began to be used in smaller projects, making, as historian John Goodall describes, "the prestige of the castle more widely accessible".[76] Crenellations and towers began to be added to manor houses, complementing halls built to contrast with the taller structures, as in elite castles.[77] Stokesay Castle in Shropshire is a classic example of this trend, constructed with a crenellated stone tower complete with arrowslits and moat, probably designed to resemble the gatehouses found in North Wales.[78] The tower would originally probably banded in a similar way to Caernarfon Castle.[79] Despite Stokesay being a primarily domestic building with few practical defences -even the tower had large windows - and it was it was deliberately designed to emulate Edward's royal castles.[80]

Tower and hall at Stokesay

Some of the builders concerned were royal servants, others were merchants.[81] Many sought formal permission from the king to carry out the works, a process which 19th century historians later termed "licenses to crenellate". Under a license, the Crown gave authority for the construction of a crenellated building, sometimes with additional features such as moats. During the reign of Edward, these licenses were not necessarily a legal permission to built a castle in the modern sense of the term, but rather an important mark of social status. Someone who not only had the resources to construct a castle, but also had the political connections to acquire a license to crenelate was an important and influential figure; licenses to crenelate were status symbols in their own right.

Traditionally, these growth of these castles have been felt by academics to mark a decline in English castle building. XXX and XXX query whether, given their lack of serious defences, they should be considered "real" castles. Late 20th and early 21st century academics have questioned these assumptions. Robert Liddiard notes that, in this period, it was not incongruous to incorporate "some of the most sophsiticated military technology of the age" into a domestic dwelling; these were castles in the sense that they deployed a "military style" in their architecture.[82]



Rhuddlan Castle

Office of King's Works.

Tower of London - £21,000, the most expensive castle under Edward.[83] Work overseen by Robert of Beverely, the leading royal mason until 1285.[84]

James of Saint George, a famous architect and engineer from Savoy, was probably responsible for the bulk of the construction work across the region.[85] The castles were extremely costly to build and required labourers, masons, carpenters, diggers, and building resources to be gathered by local sheriffs from across England, mustered at Chester and Bristol, before being sent on to North Wales in the spring, returning home each winter.[86] The number of workers involved placed a significant drain on the country's national labour force.[87] The total financial cost cannot be calculated with certainty, but estimates suggest that Edward's castle building program cost at least £80,000 – four times the total royal expenditure on castles between 1154 and 1189.[88]

Huge resources expended. Flint and Rhuddlan: almost 3,000 workmen deployed, including 1845 ditchdiggers, 320 masons, 790 woodworkers.[89] In total, at least around £80,000 spent on Welsh castles.[90] Even then, not enough, with complaints of lack of money to pay the work force.[91] Workforce brought in seasonally, gathered at Chester and Bristol in the spring, returned over winter; represented a drain on national workforce.[92]

James sent from North Wales to east Gascony in 1287-89, probably to support the work at Sauveterre-la-Lémance.[93]

James was also involved in the Scottish wars, being deployed in 1302 to construct part of the Linlithgow fortifications.[94] although still expensive, the castle building operations in Scotland were much smaller than those in Wales.[95] The first pele at Linlithgow required a team of 180 workers; the second required 16 stonemasons and their assistants, 40 carpenters, 240 ditch diggers, supported by 100 soldiers working as labourers, at a total cost of £900.[96] Dunfermline's pele required 260 workers, and the Lochmaben defences were built by a team of of only 60 workers.[97]

St Briavels

Ireland - English stone imported, along with English stone masons.[98]

Baronial castles. Limited numbers built. (Pounds, p.150) Edward's policies towards the barons starved them of funds and he created no new earldoms - only the richest noble families could afford to build under these conditions.[99] Welsh borders.

The development of the baronial castles in England were affected by the economic changes during the period.[100] During the 13th and 14th centuries the average incomes of the English barons increased but wealth became concentrated in the hands of a smaller number of individuals, with a greater discrepancy in incomes.[100] At the same time the costs of maintaining and staffing a modern castle were increasing.[101] The result was that although there were around 400 castles in England in 1216, the number of castles continued to diminish over the coming years; even the wealthier barons were inclined to let some castles slide into disuse and to focus their resources on the remaining stock.[102] The castle-guard system faded into abeyance in England, being replaced by financial rents, although it continued in the Welsh Marches well into the 13th century and saw some limited use during Edward I's occupation of Scotland in the early 14th century.[103]

(A number of royal castles, from the 12th century onwards, formed an essential network of royal storehouses in the 13th century for a wide range of goods including food, drink, weapons, armour and raw materials.[104] Castles such as Southampton, Winchester, Bristol and the Tower of London were used to import, store and distribute royal wines.[104] The English royal castles also became used as gaols – the Assize of Clarendon in 1166 insisted that royal sheriffs establish their own gaols and, in the coming years, county gaols were placed in all the shrieval royal castles.[105] Conditions in these gaols were poor and claims of poor treatment and starvation were common; Northampton Castle appears to have seen some of the worst abuses.[105]

Role of constables. (Pounds, p.88.)

Household life[edit]

A reconstruction of Edward I's chambers at the Tower of London in England

In the middle of the 13th century Henry III began to redesign his favourite castles, including Winchester and Windsor, building larger halls, grander chapels, installing glass windows and decorating the palaces with painted walls and furniture.[106] This marked the beginning of a trend towards the development of grand castles designed for elaborate, elite living. Life in earlier keeps had been focused around a single great hall, with privacy for the owner's family provided by using an upper floor for their own living accommodation. By the 14th century nobles were travelling less, bringing much larger households with them when they did travel and entertaining visitors with equally large retinues.[107] Castles such as Goodrich were redesigned in the 1320s to provide greater residential privacy and comfort for the ruling family, whilst retaining strong defensive features and a capacity to hold over 130 residents at the castle.[108] Royal castles such as Beaumaris, although designed with defence in mind, were designed to hold up to eleven different households at any one time.[109]

Great Hall remained important, but trend was to divide the castle between the service elements - servants, cooking areas, etc. - and the lord and his family.[110] At least an inner and outer chamber, and important household members and guests would expect their own chambers or suites.[111]

Each of the castles was designed to be suitable to support the royal court, should it visit. In the late 13th century, this meant having several sets of private chambers, discreet service facilities and security arrangements, producing, in effect, a royal palace in miniature.[112] Some of these survive largely intact; Conwy, for example, has what historian Jeremy Ashbee considers to be the "best preserved suite of medieval private royal chambers in England and Wales", including a private garden for the use of the queen.[113] The castles were intended to be used by the king when in the region and included extensive high-status accommodation.[114]

Leeds Castle, with the lake created under Edward

English castles became increasingly comfortable. Their interiors were often painted and decorated with tapestries, which would be transported from castle to castle as nobles travelled around the country.[115] There were an increasing number of garderobes built inside castles, whilst in the wealthier castles the floors could be tiled and the windows furnished with Sussex Weald glass, allowing the introduction of window seats for reading.[116] Food could be transported to castles across relatively long distances; fish was brought to Okehampton Castle from the sea some 25 miles (40 km) away, for example.[117] Venison remained the most heavily consumed food in most castles, particularly those surrounded by extensive parks or forests such as Barnard Castle, while prime cuts of venison were imported to those castles that lacked hunting grounds, such as Launceston.[118]

By the late 13th century some castles were built within carefully "designed landscapes", sometimes drawing a distinction between an inner core of a herber, a small enclosed garden complete with orchards and small ponds, and an outer region with larger ponds and high status buildings such as "religious buildings, rabbit warrens, mills and settlements", potentially set within a park.[119] A gloriette, or a suite of small rooms, might be built within the castle to allow the result to be properly appreciated, or a viewing point constructed outside.[120] At Leeds Castle the redesigned castle of the 1280s was placed within a large water garden.[121] The wider parklands and forests were increasingly managed and the proportion of the smaller fallow deer consumed by castle inhabitants in England increased as a result.[118])


Scottish works largely destroyed.[122]

World Heritage site.

The design influenced subsequent conversions at Berkeley and by the time that Bolton Castle was being built, in the 1380s, it was designed to hold up to eight different noble households, each with their own facilities.[123]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ During the 13th century, King Arthur was believed to have been of Roman origin.[75]


  1. ^ Prestwich 2010, pp. 1–5
  2. ^ a b Prestwich 2010, p. 4
  3. ^ a b Prestwich 2010, p. 5
  4. ^ Prestwich, p.3.
  5. ^ Goodall, p.201.
  6. ^ Goodall, p.200.
  7. ^ Goodal, pp.200-202.
  8. ^ Prestwich, p.1.
  9. ^ Prestwich, p.1.
  10. ^ Prestwich, p.1.
  11. ^ Prestwich, p.2.
  12. ^ Prestwich, p.2.
  13. ^ Prestwich, pp.2-3.
  14. ^ Prestwich, p.3.
  15. ^ Prestwich, p.3; Brown (1962), p.73.
  16. ^ NEEDED.
  17. ^ Brown (1962), p.73; Prestwich, p.5.
  18. ^ Davies, C&C, p.360.
  19. ^ Prestwich, p.6.
  20. ^ Taylor 2004, p. 8; Prestwich 2003, p. 25
  21. ^ Tabraham, p.183.
  22. ^ Tabraham, p.183.
  23. ^ Tabraham, pp.183-155.
  24. ^ Tabraham, p.185.
  25. ^ Tabraham, p.185.
  26. ^ Tabraham, pp.185-186.
  27. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  28. ^ Tabraham, pp.190-191.
  29. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  30. ^ Tabraham, pp.186-187.
  31. ^ Tabraham, p.188.
  32. ^ Tabraham, pp.186-188.
  33. ^ McNeill, p.81.
  34. ^ McNeill, p.81.
  35. ^ McNeill, p.82.
  36. ^ McNeill, p.83.
  37. ^ Morris, p.166.
  38. ^ Morris, pp.167, 169, 171.
  39. ^ Morris, p.166.
  40. ^ Morris, p.169.
  41. ^ Morris, p.169.
  42. ^ Morris, p.170.
  43. ^ Morris, p.171.
  44. ^ Morris, pp.172-173.
  45. ^ Brown (1962), pp.73–4.
  46. ^ Prestwich, p.1.
  47. ^ Goodall, p.202.
  48. ^ King 1991, pp. 110, 115; Creighton & Higham 2003, p. 27
  49. ^ Toy 1985, p. 157
  50. ^ Toy 1985, p. 159
  51. ^ King 1991, pp. 116–117; Toy 1985, p. 153
  52. ^ Brown, pp.62, 72.
  53. ^ Cite error: The named reference King_1991_107 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  54. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown1962P73 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  55. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Prestwich2010P7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  56. ^ Morris 1998, pp. 63–81 cited Liddiard 2005, p. 55
  57. ^ Ashbee 2007, pp. 23–24
  58. ^ Ashbee 2007, p. 23
  59. ^ Goodall, p.191; Brown, p.69; King, pp.118-119.
  60. ^ Goodall, pp.191-192.
  61. ^ Pettifer (2000b), p.320; Brown, p.69; Goodall, p.192.
  62. ^ Goodall, p.201.
  63. ^ Tabraham, pp.190-191.
  64. ^ Goodall, p.201.
  65. ^ Cite error: The named reference Taylor2007P29 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  66. ^ Coldstream 2010, pp. 38–39
  67. ^ Coldstream 2010, pp. 39–40
  68. ^ Coldstream 2010, pp. 37, 43
  69. ^ Morris, p.169.
  70. ^ Morris, p.169.
  71. ^ Prestwich 2010, p. 6
  72. ^ Taylor 2007, p. 5;Liddiard 2005, p. 55; Wheatley 2010, pp. 129–130
  73. ^ Wheatley 2010, p. 129
  74. ^ Wheatley 2010, p. 136
  75. ^ Thompson 1991, p. 156; Wheatley 2010, p. 137
  76. ^ Goodall, p.232.
  77. ^ Goodall, pp.232-234.
  78. ^ Liddiard 2005, pp.45-46.
  79. ^ Liddiard 2005, p.46.
  80. ^ Liddiard 2005, pp.45-46.
  81. ^ Goodall, pp.232-233.
  82. ^ Liddiard 2005, p.46.
  83. ^ Goodall, p.201.
  84. ^ Goodall, p.201.
  85. ^ Brown (1962), p.256; Taylor, pp.10–11.
  86. ^ Pounds (1994), pp.174, 177; Taylor, p.11.
  87. ^ Pounds (1994), p.177.
  88. ^ Pounds (1994), p.176.
  89. ^ Pounds, p.169.
  90. ^ Pounds, p.176.
  91. ^ Pounds, p.177.
  92. ^ Pounds, p.177.
  93. ^ Morris, pp.172-173.
  94. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  95. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  96. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  97. ^ Tabraham, pp.187-188.
  98. ^ McNeill, pp.82-83.
  99. ^ Goodall, p.200.
  100. ^ a b Pounds (1994), pp.147–8.
  101. ^ Pounds (1994), p.148.
  102. ^ Pounds (1994), pp.104, 149; Hulme, p.213.
  103. ^ Prestwich, p.194.
  104. ^ a b Pounds (1994), p.101.
  105. ^ a b Pounds (1994), p.99.
  106. ^ Brown (1962), pp.178–180.
  107. ^ Liddiard (2005), p.60.
  108. ^ Emery (2006), p.32; Liddiard (2005), p.60.
  109. ^ Liddiard (2005), p.56.
  110. ^ McNeill, p.83.
  111. ^ McNeill, p.83.
  112. ^ Brears 2010, p. 86
  113. ^ Ashbee 2007, pp. 34–35
  114. ^ Brown (1962), p.74.
  115. ^ Danziger and Gillingham, p.18.
  116. ^ Danziger and Gillingham, pp.18–9.
  117. ^ Creighton (2005), p.16.
  118. ^ a b Creighton (2005), p.19.
  119. ^ Creighton (2005), pp.97–8.
  120. ^ Creighton (2005), p.98.
  121. ^ Creighton (2050), pp.98–9.
  122. ^ Tabraham, p.186.
  123. ^ Creighton and Higham, p.20.


  • Goodall
  • Morris, Gascony, in Williams and Kenyon
  • Prestwich, edward and wales, in Williams and Kenyon
  • Pounds
  • Tabraham, Scotland, in Williams and Kenyon