User:Howardrford/Europe

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The following table lists records of extreme temperature in territories of Europe. The elevation in metres above sea level of locations reporting record minimum temperatures is given where relevant.


Territory Lowest Temperature Highest Temperature
T°C Place Elev. (m) Date T °C Place Date
Europe -58.1 Ust’-Shchuger  Russia 85 31 December 1978 48.5 Catenanuova  Italy 10 August 1999
 Albania -26.8 Sheqeras [1][2][3] 800 31 December 1941 43.9 Kuçovë [4][5] 18 July 1973
 Andorra -27.3 Grau Roig [6][7] 2120 9 January 1985 37.9 Roc Saint Pere (Andorra la Vella) [8][9] 18 August 2012
 Austria -36.6 Zwettl Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) state [10][11] 520 11 February 1929 40.5 Bad Deutsch-Altenburg Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) state [10] 8 August 2013
 Azores (Port.) -3.5 Chã das Lagoinhas Terceira Island [12][13] 785 2 January 1973 32.1 Pico Airport (Madalena) Pico Island [12][14] 7 September 1985
 Belarus -42.2 Slavnoye Vitsebsk province [15] 200 17 January 1940 38.9 Homyel’ (Gomel) Homyel’ province [16] 8 August 2010
 Belgium -30.1 Rochefort Namur province [17] 195 20 January 1940 38.7 Haacht Vlaams-Brabant (Flemish Brabant) province [18][19] 27 June 1947
 Bosnia and Herzegovina -34.6 Sokolac [20][21] 870 13 January 1985 43.1 Mostar [22][23] 24 August 2007
 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina -32.0 Visoko [24][21] 440 25 January 1963 43.1 Mostar [22][23] 24 August 2007
Bosnia and Herzegovina District of Brčko -25.0 Brčko [20] 14 January 1985 42.0 Brčko [25] 14 August 1957
 Republic of Srpska -34.6 Sokolac [20] 870 13 January 1985 43.0 Bijeljina [26][27] 25 August 2007
 Bulgaria -38.3 Tran (Trun) Pernik province [28][29] 705 7 January 1947 45.0 Plovdiv Airport (Krumovo) Plovdiv province [30][31] 5 July 2000
 Croatia -34.6 Gračac [32][33] 560 13 January 2003 42.8 Ploče [34] 5 August 1981
 Czech Republic -42.2 Litvínovice Jihočeský (South Bohemian) region [35] 380 11 February 1929 40.4 Dobřichovice Středočeský (Central Bohemia) region [35] 20 August 2012
 Denmark -31.2 Hørsted Thy district [36] 8 January 1982 36.4 Holstebro [36] 10 August 1975
 Estonia -43.5 Jõgeva [37] 17 January 1940 35.6 Võru [37] 11 August 1992
 Faroe Islands (Den.) -13.5 Tórshavn [38] 14 January 1918 26.3 Vágar Airport [39] 17 July 2003
 Finland -51.5 Pokka Kittilä municipality, Lappi region (Lapland) [40] 270 28 January 1999 37.2 Joensuu Airport Liperi municipality [40] 29 July 2010
 France -41.0 Mouthe Doubs department [41][42] 1020 17 January 1985 44.1 Conqueyrac and Saint-Christol-lès-Alès Gard department [43][44] 12 August 2003
 Germany -37.8 Hüll near Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm Bayern (Bavaria) state [45][46] 510 12 February 1929 40.3 Perl-Nennig Saarland state [47][48] 8 August 2003
Kitzingen Bayern (Bavaria) state [49] 5 July 2015 and 7 August 2015
 Gibraltar (UK) -2.9 South Bastion [50] 3 February 1907 40.6 North Front [51] 5 July 1994
 Greece -27.8 Ptolemaïda Western Macedonia region [52][53] 590 27 January 1963 48.0 Elevsís (Elefsina) Attica region and Tatoi Airport Attica region [52][54] 10 July 1977
 Guernsey (UK) -9.0 Alderney [55][56][57] 13 January 1987 35.0 Rocquaine (La Lague) Guernsey [58] 5 August 2003
Alderney [55][56] 19 July 2016
 Hungary -35 Miskolctapolca [59][60] 250 16 February 1940 41.9 Kiskunhalas [59] 20 July 2007
 Iceland -38 Grímsstaðir á Fjöllum and Möðrudalur [61][38][62] 385; 510 22 January 1918 30.5 Teigarhorn [63] 22 June 1939
 Ireland -19.1 Markree Castle, Collooney County Sligo [64][65] 16 January 1881 33.3 Kilkenny Castle County Kilkenny [64][66] 26 June 1887
 Isle of Man (UK) -11.7 Douglas [67] 9 February and 12 February 1895 28.9 Ronaldsway Airport [68] 12 July 1983
 Italy -38 Livigno Sondrio province [69][70] 1815 10 February 1956 48.5 Catenanuova Enna province, Sicilia (Sicily) [71] 10 August 1999
 Jersey (UK) -10.9 Jersey Airport [72][73] 20 January 1963 36.0 Saint Saviour (Maison St Louis Observatory) [74] 9 August 2003
 Kosovo (Serbia) -32.5 Gnjilane (Gjilani) [75][76] 520 25 January 1963 42.0 Prizren [77] 24 July 2007
 Latvia -43.2 Daugavpils [78][79] 105 8 February 1956 36.5 Rucava [80][81] 4 August 2014
 Liechtenstein -30 Malbun [82][83] 1600 January 1987 37.4 Ruggell [84] 13 August 2003
 Lithuania -42.9 Utena [85] 110 1 February 1956 37.5 Zarasai [85] 30 July 1994
 Luxembourg -24.6 Wiltz [86][87] 360 27 January 1942 39.9 Remich [88][89] 8 August 2003
 Macedonia -31.5 Berovo [90] 825 27 January 1954 45.7 Demir Kapija [77] 24 July 2007
 Malta -1.7 Ta' Qali [91][92] 110 1 February 1962 43.8 Luqa [93][94] 9 August 1999
 Moldova -35.5 Brătuşeni [95] 250 20 January 1963 42.4 Făleşti [95] 7 August 2012
 Transnistria -32.8 Camenca [96] 155 20 January 1963 41.9 Slobozia (Slobodzya) [77] 21 July 2007
 Monaco -5.2 Jardin Exotique [97] 140 10 February 1986 34.5 Jardin Exotique [98][99] 20 August 2009
 Montenegro -32 Rožaje [100] 1110 13 January 1985 44.8 Podgorica [51] 24 August 2007
Danilovgrad [101] 7 August 2012
 Netherlands -27.4 Winterswijk [102] 27 January 1942 38.6 Warnsveld [102] 23 August 1944
 Norway -51.4 Karasjok (Kárášjohka) Finnmark county [36] 200 1 January 1886 35.6 Nesbyen Buskerud county [36] 20 June 1970
 Poland -40.6 Żywiec Śląskie (Silesia) province [103][104] 375 10 February 1929 40.2 Prószków Opole province [103][105] 29 July 1921
 Portugal -16.0 Miranda do Douro Bragança district [106] 580 16 January 1945 47.4 Amareleja Beja district [107][108] 1 August 2003
Penhas da Saúde Castelo Branco district [109] 1355 4 February 1954 and 12 February 1956
 Romania -38.5 Bod Braşov county [110] 495 24 January 1942 44.5 Râmnicelu (Ion Sion Farm) Brăila county [110] 10 August 1951
 Russia (European) -58.1 Ust’-Shchuger Komi Republic [111] 85 31 December 1978 45.4 Utta Republic of Kalmykiya [112] 12 July 2010
 San Marino -18 Serravalle [113][114] 250 12 January 1985 39.9 San Marino [115] 29 July 1983
 Serbia -39.5 Karajukića Bunari Zlatibor district [116] 1130 13 January 1985 44.9 Smederevska Palanka Podunavlje district [77] 24 July 2007
 Slovakia -41.0 Vígľaš-Pstruša Banská Bystrica region [117] 345 11 February 1929 40.3 Hurbanovo Nitra region [117] 20 July 2007
 Slovenia -34.5 Babno Polje [118][119] 755 15 February 1956, 16 February 1956 and 13 January 1968 40.8 Cerklje ob Krki Airport [118] 8 August 2013
 Spain -30.0 Calamocha Teruel province [120][121] 1020 17 December 1963 47.3 Montoro Córdoba province [122][123] 13 July 2017
 Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Nor.) -49.4 Grønfjorden Spitsbergen [124] 28 March 1917 23.6 Herwighamna Bjørnøya (Bear Island) [124] 22 June 1953
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) -31.6 Herwighamna [125] 18 March 1927 23.6 Herwighamna [124] 22 June 1953
Jan Mayen -30.6 Nordlaguna (Maria Muschbukta) [126][127] 30 December 1882 18.1 Nordlaguna (Gamle Metten) [125][126] 21 June 1953
Svalbard -49.4 Grønfjorden Spitsbergen [124] 28 March 1917 21.3 Svalbard Airport (Longyear) Spitsbergen [124] 16 July 1979
 Sweden -52.6 Vuoggatjålme Norrbotten county [36][128] 510 2 February 1966 38.0 Ultuna Uppsala county [36] 9 July 1933
Målilla Kalmar county [36] 29 June 1947
  Switzerland -42.5 La Brévine Neuchâtel canton [129][130] 1095 12 January 1987 39.7 Geneva Airport (Cointrin) [30][131] 7 July 2015
 Turkey (European) -24.2 Lüleburgaz Kırklareli province [132] 25 January 1942 44.1 Edirne Edirne province [133] 25 July 2007
 Ukraine -41.9 Luhans’k (Lugansk) [134] 115 8 January 1935 42.0 Luhans’k (Lugansk) [134] 12 August 2010
 United Kingdom -27.2 Braemar Scotland [135] 320 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982 38.5 Brogdale (near Faversham) England [135][136] 10 August 2003
Altnaharra Scotland [135] 250 30 December 1995
 England -26.1 Edgmond Shropshire [135][137][138] 65 10 January 1982 38.5 Brogdale (near Faversham) Kent [135][136] 10 August 2003
 Northern Ireland -18.7 Castlederg County Fermanagh [135] 95 23 December 2010 [139] 30.8 Knockarevan County Fermanagh [135] 30 June 1976
Shaw’s Bridge County Antrim [135] 12 July 1983
 Scotland -27.2 Braemar Aberdeenshire [135] 320 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982 32.9 Greycrook Scottish Borders [135] 9 August 2003
Altnaharra Highland [135] 250 30 December 1995
 Wales -23.3 Rhayader Powys [135] 300 21 January 1940 35.2 Hawarden Bridge Flintshire [135] 2 August 1990
  Vatican City -6.0 Collegio Romano, Roma Italy (representative station) [140][141] 16 February 1956 40.7 Roma Macao (Ufficio Idrografico e Mariografico) Italy (representative station) [142][143][144] 25 August 2007

Notes and References[edit]

  1. ^ Natural and Anthropogenic Risks in the Region of Korça-Devoll, by Ermira Jashiku, International Journal of Science, Volume 4, pp299-310. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  2. ^ The reference gives the actual date as 30-31 December 1941, but this is thought to be overnight between these dates.
  3. ^ -34.7°C reported from Bizë (date unknown) has not been confirmed as reliable.
  4. ^ Shumë nxehtë, shumë ftohtë, çfarë po ndodh?, Shekulli Online (in Albanian; Very hot, very cold, what's going on?). Retrieved 12 January 2017. Archived 12 December 2007.
  5. ^ 45.3°C reported from Lezhë county, possibly from the town of Kallmet on 23 August 1939 is probably unreliable. If the reading is correct, a more likely date would be 22 July 1939, when a temperature of 44.3°C was reported in Serbia.
  6. ^ Grau Roig, Web de Meteorologia del Govern d’Andorra (in Andorran). Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  7. ^ Temperatures below -30°C may have been recorded in February 1956, while -23.0°C was recorded at Ransol on 11 February 1956.
  8. ^ Roc St. Pere, Web de Meteorologia del Govern d’Andorra (in Andorran). Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  9. ^ 38.5°C reported from Andorra la Vella on 16 July 2005 is probably unreliable as the nearby station of Roc Saint Pere reported only 35.3°C on this day.
  10. ^ a b Newsletter Herbst/Winter 2013, Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) (in German; Newsletter Autumn / Winter 2013). Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  11. ^ -52.6°C was recorded in a sinkhole (doline) at Grünloch, elevation 1270 m, near Lunz Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) state between 19 February and 4 March 1932. More recently, -47.1°C was recorded in the doline on 25 December 2003. -37.4°C was recorded at high elevation on Sonnblick Salzburg state (elevation 3100 m) on 1 January 1905.
  12. ^ a b Climate Records – Azores Islandes (sic), Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA). Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  13. ^ The reference places Chã das Lagoinhas on São Miguel Island, but this is probably incorrect, and it may be uninhabited. 0.3°C has been reported from Cerrados Bezerros São Miguel Island (elevation 400 m) on 11 March 1973 and 20 February 1976.
  14. ^ Some sources give the temperature as 32.2°C.
  15. ^ Климат Беларуси — Январь, hmc.by (in Russian; Climate of Belarus - January). Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  16. ^ Метеоновости: 8 августа в Гомеле установлен новый национальный рекорд жары, pogoda.by (in Russian; Meteonews: August 8 in Gomel set a new national heat record). Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  17. ^ Algemeen klimaat België 1931-1940, Koninklijk Meteorologisch Instituut van België (in Dutch; General climate of Belgium 1931-1940). Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  18. ^ Algemeen klimaat België 1941-1950, Koninklijk Meteorologisch Instituut van België (in Dutch; General climate of Belgium 1941-1950). Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  19. ^ Higher temperatures, including 38.8°C reported from Uccle (Ukkel) Brussels Capital Region on the same day were not recorded under standard exposures.
  20. ^ a b c Meteorološki Godišnjak I Godina 1985, Hidrometeorološka Služba, Republički hidrometeorološki zavod (in Serbian; Meteorological Yearbook 1985). Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  21. ^ a b -43.5°C was recorded in a sinkhole (doline) at Veliko Polje, Igman-Mrazište (elevation 1215 m) on the same day.
  22. ^ a b Klimatološka Analiza 2007. Godine, Federalni Hidrometeorološki Zavod (FHMZ) (in Bosnian; Climatological Analysis 2007). Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  23. ^ a b 46.2°C reported from Mostar on 31 July 1901 is unreliable.
  24. ^ Station Visoko, Federal Hydrometeorological Institute (FHMZ). Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  25. ^ Meteorološki Godišnjak, Godina 1957, Hidrometeorološka Služba, NOAA Central Library, Climate Data Imaging Project (in Serbian; Meteorological Yearbook 1957). Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  26. ^ Климатологија, Републички хидрометеоролошки завод (Hydrometeorological Service, Republic of Srpska) (in Serbian; Climatology). Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  27. ^ The date is believed to be correct.
  28. ^ Студ от Арктика до Африка, 24 Часа.bg (in Bulgarian; Cold from the Arctic to Africa). Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  29. ^ Some sources give the date of this reading as 25 January 1947. Other sources report a similar temperature, (-38°C or -38.9°C) at Tran on 8 January or 25 January 1942. The given reading is believed to be the correct record.
  30. ^ a b Form to get daily summaries from synop reports, OGIMet. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  31. ^ This reading may not be reliable. 45.2°C reported from Sadovo Plovdiv province on 5 July 1916 is probably unreliable. The highest fully reliable temperature reported in Bulgaria is 44.6°C reported from Sandanski Blagoevgrad province on 24 July 2007.
  32. ^ Unatoč snježnoj apokalipsi, daleko smo od najvećih hladnoća: Rekorder je Gračac s -34,6°C, Index (in Croatian; Despite the snowy apocalypse, we are far from the coldest: the record is Gračac with -34.6 ° C). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  33. ^ -36.0°C reported from Gospić (elevation 565 m) on 4 February 1929, and -35.5°C reported from Čakovec (elevation 165 m) on the previous day were not recorded with reliable instruments.
  34. ^ Second, Third and Fourth National Communication of the Republic of Croatia under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  35. ^ a b Historie Meteorologie a Klimatologie v Česku, Czech Environmental Information Agency (in Czech; History of Meteorology And Climatology in the Czech Republic). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Skandinaviens vejrrekorder, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut (DMI) (in Danish; Scandinavian Weather Records). Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  37. ^ a b Climate, Estonica. Retrieved 5 July 2015
  38. ^ a b Meteorologisk årbog, 1918, Tímarit.is (National and University Library of Iceland) (in Danish; Meteorological Yearbook 1918). Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  39. ^ Annual Bulletin on the Climate in WMO Region VI- Europe and Middle East - 2003, WMO. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  40. ^ a b Lämpimin ja kylmin paikka vuosittain, Ilmatieteen Laitos (in Finnish; Weather Institute). Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  41. ^ Le climat et le froid à Mouthe, mouthe.fr (in French; Climate and Cold in Mouthe). Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  42. ^ Some sources give this reading as -41.2°C.
  43. ^ Temps du Mois, Août 2003, Gard, MeteoFrance (in French; Weather of the Month, August 2003, Gard). Retrieved 9 March 2007.
  44. ^ These readings may not have been recorded under standard conditions. 44.0°C was reported from Cugnaux (near Toulouse) Haute-Garonne department on 8 August 1923 and from Vallon-Pont-d'Arc Ardèche department on 6 July 1982 and 30 July 1983, but none of these readings is wholly reliable. The highest reliable temperature recorded in France is probably 43.5°C at Sollacaro Corse-du-Sud department (Corsica) on 23 July 2009.
  45. ^ Wetterrekorde, wetterdienst.de (in German; Weather Records). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  46. ^ -45.9°C was recorded in a sinkhole (doline) at Funtensee Bavaria state, elevation 1600 m, on 24 December 2001.
  47. ^ Der Rekordsommer 2003, Kalsruhe Institute of Technology (in German; The Record Summer of 2003). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  48. ^ This record is not officially recognised. It was originally reported as 40.8°C but later reduced to a reliable reading of 40.3°C.
  49. ^ Wetterrekorde, Wetterdienst.de (in German; Weather Records). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  50. ^ Colonial Office (1908). Gibraltar (1907). Colonial Reports-Annual (Number 563).
  51. ^ a b Global Summary of the Day (GSOD), National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  52. ^ a b Greek Weather Records, e-kairos.gr. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  53. ^ -35.3°C was recorded at an elevation of 1615 m in a sinkhole (doline) at Kechroti near Alonistaina Arkadía region on 17 January 2012.
  54. ^ These readings are possibly unreliable. The most reliable highest temperature recorded in Greece is 47.2°C reported from Trikala Thessaly region on 23 August 1958.
  55. ^ a b Biggest snow fall in 27 years, Alderney Journal. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  56. ^ a b Martin Crozier, Meteorological Office, Guernsey.
  57. ^ The lowest temperature recorded on the island of Guernsey is -8.4°C at Saint Peter Port on 5 January 1894.
  58. ^ Guernsey Airport Meteorological Observatory 2003 Annual Weather Report, Guernsey MetOffice. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  59. ^ a b Magyarország - hőmérsékleti szélsőértékei, Országos Meteorológiai Szolgálat (in Hungarian; Hungary – temperature extremes). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  60. ^ Location was formerly known as Görömbölytapolca, and today is often known as simply Tapolca.
  61. ^ Lægsti hiti á Íslandi - Grímsstaðir og Möðrudalur 21. janúar 1918, Veðurstofa Íslands (in Icelandic; The lowest temperature in Iceland - Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur on January 21, 1918). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  62. ^ The reference gives a temperature of -37.9°C at Grímsstaðir á Fjöllum on this day, but the reading is likely to be accurate to only two significant figures.
  63. ^ Hæsti hiti á Íslandi - Teigarhorn 22. júní 1939, Veðurstofa Íslands (in Icelandic, The highest temperature in Iceland - Teigarhorn June 22, 1939). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  64. ^ a b Temperature in Ireland, Met Éireann. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  65. ^ The lowest temperature recorded in Ireland since the beginning of the 20th century is -18.8°C at Lullymore (Loilgheach Mór) County Kildare on 2 January 1979.
  66. ^ The highest temperature recorded in Ireland since the beginning of the 20th century is 32.5°C at Boora County Offaly on 29 June 1976.
  67. ^ Meaden, G.T. and J.D.C. Webb (1984). Britain’s Lowest Temperatures: The County Records Corrections and Additions. Journal of Meteorology, 9, 84.
  68. ^ Meaden, G.T. and J.D.C. Webb (1984). Britain’s Highest Authentic Temperatures: The County Records. Journal of Meteorology, 9, 82-84.
  69. ^ I Paesi delle Alpi con Temperatura Minima Assoluta Inferiore a -30°C. Rassegna delle zone abitate più fredde nelle notti invernali, AQ Caput frigoris (in Italian; The Alps with Absolute Minimum Temperatures Less than -30 ° C. Review of the coldest inhabited areas on winter nights). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  70. ^ The date is believed to be correct. Temperatures lower than -40°C reported from various inhabited places in northern Italy are probably unreliable. On 10 February 2013 a temperature of -49.6°C was recorded in the Busa di Fradusta Nord sinkhole (doline), elevation 2610 m in the Dolomites mountain range, and -49.0°C in the nearby Busa Manna sinkhole, elevation 2545 m. -42°C was recorded at Gran Gioves (elevation 4050 m) on Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) on 30 January 1963.
  71. ^ Valori medi e estremi della temperature, Anno 1999, Agenzia Regionale per i Rifiuti e le Acque - Osservatorio delle Acque (in Italian, Average and extremes of temperature, 1999). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  72. ^ Britain’s Lowest Temperatures: The County Records (Journal of Meteorology, 1983, Vol. 8, No. 83), The International Journal of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  73. ^ The reference also states -11.0°C was reported from Jersey (actually Noirmont, more commonly known as Saint Aubin’s) on 18 January 1891. The original temperature reported in the UK Daily Weather Report was 22°F (-5.6°C). This was later corrected to 12°F (-11.1°C), but in comparing the reading with those in the region for the same day it is likely this lower temperature is unreliable and that the original temperature was actually correct.
  74. ^ Jersey Weather Records, States of Jersey Meteorological Department. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  75. ^ Meteorološki Godišnjak, Godina 1963, Hidrometeorološka Služba, NOAA Central Library, Climate Data Imaging Project (in Serbian; Meteorological Yearbook, 1963.) Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  76. ^ This record has been stated as -34.5°C and has been attributed to Ferizaj (Uroševac) both of which are incorrect.
  77. ^ a b c d State of the Climate in 2007, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, July 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  78. ^ Februāris, Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centrs (in Latvian; February). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  79. ^ Some sources report the date as 31 January 1956.
  80. ^ Temperature records broken in Latvia as heat wave pushes on, The Baltic Times. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  81. ^ Higher temperatures (36.6°C and 37.8°C) reported from Ventspils on 3 August and 4 August 2014 respectively are possibly reliable, however they appear too high compared to nearby readings on these days.
  82. ^ Malbun im Wandel der Zeit, words & events (in German; Malbun in the course of time). Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  83. ^ Information was interpolated from a graph combined with other known information. The date is believed to be correct. Vaduz has reported -26°C, probably in January 1940.
  84. ^ Simon Hölzl, Meteomedia.
  85. ^ a b Meteorologiniai rekordai Lietuvoje, Lietuvos Hidrometeorologijos Tarnyba (in Lithuanian; Meteorological Records of Lithuania). Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  86. ^ Cyrille Tailliez, Centre de Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann.
  87. ^ The date is believed to be correct, occurring in the month of January 1942. On 27 January, -23.4°C was reported 10 km west of Wiltz at Wardin Belgium.
  88. ^ Agrarmeteorologisches Messnetz Luxemburg, agrimeteo.lu (in German; "Agro-meteorological Network, Luxembourg"). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  89. ^ This reading was originally given as 40.5°C but later revised down. 40.3°C reported from Oberkorn on the same day is probably unreliable.
  90. ^ Колку студено може да биде во Република Македонија?, IGEO Portal (in Macedonian; "How cold can it be in the Republic of Macedonia?"). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  91. ^ Google Book Search, Google Books. (The European Union: a Brief Outline to this Union of 27 European States). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  92. ^ This is an unofficial reading. 1.2°C was reported from Valletta on 19 February 1895.
  93. ^ Country meta data: Malta, European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D). Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  94. ^ 44.4°C was reported unofficially from Nadur on the island of Gozo in the same month.
  95. ^ a b Recorduri meteorologice, Serviciului Hidrometeorologic de Stat (in Moldovan; Meteorological Records). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  96. ^ Riscul Valurilor de Frig şi Singularităţilor Termice Negative în Republica Moldova, Serviciului Hidrometeorologic de Stat (in Moldovan; Risk of cold waves and negative thermal singularities in the Republic of Moldova). Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  97. ^ The information is believed to be correct.
  98. ^ L’Environnement en Principauté de Monaco Recueil de Données 2013, Météorologie/Climat, Direction de l’Environnement, Monaco (in French; Environment in the Principality of Monaco 2013, Meteorology / Climate). Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  99. ^ The date is believed to be correct.
  100. ^ Bećiragić – Najhladnija zima u Rožajama od 1950.godine, Radio Rožaje (in Montenegrin; Bećiragić - The coldest winter in Rožaje since 1950). Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  101. ^ U Danilovgradu bilo 45°C, Najvesti.COM (in Montenegrin; 45 ° C in Danilovgrad). Retrieved 16 July 2017. Archived 4 March 2016.
  102. ^ a b Weer records Nederland en de wereld, Meteolink (in Dutch; Dutch and World Weather Records). Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  103. ^ a b Polskie Rekordy, Pogoda i Klimat (in Polish; Polish Records). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  104. ^ Lower unofficial readings from 1929 have been reported: -45°C at Rabka-Zdrój Małopolska (Lesser Poland) province on 10 February, -42°C at Dubie Małopolska (Lesser Poland) province on 2 February, -42°C at Olecko Warmia-Mazury (Warmia-Masuria) province on 9 February and -42°C at Czechowice-Dziedzice Śląskie (Silesia) province on 11 February. -41.0°C reported from Siedlce Mazovia province on 11 January 1940 is unreliable.
  105. ^ This reading is possibly unreliable as the maximum temperature on this day in Opole, 15km to the northwest only reached 38.0°C. The Prószków reading was taken at an Agricultural Research Station (Landwirtschaftlichen Akademie) in the town then known as Proskau and located in German Silesia. A more reliable reading would be 40.0°C reported on the same day at Zbiersk Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) province.
  106. ^ Informação Climática Janeiro 2007, Instituto de Meteorologia (in Portuguese; Climate Information January 2007). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  107. ^ Informação Climática Agosto 2007, Instituto de Meteorologia (in Portuguese; Climate Information August 2007). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  108. ^ 50.5°C reported from Riodades "Viseu district" on 4 August 1881 is unreliable.
  109. ^ Informação Climática Fevereiro 2007, Instituto de Meteorologia (in Portuguese; Climate Information February 2007). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  110. ^ a b Polii caldurii si ai frigului pe glob sunt ..., Meteo România (in Romanian; The poles of heat and cold in the world are ... ). Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  111. ^ WMO Region VI (Europe, Continent only): Lowest Temperature, Arizona State University - WMO. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  112. ^ В России установлен новый абсолютный температурный максимум, Погода и климат (in Russian; In Russia, a new absolute maximum temperature). Retrieved 22 July 2017. Archived 16 July 2011.
  113. ^ L’Olivo, Terra di San Marino, No 1, April 2005 (in Italian). Retrieved 19 June 2009. [dead link]
  114. ^ The location is believed to be correct.
  115. ^ San Marino temperature trentennio 1961-1990, Arpae Emilia-Romagna (in Italian; Thirty Years of San Marino Temperatures, 1961-1990). Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  116. ^ Temperature regime in Serbia, Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  117. ^ a b Historical Extremes, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  118. ^ a b Slovenski vremenski rekordi, Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (in Slovenian; Slovenian Weather Records). Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  119. ^ -49.1°C was recorded in a sinkhole (doline) at Mrzla Komna, elevation 1590 m, on 9 January 2009.
  120. ^ Resumen de extremos climatológicos en España, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMet) (in Spanish; Summary of Climatological Extremes in Spain). Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  121. ^ -32.0°C was recorded at the uninhabited lake Estany Gento (Lago Estangento) Lleida province (elevation 2120 m) on 2 February and 3 February 1956
  122. ^ Récord histórico de calor en España: 47.3 º C en Montoro (Córdoba), El periódico de la energía (in Spanish; Historical heat record in Spain: 47.3 º C in Montoro (Córdoba)). Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  123. ^ Higher temperatures, including 51°C on 30 July 1876, and 50.0°C on 4 August 1881, both reported from Sevilla (Seville) were not recorded under acceptable exposure conditions. 48°C reported from Totana Murcia province on 4 July 1994, and at Utrera Córdoba province and Montoro on 23 July 1995 are possibly reliable.
  124. ^ a b c d e The Norwegian Pilot, Volume 7, Sailing Directions, Svalbard And Jan Mayen, Norwegian Hydrographic Service. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  125. ^ a b Climate Explorer, The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  126. ^ a b The Climate of Jan Mayen, Vidar’s Jan Mayen Page. Retrieved 16 July 2017. Archived 31 October 2015.
  127. ^ The lowest temperature reported since the beginning of the 20th century is -28.4°C at Olonkinbyen on 23 February 1963.
  128. ^ -53.0°C was reported from a private thermometer (later checked by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)) at Malgovik (Laxbäcken) Västerbotten county on 13 December 1941, but the reading is not supported by any nearby readings or the prevailing meteorological conditions.
  129. ^ Records Suisse, MeteoSuisse (in French; Swiss Records). Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  130. ^ The temperature was originally recorded as -41.8°C but was later homogenised (corrected). -52.5°C was recorded in a sinkhole (doline) at Glattalp Schwyz canton, elevation 1850 m, on 7 February 1991.
  131. ^ 41.5°C was recorded at Grono Graubünden canton on 11 August 2003 in a non-standard enclosure at a site unrepresentative of the local area. Studies estimated the true maximum temperature on this occasion as “approximately 40 degrees”.
  132. ^ Yillik Meteoroloji Bülteni 1942, Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Umum Müdürlüğü (Turkish State Meteorological Service), NOAA Central Library, Climate Data Imaging Project (in Turkish; Yearly Meteorology Bulletin, 1942). Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  133. ^ Resmi İstatistikler, Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü (Turkish State Meteorological Service) (in Turkish; Official Statistics). Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  134. ^ a b Кліматичні рекорди, Центральна Геофізична Обсерваторія (Central Geophysical Observatory, Kyiv) (in Ukrainian; Climatic Records). Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  135. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m UK Climate - Extremes, UK Meteorological Office. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  136. ^ a b This reading may be too high due to over-exposure. 38.1°C was recorded at Gravesend Kent (also possibly over-exposed), and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Greater London, both in England on the same day.
  137. ^ Harper’s record temperature makes TV appearance, Harper Adams University. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  138. ^ This record is often quoted as occurring at Newport Shropshire.
  139. ^ The reference gives the date as 24 December 2010 but the minimum temperature was recorded the previous morning.
  140. ^ Analisi climatica delle temperature e delle precipitazioni a Roma, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (in Italian; Temperature and rainfall in Rome: a climatic analysis). Retrieved 23 July 2017. Archived 7 September 2013.
  141. ^ Temperatures of -6.0°C and lower reported in the 19th century from the same station are probably unreliable. -7.2°C reported from Roma Macao (Ufficio Idrografico e Mariografico) in Rome on 7 January 1985 is possibly reliable.
  142. ^ Termometro Aria, Agosto 2007, Ufficio Idrografico e Mareografico di Roma (in Italian; Air Temperature, August 2007). Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  143. ^ The date is believed to be correct.
  144. ^ 42.0°C reported from the Collegio Romano on 27 July 1841 is unreliable.