User:Insiriusdenial/Sandbox

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Exit Lists by State[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

Exit Number Exit Name Connecting Routes Misc.
1 Downtown New Haven CT 34 West
2 New Haven Hamilton St. Southbound only
3 New Haven Trumbull St.
4 New Haven State St.
5 New Haven US 5, State St. Northbound only
6 New Haven US 5, Willow St., Blatchley Ave.
7 Fair Haven Ferry St. Southbound only
8 North Branford CT 17, CT 80, Middletown Ave.
9 Montowese Ave.
10 Hamden, Cheshire, Mt. Carmel CT 40
11 North Haven CT 22 Northbound only
12 Washington Ave. US 5
13 Wallingford, North Haven US 5
14 Wallingford CT 150
15 Yalesville, Durham CT 68
16 Main St. Southbound only
17 East Main St. CT 15, to CT 66, I-691
18 CT 66 East, I-691 West
19 Baldwin Ave, Preston Ave. Southbound only
20 Country Club Rd., Middle Street
21 Cromwell, Berlin CT 372
22N New Britain CT 9 North Southbound only
22S Middletown, Old Saybrook CT 9 South Southbound only
22 New Britain, Middletown CT 9 Northbound only
23 West St., Rocky Hill CT 3
24 Rocky Hill, Wethersfield CT 99
25N Glastonbury CT 3 North Southbound only
25S Wethersfield CT 3 South Southbound only
25-26 Glastonbury, Old Wethersfield CT 3 Northbound only
26 Old Wethersfield Southbound only
27 Brainard, Airport Road Northbound only
28 Newington, Wethersfield CT 15 South, US 5 South
29 East Hartford, Boston US 5 North, CT 15 North, to I-84 Northbound only
29A Capitol Area
30 East Hartford, New London I-84 East Southbound only
31 State St. Southbound
32AB Trumbull St., Waterbury I-84 West
33 Jennings Rd.
34 North Main St., Windsor Ave. CT 159
35A Manchester I-291 East
35B Windsor, Bloomfield CT 218
36 Park Ave., Bloomfield CT 178
37 Bloomfield Ave., Windsor Center CT 305
38 Poquonock, Windsor CT 75
39 Kennedy Rd., Center St. Northbound only
40 Bradley International Airport CT 20
41 Kennedy Rd., Center St. Southbound only
42 Windsor Locks CT 159
44 East Windsor US 5 South
45 Warehouse Pt., Ellington CT 140
46 King St. US 5
47E Hazardville, Somers CT 190 East
47W Suffield CT 190 West
48 Elm St., Thompsonville CT 220
49 Enfield St., Longmeadow, MA. US 5

[1]

Massachusetts[edit]

Exit Number Location Road(s) Crossed Notes
1 Forest Park, Longmeadow US 5 South
2 Forest Park, East Longmeadow MA 83 Northbound only
3 Agawam US 5 North to MA 57, Columbus Ave.
4 Springfield MA 83, Main Street
5 Springfield Broad St.
6 Springfield Northbound only
7 Springfield Columbus Ave. Southbound only
8 Boston US 20 East, I-291
9 West Springfield US 20 East Northbound only
10 West Springfield Main Street Northbound only
11 West Springfield US 20 West, Birnie Ave.
12 Chicopee I-391
13AB West Springfield US 5, Riverdale St.
14 Boston, Albany I-90 (Mass Pike)
15 Ingleside Lower Deerfield Rd.
16 Holyoke Center, South Hadley US 202
17AB South Hadley, Holyoke MA 141
18 Northampton, Easthampton US 5
19 Northampton, Amherst MA 9 Northbound only
20 Northampton, Hadley US 5, MA 9, MA 10 Southbound only
21 Hatfield US 5, MA 10
22 Whatley, North Hatfield US 5, MA 10 Northbound only
23 Whatley, North Hatfield US 5, MA 10 Southbound only
24 Whatley US 5, MA 10, MA 116
25 Deerfield MA 116 Southbound only
26 Greenfield Center, North Adams MA 2
27 Greenfield, Boston MA 2 East
28AB Bernardston, Northfield MA 10

[2]

Vermont[edit]

Exit Number Location Road(s) Crossed Notes
1 Brattleboro, Vernon US 5
2 Brattleboro, Bennington VT 9 West
3 Brattleboro, Keene, NH, Chesterfield, NH VT 9 East, to US 5
4 Putney US 5
5 Westminster, Walpole, NH US 5
6 Rockingham, Bellows Falls US 5, VT 103
7 Springfield US 5, VT 11, VT 106
8 Ascutney, Ludlow, Windsor US 5, VT 12, VT 131
9 Hartland, Windsor US 5, VT 12
10S Airport, New Hampshire I-89
10N Barre, Montpelier I-89
11 White River Jct. US 5
12 Wilder, White River Jct. Bugbee St., to US 5, US 4
13 Norwich, Hanover, NH US 5, to NH 10
14 Thetford VT 113
15 Fairlee, Orford, NH To US 5
16 Barre, Bradford VT 25, to US 5
17 Barre, Woodsville, NH US 302
18 Barnet
19 New Hampshire I-93
20 St. Johnsbury US 5
21 St. Johnsbury, Montpelier To US 2
22 St. Johnsbury
23 Lyndon, Lyndonville US 5
24 Lyndon Center, Lyndonville VT 122
25 Barton, Wheelock, Sheffield VT 16, to US 5
26 Orleans US 5, VT 58
27 Newport VT 191
28 Newport VT 105
29 Derby Line To US 5

[3]



File:Ghirlandaio Old Man.jpg
An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). Tempera on wood, 62 x 46 cm Louvre, Paris

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449 - January 11, 1494) was a Florentine Renaissance painter, a contemporary of Botticelli and Filippino Lippi. His many apprentices included Michelangelo.

His full name is given as Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di Doffo Bigordi; it appears therefore that his father's surname was Curradi, and his grandfather's Bigordi. Domenico, the eldest of eight children, was at first apprenticed to a jeweler or a goldsmith, most likely his own father. "Il Ghirlandajo" (garland-maker) nickname, came to Domenico from his father, a goldsmith was renowned in creating the metallic garlands worn by Florentine women. In his father's shop, Domenico was continually making portraits of the passers-by, and he was apprenticed to Alessio Baldovinetti to study painting and mosaic.

First works in Florence and Rome[edit]

In 1480 Ghirlandaio painted Saint Jerome and other frescoes in the Church of Ognissanti, Florence, and a life-sized Last Supper in its refectory. From 1481 to 1485 he was employed upon frescoes in the Sala dell' Orologio of the Palazzo Vecchio. There he painted the Apotheosis of St. Zenobius, a greater than life-size work, with much architectural framework, figures of Roman heroes and other detail, both striking in its perspective and structural propriety.

He was summoned in 1483 to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV to paint a Sistine Chapel wall fresco: Christ calling Peter and Andrew to their Apostleship. Other works in Rome are now perished. Before 1485 he had likewise produced his frescoes in the chapel of Santa Fina, in the Tuscan town of S. Gimignano, which after c.1350 was under the rule of nearby Siena. His future brother-in-law, Sebastiano Mainardi, assisted him in these productions in both Rome and San Gimignano.

Later Works in Tuscany[edit]

Back in Florence in 1485, Ghirlandaio painted fresco cycles in the Sassetti Chapel of Santa Trinita for the donor and banker Francesco Sassetti, head of the Medici bank in Genoa. He was later replaced by Giovanni Tornabuoni, a future patron of Ghirlandaio. In the chapel, Domenico painted six scenes from the life of St Francis, including St Francis obtaining from Pope Honorius the approval of the Rules of his Order; Death and Obsequies, and Resuscitation by the interposition of the beatified saint, of a child of the Spini family, who had been killed by falling out of a window. In the first work is a portrait of Lorenzo de Medici; and in the third the painter's own likeness, which he introduced also into one of the pictures in S. Maria Novella, and in the Adoration of the Magi in the hospital of the Innocenti. The altarpiece of the Sassetti chapel,Adoration of the Shepherds, is now in the Florentine Academy. Immediately after this commission, Ghirlandajo was asked to renew the frescoes in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which formed the chapel of the Ricci family, but the Tornabuoni and Tornaquinci families, then much more opulent than the Ricci, undertook the cost of the restoration, under conditions, as to preserving the arms of the Ricci, which gave rise in the end to some amusing incidents of litigation. The frescoes, by Domenico and many assistants, are in four courses along the three walls, the leading subjects being the lives of the Madonna and of the Baptist. These works are particularly interesting in containing many historical portraits, a method of treatment in which Ghirlandajo was preeminently skilled.

Ghirlandajo's series on the life of Mary, executed with utmost attention to realistic detail, seem to represent domestic scenes from contemporary life of the Florentine nobility, rather than historical events of cosmic significance.

There are no less than twenty-one portraits of the Tornabuoni and Tornaquinci families; in the subject of the Angel appearing to Zacharias, those of Politian, Marsilio Ficino and others; in the Salutation of Anna and Elizabeth, the beautiful Ginevra de Benci; in the Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple, Mainardi and Baldovinetti (or the latter figure may perhaps be Ghirlandajo's father). The Ricci chapel was reopened and completed in 1490; the altarpiece was probably executed with the assistance of Domenico's brothers, David and Benedetto; the painted window was from Domenico's own design. Other distinguished works from his hand are an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin Adored by Sts Zenobius, Justus and others, painted for the church of St Justus, but now in the Uffizi gallery, a remarkable masterpiece; Christ in Glory with Romuald and other Saints, in the Badia of Volterra; the Adoration of the Magi, in the church of the Innocenti (already mentioned), perhaps his finest panel-picture (1488); and the Visitation (Louvre) which bears the latest ascertained date (1491) of all his works. Ghirlandajo did not often attempt the nude; one of his pictures of this character, Vulcan and his Assistants forging Thunderbolts, was painted for Lo Spedaletto, but (like several others specified by Vasari), no longer exists. The mosaics which he produced date before 1491; one, of especial celebrity, is the Annunciation, on a portal of the cathedral of Florence.

Critical Assessment and Legacy[edit]

His scheme of composition is grand and decorous; his chiaroscuro excellent, and especially his perspectives, which he would design on a very elaborate scale by the eye alone; his color is more open to criticism, but this remark applies much less to the frescoes than the tempera-pictures, which are sometimes too broadly and crudely bright. He worked in these two methods alone---never in oils; and his frescoes are what the Italians term buon fresco, without any finishing in tempera.

"Apotheosis of St. Zenobius" in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence

A certain hardness of outline, not unlike the character of bronze sculpture, may attest his early training in metal work. He first introduced into Florentine art that mixture of the sacred and the profane which had already been practiced in Siena. Vasari says that Ghirlandajo was the first to abandon in great part the use of gilding in his pictures, representing by genuine painting any objects supposed to be gilded; yet this does not hold good without some considerable exceptions the highlights of the landscape, for instance, in the Adoration of the Shepherds, now in the Florence Academy, being put in gold. Many drawings and sketches by this painter, now in the Uffizi gallery, are remarkable for vigour of outline. One of the great glories of Ghirlandajo is that he gave some early art education to Michelangelo, who cannot, however, have remained with him long.

This renowned artist died of pestilential fever on the 11th of January 1494, and was buried in S. Maria Novella. He had been twice married, and left six children, three of them being sons. He had a long and honorable line of descendants, which came to a close in the 17th century, when the last members of the family entered monasteries. It is probable that Domenico died poor; he appears to have been gentle, honorable and conscientious, as well as energetically diligent.

References[edit]