User:Iune/List of Retired Australian cyclone names
|Talk ● Sandbox ● Contributions ● Commons|
This is a list of all South Pacific Tropical cyclones that have had their names retired. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a bi-annual meeting. Those cyclones that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms that often become household names in the regions they affected. Storm names are retired following a request made at the WMO meeting by one or more of the countries affected by a cyclone. tropical cyclone names have been retired since the start oftropical cyclone naming in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Northern Region (Darwin TCWC)
Port Moresby’s Area of responsibility
Lists of retired names
Listed by intensity
|Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale|
This lists all retired Cyclones by their peak intensity, which is determined by measurements of the minimum central pressure. While the intensity of tropical cyclones is measured solely by central pressure, wind speeds are also estimated; the Australian Tropical cyclone intensity scale is used in the Southern Pacific basin to rank cyclones according to their strongest wind gust which are measured over 3-seconds.
Western Region (Perth TCWC)
|Name||Season||Max. 10-min. average sustained wind||Min. central pressure|
Listed by total damages
This lists all retired Pacific hurricanes by their total damages (in 2008 USD). Hurricane names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. Some data may be incomplete and account for damages in only one location while the storm affected several. Calculation of modern-day damage amounts is done using the Consumer Price Index.
|Name||Season||Damages (at the time)||Damages (2008 USD)|
|Pauline||1997||$7.5 billion||$10.1 billion|
|Iniki||1992||$1.8 billion||$2.8 billion|
|Paka||1997||$584 million||$784 million|
|Iwa||1982||$308 million||$688 million|
|Kenna||2002||$101 million ||$121 million|
|Ioke||2006||$88 million||$94 million|
|Alma||2008||$35 million||$35 million|
|Ismael||1995||$26 million||$37 million|
Listed by death toll
This lists retired Pacific hurricanes by the number of deaths they caused. Hurricane names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. While many damaging storms caused little loss of life, most deadly storms also caused heavy damage. Most storms cause fatalities not by their high winds but rather through flooding - either storm surge or inland flooding due to rainfall. Storm surge has the highest potential for deaths; with modern forecasting, warning, and evacuation storm surge deaths can be almost eliminated, but the potential is still very high for catastrophe in places where warning systems are not in place or if warnings are ignored. Inland flooding, by contrast, is unpredictable because it depends heavily on a hurricane's interaction with the terrain and with other nearby weather systems.
There have been several deadlier hurricanes than the following that were not retired. Hurricane Tara killed at least 500 people in southern Mexicoin 1961,, Hurricane Liza caused at least 425 deaths along the Baja California Peninsula in 1976., and Hurricane Paul killed over 1,000 people in Central America.
|Name||Season||Direct deaths||Primary location|
|Pauline||1997||230 - 400||Oaxaca, Guerrero|
Landfall of a tropical cyclone is defined as the moving of the center of the eye over land. Damages from a tropical cyclone are usually greatest where it makes landfall. In the below list, the retired hurricanes are listed in chronological order with their landfall locations listed under columns designating their strength on theSaffir-Simpson Scale at the time of landfall. Within a cell, landfalls are listed in chronological order. Four retired hurricanes, Hurricanes Fico, Iwa, Fefa, and Ioke never made landfall anywhere at any intensity. They are omitted from this list. The centre of Paka passed slightly to the north of Guam as a Category 4-equivalent storm, however this is not included as a landfall.
|Category 5||Category 4||Category 3||Category 2||Category 1||Tropical depression|
- List of retired tropical cyclone names
- List of retired Atlantic hurricane names
- List of retired Pacific typhoon names
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (2006). "What is a dollar worth?". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Centro Nacional para la Prevención de Desastres (1999). "Estadisticas Sobre Los Riegos a Atenuar de Fenomenos Perturbadores" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- National Hurricane Center (2004). "Costliest U.S. Hurricanes 1900-2004 (unadjusted)". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- National Climatic Data Center (1997). "Event Report for Guam". Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- United States Geological Survey (2005). "Summary of Significant Floods, 1982". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- James L. Franklin (2002). "Hurricane Kenna Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Guy Carpenter (2003). "2002 Tropical Cyclone Review" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-01.
- Advisory Council for Historic Preservation (2007). "Spring 2007 Case Digest - Protecting Historic Properties" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-15.
- Brown (2008). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Alma" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (2006). "Impacto Socioeconómico de los Ciclones Tropicales 2005" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2006-11-09.
- The State of Hawaii Data Book (2000). "Geography and Environment of Hawaii" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-12-10.
- Tony Burton (2001). "Mexico in November - A Historical Review". Mexico Connect. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- Emil B. Gunther (1977). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1976" (PDF). Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- Central Pacific Hurricane Center (1992). "1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Max Mayfield (1995). "Hurricane Ismael Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Miles B. Lawrence (1997). "Hurricane Pauline Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-12-09.