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Split TCP (also known as TCP splitting) refers to the process of splitting a single TCP connection between two peers into two TCP connections. This is frequently done for performance reasons when different segments of the connection are carried over networks with significantly different performance characteristics than the network(s) carrying the rest of the connection.   
A simple and common example of a TCP connection split at the application layer is a web browser that retrieves web pages through a Proxy_server.
- Swastik Kopparty, Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy, Michalis Faloutsos, Satish K. Tripathi. "Split TCP for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks" (PDF).
- M. Luglio, M. Y. Sanadidi, M. Gerla, and J. Stepanek,. "On-Board Satellite “Split TCP” Proxy" (PDF).
- Yadong Shang, Michael Hadjitheodosiou, John Baras. "Protocol Support for a New Satellite-Based Airspace Communication Network" (PDF).
- Rahul Jain, Teunis J. Ott. "Design and Implementation of Split TCP in the Linux Kernel" (PDF).