User:Jethwarp/Lohana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lohanas લોહાણા / لوها ڻا/ लोहाना
Total population
(?)
Regions with significant populations
 India (Primarily Maharastra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi) <0.5 Million [1][2]
 United Kingdom 30-35,000[3]
Languages
Primarily Gujarati, Kutchi, Sindhi. Also local languages in diaspora countries.
Religion
Hinduism.
Related ethnic groups
MemonsKhojas

The Lohana (Gujarati: લોહાણા, Sindhi: لوها ڻاHindi: लोहाना) are an Indian caste, largely classified as merchants and are categorized as Vaishya or Bania caste[4] although their ancient history proves that they were Kshatriya claiming their lineage from Lava, son of Rama. They are said to belong to Rathor clan of Kshatriyas[5][6][7][8] The community originated in the Sind before migrating to Kutch and Gujarat.


History[edit]

The Lohana claim descent from the Lava son of Rama, and thus status as Suryavanshi Kshatriya and are said to be a branch of Rathor clan of Kshatriyas or Rajputs.[9][10][5][7][6][8]

It is said that these Rathors changed their name after a miracle from their kuladevata saved them from massacre by taking shelter in an iron fort [iron=loh]. After this they changed their names to Loh-rana, from which the name Lohana comes. They started to put Loh also before the towns and kingdoms founded by them, as such Lohargadh, the old name of Lahore.[9][5]

In the 7th century, there was a ruler named Agham Lohana ruled a part of Sindh and was Governor of Brahmanabad and contemporary of Chach of Alor. We find frequent mention of Agham Lohana in Chachnama and the city of Agham Kot is said to be named after him. Even the sea around was known as Lohana Darya (Darya means Sea).[11][12][13]Chach of Alor killed Agham Lohana in battle of Brahmanand and married his widow and also married his niece to Agham's son Sirhind.[14][15]Further, Chach is said to have laid restrictions of Lohana and Jat tribes from wearing headgear and carrying weapons. He further placed upon the Jat and Lohana restrictions such as:[14][15]

  • Forbidding them riding horses with saddles
  • Forbidding them from wearing silk or velvet
  • Forbidding them from wearing headgear or footwear
  • Forcing them to wear black or red scarves

This discrimination of Lohanas lead to their decline from ruling or warrior class and conversion into petty traders.

Myth or Legend of Veer Dada Jashraj[edit]

There is a legend in Lohana as well Bhanushali community that one of their rulers,Veer Dada Jashraj[16] (ruled from 1048-58 AD)[citation needed] who ruled over Lohargadh ( present day Lahore ) up to Multan, killed the mighty Mongol the great Chengez Khan.[citation needed] There is a saying in their community that the "King of Mongols was killed by Mirana, the tiger of Multan fort". His descendants who proudly carry the surname of 'Mirana' preserve the memory of this great warrior king. Dada Jashraj was also treacherously killed at age 28. However, there are no historical proof to back this claim.

Conversion to Islam & migration of Hindu Lohanas[edit]

As per community's history, it was after the death of Veer Dada Jashraj, the decline of Lohana kingdom began and their reign at Lohargadh/Lohanpur/Lohkot in Multan.[16]

Ismaili Dai' Pir Sadardin converted many of them to the Shia Ismaili Nizari sect of Islam in 14th Century AD. As Lohanas were worshipers of Shakti, in order to convert them Ismaili missionaries made certain modifications in their doctrines to convert them. They are known as Khojas or Khawaja[17]

In 1422, the Sindh was ruled by a Hindu king of Samma dynasty named Jam Rai Dan, who was converted to Islam by Sayad Eusuf-ud-Din and he got a new name Makrab Khan.At that time a person named Mankeji was head of eighty-four nukhs of Lohanas, who was in favor in court of that Samma king. He was persuaded by ruler and the Quadri to convert to Islam. However, not all Lohanas were ready to convert from Hinduism.[18] But 700 Lohana families comprising some 6178 persons converted to Islam at the hands of one in Thatta Sindh these are now known as Memons.[19] [20] Even today not only Khoja Ismaili Muslims but Memon Sunni Muslims also retain some of their Hindu surnames, among the most famous of these is Lakhani.

Sindh which had fallen under Muslim rule of Muhammad bin Qasim after defeat of Dahir and the Hindus were increasingly pressurized to either convert to Islam or face persecution and were living in constant fear. It was around this time, that Uderolal who is revered as Jhulelal ( by Sindhis ) or Dariyalal (by Gujaratis and Kutchis ) and Zinda Pir ( by Muslims ) who was born in to Ratanchand (Ratnarai) Thakkur and Devki, a Hindu Lohana family of Nasarpur in Sindh. He took upon the mantle of Lohana and Hindu leadership. Uderolal fought with Muslim chief Mirkshah, and initiated him into the true meaning of religion. Uderolal won the freedom of religion for Hindus from the Muslim rulers and devoted the rest of his life to spiritual and community service. Today Uderolal is revered as Jhulelal, the patron saint of Sindhis and also considered to be as Pir and revered as Jinda Pir, as such, both Hindus and Muslims visit the site of his Samadhi. The Lohanas after Dariyalal took samadhi for almost two centuries Hindus and Lohanas remained fearless[16] but later again due to their Hindu identity being discriminated and increasingly threatened in Sindh and they began to migrate mainly towards Kutch and Saurashtra[21][19][16]

Their mettle as warriors of past was tested in 1764, when Gulam Shah Kahoro attacked Cutch and they had to account for themselves in the Battle of Zora. Lohana women fought alongside their men in this battle and the land of Kutchchh is strewn with memorial stones marking the deaths of Lohanas.[citation needed] A saying in Gujarati eulogies Lohana women thus: Only Rajputani, Loharani and Miyani bring forth gem of children.[citation needed] However, in 1778, one person named Devchand, who was head of their caste was put to death in Cutch and since then never a Lohana has rose to the post of minister in Princely State of Cutch till its merger into Union of India in 1947.[16]

Colonel James Todd, who delved into history of various warrior casts of India, describes Lohanas as of Rajput origin but have fallen into third category ( that is vaishya ). Also it mentions that Lohanas are involved in petty trades and their caravans travel between Deraband and Kabul into Calcutta and Bokara and St. Malarie in Russia carrying cotton goods, kimkhab embroidery materials, salt, indigo and fruits. They were then found in large numbers in Dhat and Talpura.[7][22]Even Babur has mentioned of Lohana tribe in his records.[22]

It further mentions that Lohanas in Sind are Vaishnava and Shaiva and worship river Indus and their Jenda Pir. But like Saraswat Brahmins, eat meat, fish and onions and drink spirits.[7][22]

Lohanas, who were once from warrior class are now in to trade and business and considered a merchant or baniya community due to their social conversion over the several centuries.

Lohanas have since been divided in to three major groups :- [23][6] 1. Amils : Amils were generally involved in clerical jobs in government offices, as as working in posts of revenue collectors and other senior positions. 2. Bhaibands : Bhaibandhs are Lohanas, who are mainly involved in trade and commerce and are as such mostly merchants. 3. Sahitis : They are somewhere placed between Amils & Bhaibands, and could be either in government service or traders

Current situation[edit]

Since time of British India Lohanas have been classified as Vaishya or Bania community.[24] Lohana culture has diverged over the centuries between different regions. Thus there are significant differences between the culture, professions and societies of Sindhi Lohanas ( those who migrated from Sind after partition of India ), Kutchi Lohanas (those living or having ancestry in Kutch )and those of Gujarati Lohanas ( those living or having ancestry in Saurashtra ), the three present day sub-divisions of Lohanas.

Although Gujarat today consists of area of Kutch, the Kutchi Lohanas maintain even today their separate group identity and they speak Kutchi language at home, while other Gujarati Lohanas speak Gujarati language as their mother tongue.

Sindhi Lohanas, including the Bhaiband community, were primarily engaged in agriculture, industries and professional services before the Partition of India. However, after the partition, Sindhi Lohanas dispersed throughout the world, and having lost their agricultural property, have focused on industry, trading and professional services. The Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar (Sonara) community were mostly in the jewellery business. As per 1901 census of British India, the Lohanas numbered 562,261 and found principally in Sind, Gujarat and Cutch.[25] The 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica stated in the article about Sindh : "More than half of the Hindus are Lohanas, are traders, who have almost monopolized government service and the professions.[26]

Surnames[edit]

The Lohanas are also known as the Thakkar.[27] and hence often holding surnames including Thakkar, Thakur and Thakrar. There are more than 84 surnames, some prominent ones are Ratnani, Mirani, Jasani, Tanna,Lakhani, Mehta, Jobanputra, Damani, Madhvani, Chag etc.[28] In Gujarati, Lohanas performing the puja of Dariyalal are known as Pujaras and Dariyalal's descendants as Ratnani.

Rituals[edit]

Lohanas largely follow Hindu rituals and worship Shiva, Ambika, Shakti and Shrinathji apart from their clan deities like Veer Dada Jashraj and Dariyalal.[29][16]Further, most are now followers of Vallabha Acharya and founder of Pushtimarg sect. Also the whole community without fail visit the temple of Jalaram Bapa, a saint of their community, whose original house and temple is at Virpur [30]

Diasporia[edit]

The community apart from Gujarat is largely found in Mumbai, Kolkata and other major cities and parts of India. Further, a widespread diaspora developed since the late 19th century, when they largely migrated to East African countries like Uganda, Kenya & Tanganyika[31]and later also to United Kingdom, United States, and Canada.[32]

Gujarati Lohanas and Cuttchi Lohanas gravitated towards trading since the eighteenth century. A large number of Lohanas from Gujarat migrated to the British colonies of East Africa during the early part of the 20th century. Gujarati Lohanas in East Africa were great entrepreneurs. The Ruparelia, Madhvani, Mehta and Jobanputra families being the prominent industrialists in Uganda. The descendants of these East African settlers have moved to either Kenya and Tanzania or Great Britain in recent decades.[32] Many of them can be found in North West London and Leicester.

Today, a good number of Gujarati Lohanas reside outside Gujarat in other parts of India. Gujarati Lohanas in food businesses, especially “Farsan Marts,” in major cities.[citation needed] They also have a noticeable share in trading and other businesses.

Among the Sindhi Lohana community many migrated to India, after partition of India and can be found living along with other Sindhi community in various parts of Kutch and Punjab, where they were rehabilitated. Many Sindhi Lohana are also found in Britain and East Africa also.

Notables[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Dwarakanath Gupta, C (1999-05). "Socio-cultural history of an Indian caste". ISBN 9788170997269.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?rop3=112775&rog3=IN
  3. ^ Burghart, Richard (1987). "Hinduism in Great Britain: The perpetuation of religion in an alien cultural milieu". ISBN 9780422609104. 
  4. ^ The Rajputs of Saurashtra By Virbhadra Singhji. p. 12. 
  5. ^ a b c Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Gujarát population. pt. 1. Hindus. pt. 2. Musalmáns and Pársis. 1899. p. 39. 
  6. ^ a b c Research in sociology: abstracts of M.A. and Ph. D. dissertations completed ... By Dhirendra Narain, University of Bombay. Dept. of Sociology, Indian Council of Social Science Research. p. 105. 
  7. ^ a b c d Tod, James (2001-02-01). "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India". ISBN 9788120612891. 
  8. ^ a b . Census of India, 1961 , Volume 5, Part 6, Issues 3-4. p. 9 [Annals of human genetics , Volume 22 Annals of human genetics , Volume 22] Check |url= value (help).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ a b History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1)
  10. ^ History of Surname : Lohana
  11. ^ [1]Appendix to the Arabs in Sind, vol.III, part 1, of the Historians of India [sic] By Sir Henry Miers Elliot
  12. ^ The history of India, as told by its own historians: The ..., Volume 1 By Sir Henry Miers Elliot. pp. 362, 362. 
  13. ^ HISTORY OF SIND. VOLUME II. (IN TWO PARTS.) Part II—Giving the reigns of the Kalhórahs and the Tálpurs down to the British Conquest.
  14. ^ a b TRANSLATED FROM PERSIAN BOOKS BY MIRZA KALICHBEG FREDUNBEG, CHAPTER IV
  15. ^ a b The Chach-nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.
  16. ^ a b c d e f [2]Firmes et entreprises en Inde: la firme lignagère dans ses réseaux By Pierre Lachaier, page 71-73
  17. ^ [3]Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 9, Part 2, Bombay (India : State)- 1899
  18. ^ . Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Gujarát population. pt. 1. Hindus. pt. 2. Musalmáns and Pársis. p. 57 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=LQsIAQAAIAAJ&q=lohana&dq=lohana&hl=en&ei=CP0vTtKfDMPqrAeG0dXdCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDwQ6AEwATgU.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ a b The Muslim communities of Gujarat: an exploratory study of Bohras, Khojas, and Memons. 
  20. ^ Gujarat, Volume 1 By Rash Bihari Lal, Anthropological Survey of India. 
  21. ^ http://lohanamahajantrust.com/whoarewe.asp
  22. ^ a b c [4]The Indian Encyclopaedia: La Behmen-Maheya edited by Subodh Kapoor. Page:4369
  23. ^ Cosmopolitan connections: the Sindhi diaspora, 1860-2000 By Mark-Anthony Falzon. pp. 34, 35. 
  24. ^ [5]Hindu castes and sects:an exposition of the origin of the Hindu caste system and the bearing of the sects towards each other and towards other religious systems / Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya : 1896
  25. ^ Annals of human genetics , Volume 22. 1958. p. 198. 
  26. ^ http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Sind
  27. ^ pg. 80
  28. ^ Lohana Surnames
  29. ^ Joshua project : Lohana
  30. ^ [6]People of India: Maharashtra, Volume 2 By Kumar Suresh Singh, B. V. Bhanu, Anthropological Survey of India
  31. ^ Oonk,G, The Changing Culture of Hindu Lohanas in East Africa, in Contemporary Asians Studies, 13, 2004, 83-97.
  32. ^ a b [7]Hinduism in Great Britain: the perpetuation of religion in an alien cultural By Richard Burghart
  33. ^ "Lohana History: Where do Lohanas come from?" (PDF). Lohana.info. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  34. ^ Asian stalwart Manubhai Madhvani dies
  35. ^ a b Noted Bollywood actor and singer Himesh Reshammiya, Hollywood actor Kal Penn and Pakistan's founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah belong to our caste.
  36. ^ a b c d e [8]
  37. ^ Industrialist and Philanthropist Dr. S. K. Somaiya passed away