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  • HVDC visuals to make facsimiles of: siemens ppt
    • Cross section of HVDC "Pirelli" cable with fiber optic and metallic return. Page 16
    • Map of Global HVDC efforts
  • Siemens map of china with the main corridors sketched see page 11]


Did I forget to link up?[edit]

  • MIT report: Supergrid for Europe
  • Thomas gov site search for 2007 energy bill
    • other material on analysis of the 2007 bill
  • Phasor measurement unit has multiple outlink articles that should have inbound links made. This technology is crucial to smart grid management. eg. inventor article, smart grid, demand response, transmission. also, I'd like to understand how pmus are used in hvdc since it is not an Alternating current phase.

need to add coverage[edit]

  • thermal limits on HVDC
  • Point to Point current systems versus multipoint "Ocean" concept
  • They seem to refer to a modern multipoint distribution network as having "Fuzzy" load flow as opposed to classic tree.
  • Interlink the 2003 blackout with modernization motivation: esp. HVDC and other transmission
  • Vocabulary
    • transmission of "large power blocks"
    • Buses- as in outside of the HVDC to AC interlink
    • Corridor
    • Interconnection
    • Time of use pricing
    • Bulk power
    • FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems)- an HVAC alternative to some HVDC like problems
    • wide area measurement system (WAMS): "value in power system dynamic monitoring and potential applications in system modeling and validation, feed-back control and system wide protection"
    • Synchronized phasor measurement technology has been gaining increasingly interests in China due to its wide area time synchronization capability and fast transmission speed. With the development of GPS, computer and communication technology, the prototype of phasor measurement unit (PMU) was first developed in United States in early 1990s....The phasor measurement unit (PMU) is considered to be one of the most important measuring devices in the future of power systems. The distinction comes from its unique ability to provide synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents from widely dispersed locations in an electric power grid. The commercialization of the global positioning satellite (GPS) with accuracy of timing pulses in the order of 1 microsecond made possible the commercial production of phasor measurement units.
    • noted that pmu came from gps innovation- probably the common communication clock with microsecond timing accuracy.

Random notes[edit]

  • A global supergrid was proposed in 1994 "Global Link - Interkontinentaler Energieverbund, Tagung in Essen 11.-12. Oktober 1994, VDI Berichte 1129, S. 43-54."
  • TBD- need to beef up discussion of cooridors - especially discussion of the various paths in the hvdc and hvac grids EG: template for cooridors:
  • TBD- search "developmental field test" and "modern grid". doe has done some work.
    • some stuff for distributed grids or the idea of smart control of smart grids: here, see page 6

Autonomous Dynamic Feeder Reconfiguration System: The intended system will dynamically collect data from distribution feeders and, in case of a fault, will automatically isolate the fault and restore electric service using available capacity from adjacent feeders. The unique concept of this design is the real time determination and transfer of available capacity from adjacent feeders. This is capacity that is normally not utilized with conventional (manual) load transfer schemes.

The East China Power Grid is the largest regional grid in China, which consists of 5

provincial/metropolis grids, namely Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui and Shanghai. This regional grid is interconnected with the Central China Power Grid through 2 HVDC lines. In 2006 it has a total of

5000 buses and 460 generators with a peak load of 107 GW.

The HVDC and UHVDC projects, which are in construction or in planning, are as follows:

(1) The second ±500 kV HVDC project from Guizhou province to Guangdong province in South China, with transmission capacity 3000MW, and it will be available in 2007.
(3) the back to back ±500 kV DC project between North-east power grid and North power grid, with transmission capacity 1500MW, and it be available around 2008.
(4) The project of ±500 kV HVDC from Ningxia in North-west China to Tianjing in North China, the transmission capacity is 3000MW, and it will be available around 2008.
(5) The project of two ±500 kV HVDC on one tower from Central China to East China, the transmission capacity is 6000MW, and it will be available around 2009.
(6) ±500 kV HVDC project from Hulunbeier Coal base in Hailongjiang province to Liaoning province in North-East China, the transmission capacity is 3000MW, and it will be available around 2009-2010.
(7) ±800 kV UHVDC project from Yunnan province to Guangdong province in South China, with transmission capacity 5000MW, and it will be available around 2009-2010.
(8) There will be three ±800 kV UHVDC project for Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba hydro power station in south-west China, in which two wii go to East China and one to Central-China, the transmission capacity of each project is 6400MW, and it will be available from 2011 to 2016.
(9) ±800 kV UHVDC project from Jingping hydro power station in south-west China to East China, the transmission capacity is 6400MW, and it will be available around 2013.
(10) There will be ±800 kV UHVDC project for Hulunbeier Coal base, in which one wii go to Liaoning province in North-East China, and another to North China, the transmission capacity of each project is

6400MW, and it will be available from 2015 to 2020.
  • Smart grid components in Austin: [1]:

How do you build a smart grid? One must build a two-way communication grid, an information grid that rides on it, and upgrade the energy grid to be two-way.

The steps are:

  • Build an Energy SOA
  • Deploy 2-way AMI everywhere
  • Collect data via an MDM
  • Deploy sensors on top of 2 way network for asset tracking and control of every key asset Feed the data to Distribution management systems (DMS) Connect DMS to OMS, GIS, AMS, WMS.
  • Feed DMS data to SCADA/EMS and planning tools Expand meter access to the premise via ZigBee/HomePlug/PLC to manage discrete smart appliances for DR and DSM programs Upgrade energy grid with micro grids and two way electric buses
-Andres E. Carvallo, Chief Information Officer, Austin Energy
    • Zigbee is wireless control of devices, and PLC is powerline over the wire communication.
    • Austin uses Cellnet+Hunt’s two-way mesh AMI system
    • The CENTRON meter's functionality is enhanced by embedding Ember's ZigBee Alliance chip to provide a full two-way communications pathway to the home. It becomes the gateway to the home area network's (HAN) appliances and control systems.

  • "Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) “2007 Demand Response and Advanced Metering” defines the HAN as the home network that runs the switches. (do they discuss smart switches? - Zigbee uses wireless communication , plc uses the line). [2]
  • HVDC/Super grids: Map of India planned upgrades to long haul on page 9 of [3]
  • EPRI doc- not just process/promotion/bureaucratese]
    • mentions PMUs/ sychrophasors in context of a smart grid,
    • List of corresponding technologies to the 7 functional goals.
    • standard to integrate into Smart Grid or HVDC: IEEE 1547 Series of Interconnection Standards
  • group's take on what a smart grid is: see page 24 of "Challenge and Opportunity: Charting a new energy future" EFCReport.pdf
  • User:Liminzhong page has an extensive list of power system possible topics including unrecognized acronyms as of 12-1-2008.
  • Epri looks like it has many energy related research papers publically available search page
  • [4] Notes on future interties in Asia between bejing- russia- japan. Also details on grids of Vietnam, Japan, SE asia- Indonesia...
  • Sandia lab smart inverter idea for DG for Solar array equipped homes [5]
  • market manipulation, captive regulators, dissaggregation policy talk in [[6]] esp. page 14 & 15