User:Jnestorius/List of English irregular verbs

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This is list of irregular verbs in the English language. The citation form (the infinitive) comes first (with a link to the Wiktionary article on the verb), together with the present tense forms when they are different, then the preterite or simple past, and finally the past participle. The right hand column notes whether they are weak or strong and whether they belong to a subclass, and links to discussions elsewhere. Typical irregularities in weak verbs are the assimilation of dentals (bendedbent) and vowel reduction (*keepedkept).

It should be noted that many of these verbs are irregular in British or American English only; in many cases, such as spell (spelt vs. spelled), learn (learnt vs. learned), and spill (spilt vs. spilled), American English uses the regular form, while British English tends to favor the irregular. In other cases, the opposite is true (dived and sneaked in Britain, also dove and snuck in the U.S.); Australian English tends to follow British practice, while Canadian English often sides with American usage. See further at American and British English differences.

infinitive (and present) preterite participle (and adjective) class similar compounds notes
be (am, is, are) was (were) been Suppletive. See: Indo-European copula.
bear bore borne (born) Strong, class 4 born used of birth
beat beat beaten/beat Strong, class 7 browbeat
begin began begun Strong, class 3
bend bent bent Weak with assimilation of dentals
bereave bereaved bereaved (bereft) Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
beseech besought besought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
bet bet/betted bet/betted Weak with assimilation of dentals
bid bid bid Weak with assimilation of dentals outbid (in cards, auctions, etc.)
bid bade/bid/bidded bidden/bid/bidded Strong, class 5 forbid (to request or say)
bide bided/bode bided/bidden Strong, class 1 abide
bind bound bound (bounden) Strong, class 3 unbind
bite bit bitten Strong, class 1
bleed bled bled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
blow blew blown Strong, class 7
break broke broken Strong, class 4
breed bred bred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals interbreed
bring brought brought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
build built built Weak with assimilation of dentals rebuild
burn burned/burnt burnt/burned Weak
burst burst/bursted burst/bursted Strong, class 3
buy bought bought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
can could - Preterite-present meaning "be able"; meaning "put in a can" is regular
cast cast cast Weak with assimilation of dentals broadcast (also regular "broadcasted" by verb->noun->verb conversion), forecast, recast
catch caught caught Weak - a French loanword conjugated perhaps by analogy with teach-taught
chide chode/chided/chid chidden/chided Strong, class 5
choose chose chosen Strong, class 2
cleave1 clove/clave cloven/claven Strong, class 2 ("split apart")
cleave2 cleft/cleaved cleft/cleaved Weakwith vowel reduction ("cling to")
cling clang/clung clung Strong, class 3
clothe clothed clothed (clad) Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
come came come Strong, class 4 become, overcome welcome is regular
cost cost cost Weak with assimilation of dentals sense "calculate the cost of" is regular
creep crept crept Strong, class 2
crow crowed/crew crowed/crown [kroʊn] Strong, class 7
cut cut cut Weak with assimilation of dentals
deal dealt dealt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
dig dug dug  
dive dived/dove dived/dove Strong, class 2
do (does [dʌz]) did done Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon" outdo, overdo, redo, undo
draw drew drawn Strong, class 6 overdraw, withdraw
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed Weak with vowel reduction assimilation of dentals
drink drank/drunk drunk (drunken) Strong, class 3
drive drove driven Strong, class 1
dwell dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled Weak with assimilation of dentals
eat ate eaten Strong, class 5 overeat
fall fell fallen Strong, class 7 befall
feed fed fed Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
feel felt felt Weak with assimilation of dentals
fight fought fought Strong, class 3
find found found Strong, class 3
fit fit/fitted fit/fitted Weak with assimilation of dentals befit is regular fitted is more common in AmE
flee fled fled Strong, class 2
fling flung flung Strong, class 3
fly flew flown Strong, class 2
forsake forsook forsaken Strong, class 6
freeze froze frozen Strong, class 2
get got gotten/got Strong, class 5 beget, forget gotten is AmE; got is BrE and in semantic present idioms. beget, forget always make begotten, forgotten
gird girded girded (girt) Weak with assimilation of dentals archaic
give gave given Strong, class 5 forgive
go went gone Suppletive. See: go (verb). forego, forgo, indergo
grind ground ground Strong, class 3
grow grew grown Strong, class 7 outgrow
hang hung/hanged hung/hanged Strong, class 7 weak past tense and present influenced by OE causative "hangian" overhang "hanged" only for execution
have (has) had had Weak pret./p.p. spring from O.E. haefd
hear heard heard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals mishear, overhear
hew hewed hewed/hewn Strong, class 7
hide hid hid/hidden Weak vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
hit hit hit Weak with assimilation of dentals
hold held held Strong, class 7 behold (also adjective beholden), uphold, withhold
hurt hurt hurt Weak with assimilation of dentals
keep kept kept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
knit knit/knitted knit/knitted Weak with assimilation of dentals regular form usual for adjective
know knew known Strong, class 7
lay laid laid Weak; irregular only in spelling mislay, overlay, re-lay, waylay; but not allay, delay, relay
lead led led Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals mislead
lean leaned/leant leaned/leant Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt Strong, class 7
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt Weak with assimilation of dentals
leave left left Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
load loaded loaded (laden)  
lose lost lost (lorn) Strong, class 2
lend lent lent Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
let1 letted/let letted/let Strong, class 7 "hinder" (archaic)
let2 let let Strong, class 7 "allow","offer for rent", etc
lie lay lain Strong, class 5 overlie, underlie lie "rest horizontal"; lie "tell untruth" is regular
light lit/lighted lit/lighted Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals alight
make made made Weak contraction of maked remake
may might - Preterite-present
mean [miːn] meant [mɛnt] meant [mɛnt] Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
meet met met Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
melt melted melted (molten) Strong, class 3
mow mowed mowed/mown Strong, class 7
pay paid paid Weak; irregular only in spelling overpay, repay
plead pleaded/pled pleaded/pled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals "pled" mainly in American Law
prove proved proved/proven borrowed French verb proven mainly as an adjective
put put put Weak with assimilation of dentals input
quit quit quit Weak with assimilation of dentals formerly "quitted"
read [riːd] read [rɛd] read [rɛd] Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals misread, proofread
rend rent rent Weak with assimilation of dentals archaic
rid rid/ridded rid/ridden   rare; usu light verb get rid of
ride rode ridden Strong, class 1 override
ring rang rung Strong, class 3 "make sound of bell"; ring "encircle" is regular
rise rose risen Strong, class 1 arose
run ran run Strong, class 3 outrun, overrun, rerun
saw sawed sawed/sawn   e.g. British English sawn-off shotgun
say (says [sɛz]) said [sɛd] said [sɛd]
see saw seen Strong, class 5 foresee, oversee
seek sought sought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
seethe seethed seethed (sodden) Strong, class 2
sell sold sold Weak with Rückumlaut outsell, oversell, resell
send sent sent Weak with assimilation of dentals
set set set Weak beset, inset, overset, reset, upset
sew sewed sewed/sewn  
shake shook shaken Strong, class 6
shall should - Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
shape shaped shaped (shapen) Strong, class 6 adjective in misshapen
shave shaved shaved (shaven) Strong, class 6
shear shore/sheared shorn/sheared Strong, class 4
shed shed shed Strong, class 7
shine shined/shone shined/shone Strong, class 1 outshine shined usu only in transitive "cause to shine"
shit shit/shat shit/shat Strong, class 1;
shoe shoed/shod shoed/shod Weak with vowel reduction shoed "removed shoes", shod "added shoes"
shoot shot shot Strong, class 2 overshoot
show showed shown/showed  
shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk (shrunken) Strong, class 3
shrive shrove shriven Strong, class 1 archaic
shut shut shut Weak
sing sang sung Strong, class 3
sink sank/sunk sunk (sunken) Strong, class 3
sit sat sat Strong, class 5
slay slew/slayed slain/slayed Strong, class 6 slew-slain for archaic literal sense "kill in battle"; regular for metaphorical slang "defeat"
sleep slept slept Strong, class 7 oversleep
slide slid slid/slidden Strong, class 1
sling slung/slang slung Strong, class 3
slink slunk/slank slunk Strong, class 3
slit slit slit Strong, class 1
smell smelled/smelt smelled/smelt Weak with assimilation of dentals
smite smote/smit smitten Strong, class 1 archaic
sneak sneaked/snuck sneaked/snuck Weakwith naturally developing strong form
sow sowed sowed/sown Strong, class 7
speak spoke spoken Strong, class 5
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals sped "travelled at speed"; speeded "broke the speed limit"
spell spelled/spelt spelled/spelt Weak with assimilation of dentals misspell
spend spent spent Weak with assimilation of dentals overspend, misspend
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
spin span/spun spun strong, class 3
spit spit/spat spit/spat   spit AmE spat BrE
split split split Weak with assimilation of dentals
spoil spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
spread spread spread Weak with assimilation of dentals
spring sprang/sprung sprung Strong, class 3
stand stood stood Strong, class 6 (mis)understand, withstand
steal stole stolen Strong, class 4
stick stuck stuck  
sting stang/stung stung Strong, class 3
stink stank/stunk stunk Strong, class 3
strew strew/strewed strewn/strewed  
stride strode/strided stridden/strided Strong, class 1 rare in perfect
strike struck struck (stricken) Strong, class 1
string strung strung Weak with naturally developing strong form
strive strove/strived striven/strived Strong, class 1
swear swore sworn Strong, class 6
sweep swept swept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
swell swelled swelled (swollen) Strong, class 3
swim swam swum Strong, class 3
swing swang/swung swung Strong, class 3
take took taken Strong, class 6 mistake, overtake, partake, undertake
teach taught taught Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
tear tore torn Strong, class 4
tell told told Weak with Rückumlaut foretell
think thought thought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law rethink
thrive throve/thrived thrived/thriven Strong, class 1
throw threw thrown Strong, class 7 overthrow
thrust thrusted/thrust thrusted/thrust  
tread trod trodden/trod Strong, class 5
wake woke woken Strong, class 6 awake
wear wore worn Weak with strong form based on "bear"
weave wove woven Strong, class 7 interweave
wed wed/wedded wed/wedded Weak with assimilation of dentals
weep wept wept Strong, class 7
wet wet/wetted wet/wetted Weak with assimilation of dentals
will would - Irregular; see also Shall and will
win won won Strong, class 3
wind [waɪnd] wound [waʊnd] wound [waʊnd] Strong, class 3 rewind, unwind; wind [wɪnd] "deprive of breath" is regular
work worked worked (wrought) Weak with Rückumlaut and metathesis of [r] wrought is mainly archaic
wring wrung wrung Strong, class 3
write wrote written Strong, class 1 rewrite, underwrite

Additional note: These verbs from the list above are spelled the same in the simple past as in the present tense (excluding compounds such as set, beset, inset, upset etc.): beat, bet, burst, cast, cost, cut, hit, hurt, let, put, quit, read, rid, set, shed, shut, slit, split, spread. (Note that of all the preceding, only "read" is pronounced differently in the past than in the present.)

See also: Wiktionary list of irregular verbs or the Wiktionary English irregular verbs category.

External links[edit]

De-transcluded links[edit]

English irregular verbs English irregular verbs Irregular verb

fr:Liste de verbes irréguliers en anglais mk:Листа на неправилни англиски глаголи