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Causes[edit]

General info[edit]

Plantar fasciitis describes degeneration of the plantar fascia which is typically associated with pain in the heel [1]. The general cause is a continued overload on the fascia [2]. Plantar fasciitis is usually an overuse type of injury in the plantar flexors [3]. In physically active people, this overuse is due to the physical activity the person engages in, while those that are sedentary may have one of several causing the overuse [4]. One article states that plantar fasciitis is not only found in physically active individuals, but also in obese individuals [5]. A sedentary lifestyle can lead to obesity, putting stress and strain on the body, possibly leading to this overuse injury through both obesity and sedentary behavior. Sedentary lifestyles also lead to weakened muscles and atrophy, making the muscles more prone to overuse when the person is mildly active. An article notes the tension placed on the plantar fascia may be caused by an imbalance biochemically [6]. The degeneration is likely due to the biochemical imbalance within the plantar fascia [7].

Biomechanics[edit]

An article on functional biomechanical deficits discusses the weaknesses and inflexibilities often associated with people that suffer from plantar fasciitis [8]. Figure 1 and 2 show differences in ankle joint flexibility. It is mentioned that plantar fasciitis may not be caused by a decreased strength and flexibility at the ankle, but if these impairments do not cause the injury, the impairments add to the symptom severity [9]. The strength and flexibility factors are also correlated with biomechanical factors that may add to the causes of plantar fasciitis.

Pronation[edit]

Foot pronation, such as in figure 2, may be a cause for plantar fasciitis [10]. In summary, ankle pronation, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, biochemical imbalances, overuse, weakness, and inflexibility are all possible causes of plantar fasciitis.

  1. ^ Schwartz, Emily N MD; Su, John MD. Plantar Fasciitis: A Concise Review. The Permanente Journal. 18(1): e105- e107; 2014.
  2. ^ Schwartz, Emily N MD; Su, John MD. Plantar Fasciitis: A Concise Review. The Permanente Journal. 18(1): e105- e107; 2014.
  3. ^ Cardinal, Etienne MD; Chhem, Rethy K. MD; Beauregard, C. Germain MD; Aubin, Benoit MD; Pelletier, Michel MD. Plantar Fasciitis: Sonographic Evaluation. Radiology. 201(1): 257-259; Oct 1996.
  4. ^ Cardinal, Etienne MD; Chhem, Rethy K. MD; Beauregard, C. Germain MD; Aubin, Benoit MD; Pelletier, Michel MD. Plantar Fasciitis: Sonographic Evaluation. Radiology. 201(1): 257-259; Oct 1996.
  5. ^ Cole, Charles MD; Seto, Craig MD; Gazewood, John MD M.S.P.H. Plantar Fasciitis: Evidence-Based Review of Diagnosis and Therapy. American Family Physician. 72(11): 2237-2242; Dec 1, 2005.
  6. ^ Barrett, SJ; O'Malley, R. Plantar fasciitis and other causes of heel pain. American Family Physician. Europe PubMed Central. 59(8): 2200-2206; 1999.
  7. ^ Barrett, SJ; O'Malley, R. Plantar fasciitis and other causes of heel pain. American Family Physician. Europe PubMed Central. 59(8): 2200-2206; 1999.
  8. ^ Kibler, W. Ben MD FACSM; Goldberg, Cindy PT ATC; Chandler, T. Jeff EhD. Functional biomechanical deficits in running athletes with plantar fasciitis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 19(1):66-71; Jan 1991.
  9. ^ Kibler, W. Ben MD FACSM; Goldberg, Cindy PT ATC; Chandler, T. Jeff EhD. Functional biomechanical deficits in running athletes with plantar fasciitis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 19(1):66-71; Jan 1991.
  10. ^ Cardinal, Etienne MD; Chhem, Rethy K. MD; Beauregard, C. Germain MD; Aubin, Benoit MD; Pelletier, Michel MD. Plantar Fasciitis: Sonographic Evaluation. Radiology. 201(1): 257-259; Oct 1996.