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- Seven Types of Ambiguity ushered forth New Criticism in the United States. The book is a guide to a style of literary criticism practiced by Empson. An ambiguity is represented as a puzzle to Empson. We have ambiguity when "alternative views might be taken without sheer misreading." Empson reads poetry as an exploration of conflicts within the author.
- ``It is one of the most important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis and is commonly cited in biology books.``
- Law and the Modern Mind
- argues for 'legal realism' and emphasizes the psychological forces at work in legal matters.
- Courts on Trial (1949)
stressed the uncertainties and fallibility of the judicial process.
- ``Jerome Frank is famously credited with the idea that a judicial decision might be determined by what the judge had for breakfast.``
- interpretivism (legal), critical legal studies
- contextualism as behaviorism plus mentalism (psychology) but not mentalism (philosophy) de dicto!
- cf. Karl Llewellyn at Columbia Law School (1925-51) then University of Chicago
- cf. Jerome Bruner at University of New York
- cf. lived same as C. K. Ogden (1889-1957)
- The concept gained its greatest publicity just after the World War II as a tool for world peace. Although it was not built into a program, similar simplifications were devised for various international uses. I. A. Richards was a forceful advocate of the use of Basic English, and lobbied the government of China to teach it in schools there. More recently, it has influenced the creation of Simplified English, a standardized version of English intended for the writing of technical manuals.
- In the future history book The Shape of Things to Come, published in 1933, H. G. Wells depicted Basic English as the lingua franca of a new elite which after a prolonged struggle succeeds in uniting the world and establishing a world government. In the future world of Wells' vision, virtually all members of humanity know this language.
- From 1942 until 1944 George Orwell was a proponent of Basic English, but in 1945 he became critical of universal language. The language later inspired his use of Newspeak in Nineteen Eighty-Four. Noted science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein used a form of Basic English in his story "Gulf" as a language appropriate for a race of genius supermen.
- Practical Criticism
- Rev. ed., Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, London (1st ed. 1929)