- A Linguistic Approach to Metaphor
- Peter de Ridder Press, Lisse, Netherlands
- Printed 1961, 1975, 1977. Pages 54.
- Also in: Werner Abraham ed. (1975) The Vale of Tears (Emekhabacha), pp. 17-66.
An intensionalist position is taken in the discussion of metaphorical use of language. The concept of meaning (refuted by extensionalism as being unclear and hence methodologically unacceptable; compare, for example, Quine 1961, Cohen 1962) is developed by integrating both the meaning postulate approach (Carnap) and the componential analysis approach (which plays a decisive role in the semantic theory introduced by Katz and Fodor 1964 and is most prominently advocated by Katz 1972).
The basic thesis is that among the possible associations (meaning components) that verify the proper use of a lexeme only those are conditions for the normal use of the lexeme that have top priority (are the strongest, or necessary, associations). Metaphors are explained on the basis of a reordering of those components such that associations of low priority in the meaning analysis gain prominence (high priority). In principle, every attempt at metaphorical interpretation presupposes some inferential operation of the traditional sort.
Since there are metaphors of a more universal (etymologically and typologically recurring) sort and those of a highly context-specific kind, pragmatic categories and rules of discourse add to what can be generally called an approach of semantic pragmatics. The senses of lexemes are elicited by interaction with other lexemes syntactically connected, as well as by situative conditions. The phenomenon of the metaphor is thus not distinct from any other lexematic occurrence the sense of which is established by interaction with its context (conversational meaning; cf. Cresswell 1973:239); rather, it is a separate type only insofar as the metaphorizing intention of the speaker is explicit.
- reviewd by John Hutchins, Lingua 38, 1976, 359-362.
See also: 1975#John Hutchins, 1977#John Hutchins.
- Jerrold Katz, Jerry Fodor
- Entailment: The Logic of Relevance and Necessity, Vol. I
- with Nuel Belnap, Princeton University Press
- Neural Models with Cognitive Implications
- Technical Report 75-1, The Center for Neural Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, 1975.
- Identical with (1977) "Neural Models with Cognitive Implications," (pp. 27–90), in: D. LaBerge and S. J. Samuels, eds., Basic Processes in Reading Perception and Comprehension, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1977.
- More...: (1977).
- WordNet - Simpli - Google
- Many other Andersons
- Alan Ross Anderson, U Pittsburgh (above)
- Richard C. Anderson, UIUC/CSR
- T. H. Anderson, UIUC/CSR
- M. C. Anderson, UIUC/CSR
- John Robert Anderson, CMU, ACT-R, (1976)
- See also
- Self-consciousness and the Right to Life
- Southwestern Journal of Philosophy, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 123-128
- The Structure of Magic
- Volume I: A Book about Language and Therapy
- Volume II: A Book About Communication and Change
- with John Grinder, Science & Behavior Books, Palo Alto, CA
- Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume I (1976) with John Grinder
- Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume II (1977) with John Grinder and Judith Delozier
- Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming (1979) with John Grinder
- neuro-linguistic programming, History of NLP, meta model (NLP), Milton model
- Gregory Bateson, Milton Erickson, Fritz Perls, Virginia Satir
- The phrasal lexicon
- Proceedings of the 1975 workshop on Theoretical issues in natural language processing (TINLAP '75), pp. 60-63. ACM
Theoretical linguists have in recent years concentrated their attention on the productive aspect of language, wherein utterances are formed combinatorically from units the size of words or smaller. This paper will focus on the contrary aspect of language, wherein utterances are formed by repetition, modification, and concatenation of previously-known phrases consisting of more than one word. I suspect that we speak mostly by stitching together swatches of text that we have heard before; productive processes have the secondary role of adapting the old phrases to the new situation. The advantage of this point of view is that it has the potential to account for the observed linguistic behavior of native speakers, rather than discounting their actual behavior as irrelevant to their language. In particular, this point of view allows us to concede that most utterances are produced in stereotyped social situations, where the communicative and ritualistic functions of language demand not novelty, but rather an appropriate combination of formulas, cliches, idioms, allusions, slogans, and so forth. Language must have originated in such constrained social contexts, and they are still the predominant arena for language production. Therefore an understanding of the use of phrases is basic to the understanding of language as a whole.You are currently reading a much-abridged version of a paper that will be published elsewhere later.
- Platform for Change: A Message from Stafford Beer
- Sociology of Science
- Annual Review of Sociology 1: 203-222 (with Teresa Sullivan)
- Cited in scientific imperialism.
- The Book of Sand
- Spanish title: El libro de arena (1975)
- English title: The Book of Sand (1977)
- Parallels to The Zahir, continuing the themes of self-reference, harmful sensation and attempting to abandon the terribly infinite.
- The titular "Book of Sand" is the Book of all Books, and is a monster. The story tells how this book came into the possession of a fictional version of Borges himself, and of how he ultimately disposed of it.
- The last note to Borges's short story "The Library of Babel" briefly imagines a similar book, and links it to the work of the well-known mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri:
- …[T]his vast Library is useless: rigorously speaking, a single volume would be sufficient… containing an infinite number of infinitely thin leaves. (In the early seventeenth century, Cavalieri said that all solid bodies are the superimposition of an infinite number of planes.)
- cf. The Aleph, The Zahir (1949)
- cf. The Library of Babel (1941)
- cf. The Total Library 1939)
- cf. Kurd Lasswitz (1901) "The Universal Library"
- The Great Chain of Being after Forty Years: An Appraisal
- History of Science, 13: 1-28 
- On the Conflicts between Biological and Social Evolution and between Psychology and Moral Tradition
- American Psychologist 30: 1103-26.
- The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism
- The 801 was started as a pure research project led by John Cocke in October 1975 at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center.
- RISC vs. CISC
Some time after the 801, around 1981, projects at Berkeley (RISC I and II) and Stanford University (MIPS) further developed these concepts. The term RISC came from Berkeley's project, which was the basis for the fast Pyramid minicomputers and SPARC processor. Because of this, features are similar, including a windowed register file (10 global and 22 windowed, vs 8 and 24 for SPARC) with R0 wired to 0. Branches are delayed, and like ARM, all instructions have a bit to specify if condition codes should be set, and execute in a 3 stage pipeline. In addition, next and current PC are visible to the user, and last PC is visible in supervisor mode.
The Berkeley project also produced an instruction cache with some innovative features, such as instruction line prefetch that identified jump instructions, frequently used instructions compacted in memory and expanded upon cache load, multiple cache chips support, and bits to map out defective cache lines.
The Stanford MIPS project was the basis for the MIPS R2000, and like the case with Berkeley project, there are close similarities. MIPS stood for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages, using the compiler to eliminate register conflicts (and generally hide any unsafe CPU behaviour from programmers). Like the R2000, the MIPS had no condition code register, and a special HI/LO multiply and divide register pair.
Unlike the R2000, the MIPS had only 16 registers, and two delay slots for LOAD/STORE and branch instructions. The PC and last three PC values were tracked for exception handling. In addition, instructions were 'packed' (like the Berkeley RISC), in that many instructions specified two operations that were dispatched in consecutive cycles (not decoded by the cache). In this way, it was a 2 operation VLIW, but executed sequentially. User assembly language was translated to 'packed' format by the assembler.
Being experimental, there was no support for floating point operations.
- Syntax and Semantics Vol. 3: Speech Act
- ed. with Jerry L. Morgan, Academic Press, New York
- Grice, Paul. "Logic and conversation." pp. 41-58
- Searle, John . "Indirect speech acts." pp. 59-82.
- Gordon, D. and Lakoff, George. "Conversational postulates." pp. 83-106.
- Green, Georgia M. "How to get people to do things with words." pp. 107–141.
- Davison, A. "Indirect speech acts and what to do with them." pp. 143–184.
- Cole, Peter. "The synchronic and diachronic status of conversational implicature." pp. 257–288.
- Morgan, J. "Some Interactions of Syntax and Pragmatics," pp. 289-303.
- A Spreading-Activation Theory of Semantic Processing
- Psychological Review, 82 (6): 407–428. (with Elizabeth Loftus)
- Intelligent CAI
- Final Report (1 March 1971 - 31 August 1975, with M. C. Grignetti) 
- BBN Report No. 3181
Carbonell's contribution was to apply the idea of generative CAI to ill-defined verbal knowledge, in particular the domain of geography. To do this he used a semantic network (8) for representing knowledge about the world. In a semantic network, information is stored about concepts under different entries, much as in an encyclopedia, but according to a well-defined format. Every concept used to describe a given concept can itself be described elsewhere in the network. Thus the program can know about every concept it uses.
When information is represented in the general format (?) a semantic network, then the structure of the network can be used by different procedures to formulate questions to the student, evaluate his answers, answer his questions, make inferences and computations, select new topics for discussion, etc. Freeing the information from the specific use it is to be put makes it available for use in a variety of ways. In this paper we will try to show some of the power for tutorial interaction that can be obtained by such an approach to CAI.
- References and Notes
1. Jaime R. Carbonell, IEEE Trans. Man-Mach. Sys. MMS-11, 190 (1970)
12. NLS, the On Line System, is a sophisticated modular system which is being used increasingly as an aid in writing, re-organizing, indexing, publishing, and disseminating information of all kinds. It was developed by Douglas Engelbart and his co-workers at the Augmentation Research Center of the Stanford Research Institute.
13. J.S. Brown and R.R. Burton, in Representation and Understanding, D.G. Bobrow and A.M. Collins, eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1975) p. 311. J.S. Brown, R.R. Burton, and A.G. Bell, Intl. J. Man-Mach. Stud. in press (1975).
20. This research was sponsored by the Personnel and Training Research Programs, Psychological Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research, under Contract No. N00014-71-C-0228, Contract Authority Identification Number NR 154-330. We would like to thank all [...] and especially John Seely Brown  and the late Jaime R. Carbonell.
- Representation and Understanding
- Daniel G. Bobrow and Allan M. Collins, eds., Academic Press, New York, 1975.
- Roger Schank, "The Structure of Episodes in Memory."
cf. #Roger Schank.
- David Rumelhart, "Notes on a Schema for Stories."
cf. David Rumelhart (1975) #Donald Norman.
cf. David Rumelhart and Andrew Ortony (1976) "The Representation of Knowledge in Memory," Technical Report No. 55, University of California, San Diego, Center for Human Information Processing, 1976.
- John Seely Brown and Richard R. Burton, p. 311.
cf. John Seely Brown, Richard R. Burton, and A. G. Bell, Intl. J. Man-Mach. Stud. in press, 1975.
- Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature
- Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; Cornell University Press, Ithaca
At the moment G is encountered in a calculation, it is evaluated.
- If G is true, execute S
- If G is false, look at the context to decide what to do (in any case, do not execute S)
- Guarded Commands, Nondeterminacy and Formal Derivation of Program
- Communications of the ACM (August 1975) 18(8): 453–457.
- See also
- (1976). A Discipline of Programming, Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation. A systematic introduction to a version of the guarded command language with many worked examples
- (1982). Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective, Texts and Monographs in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag.
- Implict Meanings: Essays in Anthropology
- Excerpt from the table of contents and the subject index:
Preface 1999 (Index term) implicit meanings, vii-viii Preface 1975 (Index term) implicit meanings, xi-xii Part 1 Essays on the Implicit Introduction (Index term) explicit/implicit, 3-7
- Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge
- Google Preview
- Professionalism in the computing field
- Communications of the ACM, Volume 18, Issue 1 (January 1975), pp. 4-9. ACM
The term professional means different things to different people; nevertheless, there are certain general technical and social standards normally associated with a professional. Further, the term is more generally applied to the practitioner rather than to the researcher. But within the rather broad definition specified, the computing practitioner is, as yet, not regarded as a professional. Each of the four types of institutions—academic, industry, government, and the professional society—that educate, employ, regulate, and mold the practitioner contributes to the "nonprofessional" status of the computing practitioner. The roles of these institutions are examined, various shortcomings are noted, and recommended changes are suggested. In the last analysis, professional status is not bestowed; it is earned. However, universities and industry, specifically, can make certain improvements to help the computing practitioner achieve professional status.
- Cited by: John Buck, Ben Shneiderman, "An internship in information systems: Combining computer science education with realistic problems," ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, v.8, n.3, pp. 80-83, July 1976.
- The Language of Thought
- Harvard University Press
- Truth and Method
- Cited by: Winograd (1985)
- Hermeneutics and Social Science
- Philosophy Social Criticism / Cultural Hermeneutics 2 (1975) 307-316, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland; http://psc.sagepub.com; 2 (4): 307–316.
- Philosophical Hermeneutics (1976)
- Hermeneutic circle
- Galtung received the first of seven honorary doctorates in 1975.
- Essays in Peace Research
- Peace: Research, Education, Action. (1975)
- Peace, War and Defense. (1976)
- Peace and Social Structure. (1978)
- Peace and World Structure. (1980)
- Peace Research: Some Case Studies. (1980)
- The Shattered Mind
- New York: Knopf
- The Quest for Mind: Jean Piaget, Claude Levi-Strauss and the Structuralist Movement (1973)
- Artful Scribbles: The Significance of Children's Drawings (1980)
- Art, Mind and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity (1982)
- Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (1983)
- The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (1985)
- To Open Minds: Chinese Clues to the Dilemma of Contemporary Education (1989)
- The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach (1991)
- The World Brain as seen by an Information Entrepreneur
- In: Manfred Kochen (1975): pp. 155-176. pdf
- Cf. Eugene Garfield (1976) "The World Brain as Seen by an Information Entrepreneur" (Comment on Garfield (1975)) in: Essays of an Information Scientist by Eugene Garfield, vol 2 (1974-1976) (Philadelphia PA: ISI Press, 1977) pp. 638-639 (reprinted from Current Contents no. 48, Nov 29, 1976)
- Cf. W. Boyd Rayward (1975) The Universe of Information
- Logic and conversation
- In: Peter Cole (1975): pp. 41-58 (Reprinted in Studies in the Way of Words, ed. H. P. Grice, pp. 22–40. Harvard University Press, 1989)
- Cf. Implicature
- Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?
- Google 
- The Emergence of Probability: a Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference
- Cambridge University Press
- The Age of Capital, 1848-1875
- Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems
- genetic algorithm, complex adaptive system, Holland's schema theorem
- (1995) Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity
- (1998) Emergence: From Chaos to Order
- Languages of Indexing and Classification: A Linguistic Study of Structures and Functions
- (Librarianship and Information Studies 3), Stevenage, Peter Peregrinus
- Subjects, Themes and Case Grammars
- Lingua 35(2), 1975, pp. 101-133
- See also
- (1976) reviewed Werner Abraham (1975) A Linguistic Approach to Metaphor, in: Lingua 38 (1976) pp. 359-362
- (1977) "On the Problem of 'Aboutness' in Document Analysis." Journal of Informatics 1(1), 1977, pp. 17-35
- (1977) "On the Structure of Scientific Texts." UEA Papers in Linguistics 5, Sept. 1977, 18-39
- Publications 
- William John Hutchins, paged by User:BirgerH 2008-07-07.
- Center for the Study of Reading
- Techinical Reports ERIC pdf
- Queueing Systems
- Vol. I – Theory, Wiley Interscience, 1975
- Vol. II – Computer Applications, Wiley Interscience, 1976
- "Hierarchical Routing for Large Networks, Performance Evaluation and Optimization", Computer Networks, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 155–174, January 1977 (with Farok Kamoun)
- Information for Action: from Knowledge to Wisdom
- ed., New York: Academic Press
- See also: (1972) "WISE: a World Information Synthesis and Encyclopaedia," Journal of Documentation 28: 322-341
- See also: (1976) "What makes a citizen information system used and useful". In: Manfred Kochen and Joseph C. Donohue (eds.) Information for the Community, Chicago: American Library Association, 1976. Chapter 10, pp. 149-170.
- "Evolution of Brainlike Social Organs," pp. 1-
- "Who Should Control Societies," pp. 21-
- "What is Information for Policy Making?" pp. 33-
- Karl W. Deutsch, "On the Learning Capacity of Large Political Systems." pp. 61-83.
- R. G. Havelock, "Research on the utilization of knowledge," pp. 87-107.
- A. A. Aines, "Internationalization of scientific and technical information programs: opportunity and challenge," pp. 139-152.
- Eugene Garfield, "The World Brain as seen by an Information Entrepreneur," pp. 155-160.
- Harold D. Lasswell, "Constraints on the Use of Knowledge in Decision Making," pp. 161-169.
- Derek J. de Solla Price, "Some Aspects of 'World Brain' Notions." pp. 177-203.
- Howard J. Hilton, "An Ideal Information Access System: Some Economic Implications."
- Information and the Quality of Life
- In: Anthony Debons and William J. Cameron (eds.) Perspectives in Information Science (Leyden: Noordhof) pp. 569-587
- with Ron Fry (both at Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University)
- Toward an Applied Theory of Experiential Learning
- In: C. Cooper (ed.) Theories of Group Process, London: John Wiley.
- He named his "Experiential Learning Model" to emphasize its links to ideas from John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Kurt Lewin, and others writers of the experiential learning paradigm. His model was developed predominantly for use with adult education, but has found widespread pedagogical implications in higher education.
- experiential education, cooperative learning, action learning, active learning, learning by doing, discovery learning, critical pedagogy
- Among the factors that constrain the application of knowledge in public decision making or private choice, Lasswell cites the values inherent in one's goal, the control of assets, and the decision structures. He uses decision phases to illustrate further constraints which might be remedied by a systematic approach.  cf. World Brain
- Lasswell emphasizes the growing interdependence of the world and its effects on developments in the United States. He uses the seven-phase model of the decision process -- intelligence, promotion, prescription, invocation, application, termination, and appraisal -- to discuss future trends.  cf. Education
- The authors argue that a regard for human dignity is denied by deprivations imposed on individuals for nonconforming political opinion or behavior. They survey transnational declarations on freedom from discrimination and freedom of expression, concluding that such doctrines are indeed fragile and require vigilant protection. The article outlines factual background, basic community policies, trends in decision, and possible future developments relative to the shaping and sharing of controversial opinions.  cf. Utilitarianism, Egalitarianism
- After defining respect as a major value, this article reviews relevant trends in decision. The discussion includes claims relating to outcomes (choice, slavery, caste, and apartheid) and to equality of opportunity (race).  cf. Utilitarianism, Egalitarianism
- The first four chapters by the editors create a "framework" for applying the policy sciences to problems of population policy. Succeeding chapters apply this framework to particular countries worldwide. The framework depends largely on Lasswell's policy sciences model.  cf. Holism, Contextualism
- Distinguishing between population decisions (public order) and choices (civic order), Lasswell suggests how the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be used to examine values relative to population policies. He briefly outlines the policy sciences approach for contextual, problem-oriented, multi-method analysis. He indicates how a "conceptual map" developed from this approach can be used to analyze population issues.  cf. Contextualism, Concept map
- The Living Principle: 'English' as a Discipline of Thought
- Thought, Words and Creativity: Art and Thought in Lawrence (1976)
- 1988#Michael Bell
- 1999#Richard Harland. Literary theory from Plato to Barthes: an introductory history
- Languages and Language
- In: K. Gunderson (ed.) Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Language, vol. 7, pp. 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Reprinted in: A. P. Martinich (ed.) The Philosophy of Language 3rd ed., pp. 538–557. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
- Henry Cameron Lucas Jr.
- Why Information Systems Fail
- Columbia University Press, New York.
As a student of MIS in the 1980s, certain research efforts impressed upon me the importance of focusing on the role of people in systems. Henry Lucas’ study of why information systems fail (Lucas, 1975) is a case in point. In particular, his finding that human behavior is at least as important as technical excellence to the success of an information system left a lasting impression on me. It is easy to be dazzled by the stream of technological innovations in hardware and software. However systems are built for people. It is how people react to technology that is of fundamental importance to systems' success. Today the concept of the "operational feasibility" of a systems idea is included in all textbooks on systems analysis and design. To be assured that a systems idea has a fighting chance of succeeding, the people for whom the system is being developed must ultimately accept the system and use it in the manner it was developed to be used.
- The Sociology of Language
- The Embodied Mind: A Neurological Perspective
- The Fremantel Lectures, Balliol College, Oxford (unpublished)
- Sociology of Science in Europe
- ed. with A. Podgorecki & J. Gaston, Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Ill
- The name is reminiscent of The Social Function of Science (1939) by John Desmond Bernal. Note the John Desmond Bernal Prize awarded since 1980.
- A Framework for Representing Knowledge
- In: The Psychology of Computer Vision, P. Winston (ed.), McGraw-Hill, 1975.
- Originally, MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306, June, 1974. http://courses.media.mit.edu/2004spring/mas966/Minsky%201974%20Framework%20for%20knowledge.pdf
- Reprinted in Shorter versions in: J. Haugeland, Ed., Mind Design, MIT Press, 1981, and in: Cognitive Science, Collins, Allan and Edward E. Smith (eds.) Morgan-Kaufmann, 1992.
- "For there exists a great chasm between those, on the one side, who relate everything to a single central vision, one system more or less coherent or articulate, in terms of which they understand, think and feel–a single, universal, organizing principle in terms of which alone all that they are and say has significance–and, on the other side, those who pursue many ends, often unrelated and even contradictory, connected, if at all, only in some de facto way, for some psychological or physiological cause, related by no moral or esthetic principle." -- Isaiah Berlin (1957). The Hedgehog and the Fox.
Compare this opening quotation with:
``Schumacher argues that there are two types of problems in the world:
- with David Rumelhart and The LNR Research Group
- Explorations in Cognition
- San Francisco: W. H. Fremand Co., 1975.
- (1975) "Notes on a Schema for Stories." #Allan Collins
- (1976) "Understanding and Summarizing Brief Stories," Technical Report No. 58, University of California, San Diego, Center for Human Information Processing, 1976.
- (1977) Introduction to Human Information Processing.
- (1987) Parallel Distributed Processing: Psychological and Biological Models, (with James L. McClelland).
- (1990) Neuroscience and Connectionist Theory (with Mark A. Gluck at Rutgers, cf. Gordon Bower)
- Rumelhart Prize
- Conversation, Cognition and Learning
- Elsevier, New York
- Cf. Conversation Theory, Applications in Education and Epistemology (Elsevier, 1976)
- Cf. Integrative learning
- Cf. Interactions of Actors Theory
- The Cybernetics of Human Learning and Performance
- Cf. Triangle of reference, symbolic of The Meaning of Meaning
- Marcus Smith (1976) "Talking about Talking: An Interview with Walker Percy," New Orleans Review, 5 No. 1 (1976) 13-18. reprinted in Conversations with Walker Percy ed. by Lewis A. Lawson, Victor A. Kramer. book.google
- J. William Pfeiffer & John E. Jones (1975).
- A Handbook of Structured Experiences for Human Relations Training, Vols. 1-5.
- La Jolla, CA: University Associates.
- Moshe Feldenkrais (1975). "Awareness Through Movement." In: John E. Jones and J. William Pfeiffer (eds.) Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. La Jolla, CA: University Associates, 1975.
- cf. Leonard David Goodstein, Timothy M. Nolan
- Experiential learning, 5-stage model of experiential learning cycle, including experiencing, publishing, processing, generalizing, and applying.
- Language and Learning: The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky
- (ed.) book.google
- ``Pocock is celebrated not merely as an historian, but as a pioneer of a new type of historical methodology: contextualism, i.e., the study of 'texts in context.' In the 1960s and early '70s, he, (introducing languages of political thought) along with Quentin Skinner (focusing on authorial intention), and John Dunn (stressing biography), united informally to undertake this approach as, the 'Cambridge School' of the history of political thought. Hereafter for the Cambridge School and its adherents, the then-reigning method of textual study, that of engaging a vaunted 'canon' of previously pronounced "major" political works in a typically anachronistic and disjointed fashion, simply would not do.`` -- J. G. A. Pocock#The 'Cambridge School'
- The Eclipse of Thought
- In a sense this book could be said to be about intellectual freedom. Yet its title, Meaning, is not really misleading, since ... the achievement of meaning cannot properly be divorced from intellectual freedom.
- Personal Knowledge
- From Perception to Metaphor
- Perhaps I. A. Richards has made as great an effort to explain the power of metaphors as anyone so far. It is both the likeness and the unlikeness of the two parts of a metaphor, the tenor and the vehicle, that somehow account, he thinks, for the way it works. There is, he says, a "peculiar modification of the tenor which the vehicle brings about," and this is "even more the work of their unlikenesses than of their likenesses."5 But Richards does not explain to us how this peculiar interaction of likeness and unlikeness can have such a powerful effect upon us.
- Except for very simple metaphors, which Max Black thinks can be viewed as substitutions or comparisons, an "interaction" view, such as he thinks I. A. Richards' view is, seems to Black to be the best. Yet there are many complications in this view. In the end Black seems to think that "the secret and mystery of metaphor" reside in the connection that the reader is forced to make between the two ideas in a metaphor, but how this works remains unexplained. In spite of the fact that he can and does use metaphors in his efforts to account for the "secret" of the metaphor (i.e., he has a tacit understanding of "metaphor"), Black fails to unravel this secret explicitly. In fact, he seems to think that, even if we could state a number of relevant relations betwen the tenor and the vehicle, "the set of literal statements so obtained will not have the same power to inform and enlighten as the original." Although he admits that an attempt to explicate the "grounds" of a metaphor can be valuable, he holds that we must not regard this "as an adequate cognitive substitute for the original." Thus, although Max Black seems to regard metaphors as communicating cognitive content, they seem to defy all his efforts to state just what this cognitive content is. A "suitable reader," he says, must "educe for himself, with a nice feeling for their relative priorities and degrees of importance," the various relations in the metaphor which, when we try to express them explicitly, we can only present wrongly as having equal weight.6
- What is altogether missing in this honest admission by Black of his theory's limited ability to unpack metaphors is any sort of explanation of why or how a metaphor can move us so greatly -- can carry us away. At best he shows only that we learn something cognitively from a metaphor that we did not know before and that this has something to do with a "suitable" reader's capacity to make a connection between "the two ideas" in a metaphor.
- Works of Art
- ``It spells out his positions on language and art, religion and society. It integrates these with his previous accounts of personal knowledge so as to achieve something close to a synthesis ...``
- ``Published very shortly before his death in February 1976, Meaning is the culmination of Michael Polanyi's philosophic endeavors. With the assistance of Harry Prosch, Polanyi goes beyond his earlier critique of scientific "objectivity" to investigate meaning as founded upon the imaginative and creative faculties.
Establishing that science is an inherently normative form of knowledge and that society gives meaning to science instead of being given the "truth" by science, Polanyi contends here that the foundation of meaning is the creative imagination. Largely through metaphorical expression in poetry, art, myth, and religion, the imagination is used to synthesize the otherwise chaotic and disparate elements of life. To Polanyi these integrations stand with those of science as equally valid modes of knowledge. He hopes this view of the foundation of meaning will restore validity to the traditional ideals that were undercut by modern science. Polanyi also outlines the general conditions of a free society that encourage varied approaches to truth, and includes an illuminating discussion of how to restore, to modern minds, the possibility for the acceptance of religion.`` -- Description on the back cover
- ``By December of 1973, Polanyi had apparently made up his mind to start fresh with another collaborator. He invited Richard Gelwick [...] Gelwick was in Cambridge at this time on sabbatical studying with Peacocke and dutifully began meeting with Polanyi, providing detailed notes on their conversations, and beginning the process of pulling Polanyi's articles, notes, and oral instructions into a coherent whole.`` -- excerpt from Harry Prosch 1917-2005
- Personal Knowledge (1958)
- The Tacit Dimension (1967)
- tacit knowledge v explicit knowledge
- Tradition & Discovery: The Polanyi Society Periodical 
- Harry Prosch (1986) Michael Polanyi: A Critical Exposition
- Mind, Language and Reality
- Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press
- "The Meaning of 'Meaning'"
- Cf. The Meaning of Meaning whose first chapter "Thoughts, Words and Things" is analogous to Mind, Language and Reality
- Social Objects
- Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 75: 1-27
- The Universe of Information: The Work of Paul Otlet for Documentation and International Organisation
- FID520, VINITI, Moscow (txt)
- In 1937 the Institute for Intellectual Co-operation  organised a World Congress for Universal Documentation in Paris. This was an enormous congress attended by representatives of governments as well as by those interested in documentation in a more private capacity. It was, in fact, the first time that such a large, influential congress had been held in the field since the IIB conferences of 1908 and 1910 and those of the UIA in 1910 and 1913. Here Otlet and La Fontaine came into much respectful praise. Their positions as grand old men of European documentation were clearly acknowledged. The idea of a Universal Network or System for Documentation was taken up and the IID once more changed its name and statutes to become the International Federation for Documentation, in order better to promote this. Here there was much talk of H. G. Wells' idea of a World Brain, a new form of the encyclopedia, an idea which, in a different form, Otlet had been writing about for decades. Here Otlet met Wells and made "magnificent improvisations". (p. 356)
- It is indeed paradoxical that libraries and archival repositories preserve large masses of documents without having the resources to catalog, analyse and circulate them [...]. The Universal Network of Documentation is called on to organise the liason of these reservoirs and repertories, of producers and users. The ultimate goal is to realise the World Encyclopedia according to the needs of the twentieth century. (p. 357) (my emphasis)
- The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-Disciplinary Studies in the Creation of Meaning in Language
- trans. by Robert Czerny, Kathleen McLaughlin and S. J., John Costello (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978)
- Explicit and Implicit Variables in Information Retrieval Systems
- Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 26(4): 214-22
- See also:
Peter Russell was born in London, England. He attended Steyning Grammar School and Maidstone Grammar School. In 1965 he was awarded an Open Exhibition to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, to study Mathematics. In 1969, he gained a First Class Honours in Theoretical Physics and Experimental Psychology. He then went to Rishikesh, India, where he trained as a teacher of Transcendental Meditation under Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. In 1971, he gained a post-graduate degree in Computer Science. From 1971 to 1974, he studied for a Ph.D. on the psychophysiology of meditation at Bristol University.
In 1975, he began working with Tony Buzan teaching mind maps, and memory skills to various European corporations. (my emphasis) In the eighties, he expanded this work to include personal development tools and mindsets, teaming up with Roger Evans to run programs on creativity enhancement.
- Relevance: A review of and a framework for thinking on the notion of information science.
- Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 26(6): 321-343.
- The Structure of Episodes in Memory
- In: D.G. Bobrow and A.N. Collins (eds.), Representation and Understanding, Academic Press, New York, 237-272.
- (1977) Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures. Hillsdale (with Robert P. Abelson)
- (1986) Explanation Patterns. Hillsdale, Erlbaum.
- (1990) Tell Me A Story: A New Look at Real and Artificial Memory. Scribners.
- People learn very easily from stories -- so easily that they can be taught to firmly believe things that aren't true, as Schank notes in passing.
- case based reasoning
- Indirect Speech Acts
- In: Peter Cole (1975): pp. 59-82 (Reprinted in Pragmatics: A Reader, ed. S. Davis, pp. 265–277. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)
- Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death
- W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.
- Phrenological Knowledge and the Social Structure of Early Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh
- Annals of Science, 32: 219-243
Vladimir Slamecka (1975).
- Pragmatic observations on theoretical research in information science.
- Journal of the American Society of Information Science 26:318-320.
- Oxford University Press
- Rethinking Symbolism
- Original © 1974. Alice L. Morton (trans.) 1975.
- Cambridge University Press, 1975
- Google  The back matter includes part of Edmund Leach's review for The Time Literary Supplement. See /Sperber.
- The Argument and the Action of Plato's Laws
- University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975
- Political Philosophy: Six Essays by Leo Strauss
- Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1975 (ed. by Hilail Gilden)
- The School of the Future: Technological Possibilities
- In: L. Rubin (ed.), The Future of Education: Perspectives on Tomorrow's Schooling, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 145-157.
- From Behaviorism to Neobehaviorism
- Theory and Decision, 6, 269-285.
"For his broad efforts to deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of four major areas: the measurement of subjective probability and utility in uncertain situations; the development and testing of general learning theory; the semantics and syntax of natural language; and the use of interactive computer programs for instruction." 
- Ignorance: A Case for Skepticism
- Oxford University Press
- Knowledge and Politics
- Free Press
- An Introduction to General Systems Thinking
- Did Jesus Exist?
- Prometheus Books
- Wells "avoids polemic and speculation" and argues there was no historical evidence of Jesus existing.
Marshall C. Yovits (1975)
- A theoretical framework for the development of information science.
- In: International Federation for Documentation (FID) Study Committee: Research on the Theoretical Basis of Information, 24-26 April 1974, Moscow. FID 530 (pp. 90-114). Moscow: VINITI, 1975.
- (1969). "Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline." American Documentation Vol. 20, pp. 369-376.
- A. I. Mikhailov, A. I. Chernyi & R. S. Giliarevskii (1969). "Informatics: Its Scope and Methods." In: On Theoretical Problems of Informatics. FID 435 (pp. 7-24). Moscow: VINITI, 1969.
- Center for the Study of Reading
- See also 2000#John Brown
- Don't be confused with Jaime G. Carbonell, though both appear associated at least by a co-authorship, e.g., References, 14. E.H. Warnock, J.R. Carbonell, J.G. Carbonell, "Discussing Maps with a Computer" (In preparation, c.1973). ACM See also: Allan M. Collins#Confusing co-authors Jaime Carbonell
- 1979#Andrew Ortony
- Curriculum Vitae
- Harold D. Lasswell (1975). "Constraints on the Use of Knowledge in Decision Making." In: Manfred Kochen (ed.) Information for Action: From Knowledge to Wisdom. New York: Academic Press. pp. 161-169.
- Harold D. Lasswell (1975). "The Future of Government and Politics in the United States." In: Louis Rubin (ed.), The Future of Education: Perspectives on Tomorrow's Schooling. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 1-21.
- Myres S. McDougal, Harold D. Lasswell, and Lung-chu Chen (1975). "Non-conforming Political Opinion and Human Rights: Transnational Protection against Discrimination." In: Yale Studies in World Public Order 2.1: pp. 1-31.
- Myres S. Mcdougal, Harold D. Lasswell, and Lung-chu Chen (1975). "The Protection of Respect and Human right: Freedom of Choice and World Public Order." American University Law Review 24 (1975): 919-1086.
- Warren F. Ilchman, Harold D. Lasswell, John D. Montgomery, and Myron Weiner (eds.) Policy Sciences and Population. Lexington, MA: Lexigton Books. 1975.
- Harold D. Lasswell (1975). "Population Change and policy Sciences: Proposed Workshops on Reciprocal Impact Analysis." In: Warren F. Ilchman, Harold D. Lasswell, John D. Montgomery, and Myron Weiner (eds.) Policy Sciences and Population. Lexington, MA: Lexigton Books. pp. 117-135.
- Pocock details its genesis, credited to Peter Laslett.
- Mistaken for International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, later UNESCO.
- 45. For an account of this Congress with its resolutions on the Universal Network for Documentation and incidental references to Otlet and La Fontaine see "Congres Mondial de Documentation, Paris, 16—21 aout, 1937," IIiD Communicationes, IV Fasc. Ill (1937), passim but especially pp. 16—18.
- 47. "Le Cangres Mondial de la Documentation". This is a single page of typescript in the Otletaneum dated 1937.09.20 and signed Paul Otlet.
- Peter Russell (1982). The Awakening Earth: The Global Brain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.