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James S. Albus (1976).
Peoples' Capitalism: The Economics of the Robot Revolution. New World Books, January, 1976.

Peoples' Capitalism Home includes fulltext of the book
Toward a New World with Peoples' Capitalism at YouTube

John Anderson[edit]

Language, Memory, and Thought
Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ
The first description of the ACT theory, cf. ACT-R, CV
  • (1973) Human Associative Memory. Winston and Sons. (with Gordon H. Bower)
  • (1979) "An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing." In: L.S. Cermak & F.I.M. Craik (eds.), Levels of Processing in Human Memory. Erlbaum. (with his wife Lynne Reder)
  • (1980) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. Freeman.
  • (1981) Learning and Cognition (ed.) Erlbaum.
    • Allen Newell and Paul Rosenbloom. "Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice."
  • (1983) The Architecture of Cognition. Harvard University Press.
  • (1990) The Adaptive Character of Thought. Erlbaum.
  • (1993) Rules of the Mind. Erlbaum.

Robert Axelrod[edit]

Structure of Decision: the Cognitive Maps of Political Elites
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. (editor)

Gregory Bateson[edit]

For God's Sake, Margaret
CoEvolutionary Quarterly, June 1976, no. 10, pp. 22-44 [1]

Nicholas Belkin[edit]

Information Science and the Phenomenon of Information
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 27, no. 4: 197-204 (with Stephen Robertson)
  • Cf. "H-bomb" (Hydrogen and/or Hidden bomb?)

Jonathan Bennett[edit]

Linguistic Behaviour
  • Cf. J. W. Bennett (1976) "Anticipation, Adaptation and the Concept of Culture in Anthropology," Science 192: 847-52

Isaiah Berlin[edit]

Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas
Chato and Windass (1976)

David Bloor[edit]

Knowledge and Social Imagery
See also

John Boyd[edit]

Destruction and Creation
  • Abstract

    To comprehend and cope with our environment we develop mental patterns or concepts of meaning. The purpose of this paper is to sketch out how we destroy and create these patterns to permit us to both shape and be shaped by a changing environment. In this sense, the discussion also literally shows why we cannot avoid this kind of activity if we intend to survive on our own terms.

    The activity is dialectic in nature generating both disorder and order that emerges as a changing and expanding universe of mental concepts matched to a changing and expanding universe of observed reality.

Donald Campbell[edit]

Assessing the Impact of Planned Social Change
The Public Affairs Center, Dartmouth College, December, 1976. pdf
``A version of this paper was presented to the Visegrad, Hungary, Conference on Social Psychology, May 5-10, 1974.``


Alan Chalmers
What Is This Thing Called Science?
  • It is a guide to the philosophy of science which outlines the shortcomings of a naive empiricist accounts of science, and describes and assesses modern attempts to replace them. The book is written with minimal use of technical terms.


Peter Pin-Shan Chen (1976).
The Entity-Relationship Model: Toward a Unified View of Data. ACM Transactions on Database Systems (TODS), 1(1): 9-36. ACM

  • "The entity-relationship model: toward a unified view of data." ACM SIGIR Forum Volume 10, Issue 3 (Winter 1975) ACM Transactions on Database Systems. Pages: 9 - 9. ACM
    A data model, called the entity-relationship model, is proposed. This model incorporates some of the important semantic information in the real world. A special diagramatic technique is introduced as a tool for data base design. An example of data base design and description using the model and the diagramatic technique is given. Some implications on data integrity, information retrieval, and data manipulation are discussed.The entity-relationship model can be used as a basis for unification of different views of data: the network model, the relational model, and the entity set model. Semantic ambiguities in these models are analyzed. Possible ways to derive their views of data from the entity-relationship model are presented.


Roderick Chisholm (1976).
Person and Object: A Metaphysical Study

Jonathan Culler[edit]


Richard Dawkins[edit]

The Selfish Gene

Gilles Deleuze[edit]

with Felix Guattari

Jacques Derrida[edit]

Of Grammatology
trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1976

Michael Dummett[edit]

What is a Theory of Meaning (II)
In: #Gareth Evans (1976). Truth and meaning
  • ``If a Martian could learn to speak a human language, or a robot be devised to behave in just the ways that are essential to a language speaker, an implicit knowledge of the correct theory of meaning for the language could be attributed to the Martian or the robot with as much right as to a human speaker, even though their internal mechanisms were entirely different.`` (cited by Ned Block 1981)

Terry Eagleton[edit]

Criticism and Ideology
Marxism and Literary Criticism

Umberto Eco[edit]

A Theory of Semiotics
Macmillan, London. (English translation).
Original: Trattato di Semiotica Generale (1975)

Carolyn Eisele[edit]

The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce
4 volumes (ed.)
Mouton Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands, 1976.
Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1976.

Gareth Evans[edit]

Truth and Meaning: Essays in Semantics
Oxford University Press
ed. with John McDowell

Charles Fillmore[edit]

Frame semantics and the nature of language
In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Conference on the Origin and Development of Language and Speech. Volume 280: 20-32.

Stanley Fish[edit]

Interpreting the Variorum
Critical Inquiry, Volume 2, Number 3 (Spring 1976)
Is There A Text in This Class (Harvard U. Press, 1980) 147–174
  • Interpretive communities are a theoretical concept stemming from reader-response criticism and invented by Stanley Fish. They appeared in an article by Fish in 1976 entitled "Interpreting the Variorum".[1] Fish's theory states that a text does not have meaning outside of a set of cultural assumptions regarding both what the characters mean and how they should be interpreted. This cultural context often includes authorial intent, though it is not limited to it. Fish claims that we interpret texts because we are part of an interpretive community that gives us a particular way of reading a text.

Heinz von Foerster[edit]

Tokens for (Eigen-)Behaviours
ASC Cybernetics Forum, 8 (3&4): pp. 91–96, 1976 (English version of 84.1)

Alvin Goldman[edit]

Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge
The Journal of Philosophy, 73: 771-791

Nelson Goodman[edit]

Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols
2nd ed.

Jurgen Habermas[edit]

Communication and the Evolution of Society
(1979) English trans.
On the Pragmatics of Social Interaction

Edward Hall[edit]

Beyond Culture
Doubleday, New York
  • Keiji Iwata and Yasushi Tani (1979) Bunka Wo Koete (trans. to Japanese, TBS Buritanika, Tokyo)
  • Cf. Edward T. Hall (1978) "Human Needs for Autonomy and Dependence in Technological Environments: Review and Commentary." In: Brent R. Rubin (ed.) Communication Yearbook II (Transaction Press, New Brunswick, NJ) pp. 23-28
  • "Psychological anthropology differentiates culture into overt and covert dimensions [Hall, 1976]; both are crucial in determining communication behavior. The overt or open culture refers to clearly identifiable cultural components such as religion, formal language, and values and norms explicated in philosophy or folklore. Covert or hidden culture, on the other hand, is defined by the unconscious behavioral and perceptual patterns resulting from daily social learning." -- Gary Huang (1993) "Beyond Culture: Communicating with Asian American Children and Families." ERIC/CUE Digest Number 94 (ERIC Identifier: ED366673, ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York, NY) [3]

Stuart Hampshire[edit]

Knowledge and the Future
Gwilym James Memorial Lecture

Willis Harman[edit]

An Incomplete Guide to the Future

John Harsanyi[edit]

Essays on Ethics, Social Behavior, and Scientific Explanation
Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland

Eric Hirsch[edit]

The Aims of Interpretation
  • ``His books Validity in Interpretation (1967) and The Aims of Interpretation (1976) argue that the author's intention must be the ultimate determiner of meaning and against many new critical and postmodernist claims to the contrary. Hirsch proposed the distinction between "meaning" (as intended by the author) and "significance" (as perceived by a reader or critic).``
Summing up
  • 1967 - Validity in Interpretation
  • 1976 - The Aims of Interpretation
  • 1977 - The Philosophy of Composition
    • 1936 - The Philosophy of Rhetoric
  • 1986 - Core Knowledge Foundation
  • 1987 - Cultural literacy
  • 1988 - The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy
  • 1996 - The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them
    Excerpt: "Romanticism believed that human nature is innately good, and should therefore be encouraged to take its natural course, unspoiled by the artificial impositions of social prejudice and convention. Second, Romanticism concluded that a child is neither a scaled-down, ignorant version of the adult nor a formless piece of clay in need of molding, rather, the child is a special being in its own right with unique, trustworthy impulses that should be allowed to develop and run their course."
  • 1997 - What Your __ Grader Needs to Know (Core Knowledge Series)
    • 1938 - World Brain
      "Knowledge correlated through a World Encyclopaedia" (a grade-by-grade diagram, pp. 106-7)
  • 2006 The Knowledge Deficit
    He once again makes the case that the cause of disappointing reading performance is a lack of background knowledge. Cf. The Meaning of Meaning (1923), esp., "psychological context".

Jerry Hobbs[edit]

Making Computational Sense of Montague's Intensional Logic
Courant computer science report, 1976

Ray Jackendoff[edit]

Semantics and Cognition
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
Toward an Explanatory Semantic Representation
Linguistic Inquiry, 7(1): 89-150

Julian Jaynes[edit]

The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind

Philip Johnson-Laird[edit]

Language and Perception
ed. with George Armitage Miller
Belknap Press

Thomas Kuhn[edit]

Theory-Change as Structure-Change: Comments on the Sneed Formalism
Erkenntnis 10: 179-199
  • For Kuhn, unlike Quine, reference is not inscrutable but just very difficult to recover. Refer to "Kuhn's Later Semantic Incommensurability Thesis" [4] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [5]

Edmund Leach[edit]

Culture and Communication: The Logic by Which Symbols are Connected
Cambridge University Press. google

Herbert M. Lefcourt[edit]

Locus of Control: Current Trends in Theory and Research.
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
See also
  • Herbert M. Lefcourt (1966). "Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A review". Psychological Bulletin 65(4): 206–20.

Wolf Lepenies[edit]

Das Ende der Naturgeschichte
The End of Natural Science

Brian Loar[edit]

The Semantics of Singular Terms
Philosophical Studies, 30: 353-377

Alfred Loisy[edit]

The Gospel and the Church
Fortress, Philadelphia, 1976
English trans. of L'Évangile et l'Église (Picard, Paris, (1902))

John Lucas[edit]

Essays on Freedom and Grace
ISBN 0-281-02932-6
Democracy and Participation
ISBN 0-14-021882-3

Alexander Luria[edit]

The Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations
Harvard University Press
  • In 1924, Luria met Lev Vygotsky, who would influence him greatly. Along with Alexei Nikolaevich Leont'ev, these three psychologists launched a project of developing a psychology of a radically new kind. This approach fused "cultural," "historical," and "instrumental" psychology and is most commonly referred to presently as cultural-historical psychology. It emphasizes the mediatory role of culture, particularly language, in the development of higher mental functions in ontogeny and phylogeny.
  • Jerome Bruner

E. R. MacCormac[edit]

Metaphor and Myth in Science and Religion
Durham: Duke University Press.

Ernst Mach[edit]

On Thought Experiments
in Ernst Mach, Knowledge and Error: Sketches on the Psychology of Enquiry (D. Reidel Publishing Co.) pp.134-147 (translation of Erkenntnis und Irrtum, 5th edition, 1926)

James March[edit]

Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations
with Johan Olsen. Universitetsforlaget, Bergen, Norway

Nicholas Maxwell[edit]

What’s Wrong With Science?
(The Library of Science Criticism)
Bran's Head Books, Hayes, Middlesex
  • (1984) From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution in the Aims and Methods of Science, Basil Blackwell, Oxford
  • Roger Sperry (1983) Science and Moral Priority

Serge Moscovici[edit]

Social Influence and Social Change
Academic Press
  • ``The key to the problematic character of the social representations theory can probably found in its dual character which was formulated in Moscovici's initial suggestion in the following way: "...we can see two cognitive systems at work, one which operates in terms of associations, discriminations, that is to say the cognitive operational system, and the other which controls, verifies and selects in accordance with various logical and other rules; it involves a kind of metasystem which re-works the material produced by the first" (Moscovici 1976, p.256.). These two systems are traditionally studied in social psychology separately from each other. The cognitive operational system which is bound to the individual mind encompasses processes including attribution, scripts, implicit theories, categorisation, and stereotyping is the target of mainstream social psychology. In contrast interpretative rules and the social distribution of knowledge are placed onto the social level of analysis, and are approached by phenomenologically or sociologically orientated research. The "titanic" attempt (Gergen, 1994) to avoid both psychological-mentalistic and sociological reductionism by integrating the exogenic and endogenic world views, i.e., individual, social, and collective levels of representation (Cranach, 1992; Jesuino, 1995) into a single theory, however inevitably complex, runs the risk that the gain in explanatory value is at the cost of its relation with empirical research (c.f. Ibanez, 1991).`` pdf


Ulric Neisser (1976).
Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology. WH Freeman

See also


Allen Newell & Herbert A. Simon

Computer science as empirical inquiry: symbols and search
Communications of the ACM (March 1976) 19(3): 113-126. ACM
Computer science is the study of the phenomena surrounding computers. The founders of this society understood this very well when they called themselves the Association for Computing Machinery. The machine -- not just the hardware, but the programmed, living machine -- is the organism we study.

Gordon Pask[edit]

Conversation Theory: Applications in Education and Epistemology
Elsevier, Amsterdam
Conversational Techniques in the Study and Practice of Education
British J. of Educational Psychology, 46, 12-25
Style and Strategies of Learning
British J. of Educational Psychology, 46, 128-148

Karl Popper[edit]

Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography

Derek Price[edit]

A General Theory of Bibliometric and Other Cumulative Advantage Processes
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27: 292-306 (1976 JASIS paper award)

Bertram Raphael[edit]

The Thinking Computer: Mind Inside Matter
W.H. Freeman & Company

Tanya Reinhart[edit]

The Syntactic Domain of Anaphora
PhD dissertation, MIT, supervised by Noam Chomsky.
  • In syntax, c-command is a relationship between nodes in parse trees. Originally defined by Tanya Reinhart (1976, 1983),[2] it corresponds to the idea of "siblings and all their descendants" in family trees.
  • "C-command" is generally taken to be a shortened form of "constituent command." According to anonymous sources cited by Andrew Carnie,[3] however, the etymology of "c-command" may also be traced back to a time in the 1970s when the c-command relationship existed alongside another relationship, kommand, proposed by Howard Lasnik in 1976.[4] Since "command" and "kommand" were pronounced the same way, linguists may have differentiated them by referring to them as "c-command" and "k-command," respectively. It is unclear, then, whether the term "c-command" is left over from this former distinction, or "constituent command" was a pre-existing term and "c-command" an abbreviated form of it.
  • cf. Anaphora and Semantic Interpretation (Croom Helm, London, 1983)

Paul Ricoeur[edit]

Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning
Texas Christian University Press, 1976

David Rumelhart[edit]

and Andrew Ortony
The Representation of Knowledge in Memory
Technical Report No. 55, University of California, San Diego, Center for Human Information Processing, 1976.


Cultural Thematics: The Formation of the Faustian Ethos
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.
  • Semiotics and Thematics in Hermeneutics
    New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  • Structuralism and Hermeneutics
    New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  • Kant: A Guide for the Perplexed
    London: Continuum, 2007.
    cf. Ernst Schumacher (1977) A Guide for the Perplexed

Francis Schaeffer[edit]

How Should We Then Live: The Decline of Western Thought and Culture
  • A major Christian cultural and historical documentary film series and book, written by presuppositionalist theologian author. It is Book Two in Volume Five of The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer: A Christian Worldview, 1982.

Glenn Shafer[edit]

A Mathematical Theory of Evidence
Princeton University Press


Herbert A. Simon

Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization
(3rd ed.) New York: The Free Press, 1976. (2nd ed. 1957)

Burrhus Skinner[edit]

Particulars of My Life
Knopf, New York
  • ``Russell's review[, originally appeared in the August 1926 issue of Dial, Vol. 81, pp. 114-121,] plays a specific role in the history of psychology principally because of its impact on the young B. F. Skinner. Skinner has often acknowledged the influence of Russell (e.g., Skinner, 1984, p. 659), and has stated that it was this review that introduced him to behavioral psychology (Skinner, 1976, pp. 298-300). Some of the reason for that influence becomes clear when one reads Russell's skillful discussions of behavioral psychology both in the analysis of human activity, as in this review, or in Philosophy (1927), and also regarding its potential as a technology for cultural design (e.g., Russell, 1931). Of course, there may have been other factors in Skinner's early family, social, and educational experiences that predisposed him to assimilate or agree with Russell's views on behavioral science and on society as well, as Coleman (1985) suggests.`` -- W. Scott Wood. "Bertrand Russell's Review of The Meaning of Meaning." Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Jan. 1986) pp. 107-113. [6]
See also
  • cf. (1979) The Shaping of a Behaviorist
  • cf. (1983) A Matter of Consequences
  • cf. (1984) "Author's response: Representations and misrepresentations." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 655-667

Gail Stine[edit]

Skepticism, Relevant Alternatives, and Deductive Closure
Philosophical Studies, 29: 249-261

David Swinney [edit]

Effects of prior context upon lexical access during sentence comprehension
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, l5, pp. 68l-689 (with D. Hakes)
  • Cf. (1979) "Lexical access during sentence comprehension: (Re)consideration of context effects." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 645-660

Gary Tate[edit]

Teaching Composition: 10 Bibliographical Essays
Texas Christian University Press (ed.)
2nd ed. 1987 Google
  • Richard E. Young. "Recent Deveolpments in Rhetorical Invention," pp. 1-38.

Roberto Unger[edit]

Law in Modern Society
  • interactional law, traditionalistic society, postliberal society, revolutionary socialist society, interpretive explanation, immanent order, law ideal...

Teun van Dijk[edit]

Pragmatics of Language and Literature
(ed.) North Holland, Amsterdam, 1976
  • Some Aspects of Text Grammars: A Study in Theoretical Poetics and Linguistics. Mouton, The Hague, 1972

Joseph Weizenbaum[edit]

Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment To Calculation
San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Raymond Williams[edit]

Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society

Arthur M. Young[edit]

The Reflexive Universe: Evolution of Consciousness
New York: Delacorte Press, 1976
Geometry of Meaning
New York: Delacorte Press, 1976
The Bell Notes: A Journey from Physics to Metaphysics
New York: Delacorte Press, 1979

Richard Young[edit]

Seriation by Children: An Artificial Intelligence Analysis of a Piagetian Task
Basel: Birkhauser

John Ziman[edit]

The Force of Knowledge: The Scientific Dimension of Society
Cambridge University Press


  1. ^ Also in (1980).
  2. ^ See also Howard Lasnik (1975) and Noam Chomsky (1981). My note: Fiengo, R. and H. Lasnik. 1976. "Some issues in the theory of transformations." Linguistic Inquiry, 7:182-191.
  3. ^ Carnie, Andrew (2002). Syntax: A Generative Introduction, 1st ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 77.
  4. ^ Keshet, Ezra (2004-05-20). "24.952 Syntax Squib". MIT.