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Jim Anderson[edit]

Neural Models with Cognitive Implications
In: D. LaBerge and S. J. Samuels, eds., Basic Processes in Reading Perception and Comprehension (pp. 27–90), Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
  • (1975) "Neural Models with Cognitive Implications," Technical Report 75-1, The Center for Neural Studies, Brown University, Providence, R.I., 1975. (Identical with Item above.)
  • Homepage at Brown University CV
  • The Ersatz Brain Project
    "A Brain-like Computer For Cognitive Applications"

Michael Arbib[edit]

with Jonathan V. Post
Computers and the Cybernetic Society
Academic Press, 1977

Albert Bandura[edit]

Social Learning Theory
  • allegedly, "a book that altered the direction psychology took in the 1980s" [citation needed]
  • expanded on Julian Rotter's idea, as well as earlier work by Miller & Dollard (1941), and is related to social learning theories of Vygotsky and Lave. This theory incorporates[2] aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning.[3] Behavioral learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings)[4] cause people to behave in certain ways. Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors[5] are important for influencing how one behaves. Social learning[6] suggests a combination of environmental (social) and psychological factors[7] influence behavior. Social learning theory outlines four requirements for people to learn and model behavior include attention: retention (remembering what one observed), reproduction (ability to reproduce the behavior), and motivation (good reason) to want to adopt the behavior.[8]
Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review (1977), 84(2), 191-215.

Barry Barnes[edit]

Interests and the Growth of Knowledge
Routledge and Kegan Paul, London


  • Colin Blakemore (1977). Mechanics of the Mind. Cambridge Univiversity Press.


  • frame-based all-in-one language
See also

Jonathan Cohen[edit]

The Probable and the Provable
  • argues for inductive reasoning when making up your mind, for instance, when on a jury. The human ability to bring in all the relevant factors when arguing from known specifics to a general conclusion -- the essence of inductive reasoning --was in his view far too complex to express in a logical equation.
  • "What do you mean by...?", in The Diversity of Meaning (1962) involves linguistic philosophy and sociology.
  • "The semantics of metaphor." In: Andrew Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press, (1979)

Arthur Dempster[edit]

Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 39(1): 1–38, 1977 (with Nan Laird and Donald Rubin)

PK Dick[edit]

A Scanner Darkly
Science fiction, psychological novel

Ronald Dworkin[edit]

Taking Rights Seriously
  • Very popular (perhaps hereafter) have been such expressions as "Take ... Seriously".

Umberto Eco[edit]

A Theory of Semiotics
Macmillan, London

Michel Foucault[edit]

Discipline and Punish
Trans. by A. Sheridan, Random House, New York

James Gibson[edit]

The Theory of Affordances.
In: R. Shaw & J. Bransford (eds.). Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 67-82).
  • Affordance (1977, 1979)
    • He defined affordances as all "action possibilities" latent in the environment, objectively measurable and independent of the individual's ability to recognize them, but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities.
    • In 1988, Donald Norman appropriated the term affordances in the context of human-computer interaction to refer to just those action possibilities which are readily perceivable by an actor.
  • Ecological psychology (1979)
    • Ecological psychology is a term claimed by a number of schools of psychology. However, the two main ones are one on the writings of J. J. Gibson, and another on the work of Roger Barker ...
    • Gibson ... stressed the importance of the environment. He argued that animals and humans stand in a 'systems' relation to the environment, such that, to fully explain some behaviour it was necessary to study the environment in which this behaviour took place. The aphorism: "It's not what is inside the head that is important, it's what the head is inside of", is supposed to capture that point.
  • Environmental psychology
  • Behaviorism
  • Cognitivism
  • (1979) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Irving Good[edit]

The Botryology of Botryology
An invited lecture in the Advanced Seminar on Classification and Clustering, May 3-5, 1976, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
In Classification and Clustering (ed. J. van Ryzin, Academic Press, 1977), 73-94.

Charles Hardwick[edit]

Semiotic and Significs: The Correspondence between Charles S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby
Indiana University Press (ed. with J. Cook)

John Harsanyi[edit]

Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations
Cambridge University Press
  • (1977). Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations
  • (1982). Papers in Game Theory
  • (1988). A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games

Ted Honderich[edit]

Causes and Causal Circumstances as Necessitating
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

John Hoskyns[edit]

The Stepping Stones Report
  • Created for the Tory party, not published, although it may have had an effect on Margaret Thatcher.
  • Without any political experience, he dedicated the year of 1977 to analysing what he considered to be wrong with the UK; this was called the Stepping Stones Report. [...] He created a diagram that showed how all these problems were interlinked.
  • When Margaret Thatcher, who read chemistry at Oxford, saw the diagram, she remarked it looked like a chemical plant.
See also
  • Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Education and Science, 11 September 1981 - 21 May 1986.
  • Kim Beazley (2001). Knowledge Nation.
  • Barry Jones (1982). Sleepers, Wake! Technology and the Future of Work.
  • Peter Russell & Tony Buzan (1975). Mind map.
  • Ted Nelson (1965) coined hypertext.
    • It aimed to denote the fancifully transcluded and charged quotation rather than the conceptually "correlated" (Wells 1938) or "associated" (Bush 1945) intertextuality or web of texts in context, in concert or consilience. His business of radical copyright looks so asocial and ahistoric, implausible and infeasible, that it must have failed even if his system design had succeeded. A hero of so-called commercialist hypertext is made of Vannevar Bush and his followers, Doug Engelbart and Ted Nelson. Strangely, Peter J. Brown of the University of Kent who developed Guide, the "first commercially available hypertext program" (1982, released 1986), is not included. Do justice to HG Wells and PJ Brown of Kent!
  • Vannevar Bush (1945) "As We May Think," The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945, pp. 101-8.
  • J. D. Bernal (1939). The Social Function of Science.
    • Chart 1. "the scheme for the organization of scientific and industrial research". (p. 280)
    • Chart 2. "the technical side of the production and consumption process". (p. 360)
  • H. G. Wells (1938) World Brain.
    • "Knowledge Correlated Through A World Encyclopaedia". (pp. 106-7)

John Hutchins[edit]

On the Problem of 'Aboutness' in Document Anaysis

Journal of Informatics, vol.1, no.1, pp. 17-35

Philip Johnson-Laird[edit]

Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science
ed. with Peter Cathcart Wason
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (2006). How We Reason. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198569763.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1998). Computer and the Mind: An Introduction to Cognitive Science. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674156166.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1993). Human and Machine Thinking (Distinguished Lecture Series). LEA, Inc. ISBN 978-0805809213.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Ruth M. J. Byrne) (1991). Deduction. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780863771491.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1983). Mental Models: Toward a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674568822.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Peter Cathcart Wason) (1977). Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with George Armitage Miller) (1976). Language and Perception. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674509481.
  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Peter Cathcart Wason) (1972). Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674721272.

Anthony Judge[edit]

Knowledge-representation in a computer-supported environment
International Classification, 4, 2, pp. 76-81 [1]
  • 1980 Societal Learning and the Erosion of Collective Memory References

David Kaplan[edit]

Manuscript, UCLA
  • An essay on the semantics, logic, metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals

Larry Laudan[edit]

Progress and Its Problems
University of California Press, Berkeley

Michael Lesk[edit]

Computer Typesetting of Technical Journals on UNIX
AFIPS NCC Proceedings, 46, pp. 879-888, Dallas, Texas, June 1977.
with B. W. Kernighan

Konrad Lorenz[edit]

Behind The Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge
Methuen, London
Hardcover 1973

John Lyons[edit]

  • Language and Linguistics (1981)
  • Language, Meaning and Context (1981)

M.E. Maron[edit]

On Indexing, Retrieval and the Meaning of About
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 28, 38-43.
  • dividing into objective, subjective, and retrieval aboutnesses, perhaps basically agreeing with the "subject similarity" and "relevance" division
  • M. E. Maron and J. L. Kuhns (1960), "On Relevance, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval," Journal of the ACM (JACM), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 216-244. ACM
  • See also: #John Hutchins on "aboutness"

Cleve Moler[edit]

George E. Forsythe, Michael A. Malcolm, Cleve B. Moler
Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations
Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977.

Edgar Morin[edit]

La Nature de la nature

Eugene Narmour[edit]

Beyond Schenkerism: The Need for Alternatives in Music Analysis
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Joseph Novak[edit]

A Theory of Education
Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY

Robert Oddy[edit]

Information Retrieval through Man-Machine Dialogue
Journal of Documentation, 33(1): 1-14
  • (1982) Information Retrieval Research

Jean Piaget[edit]

The Development of Thought: Equilibration of Cognitive Structures
A. Rosen (trans.), New York: Viking

Karl Popper[edit]

The Self and Its Brain: An Argument for Interactionism
with John Carew Eccles

Christopher Priest[edit]

A Dream of Wessex
Faber and Faber
  • The year is 1985. The Wessex Project, a privately funded project, discovers a method to transport the collective unconscious of some of England's most brilliant minds into an illusory and ideal society. The object: to gather information vital to our survival on earth. But in the process, power, deception and love join to jeopardize the philanthropic program.

Ilya Prigogine[edit]

Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems
with Grégoire Nicolis; Wiley

Nicholas Rescher[edit]

Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory of Knowledge
New York University Press

Andy Rogers[edit]

Proceedings of the Texas Conference on Performatives, Presuppositions, and Implicatures
ed. with Bob Wall and John P. Murphy
Center for Applied Linguistics, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, Virginia 22209
The ten papers in this volume are largely revisions of papers presented at the Texas conference, held March 22-24, 1973.
  • "Against Universal Semantic Representation," by Gilbert Harman, argues against the need for (and the possibility of) a level of semantic representation in a theory of language.
  • "Remarks on the Lexicography of Performative Verbs," by James D. McCawley, is primarily concerned with a characterization of performativity.
  • "A Classification of Illocutionary Acts," by John R. Searle, sets up a classification scheme in terms of illocutionary acts, rather than illocutionary verbs.
  • "Where to Do Things with Words," by John Robert Ross, and
  • "Aspects of Linguistic Pragmatics," by Jerrold M. Sadock, concern themselves with the question of how to treat cases in which what a sentence might be said to mean is not what the speaker might be said to have meant.
  • "What You Can Do with Words: Politeness, Pragmatics and Performatives," by Robin Lakoff, explores politeness in language.
  • "Pragmatics in Natural Logic," by George Lakoff, shows how three pragmatic conerns (indexical elements, performatives and implicatures) can be incorporated into a generative semantics theory.
  • "Pragmatic Presuppositions," by Robert Stalnaker, deals with the problems of presupposition.
  • "Presupposition and Linguistic Context," by Lauri Karttunen, deals with the problems of presupposition.
  • "Where Pragmatics Fits In," by Richard H. Thomason, deals with the problems of presupposition.

Eleanor Rosch[edit]

Human Categorization
In: Neil Warren (ed.) Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology (Academic Press, London) vol. 1, pp. 1-49
  • Cf. Eleanor Rosch (1978) "Principles of Categorization." In: Cognition and Categorization (Eleanor Rosch & Barbara Lloyd, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ) pp. 27-48

Roger Schank[edit]

Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures
Hillsdale (with Robert P. Abelson)
  • ``The notion that beliefs, attitudes, and ideology were deeply connected knowledge structures was contained in Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding (1977, with Roger Schank), a work that has collected several thousand citations, and led to the first interdisciplinary graduate program in cognitive science at Yale.`` -- Robert P. Abelson)
  • cf. "knowledge structure" -- B. C. Brookes. "Fundamental Equation of Information Science." (1974 preprint)

Ernst Schumacher[edit]

A Guide for the Perplexed
  • ``Schumacher considers the evolutionist doctrine to be a major philosophical and scientific error. Schumacher argues that the evolutionist doctrine starts with the perfectly reasonable explanation of change in living beings, and then jumps to using it as an explanation for the development of consciousness, self-awareness, language, social institutions and the origin of life itself.``

Herbert A. Simon[edit]

Models of Discovery: And Other Topics in the Methods of Science
(Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science)
Springer (September 30, 1977)

Dagobert Soergel[edit]

An Automated Encyclopedia -- A Solution of the Information Problem?
International Classification, 4 (1): 4-10; 4(2): 81-89. pdf

Robert Sternberg[edit]

Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities
Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ

Owsei Temkin[edit]

The Double Face of Janus and Other Essays in the the History of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
20. Metaphors of Human Biology*
  • Analogies are not in good usage among modern scientists. And of all analogies the metaphor is almost the worst, for it smacks of rhetoric rather than of sober and factual description of things.1 We are all prone to compare human life to a candle that slowly burns down, or our bodies to prisons for our souls. But although we may think that such fanciful images are good enough for casual or poetical expressions, we expect the biologists to keep aloof from metaphorical concepts. Thereby, however, we underrate the powere of the metaphor. I believe that metaphors have exercised considerable influence over the biologists' thought. For this thesis I propose to give some examples and then to inquire into the reason for this peculiar habit of mind. (p. 271)
  • * "Metaphors of Human Biology," in Robert C. Stauffer, editor, Science and Civilization (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press; © 1949 by the Regents of the University of Wisconsin), pp. 169-94.
  • 1 According to Aristotle (Poetics, ch. 21, 1457 b.) analogy is but one among several possibilities of forming metaphors. However, it is the metaphor based on analogy which we have in mind here and which according to Alfred Biese, Die Philosophie des Metaphorischen (Hamburg-Leipzig, Voss, 1893) has played a fundamental role in nearly all branches of human life. The use of analogy in science goes, of course, beyond the metaphorical. See Agnes Arber, "Analogy in the History of Science," Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning, Offered in Homage to Geroge Sarton on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday, ed. M. F. Ashley-Montagu (New York, 1947), 219-33.
  • Google preview

John Tukey[edit]

Exploratory Data Analysis
  Old emphasis New emphasis
data analysis confirmatory exploratory
hypothesis explicit implicit
  • ``The point I want to make here is that one needs to be careful in distinguishing between two kinds of statistical tests that have both been labeled "predictions." One is data fitting, that is "explanations" of exsiting data; the other is ex ante prediction, that is predictions of new observations.`` (p. 394) -- Gerd Gigerenzer. "Striking a Blow for Sanity in Theories of Rationality." In: Herbert A. Simon, et al. (eds.), Models of a Man, 2004, pp. 389-410.

Valentin Turchin[edit]

The Phenomenon of Science: A Cybernetic Approach to Human Evolution
Columbia University Press, New York. [2]

Victor Turner[edit]

Process System and Symbol: A New Anthropological Synthesis
Daedalus, 106(3): 61-79
  • Cf. Edith Turner & Victor Turner (1978) Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture (cf. "implicational meanings" of pilgrimage behavior)

Teun van Dijk[edit]

Text and Context: Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse
Longman, London
Complex Semantic Information Processing
in: D. E. Walker, et al. (eds.) Natural Language in Information Science, Skriptor, Stockholm, p. 127-163.
  • together with two other works, crucially cited by John Hutchins (1987) [4]

Conrad Waddington[edit]

Tools for Thought: How to Understand and Apply the Latest Scientific Techniques of Problem Solving
Jonathan Cape Ltd., London, 1977
with Yolanda Sonnabend, published posthumously.


  1. ^ My comment: Quite reminiscent of As We May Think by Vennevar Bush from MIT.
  2. ^ Synoptic philosophy
  3. ^ Partial or partizan traditions of binary opposition
  4. ^ "external context"
  5. ^ "psychological context"
  6. ^ Synoptic philosophy
  7. ^ External and psychological contexts in Ogden & Richards' terms
  8. ^ What, How, Why