- Neural Models with Cognitive Implications
- In: D. LaBerge and S. J. Samuels, eds., Basic Processes in Reading Perception and Comprehension (pp. 27–90), Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
- (1975) "Neural Models with Cognitive Implications," Technical Report 75-1, The Center for Neural Studies, Brown University, Providence, R.I., 1975. (Identical with Item above.)
- Homepage at Brown University CV
- The Ersatz Brain Project
"A Brain-like Computer For Cognitive Applications"
I study how brains and computers are different in the way they compute. These differences arise in large part because of basic physical differences in their hardware. I research brain-like computation using "neural networks," simplifications of the complexities of real brains. Besides offering clues to brain functions as models, neural networks perform some practical applications. For example, I applied a simple neural network model, originally derived to explain how humans form concepts based on experience, to the problem of "understanding" a complex radar environment. More recently, I have been working on a set of models for the intermediate-level organization of the nervous system. Scientists know a great deal about individual neurons. We also know a good deal about behavior and the functioning of very large groups of neurons. But we know almost nothing about how groups of a hundred or a thousand or even a hundred thousand neurons cooperate to compute, or perceive, or think, or behave. One question I am now trying to answer concerns scaling. Under what conditions can similar computational functions be performed by networks of greatly differing size?
I became interested in brains and computers as a graduate student in psychology and neuroscience at M.I.T. I wanted to know how I worked. And, if we learn enough about brains, perhaps eventually we may be able to build machines that work the way we do.
Simpli was an early search engine that disambiguates search terms. The user enters in an ambiguous search term (say, Java), and then Simpli returns a list of alternatives (programming language, coffee, island, etc.). It was an extension of WordNet. It was designed by academics in brain science to model the way in which the mind stores and retrieves words, namely, "as we may think" (Vannevar Bush, 1945).
The venture capital was founded by graduate students and professors around the Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences at Brown University, who included Jeff Stibel (graduate student, CEO), James A. Anderson and Steve Reiss. The advisory board members included Dan Ariely from MIT Sloan and George A. Miller, the inventor of WordNet, from Princeton. Questionable is what role Andries van Dam at Brown University played in Simpli, who is allegedly one of the earliest hypertext pioneers.
- with Jonathan V. Post
- Computers and the Cybernetic Society
- Academic Press, 1977
- (1985) In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science
- allegedly, "a book that altered the direction psychology took in the 1980s" 
- expanded on Julian Rotter's idea, as well as earlier work by Miller & Dollard (1941), and is related to social learning theories of Vygotsky and Lave. This theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. Behavioral learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings) cause people to behave in certain ways. Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors are important for influencing how one behaves. Social learning suggests a combination of environmental (social) and psychological factors influence behavior. Social learning theory outlines four requirements for people to learn and model behavior include attention: retention (remembering what one observed), reproduction (ability to reproduce the behavior), and motivation (good reason) to want to adopt the behavior.
- Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review (1977), 84(2), 191-215.
- Interests and the Growth of Knowledge
- Routledge and Kegan Paul, London
- Colin Blakemore (1977). Mechanics of the Mind. Cambridge Univiversity Press.
- Daniel G. Bobrow & Terry Winograd (1977). An overview of KRL, a knowledge representation language. Cognitive Science vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1977), pp. 3-46.
- Daniel G. Bobrow and Terry Winograd (1976). An Overview of KRL, A Knowledge Representation Language, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo AIM 293, 1976.
- frame-based all-in-one language
KRL was an attempt to produce a language which was nice to read and write for the engineers who had to write programs in it, processed like human memory, so you could have realistic AI programs, had an underlying semantics which was firmly grounded like logic languages, all in one, all in one language. And I think it - again, in hindsight - it just bogged down under the weight of trying to satisfy all those things at once.
- See also
- Cognitive Science Society since 1979
Roger Schank, Allan M. Collins, Donald Norman
- Cognitive Science since 1977
- Cognitive scientific revolution since 1975?
- cognitive science since 1973
Christopher Longuet-Higgins, Geoffrey Hinton
- University of Edinburgh, University of Sussex, MRC
- UC San Diego, Xerox PARC, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
- The Probable and the Provable
- argues for inductive reasoning when making up your mind, for instance, when on a jury. The human ability to bring in all the relevant factors when arguing from known specifics to a general conclusion -- the essence of inductive reasoning --was in his view far too complex to express in a logical equation.
- "What do you mean by...?", in The Diversity of Meaning (1962) involves linguistic philosophy and sociology.
- "The semantics of metaphor." In: Andrew Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press, (1979)
- Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm
- Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 39(1): 1–38, 1977 (with Nan Laird and Donald Rubin)
- Expectation-maximization algorithm
- Dempster-Shafer theory
- Glenn Shafer (1976) A Mathematical Theory of Evidence
- A Scanner Darkly
- Science fiction, psychological novel
In the novel, use of Substance D over an extended period can cause the user's consciousness to separate into two distinct parts. The drug also appears to facilitate the inducement of shared delusions, made manifest as folie à deux. The source of Substance D remains a mystery throughout most of the novel, though various theories are proposed. It is speculated that Substance D is imported from the U.S.S.R. as a Communist scheme to destroy American resistance to Communism; that it was sent to Earth by aliens intent on either enlightening mankind or reducing humans to a zombie-like slave race; that it is involved in a government or corporate plot.
The title is a reference to a passage in the Bible in 1 Corinthians 13, which states:
- For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. [Verses 9-12. King James Bible]
- Construction of reality, conspiracy theories, symbiosis, holography
- 1976#Julian Jaynes, Bicameralism (psychology)
- 1979 British Science Fiction Association Award
- Taking Rights Seriously
- Very popular (perhaps hereafter) have been such expressions as "Take ... Seriously".
- A Theory of Semiotics
- Macmillan, London
- Discipline and Punish
- Trans. by A. Sheridan, Random House, New York
- The Theory of Affordances.
- In: R. Shaw & J. Bransford (eds.). Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 67-82).
- Affordance (1977, 1979)
- He defined affordances as all "action possibilities" latent in the environment, objectively measurable and independent of the individual's ability to recognize them, but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities.
- In 1988, Donald Norman appropriated the term affordances in the context of human-computer interaction to refer to just those action possibilities which are readily perceivable by an actor.
- Ecological psychology (1979)
- Ecological psychology is a term claimed by a number of schools of psychology. However, the two main ones are one on the writings of J. J. Gibson, and another on the work of Roger Barker ...
- Gibson ... stressed the importance of the environment. He argued that animals and humans stand in a 'systems' relation to the environment, such that, to fully explain some behaviour it was necessary to study the environment in which this behaviour took place. The aphorism: "It's not what is inside the head that is important, it's what the head is inside of", is supposed to capture that point.
- Environmental psychology
- (1979) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
- The Botryology of Botryology
- An invited lecture in the Advanced Seminar on Classification and Clustering, May 3-5, 1976, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
- In Classification and Clustering (ed. J. van Ryzin, Academic Press, 1977), 73-94.
- Good proposed a new name botryology for the discipline of cluster analysis, reminiscent of The Meaning of Meaning.
- Semiotic and Significs: The Correspondence between Charles S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby
- Indiana University Press (ed. with J. Cook)
- Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations
- Cambridge University Press
- (1977). Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations
- (1982). Papers in Game Theory
- (1988). A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games
- Causes and Causal Circumstances as Necessitating
- Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society
- Created for the Tory party, not published, although it may have had an effect on Margaret Thatcher.
- Without any political experience, he dedicated the year of 1977 to analysing what he considered to be wrong with the UK; this was called the Stepping Stones Report. [...] He created a diagram that showed how all these problems were interlinked.
- When Margaret Thatcher, who read chemistry at Oxford, saw the diagram, she remarked it looked like a chemical plant.
- See also
- Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Education and Science, 11 September 1981 - 21 May 1986.
- Kim Beazley (2001). Knowledge Nation.
- Barry Jones (1982). Sleepers, Wake! Technology and the Future of Work.
- Peter Russell & Tony Buzan (1975). Mind map.
- Ted Nelson (1965) coined hypertext.
- It aimed to denote the fancifully transcluded and charged quotation rather than the conceptually "correlated" (Wells 1938) or "associated" (Bush 1945) intertextuality or web of texts in context, in concert or consilience. His business of radical copyright looks so asocial and ahistoric, implausible and infeasible, that it must have failed even if his system design had succeeded. A hero of so-called commercialist hypertext is made of Vannevar Bush and his followers, Doug Engelbart and Ted Nelson. Strangely, Peter J. Brown of the University of Kent who developed Guide, the "first commercially available hypertext program" (1982, released 1986), is not included. Do justice to HG Wells and PJ Brown of Kent!
- Vannevar Bush (1945) "As We May Think," The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945, pp. 101-8.
- J. D. Bernal (1939). The Social Function of Science.
- Chart 1. "the scheme for the organization of scientific and industrial research". (p. 280)
- Chart 2. "the technical side of the production and consumption process". (p. 360)
- H. G. Wells (1938) World Brain.
- "Knowledge Correlated Through A World Encyclopaedia". (pp. 106-7)
- On the Problem of 'Aboutness' in Document Anaysis
Journal of Informatics, vol.1, no.1, pp. 17-35
- Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science
- ed. with Peter Cathcart Wason
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (2006). How We Reason. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198569763.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1998). Computer and the Mind: An Introduction to Cognitive Science. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674156166.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1993). Human and Machine Thinking (Distinguished Lecture Series). LEA, Inc. ISBN 978-0805809213.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Ruth M. J. Byrne) (1991). Deduction. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780863771491.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (1983). Mental Models: Toward a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674568822.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Peter Cathcart Wason) (1977). Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with George Armitage Miller) (1976). Language and Perception. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674509481.
- Johnson-Laird, Philip N (with Peter Cathcart Wason) (1972). Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674721272.
- Knowledge-representation in a computer-supported environment
- International Classification, 4, 2, pp. 76-81 
- 1980 Societal Learning and the Erosion of Collective Memory References
- Manuscript, UCLA
- An essay on the semantics, logic, metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals
- Progress and Its Problems
- University of California Press, Berkeley
- Computer Typesetting of Technical Journals on UNIX
- AFIPS NCC Proceedings, 46, pp. 879-888, Dallas, Texas, June 1977.
- with B. W. Kernighan
- Behind The Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge
- Methuen, London
- Hardcover 1973
- Language and Linguistics (1981)
- Language, Meaning and Context (1981)
- On Indexing, Retrieval and the Meaning of About
- Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 28, 38-43.
- dividing into objective, subjective, and retrieval aboutnesses, perhaps basically agreeing with the "subject similarity" and "relevance" division
- M. E. Maron and J. L. Kuhns (1960), "On Relevance, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval," Journal of the ACM (JACM), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 216-244. ACM
- See also: #John Hutchins on "aboutness"
- George E. Forsythe, Michael A. Malcolm, Cleve B. Moler
- Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations
- Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977.
- La Nature de la nature
- (1980) La Vie de la vie
- (1986) La Connaissance de la connaissance
- transdisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity
- Beyond Schenkerism: The Need for Alternatives in Music Analysis
- The University of Chicago Press, Chicago
- A Theory of Education
- Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY
- (1998) Learning, Creating , and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools for Schools and Corporations
- ``I will claim that the central purpose of education is to empower learners to take charge of their own meaning making. Meaning making involves thinking, feeling, and acting, and all three of these aspects must be integrated for significant new learning, and especially in new knowledge creation.`` (p. 9)
- concept map
- mind map of Tony Buzan
- semantic network or Semantic Web of Tim Berners-Lee
- cf. library classification, information retrieval
- cf. Raymond Williams (1976) Keywords
- cf. Richard Dawkins (1976) meme
- Information Retrieval through Man-Machine Dialogue
- Journal of Documentation, 33(1): 1-14
- (1982) Information Retrieval Research
- The Development of Thought: Equilibration of Cognitive Structures
- A. Rosen (trans.), New York: Viking
- sensemaking, constructivist epistemology
- (1972) To Understand Is To Invent (New York: The Viking Press, Inc.)
- The Self and Its Brain: An Argument for Interactionism
- with John Carew Eccles
- A Dream of Wessex
- Faber and Faber
- The year is 1985. The Wessex Project, a privately funded project, discovers a method to transport the collective unconscious of some of England's most brilliant minds into an illusory and ideal society. The object: to gather information vital to our survival on earth. But in the process, power, deception and love join to jeopardize the philanthropic program.
- Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems
- with Grégoire Nicolis; Wiley
- Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory of Knowledge
- New York University Press
- (1978) Scientific Progress: A Philosophical Essay on the Economics of Research in Natural Science. Uiversity of Pittsburgh Press
- Evolutionary epistemology
- Non-classical logic: Dienes-Rescher inference engine (also Rescher-Dienes implication); Rescher-Manor consequence relation
- Paraconsistent logic: Rescher-Brandom semantics
- Scientometrics: Rescher's Law of logarithmic returns
- Proceedings of the Texas Conference on Performatives, Presuppositions, and Implicatures
- ed. with Bob Wall and John P. Murphy
- Center for Applied Linguistics, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, Virginia 22209
- The ten papers in this volume are largely revisions of papers presented at the Texas conference, held March 22-24, 1973.
- "Against Universal Semantic Representation," by Gilbert Harman, argues against the need for (and the possibility of) a level of semantic representation in a theory of language.
- "Remarks on the Lexicography of Performative Verbs," by James D. McCawley, is primarily concerned with a characterization of performativity.
- "A Classification of Illocutionary Acts," by John R. Searle, sets up a classification scheme in terms of illocutionary acts, rather than illocutionary verbs.
- "Where to Do Things with Words," by John Robert Ross, and
- "Aspects of Linguistic Pragmatics," by Jerrold M. Sadock, concern themselves with the question of how to treat cases in which what a sentence might be said to mean is not what the speaker might be said to have meant.
- "What You Can Do with Words: Politeness, Pragmatics and Performatives," by Robin Lakoff, explores politeness in language.
- "Pragmatics in Natural Logic," by George Lakoff, shows how three pragmatic conerns (indexical elements, performatives and implicatures) can be incorporated into a generative semantics theory.
- "Pragmatic Presuppositions," by Robert Stalnaker, deals with the problems of presupposition.
- "Presupposition and Linguistic Context," by Lauri Karttunen, deals with the problems of presupposition.
- "Where Pragmatics Fits In," by Richard H. Thomason, deals with the problems of presupposition.
- Human Categorization
- In: Neil Warren (ed.) Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology (Academic Press, London) vol. 1, pp. 1-49
- Cf. Eleanor Rosch (1978) "Principles of Categorization." In: Cognition and Categorization (Eleanor Rosch & Barbara Lloyd, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ) pp. 27-48
- Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures
- Hillsdale (with Robert P. Abelson)
- ``The notion that beliefs, attitudes, and ideology were deeply connected knowledge structures was contained in Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding (1977, with Roger Schank), a work that has collected several thousand citations, and led to the first interdisciplinary graduate program in cognitive science at Yale.`` -- Robert P. Abelson)
- cf. "knowledge structure" -- B. C. Brookes. "Fundamental Equation of Information Science." (1974 preprint)
- ``Schumacher considers the evolutionist doctrine to be a major philosophical and scientific error. Schumacher argues that the evolutionist doctrine starts with the perfectly reasonable explanation of change in living beings, and then jumps to using it as an explanation for the development of consciousness, self-awareness, language, social institutions and the origin of life itself.``
- Models of Discovery: And Other Topics in the Methods of Science
- (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science)
- Springer (September 30, 1977)
- An Automated Encyclopedia -- A Solution of the Information Problem?
- International Classification, 4 (1): 4-10; 4(2): 81-89. pdf
- Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities
- Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ
- (1975) The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities: Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning (1528 pages)
- (2000) Handbook of Intelligence
- (2008) The Essential Sternberg: Essays on Intelligence, Psychology, and Education (James C. Kaufman and Elena L. Grigorenko ed.)
- Triarchic theory of intelligence
- The Double Face of Janus and Other Essays in the the History of Medicine
- Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
- Analogies are not in good usage among modern scientists. And of all analogies the metaphor is almost the worst, for it smacks of rhetoric rather than of sober and factual description of things.1 We are all prone to compare human life to a candle that slowly burns down, or our bodies to prisons for our souls. But although we may think that such fanciful images are good enough for casual or poetical expressions, we expect the biologists to keep aloof from metaphorical concepts. Thereby, however, we underrate the powere of the metaphor. I believe that metaphors have exercised considerable influence over the biologists' thought. For this thesis I propose to give some examples and then to inquire into the reason for this peculiar habit of mind. (p. 271)
- * "Metaphors of Human Biology," in Robert C. Stauffer, editor, Science and Civilization (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press; © 1949 by the Regents of the University of Wisconsin), pp. 169-94.
- 1 According to Aristotle (Poetics, ch. 21, 1457 b.) analogy is but one among several possibilities of forming metaphors. However, it is the metaphor based on analogy which we have in mind here and which according to Alfred Biese, Die Philosophie des Metaphorischen (Hamburg-Leipzig, Voss, 1893) has played a fundamental role in nearly all branches of human life. The use of analogy in science goes, of course, beyond the metaphorical. See Agnes Arber, "Analogy in the History of Science," Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning, Offered in Homage to Geroge Sarton on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday, ed. M. F. Ashley-Montagu (New York, 1947), 219-33.
- Google preview
- Exploratory Data Analysis
- statistical hypothesis testing or "confirmatory data analysis"
- frequentist statistical inference vs. Bayesian inference
- Implicit or suggested hypotheses are suggested by Tukey. Say, make the implicit (hypothesis) explicit!
|Old emphasis||New emphasis|
- ``The point I want to make here is that one needs to be careful in distinguishing between two kinds of statistical tests that have both been labeled "predictions." One is data fitting, that is "explanations" of exsiting data; the other is ex ante prediction, that is predictions of new observations.`` (p. 394) -- Gerd Gigerenzer. "Striking a Blow for Sanity in Theories of Rationality." In: Herbert A. Simon, et al. (eds.), Models of a Man, 2004, pp. 389-410.
- The Phenomenon of Science: A Cybernetic Approach to Human Evolution
- Columbia University Press, New York. 
- cf. metasystem transition
- cf. Francis Heylighen, Principia Cybernetica
- cf. Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary (1995) The Major Transitions in Evolution, evolutionary transition 
- Process System and Symbol: A New Anthropological Synthesis
- Daedalus, 106(3): 61-79
- Cf. Edith Turner & Victor Turner (1978) Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture (cf. "implicational meanings" of pilgrimage behavior)
- Text and Context: Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse
- Longman, London
- Complex Semantic Information Processing
- in: D. E. Walker, et al. (eds.) Natural Language in Information Science, Skriptor, Stockholm, p. 127-163.
- Tools for Thought: How to Understand and Apply the Latest Scientific Techniques of Problem Solving
- Jonathan Cape Ltd., London, 1977
- with Yolanda Sonnabend, published posthumously.
- At Cambridge University, he was a lecturer in zoology and a Fellow of Christ's College until 1942, where his friends included Walter Gropius, C. P. Snow, and J. D. Bernal.
- His first marriage produced a son, C. Jake Waddington, now professor of physics at the University of Minnesota, but ended in 1936. He then married Justin Blanco White, daughter of the writer Amber Reeves, and produced two daughters, mathematician Dusa McDuff and anthropologist Caroline Humphrey.