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David Annis[edit]

A Contextualist Theory of Epistemic Justification
American Philosophical Quarterly, 15(3): 213-219

Chris Argyris[edit]

Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective
with Donald Schön, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

Isaiah Berlin[edit]

Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays
Hogarth Press
Russian Thinkers
ed. with Aileen Kelly, Hogarth Press
  • Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas (Chato and Windass, 1976)
  • Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas (Hogarth Press, 1979)
  • Personal Impressions (Hogarth Press, 1980)

Joan Box[edit]

R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist
Wiley, New York

James Burke[edit]

Connections: Alternative History of Technology
Time Warner International
10-part documentary series, first aired on the BBC.

Susan Carey[edit]

and Elsa Bartlett
Acquiring a Single New Word
Papers and Reports on Child Language Development 15: 17–29. pdf ERIC

Curtis Carlson[edit]

Visibility of Displayed Information
Office of Naval Research
by Curtis R Carlson, Roger W Cohen, RCA Laboratories
``Prepared by RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. for the Office of Naval Research under Contract no. N00014-74-C-0184, ONR task 213-137.``

Stanley Cavell[edit]

The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy
  • forms the centerpiece of his work, which has its origins in his doctoral dissertation.

Anthony Cawkell[edit]

Analysing Information-Flow in Science and Technology with Citation Networks
Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology 1978: 427-435

Vinton Cerf[edit]

Issues in Packet-Network Interconnection
Proceedings of the IEEE (November 1978) pp. 1386-1408 (with Peter T. Kirstein)

University of Chicago[edit]

Special Issue: On Metaphor
Critical Inquiry, vol. 5, no. 1
Table of Contents

Peter Cole[edit]

Syntax and Semantics, vol. 9 (ed., New York: Academic Press)

Michael Dummett[edit]

Truth and Other Enigmas
Harvard University Press
(1963) "Realism," pp. 145-165
(1967) "Platonism," pp. 202-214

Erving Goffman[edit]

Response Cries
Language, vol. 54, pp. 787-815. Reprinted in: Erving Goffman (1981) Forms of Talk (University of Pennsylvania Press) pp. 78-123
  • Utterances are not housed in paragraphs but in turns at talk, occasions implying a temporary taking of the floor as well as an alternation of takers.1[1] Turns themselves are naturally coupled into two-party interchanges. Interchanges are linked in runs marked off by some sort of topicality. One or more of these topical runs make up the body of a conversation. This inter­actionist view assumes that every utterance is either a statement establishing the next speaker's words as a reply, or a reply to what the prior speaker has just established, or a mixture of both. Utterances, then, do not stand by themselves, indeed, often make no sense when so heard, but are constructed and timed to support the close social collaboration of speech turn-taking. In nature, the spoken word is only to be found in verbal interplay, being integrally designed for such collective habitats. (p. 78) [2]

Alvin Goldman[edit]

Epistemics: The Regulative Theory of Cognition
The Journal of Philosophy, 75: 509-523

Charles Hardwick[edit]

Semiotics and Significs: Correspondence Between Charles S. Peirce and Lady Victoria Welby

Stevan Harnad[edit]

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Cambridge University Press

Arthur Koestler[edit]

Janus: A Summing Up

Alan Mayne[edit]

Prospects for a World-Wide Information Network
SPUR News, No. 10, Supplement, p. 22.
  • Alan J. Mayne (1994). "Critical Introduction", pp. 1-70, and an annotated Bibliography pp. 155-180, of H. G. Wells, World Brain: H. G. Wells on the Future of World Education, Adamantine Press, London, U. K.

James Grier Miller[edit]

Living Systems
McGraw-Hill, New York

Josef Moneta[edit]

Information Technology 78
Proceedings of the 3rd Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology (JCIT3), Jerusalem, August 6-9, 1978
North-Holland, 1978, ISBN 0-444-85192-5

Guy Murchie[edit]

The Seven Mysteries of Life

Arthur Peacocke[edit]

Creation and the World of Science: The Re-shaping of Belief
Oxford University Press, 2004
Bampton Lectures, 1978

Ithiel Pool[edit]

Contacts and Influence
Social Networks 1(1): 5-51. (With Manfred Kochen).
  • Manfred Kochen (Jan. 1, 1989). The Small World: A Volume of Recent Research Advances Commemorating Ithiel de Sola Pool, Stanley Milgram, Theodore Newcomb. (ed. with Brenda Dervin)

Eleanor Rosch[edit]

Principles of Categorization
In: Eleanor Rosch and Barbara Lloyd (ed.) Cognition and Categorization ( Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) pp. 27-48

Quentin Skinner[edit]

The Foundations of Modern Political Thought
Volume I: The Renaissance
Volume II: The Age of Reformation
Cambridge University Press, 1978
  • ``The 'Cambridge School' is best known for its attention to the 'languages' of political thought.[3] Skinner's [...] contribution was [...] a theory of interpretation [for] recovering the author's intentions in writing classic works of political theory (Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Thomas Hobbes have been continuing preoccupations). This theory was [...] speech act theory. One of the consequences [...] is an emphasis on the necessity of studying less well-known political writers as a means of shedding light on the classic authors. A further consequence has been an attack on the uncritical assumption that political classics are monolithic and free-standing. In its earlier versions this added up to an attack [...] particularly on [the approach] of Leo Strauss.``
  • ``In [...] his earlier and biting critiques of anachronism in the history of ideas, he now advances the view that one purpose of studying the history of political thought is to excavate past ideas in order to reassert their potential importance in modern political debate. Nevertheless, at one point he wrote that we moderns must "do more thinking on our own."``[4]
  • James Tully ed. (1988) Meaning and Context: Quentin Skinner and his Critics, Polity Press and Princeton University Press.
  • J. G. A. Pocock#The 'Cambridge School' (contextualism)
  • Oxford School of ordinary language philosophy
  • Stanford School
  • Harvard's Center for Cognitive Studies

Susan Sontag[edit]

Illness As Metaphor
Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York
  • ``Susan Sontag describes the military metaphors applied to disease, the alien invaders that breach bodily defense systems necessitating surgical, chemical, or radiation counterattacks. The frontline in the cultural war against death is the medical establishment.`` -- Excerpt from: Metaphors and Euphemisms
  • ``Susan Sontag ... wrote compellingly about the need for "an elucidation of ... metaphors, and a liberation from them", at least particular ones. What was on her mind was the problem of the constraints on the potentially doable which inevitably arise from the words we use to make sense of things, and the associated limited array of possible actions which the words represent and evoke. Sontag understood that there could not be a "war" on cancer, and suggested that then current modes of thinking about cancer (and other illnesses) in turn reflected unproductive and potentially dangerous constraints on one's thinking due to the use of military metaphors.`` -- Excerpt from: War Is a Bad Metaphor

Edward Thompson[edit]

The Poverty of Theory
  • famously describes counterfactualism as "unhistorical shit") which attacked the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and his followers in Britain on New Left Review, and which provoked a book-length response from Perry Anderson, Arguments Within English Marxism.

    During the late 1970s he acquired a large public audience as a critic of the then Labour government's disregard of civil liberties; his writings from this time are collected in Writing By Candlelight (1980).

Victor Turner[edit]

Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture
with Edith Turner
  • "implicational meanings" of pilgrimage behavior

Lev Vygotsky[edit]

Mind and Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Hayden White[edit]

Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism
The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London
  • Cf. Hayden White (1973) Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (The Johns Hopkins UP) (Review below)

White extended the use of tropes from a linguistic usage -- figures of style -- to general styles of discourse, underlying every historian`s writing of history. He believed histories to be determined by tropes, in as much as the historiography of every period is defined by a specific trope. For White, the metaphor may be the most useful trope, and historical explanation "can be judged solely in terms of the richness of the metaphors which govern its sequence of articulation" (Tropics of Discourse 46). White used the work of historians and philosophers of history in the nineteenth century - specifically, that of G. W. F. Hegel, Jules Michelet, Leopold von Ranke, Alexis de Tocqueville, Jacob Burkhardt, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Benedetto Croce - as embodiments of particular historiographical tropes and political/moral aims.


  1. ^ 1. Grateful acknowledgment is made to Language, where this paper first appeared (54[ 1978]:787-815). Without specific acknowledgment I have incor­porated a very large number of suggestions, both general and specific, provided by John Carey, Lee Ann Draud, John Fought, Rochel Gelman, Allen Grimshaw, Gail Jefferson, William Labov, Gillian Sankoff, Joel Sherzer, W. John Smith, and an anonymous reviewer. I am grateful to this community of help; with it I have been able to progress from theft to pillage. Comments on broadcasters' talk are based on a study reported in this volume.
  2. ^ Retrieved 8/28/2007 from
  3. ^ Anthony Pagden, ed., The Languages of Political Theory in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: 1987); J.G.A. Pocock#The 'Cambridge School'.
  4. ^ This may suggest that he was not contextualist at first.