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Joseph Agassi[edit]

Quanta in Context
in Einstein Symposium. Lecture Notes in Physics, Berlin: Springer, Vol. 100, 1979, pp. 180-203. pdf
  • The context of a scientific theory can be epistemological and methodological. Or it can be metaphysical, relating to the intellectual framework within which we cast it. Or it can be intertheoretical, both synchronically and diachronically. My concern here will be mainly diachronical -- the historical context of quantum theory, what is required of it vis -a-vis that context and how well it fulfills this requirement. But I shall come to this only at the later part of this essay. I shall have to clear the 3round by discussing the epistemic and metaphysical contexts first.

Kent Bach[edit]

Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts
MIT Press (with Robert Harnish)
  • This ambitious book purports to present `the first comprehensive, systematic theory of linguistic communication within the broader framework of social interaction` (dust jacket) -- and, with that framework, to resolve troublesome questions concerning the analysis of meaning, presuppostion, implicature, indirect speech acts, explicit performatives, and hedged performatives. The authors are a philosopher (Bach) and a linguistic philosopher (Harnish).

    B&H's account of linguistic communication is basically pragmatic: hearers recognize utterances as having certain (literal) meanings and illocutionary forces; they make principled inferences about the intentions of speakers meant. (Strangely, the word `pragmatc' does not figure in the explication of the Speech Act Schema [SAS] which B&H elaborate to explicate this process.) -- Review by Georgia M. Green (U. of Illinois), Linguistic Society of America, 1983.

Gregory Bateson[edit]

Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences)

Stafford Beer[edit]

The Heart of Enterprise
John Wiley & Sons
  • Cf. Diagnosing the System for Organizations (John Wiley & Son, 1985)

Isaiah Berlin[edit]

Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas
Hogarth Press

Max Black[edit]

More about Metaphor
In: Andrew Ortony (ed.)

Urie Bronfenbrenner[edit]

The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Donald Campbell[edit]

Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings
with Thomas D. Cook

Bernard Carr[edit]

The Anthropic Principle and the Structure of the Physical World
Nature, 278: 605–612
with Martin Rees

Edgar Codd[edit]

Extending the Database Relational Model to Capture More Meaning
ACM Transactions on Database Systems (TODS), vol. 4, no. 4, (December 1979), pp. 397-434. (IBM Research Lab, San Jose, CA) ACM

Larry Ellison[edit]

Oracle Database
relational database management system (RDBMS)
developed by Oracle Corporation

Hubert Dreyfus[edit]

What Computers Can't Do: The Limits of Artificial Intelligence
2nd ed. (1st ed. 1972)
  • Cf. George Lakoff & Mark Johnson (1999) Philosophy in the Flesh: the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought (Basic Books)

Milton Erickson[edit]

Hypnotherapy: An Exploratory Casebook
Irvington Publishers Inc., New York
with Ernest Rossi

Jason Farradane[edit]

The Nature of Information
In: G. Walker (ed.) The Information Environment: A Reader (G.K. Hall & Co.) pp. 4-11
  • As noted by Michael Buckland (1991), Farradane states that "'information' should be defined as any physical form of representation, or surrogate, of knowledge, or of a particular thought, used for communication." (p. 4)

Gerhard Fischer[edit]

Powerful Ideas in Computational Linguistics -- Implications for Problem Solving
ACL 1979 (pdf)
  • DBLP Bibliography
  • Ulrich Kling, H.-D. Boecker, Gerhard Fischer, D. Freiburg, B. Schneider und J. Schroeder (1977). "Projekt PROKOP", Forschongscjruppe CUU, Darmstadt

James Gibson[edit]

The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception
Houghton Mifflin, Boston

Ernst Gombrich[edit]

The Sense of Order

Ranulph Glanville[edit]

Entertaining the Environment
in: Gerard de Zeeuw and P. van der Eeden (eds) Proceedings of Conference on Problems of Context, Vrije Universiteit Druck, Amsterdam, 1980

Paul Grice[edit]

The Conception of Value
John Locke Lectures, Oxford University Press

Jurgen Habermas[edit]

Communication and the Evolution of Society
Beacon Press, Toronto
"What is universal pragmatics?" p. 21
  • universal pragmatics, Rational reconstruction
  • ``Habermas has formulated a notion of communicative rationality which takes up this implicit potential [for rationality] and formalizes it into explicit knowledge. The goal is to transform implicit know-how into explicit know-that. In this case, the phenomena that needs to be explicated are the intuitively mastered rules for reaching an understanding and conducting argumentation possessed by subjects capable of speech and action. The result is a complex conception of reason that Habermas sees as doing justice to the most important trends in twentieth century philosophy, while escaping the relativism which characterizes postmodernism, and providing standards for critical evaluation (Habermas, 1992).`` -- Communicative rationality (my links and emphases)
  • ``While Habermas's notion of communicative rationality is contextualized and historicized, it is not relativistic. Many philosophical contextualists take reason to be entirely context-dependent and relative. Habermas holds reason to be relatively context specific and sensitive. The difference is that Habermas explicates the deep structures of reason by examining the presuppositions and validity dimensions of everyday communication, while the relativists focus only on the content displayed in various concrete standards of rationality.`` -- communicative rationality

Ian Hacking[edit]

Imre Lakatos's Philosophy of Science
The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 30(4): 381-402

Douglas Hofstadter[edit]

Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid
  • Cf. AI: Hope and Hype

Steven Jones[edit]

Dogmatism in the Contextual Revolution
Western Folklore, 38:52-55.
  • Steven Jones (1979). "Slouching Towards Ethnography: The Text/Context Controversy Reconsidered." Western Folklore, 38:42-47.
  • Robert Georges (1980). "Toward a Resolution of the Text/Context Controversy." Western Folklore, 39:34-40.
  • Lisa Gabbert (1999). "The "Text/Context" Controversy and the Emergence of Behavioral Approaches in Folklore." Folklore Forum, 30(112): 119-128. pdf


Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky (1979).
Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2): 263-291.

See also
  • George Ainslie (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral /Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82(4): 463–496.
  • R. M. Hogarth, et al. (1987). Rational Choice: The Contrast between Economics and Psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Herbert A. Simon (1987). "Behavioural economics," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 1, pp. 221–24.


Lauri Karttunen
Conventional Implicature
In: C. K. Oh and D. Dinnen (eds.) Syntax and Semantics 11: Presupposition (with Stanley Peters; New York: Academic Press)


Robert R. Korfhage & Christine L. Borgman (eds.)

Proceedings of the 2nd annual international ACM SIGIR conference on information storage and retrieval: information implications into the eighties, Dallas, Texas, September 27 - 28, 1979. ACM Portal

Thomas Kuhn[edit]

Metaphor in Science
In: Andrew Ortony (ed.) 409-419

Bruno Latour[edit]

Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts
with Steve Woolgar; Princeton University Press

Paul Levy[edit]

Moore: G. E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles

David Lewis[edit]

Attitude De Dicto and De Se
Philosophical Review, 88: 513-543

James Lovelock[edit]

Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth
Oxford University Press

Jean-Francois Lyotard[edit]

La Condition postmoderne: Rapport sur le savoir
The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (trans. 1984)

Pamela McCorduck[edit]

Machines Who Think: a Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence
  • Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann felt obliged to deliver lectures warning against too facile an analogy between the digital computer and the human brain, and they were joined by many other distinguished scientists and engineers who assured the public and each other that computers were only high-speed morons, incapable of intuition, originality, or any other variety of intelligence. (p. 151)

David McNeill[edit]

University of Chicago
The Conceptual Basis of Language
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Peter Nicholls[edit]

The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
retitled The Science Fiction Encyclopedia in the US
edited with John Clute and Brian Stableford
contributing editor David Langford
awarded the 1980 Hugo Award for Best Non-Fiction Book,

Andrew Ortony[edit]

Metaphor and Thought
Cambridge University Press (ed.)

John Paul[edit]

Redemptor Hominis
The first encyclical of his.

Karl Popper[edit]

Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach
Rev. ed. (1st ed. 1972)

Ilya Prigogine[edit]

Dialogues with Nature
with Isabelle Stengers

Michael Reddy[edit]

Conduit Metaphor: A Case of Frame Conflict in Our Language about Language
In: Andrew Ortony (ed.) 284-324

George Robertson[edit]

The ZOG Approach to Man-Machine Communication
Technical Report CMU-CS-79-148, with Donald L. McCracken and Allen Newell, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
  • ZOG was an early hypertext system developed at Carnegie Mellon University during the 1970s by Donald McCracken and Robert Akscyn. ZOG was first developed by Allen Newell and George Robertson to serve as the front end for AI and Cognitive Science programs brought together at CMU for a summer workshop. The ZOG project was as an outgrowth of long-term artificial intelligence research led by Allen Newell and funded by the Office of Naval Research.
  • ZOG consisted of frames that contained a title, a description, a line containing ZOG system commands, and selections (menu items) that led to other frames. ZOG pioneered the "frame" or "card" model of hypertext later popularized by HyperCard. In such systems, the frames or cards cannot scroll to show content that is part of the same document but held offscreen. Instead, text that exceeds the capacity of one screen must be placed in another (which then constitutes a separate frame or card).
  • The ZOG database became fully functional around 1977. Beginning in 1980, ZOG was ported from DEC Vax version (written in an experimental language called "L*") to the Pascal-based Three Rivers PERQ workstation and was used for a shipwide 'intranet' on the American aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson. In 1981, Rob Akscyn and Donald McCracken, two principals from the ZOG project, founded Knowledge Systems to develop and market a commercial follow-on to ZOG called "KMS" ("Knowledge Management System").

Richard Rorty[edit]

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

John Searle[edit]

Expression and Meaning
Cambridge University Press
In: Andrew Ortony (ed.)

William Schutz[edit]

Profound Simplicity
Bantam, New York, NY


Vladimir Slamecka, Georgia Institute of Technology College of Computing (1979: she retired)
Pragmatic Observation on Theoretic Research in Information Science
Journal of the American Society of Information Science. 26: 318-320.
  • Vladimir Slamecka, Henry N. Camp and Albert N. Badre (School of Information and Computer Science, Georgia Institute of Technology), and W. Dallas Hall (School of Medicine, Emory University) (1977). "MARIS: A knowledge system for internal medicine, " Information Processing & Management, Volume 13, Issue 5, 1977, pp. 273-276.
    Computer systems for clinical consulting on patient management operate on descriptions of medical expertise derived from repositories of systematized knowledge of medicine (textbooks and/or panels of experts) or from empirical situations embedded in medical records. The paper describes MARIS, a conversational system of the latter category, designed to provide relatively powerful consulting services for the management of patients in internal medicine.
  • Pearson and Slamecka (1982). "Informatics as a Semiotic Discipline," Science Communication, 4: 199-207.

David Swinney[edit]

Lexical Access during Sentence Comprehension: (Re) Consideration of Context Effects
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 645-659

Stuart Umpleby[edit]

Computer Conference on General Systems Theory: One Year's Experience
In: Madeline M. Henderson and Marcia J. MacNaughton (eds.). Electronic Communication: Technology and Impacts. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 55-63

Francisco Varela[edit]

Principle of Biological Autonomy
North Holland
  • Cf. Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson & Eleanor Rosch (1991) The Embodied Mind (MIT Press)

Immanuel Wallerstein[edit]

The Capitalist World-Economy
Cambridge University Press

John Wheeler[edit]

Some Men and Moments in the History of Nuclear Physics: The Interplay of Colleagues and Motivations
University of Minnesota Press

Terry Winograd[edit]

Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design
with Fernando Flores; Ablex

Gerard de Zeeuw[edit]

Context and Time
in: G. de Zeeuw and P. van den Eeden (eds.) Problems of Context, Amsterdam: V.U.-Boekhandel
When to Stop Improvement
in: R. Ericson (ed.) Improving the Human Condition: Stability in Social Systems, Proceedings Society for General Systems Research
See also
  • Ranulph Glanville "Doing the Right Thing: the Problems of ... Gerard de Zeeuw, Academic Guerilla," in: ``Systems Research and Behavioral Science`` (preprint pdf)
  • Martha Vahl (2002) "Gerard de Zeeuw: models, systems, support and research," in: ``Systems Research and Behavioral Science`` (preprint pdf)
  • Problems of ... meetings (html)
  • "Improvement and research: a Paskian revolution," Systems Research 10, 3, 193-203 (1993)

Gary Zukav[edit]

The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics


  1. ^ John H. Holland, Adaptation in natural and artificial systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992